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Modal Auxiliary Verbs

Modal Use

1. Present 2. Past 3. Future 1. I can s ea! "#inese

Negative Forms 1. I can&t s ea! '$a#ili. 2.I couldn&t s ea! '$a#ili.

can
general ability

2. I could s ea! "#inese $#en I $as a !id.

3. I $ill be able to s ea! "#inese by t#e time I %inis# my 3.I $on&t be able to s ea! course. '$a#ili. 1. I can drive 'usan&s car $#en s#e is out o% to$n. 1. I can&t drive 'usan&s car $#en s#e is out o% to$n. 2. I $asn&t allo$ed to drive 'usan&s car $#ile s#e $as out o% to$n last $ee!. 3. I can&t drive 'usan&s car $#ile s#e is out o% to$n "ouldn&t #e come $it# us) "ouldn&t you #el me $it# t#is %or *ust a second) 1. +ac! may not be u set. Per#a s #e is tired. 2. +ac! may not #ave been u set. Per#a s #e $as tired. 3. +ac! may not get u set, even i% you tell #im t#e trut#

can
ermission

2.I $as allo$ed to drive 'usan&s car $#ile s#e $as out o% to$n last $ee!. 3. I can drive 'usan&s car $#ile s#e is out o% to$n next $ee!.

could
olite re(uest

"ould I #ave somet#ing to drin!) "ould borro$ your sta ler) 1. +ac! may be u set. I can&t really tell i% #e is annoyed or tired.

may
ossibility

2. +ac! may #ave been u set. I couldn&t really tell i% #e $as annoyed or tired. 3. +ac! may get u set i% you don&t tell #im t#e trut#.

may
ermission

1. -ou may not leave t#e table. -ou&re not %inis#ed $it# your 1. -ou may leave t#e table no$ t#at you&re %inis#ed $it# dinner yet. your dinner. 2.-ou $ere not allo$ed to leave 2.-ou $ere allo$ed to leave t#e table a%ter you %inis#ed t#e table because you #adn&t your dinner. %inis#ed your dinner. 3. -ou may leave t#e table $#en you %inis# your dinner. 3. -ou may not leave t#e table until you are %inis#ed $it# your dinner.

may
re(uests

May I borro$ your eraser. May I ma!e a #one call. 1. '#e mig#t be on t#e bus. I t#in! #er car is #aving roblems. 1. '#e mig#t not be on t#e bus. '#e mig#t be $al!ing #ome. 2. '#e mig#t not #ave ta!en t#e bus. '#e mig#t #ave $al!ed #ome. 3. '#e mig#t not ta!e t#e bus. '#e mig#t get a ride %rom .ill. 1. /#at must not be +erry. 0e is su osed to #ave red #air. 2. /#at must not #ave been t#e rig#t restaurant. I guess t#ere is anot#er one around #ere some$#ere.

might
ossibility

2. '#e mig#t #ave ta!en t#e bus. I&m not sure #o$ s#e got to $or!. 3. '#e mig#t ta!e t#e bus to get #ome. I don&t t#in! .ill $ill be able to give #er a ride. 1. /#at must be +erry. /#ey said #e $as tall $it# brig#t red #air. 2. /#at must #ave been t#e rig#t restaurant. /#ere are no ot#er restaurants on t#is street. -ou must not s$im in t#at river. It&s %ull o% crocodiles. -ou must not %orget to ta!e your malaria medication $#ile your are in t#e tro ics. 1. -ou must ta!e some time o%% and get some rest.

must
certainty

must not
ro#ibition

must

1. -ou mustn&t drin! so muc#. It&s not good %or your #ealt#.

strong recommendation 2.-ou s#ould #ave ta!en some time o%% last $ee! to get 2. -ou s#ouldn&t #ave drun! so

THE FORM
We cant use them as to-infinitives: I want be able to type fast. ( Not *to can) We use the bare infinitive after modals ( without TO ) : You mustnt phone after midnight. Theres no (e)s in the third erson sin!ular: The boss can see you now. Ne!ative form: modal" not : You should not stay here. #uestion: $nversion : Will it rain tomorrow?