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Project at MREI

Coordinating Professor
Serban Ioan

Students:
Aldea Gabriel Joanta Ioana Nita Cosmin Popescu Radu Tatu Irina

1.Project Theme
Optimization of a wind turbine to the conditions of the site. The choice between fixed-speed and variable-speed wind turbine. Technical and economical issues

Table of contents
1.Project Theme...........2 2.Table of contents.. .!ind Turbines .." .1.#eneralities.." ".$hosen sites...% &.$omponents..12 '.Optimization.1( '.1#eneral )iew1( '.2*imulations1+ %.$onclusion. " (.,iblio-raph... &

3.Wind turbines/'0
3.1.Generalities: !ind power is the conversion of wind ener-. into a useful form1 such as electricit.1 usin- wind turbines. The technolo-. of wind turbines is simple. !ind turbines capture the 2inetic ener-. of wind with1 in most cases1 two or three blades shaped much li2e airplane propellers. These blades are attached to a tower. !hen the wind stri2es the blade1 the an-le and confi-uration of the blade form a poc2et of low pressure on the downwind side of the blade. This low pressure suc2s the blade into movement1 causinthe rotor to turn. 3orce is added b. the hi-h pressure on the upward side of the blade. 4n aerod.namic theor.1 this propert. is called lift. 4f the blade is desi-ned correctl.1 lift is stron-er than dra-1 or the slowin- force exerted b. the wind on the front of the blade. 4n wind turbines lift and dra- wor2 to-ether to ma2e the entire mechanism spin li2e a propeller. The process is the opposite of that of a fan. !ith a fan electricit. is used to ma2e wind. !ith a wind turbine wind is used to produce electricit.. The turnin- rotor of a wind turbine is connected to a shaft1 which is connected to an electric -enerator. Power can be distributed to users over the electric -rid in exactl. the same wa. an. other electric power is distributed. The most important feature in the operation of wind turbines is lift. To achieve lift1 wind turbine desi-ners have borrowed technolo-. from aircraft desi-ners. 4n cross-section an airplane win- loo2s li2e an irre-ularl. shaped teardrop. The shape is irre-ular because the win-5s bottom is sli-htl. flatter than the top1 which is more curved. !hen a plane flies1 its win-s slice throu-h the air1 creatinwind. ,ecause of the curve of the upper surface of the win-1 the air has to flow faster to -et around the win-. 6t the same time1 the air flows at a lower speed alon- the bottom surface of the win-. ,ecause of the difference in speed1 the air above the win- is less dense7 that is1 the air pressure is lower than the pressure of the air below the win-. This difference in pressure creates lift perpendicular to the direction of the movin- air1 allowin- the plane to fl.. The same principle applies to turbine blades. 8nli2e airplane win-s1 wind turbine win-s are almost alwa.s twisted. The reason the. are twisted has to do with another aerod.namic principle1 stall. !hen an airplane win- is tilted bac21 the wind continues to flow smoothl. alon- the bottom surface1 but alon- the top surface1 because of the steeper an-le presented to the wind1 the air no lon-er stic2s to the win- but swirls around in a circle above it. The result of this swirlin- is the loss of the low pressure

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alon- the upper surface of the win-. !ithout this low pressure1 the plane has no lift and drops li2e a roc2. 8nli2e airplane win-s1 wind turbine blades are constantl. rotatin-1 and the speed of the rotation differs alon- the entire len-th of the blade. 6t the precise -eometric center1 the speed of rotation is zero. This speed steadil. increases alon- the len-th of the blade until at the tip the blade can be movin- hundreds of feet 9meters: per second. This rotation chan-es the direction at which the wind hits the blade all alon- its len-th. 4n effect1 the an-le at which the wind hits the blade would be different at each point alon- the blade if the blade were not twisted. !hen the blade is twisted1 the an-le at which the wind hits the blade is the same at each point1 and stall is eliminated under normal wind conditions. ;xcessivel. hi-h wind speeds can dama-e rotors1 however1 so en-ineers have desi-ned blades that stall when the wind is too stron-1 and the rotor stops spinnin-. T.pes of wind turbines< =orizontal-axis wind turbines 9=6!T: have the main rotor shaft and electrical -enerator at the top of a tower1 and must be pointed into the wind. *mall turbines are pointed b. a simple wind vane1 while lar-e turbines -enerall. use a wind sensor coupled with a servo motor. >ost have a -earbox1 which turns the slow rotation of the blades into a ?uic2er rotation that is more suitable to drive an electrical -enerator. *ince a tower produces turbulence behind it1 the turbine is usuall. pointed upwind of the tower. Turbine blades are made stiff to prevent the blades from bein- pushed into the tower b. hi-h winds. 6dditionall.1 the blades are placed a considerable distance in front of the tower and are sometimes tilted up a small amount. @ownwind machines have been built1 despite the problem of turbulence1 because the. donAt need an additional mechanism for 2eepin- them in line with the wind1 and because in hi-h winds1 the blades can be allowed to bend which reduces their swept area and thus their wind resistance. -)ertical-axis wind turbines 9or )6!Ts: have the main rotor shaft arran-ed verticall.. Be. advanta-es of this arran-ement are that the turbine does not need to be pointed into the wind to be effective. This is an advanta-e on sites where the wind direction is hi-hl. variable. )6!Ts can utilize winds from var.in- directions. !ith a vertical axis1 the -enerator and -earbox can be placed near the -round1 so the tower doesnAt need to support it1 and it is more accessible for maintenance. @rawbac2s are that some desi-ns produce pulsatin- tor?ue. @ra- ma. be created when the blade rotates into the wind. 4t is difficult to mount vertical-axis turbines on towers1 meanin- the. are
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often installed nearer to the base on which the. rest1 such as the -round or a buildin- rooftop. The wind speed is slower at a lower altitude1 so less wind ener-. is available for a -iven size turbine. 6ir flow near the -round and other objects can create turbulent flow1 which can introduce issues of vibration1 includin- noise and bearin- wear which ma. increase the maintenance or shorten the service life. =owever1 when a turbine is mounted on a rooftop1 the buildin- -enerall. redirects wind over the roof and this can double the wind speed at the turbine. 4f the hei-ht of the rooftop mounted turbine tower is approximatel. &CD of the buildin- hei-ht1 this is near the optimum for maximum wind ener-. and minimum wind turbulence. 6 wind turbine has the followin- components< E Fotor and blades. The rotor is the hub around which the blades are connected. Often1 however1 GGrotor55 is used to refer to the hub and the blades as a sin-le unit. The rotor is the 2e. component1 because it translates the wind5s 2inetic ener-. into tor?ue 9TOFB:1 or turnin- power. E Hacelle 9nuh-*;II:1 or the enclosure that houses the turbine5s drive train1 includin- the -earbox1 the .aw mechanism1 and the electric -enerator. The -earbox connects a low-speed shaft to a hi-h-speed shaft. This mechanism can increase the speed of the shafts b. a factor of as much as fift. to one1 meanin- that the hi-h-speed shaft turns fift. times faster than the low-speed shaft. The .aw mechanism automaticall. senses the direction of the wind and rotates the rotor to 2eep it facin- into the direction of the wind. E Tower1 or the support for the rotor and drive train. E ;lectric e?uipment such as controls1 cables1 and an anemometer 9an-uh>6=-muh-tuhr:

3i-ure 1. !ind turbine components [8]

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4.Chosen sites
3irst step is to chose three sites !e chose three sites because we want to see to importance of the chosen site. 3or this we must consider the climate and the -eo-raphical position.

3i-ure 2. *olar radiation in Fomania/10 !ith data obtained from the ;uropean $ommunit.9fi-.1: we chose a hot spot1 a central spot and between them. Therefore we have<

4:Iocation< *ulina latitude "&J+K "KK1 Ion-itude 2+J %K south east1 Fomania. !ind power is approximatel. & to % mLs all .ear1 with top speed durin- critical periods 9the months Manuar. and 3ebruar.: + ' " 2 C
Man 3eb >ar 6pr >a. Mun Mul 6u- *ep Oct Hov @ec

-red line is wind power -blue area is solar radiation 9electricit. produced:

3i-ure . *olar 4rradiation N !ind *peed 3or *ulina Fomania/20 3or this location we have the followin- overview of wheatear conditions<

Table1. @ata re-ardin- climate information for *ulina/&0

44:Iocation< 3a-aras Latitudine: 45J85 ! Longitudine: "4J#$ 1 $entral Fomania. !ind power is approximatel. 1.( to .1 mLs all .ear ( ' " 2 C
Man 3eb >ar 6pr >a. Mun Mul 6u- *ep Oct Hov @ec

-red line is wind power -blue area is solar radiation / 0

3i-ure ". *olar 4rradiation N !ind *peed 3or 3a-aras Fomania/ 0 3or this location we have the followin- overview of wheatear conditions<

Table2. @ata re-ardin- climate information for 3a-aras /&0

444:Iocation< 4asi Latitudine: 4%J1% ! Longitudine: "%J&% 1 Horth east Fomania. !ind power is approximatel. 2. to & mLs all .ear ( ' " 2 C
Man 3eb >ar 6pr >a. Mun Mul 6u- *ep Oct Hov @ec

-red line is wind power -blue area is solar radiation

3i-ure &. *olar 4rradiation N !ind *peed 3or 4asi Fomania/"0 3or this location we have the followin- overview of wheatear conditions<

Table . @ata re-ardin- climate information for 4asi /&0

1C

*ince we use onl. one wind turbine we will chose onl. a limited set of consumers. That is wh. we will consider1 for example1 the consumers that are found in a home. Therefore we have the fallowin- profile with the total installed power is +.12!hLd1 and 1. 2! pea2.

3i-ure '. @ail. Profile of ener-. consumption

11

5.Co&'onents
!e will chose different components9turbines: in order to see how much ener-. can we produce in different locations and what can we do to improve efficienc. and costs. !e will use the same components an all three chosen sites. *ince we are interested in the optimization of the wind turbine for all situation we will have the same converter and same loads. !e onl. modif. the turbine and the batteries9namel. the batteries number:. !e will use the fallowin- components<

12

Wind (urbines: )*&or+ ,-.1/+W 0ind turbine [#]


Price< 1".%"&O

)*&or+ ,-.5 +W 0ind turbine[8]


Price<O&12+C.CC

1"

1CW )2C)L.S34C5.1/+W [1"]


Price<O2'1 '2

1&

1CW )2C)L.63-C5 7 %+W[13]


Price<O211C&&

1'

1atter8<
- )ision '3>2CC@ 6bsorbent -lass mat 96#>: sealed deep-c.cle lead-acid batter. price< ( +O/1&0

Con9erter:
-a re-ular B! converter< 1.&CCO. /1'0/1%0

1%

$.:'ti&i;ation
'.1#eneral view
4n order to optimize a wind turbine considerin- the condition an the site we have to consider costs and ener-. production. Therefore dependinan the available funds we will be able to produce a limited amount of ener-.. !e will present different situation where we will have hi-h cost but enou-h ener-. to ensure no failure and situations where we reduce the costs but we will produce less ener-.. 6s mentioned before we can chose between two t.pes of wind turbine the horizontal-axis wind turbines 9=6!T: vertical-axis wind turbines 9or )6!Ts:. 4f in our chosen site the wind usuall. blows in the same direction then the horizontal-axis wind turbine is recommended1 but since we need maxim efficienc. it is better that we use the vertical-axis wind turbine. The Be. advanta-es of this arran-ement are that the turbine does not need to be pointed into the wind to be effective. !ind turbines can produce alternatin- current or direct current. *ince we use renewable ener-.1 ener-. stora-e is ver. important. This aspect also brin-s extra costs. 4f we use a wind turbine that produces alternatin- current we will need to use an ac to dc converter and also an volta-e re-ulator in order to be able to safel. char-e the batteries. On the other hand if we have a wind turbine that produces direct current an dc to ac converter is re?uired because most consumers re?uire alternatin- current. ,asicall. all s.stems that use renewable ener-. usuall. have the followin- components< elements for ener-. -eneration9P)1 wind turbine or both:1 ener-. stora-e elements 9batteries:1 converters1 volta-e re-ulators and consumers. 4n order to have an efficient s.stem we need to chose the elements that are best fit for our situation. 6ll simulations were made usin- the software =omer< The optimization model for distributed power. !e will present three situations for each location< -3irst situation< produce enou-h ener-. in order to ensure no failure -*econd situation< reduce number of batteries to a minimum accepted -Third situation< use a different turbine and adjust number of batteries

1(

$."Si&ulations
$hosen location *ulina latitude "&J+K "KK1 Ion-itude 2+J %K south east1 Fomania. 6nnual wind speed is '.&mLs. *.stem architecture< !ind turbine< ;xmor2 3@-1C2! ,atter.< )ision'3>2CC@ $onverter< &B!

,or the first situation 0e ha9e:


The avera-e electrical production for the chosen location is<

The turbine output is<

The colors shows the amount of ener-. the turbine produces. !e have to store the surplus and to do this we need man. batteries.

1+

,atter. state of char-e<

The -raph above shows conditions of batteries. 6s we can see we can produce the necessar. ener-. but at hi-her cost. 6s a batter. ban2 we use strin-s of " batteries per strin-s. 4n order to obtain the result shown above we have to use ' strin-s of batteries92" batteries:. (his 0ould lead to a total <ost of = 3$!381.

2C

Se<ond situation: redu<e the batter8 ban+:


,. lowerin- the batter. ban2 to a minimum accepted we would obtain the fallowin- batter. state of char-e<

6s we can see our batteries are not alwa.s full. char-ed so we can5t assure the proper ener-. -eneration. 1ut this <o&'ro&ise redu<e our <ost to = 1#!$/1. !e now have onl. " batteries in use.

21

(hird situation: use a different 0ind turbine.


$hosen wind turbine< ;xmor2 3@-& 2! wind *.stem architecture< !ind turbine< ;xmor2 3@-& 2! wind ,atter.< )ision'3>2CC@ $onverter< &2! The avera-e electrical production for the chosen location is<

!ith the batter. state of char-e<

>sing a turbine that is best fit for our <ondition 0e redu<ed our s8ste& <ost fro& = 3$!381 to = 1/!14$

22

$hosen wind turbine ,!$ ;P$;I-* wind turbine. *.stem architecture< !ind turbine< ,$! ;P$;I-*-1C2! ,atter.< )ision'3>2CC@ $onverter< &2! The avera-e electrical production for the chosen location is<

Turbine output is<

,atter. state of char-e<

?n order to ha9e a 0or+ing s8ste& 0e should use 3 strings of batteries 0hi<h 0ould lead to a total <ost of = 3%!#3/ and it is possible that durin- some periods the s.stem would not produce the necessar. electric ener-.
2

$hosen wind turbine ,!$ ;P$;I-F wind turbine. *.stem architecture< !ind turbine< ,$! ;P$;I-F-%2! ,atter.< )ision'3>2CC@ $onverter< &2! The avera-e electrical production for the chosen location is<

Turbine output <

,atteries state of char-e<

(his s8ste& <osts = "#!"$%

2"

3or the location *ulina usin- " t.pes of wind turbines from 2 different manufactures we obtained the fallowin- s.stem costs< *.stem architecture< !ind turbine< ;xmor2 3@-1C2! ,atter.< )ision'3>2CC@ $onverter< &B! Price < O 1+1'C1. *.stem architecture< !ind turbine< ;xmor2 3@-&2! ,atter.< )ision'3>2CC@ $onverter< &B! Price < O 1C11"' *.stem architecture< !ind turbine< ,$! ;P$;I-F-%2! ,atter.< )ision'3>2CC@ $onverter< &B! Price < O 2+12'% *.stem architecture< !ind turbine< ,$! ;P$;I-*-1C2! ,atter.< )ision'3>2CC@ $onverter< &B! Price < O %1+ C. 6s we can see for this location the turbine from ;xmor2 has lower price and better results1 that is wh. for the next location 4 will use in m. simulation onl. the turbines from ;xmor2

2&

$hosen location< 3a-aras Latitude: 45J85 ! Longitude: "4J#$ 1 $entral Fomania. *.stem architecture< !ind turbine< ;xmor2 3@-1C2! ,atter.< )ision'3>2CC@ $onverter< &B!

,or the first situation 0e ha9e:


The avera-e electrical production for the chosen location is<

Turbine output<

,atteries state of char-e<

(his s8ste& uses 3/ strings of batteries. (otal <ost is = 11$!#"5


2'

Se<ond situation: redu<e the batter8 ban+:


,. lowerin- the batter. ban2 to a minimum accepted we would obtain the fallowin- batter. state of char-e<

!e use ( strin-s of batteries9 2 batteries:. (otal <ost of s8ste& = 43!/#3

2%

(hird situation: use a different 0ind turbine


$hosen turbine< ;xmor2 3@-&2! The avera-e electrical production for the chosen location is<

Turbine output<

,atter. state of char-e<

This s.stem uses % strin-s of batteries92( batteries:. (otal <ost: = 3/!"8"

2(

3or the location 3a-aras usin- 2 t.pes of wind turbines we obtained the fallowin- s.stem costs< *.stem architecture< !ind turbine< ;xmor2 3@-1C2! ,atter.< )ision'3>2CC@ $onverter< &B! Price < O " 1C+ . *.stem architecture< !ind turbine< ;xmor2 3@-&2! ,atter.< )ision'3>2CC@ $onverter< &B! Price < O C12(2

2+

$hosen location< 4asi Latitude: 4%J1% ! Longitude: "%J&% 1 Horth east Fomania. 8sin- the s.stem architecture< -!ind turbine< ;xmor2 3@-1CB! -,atter.< )ision'3>2CC@ -$onverter< &B!

,or the first situation 0e ha9e:


The avera-e electrical production for the chosen location is<

Turbine output<

,atter. state of char-e<

(his s8ste& uses 14 strings of batteries35$ batteries5. (otal <ost: = $3!""#


C

Se<ond situation: redu<e the batter8 ban+:


,. lowerin- the batter. ban2 to a minimum accepted we would obtain the fallowin- batter. state of char-e<

This s.stem uses strin-s912 batteries:. (otal <ost = "$!313

(hird situation: <hange 0ind turbine


$hosen turbine< ;xmor2 3@-&B! The avera-e electrical production for the chosen location is<

Turbine output<

,atter. state of char-e<

This s.stem uses strin-s of batteries912 batteries:. (otal <ost: = 1$!858

3or the location 4asi usin- 2 t.pes of wind turbines we obtained the fallowin- s.stem costs< *.stem architecture< !ind turbine< ;xmor2 3@-1C2! ,atter.< )ision'3>2CC@ $onverter< &B! Price < O 2'1 1 *.stem architecture< !ind turbine< ;xmor2 3@-&2! ,atter.< )ision'3>2CC@ $onverter< &B! Price < O 1'1(&(

%.Con<lusions
4n order to have an reliable s.stem that supplies enou-h electric ener-. we have to chose the wind turbine that is best fit for our location. The most expensive is not automaticall. the best1 neither the ones that could produce -reat amounts of ener-.1 we have to see what wind power is available and chose the turbine that obtains the best output for us. Too man. batteries also increase costs. Our batteries don5t have to be full. char-e for an entire .ear as lon- as the. provide enou-h electric ener-. when re?uired.

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8.1ibliogra'h8
1:http<LLre.jrc.ec.europa.euLpv-isLcmapsLeuQoptLpv-isQsolarQoptimumQFO.p n2:http<LLwww.ener-.matters.com.auLclimate-dataLR?SsulinaNfindS*earch :http<LLwww.ener-.matters.com.auLclimate-dataLR?Sfa-arasNfindS*earch ":http<LLwww.ener-.matters.com.auLclimate-dataLR?SiasiNfindS*earch &:http<LLeosweb.larc.nasa.-ovLsseLF;T*creenL ':http<LLen.wi2ipedia.or-Lwi2i %: http<LLstoianconstantin.files.wordpress.comL2CC(LC Lschemasubansambluri-turbina-eoliana1.jp(: http<LLwww.exmor2.comL&2w-wind-turbine.htm +: http<LLwww.exmor2.comL1C2w-wind-turbine.htm 1C:http<LLwww.windpowerener-..com.auLPriceD2ClistQ;xmor2Q!ind D2CTurbines.html 11: http<LLmasterin--reen.comL&-2w-wind-turbine.html 12: http<LLwww.ber-e..comL 1 : http<LLwww.noouta-e.comLexcel-r.htm 1": http<LLwww.noouta-e.comLexcel-s.htm 1&: http<LLwww.batter.-uru.com.auL2.html 1':http<LLwww.windpowerener-..com.auLPriceD2ClistQ;xmor2Q3ull D2C*ineD2C!aveD2C4nvertor.html 1%:http<LLwww.exmor2.comLpure-sine-wave-inverter.htm

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