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How to select AQL and inspection level

QUALITY DIGEST | TUE, 09/04/2001


I want to now t!e p"inciple o# selectin$ AQL and inspection level w!en %sin$ t!e sa&plin$ p"oced%"es and ta'les( )o" e*a&ple, w!en I %se +IL,-T.,10/E, !ow to decide w!en I s!o%ld %se 0I, 0II o" -2, -41

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12/14/2004 , 12324 5+ 6 QUALITY

DIGEST

blairhogg 12/14/2004
T"7 so&et!in$ li e t!is , -elect at "ando& seve"al sa&ples o# di##e"ent wei$!ts, %p to t!e &a*i&%& wei$!t to 'e &eas%"ed( Identi#7 t!ese sa&ples 81,2,9,4:( La'el t!ese a,',c,d, eepin$ t"a c o# w!ic! sa&ple 8a,d: is w!ic! sa&ple 81,4:, t!en !ave so&eone wei$! t!e& and "eco"d t!e wei$!ts( ;!an$e t!e sa&ple id<s, a$ain eepin$ t"ac o# t!e "elations!ip, and "epeat( .o t!is a #ew ti&es( =o% s!o%ld now !ave seve"al sets o# data #o" eac! sa&ple( 5e"#o"& a 0a$e >?> on eac! sa&ple set independantl7( T!e7 &a7 'e di##e"ent, d%e to t!e di##e"ent wei$!ts involved( =o% &i$!t #ind t!e scale is a pe"cent o# &a*i&%& in e""o" "at!e" t!an a pe"cent o# act%al wei$!t(

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12/19/2004 , 12324 5+ 6 QUALITY

DIGEST

firebrew 12/13/2004
@e#o"e 7o% #all into t!e t"ap o# Aeve"7 p"o'le& loo in$ li e a loose nailA, c!ec o%t so&e o# t!e ve"7 si&ple 7et e##ective tec!niB%es in t!e te*t AEval%atin$ T!e +eas%"e&ent 5"ocessA '7 C!eele",L7da7( .on C!eele" does an ele$antDo' o# p"esentin$ anal7sis o# $a$in$ s7ste&s #"ee o# speci#ications( In #act, !e p"oposes t!at #o" t!e t"%e p%"pose o# $a$in$ selection, speci#ications a"e not alwa7s t!e 'est &eas%"e( An anal7sis o# $a$e sta'ilit7, and 'ias &a7 'e &o"e i&po"tant t!an t!e t"aditional >?>( In s!o"t, decide w!at 7o% a"e t"7in$ to lea"n, and select 7o%" anal7ses 'ased on t!at 8t!ose: B%estions "at!e" t!an si&pl7 doin$ a A0a$e >?>A 'eca%se so&e te*t 'oo o" I-E Q%alit7 -tanda"d s%$$ests it( Fo!n @"%&an

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12/11/2004 , 12329 5+ 6 QUALITY

DIGEST

bobdoering 12/11/2004
0a$e >?> is a ve"7 powe"#%l tool , it collects ALL va"iation and ana7Ges t!e 'etween 8Aapp"aise" va"iationA: and wit!in 8AeB%ip&ent va"iationA: va"iation( @7 %sin$ t!e va"io%s containe"s o# vast va"iation in wei$!t, t!e tool will s!ow 7o% !ave t!is va"iation , and will li el7 &as an7 ot!e" va"iation #"o& 7o%" $a$in$ s7ste&( =o% @etween, sa&ple va"iation 8AH: will 'e p"ett7 'i$( 0ene"all7, t!is va"iation o# t!e &eas%"e&ent s7ste& is t!en co&pa"ed to t!e speci#ication 8o" cont"ol li&its, i# %sed: to dete"&ine i# it p"ovides adeB%ate "esol%tion , o" answe"s t!e B%estion A!ow do 7o% now it is t!e "i$!t $a$e #o" t!e Do'A( I# w!at 7o% a"e &eas%"in$ !as no speci#ication, t!en w!at is it 7o% a"e t"7in$ to s!ow wit! t!e $a$e >?>1 In o"de" to answe" t!is B%estion, we p"o'a'l7 need to $et a 'ette" idea w!at t!e scena"io is( C!at is t!e speci#ication , t!e a&o%nt o# &ate"ial t!at is "eB%i"ed in t!e p"ocess and its tole"ance1 How do t!e containe"s "elate to t!e speci#ication IJK a"e seve"al %sed #o" t!e add to t!e p"ocess1

T!e one t!in$ I can ass%"e 7o% t!at 7o% s!o%ld LET do is %se one ope"ato"M =o% s!o%ld !ave t!e va"iation o# &eas%"e&ent s ills "ep"esented in a 0a$e >?> , #"o& ce"ti#ied t"ainee to e*pe"ienced ope"ato"( T!e onl7 ti&e t!is tool s!o%ld 'e %sed wit! one ope"ato" is i# 7o% a"e t"7in$ to dete"&ine t!e A'etweenA va"iation o# seve"al $a$es, s%c! as 1 ope"ato", 9 $a$es, 10 pa"ts instead o# 1 $a$e, 9 ope"ato"s, 10 pa"ts( T!is is anal7tical p"ocess t!at is "a"el7 %sed co""ectl7, !oweve"(

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AQL Sampling
-ea"c!

Quality professionals use AQL sampling to determine the acceptance or rejection of inspection material. Inspection material can be raw goods, purchased parts, inprocess production, final goods and services, pre and post shipment parts, etc. Inspectors depend on AQL plans to determine the amount of parts to inspect. AQL stands for Acceptable Quality Level. AQL is the poorest level of uality for the process that you would consider acceptable. !tages of AQL !ampling ". $. '. (. +. -. 0. #irst select the appropriate industrial sampling plan. %etermine the AQL & %ecide the sampling plans parameters )stablish the sample si*e, accept and reject criteria ,andomly select the parts. Inspect each part for the given feature.s/ Accept or ,eject the remaining parts.

Snap Sampling Plans!

%o you... Inspect parts, items, material1 2eed an AQL sampling method that supports your inspection activities1 3ant to uic4ly apply the correct sampling method based on your production methods1 3ant to swiftly determine the correct sample si*e, accept and reject criteria for your inspection1 5hin4 statistical sampling plans are difficult, confusing or complicated1 2eed to chec4 your company6s sampling plans for the correct application1 7a4e up your own sampling plans1 2eed to learn about a specific sampling plan because of your customer re uirements1 3ant to improve your Quality !ystems1 If you answer yes to any of the above uestions then you need Snap Sampling Plans! Videos and pictures of Snap Sampling Plans!

7any companies use the wrong inspection AQL sampling plan because managers, engineers, supervisors and inspectors have not been trained in statistical sampling. 8ecause of this, they may create their own deficient sampling plan. 9r they may use a 4nown industry standard plan without fully understanding that standard:s purpose or methods. 3hen this occurs, they put their business and their customers at ris4. In addition they waste valuable inspection time and inspection cost. %on6t let this happen to your business. Snap Sampling Plans! software combines all the 4ey industry standard attribute sampling plans into one place. 8ecause there are over ";,;;; sampling possibilities, you need this software to eliminate the confusion. !nap !ampling <lans= guides you in selecting the correct AQL sampling plan.

!nap !ampling <lans lets you eliminate the confusion between ". $. '. (. +. -. 0. >ontinuous <roduction vs. Lot Inspection ?ero Acceptance vs. !tandard Acceptance Inspection >ritical vs. 7ajor vs. 7inor Inspection ,eceiving vs In@<rocess vs. #inal Inspection sampling %efect Aistory vs. 2o %efect Aistory Inspection %estructive 5esting vs. 2on %estructive 5esting %ifferent Inspection Levels

Selecting the Sampling Plan.


<robably the most difficult step of the sampling stages because selecting the correct AQL sampling plan depends on your situation. Are you inspecting parts for receiving inspection1 Are you monitoring production1 %o you 4now the history of defects for the material1 Are inspecting for safety issues1 %o you allow for defects during sampling1 5here are many statistical AQL sampling plans. Authors established these plans based on different situations. !ome plans were written for lot inspection, while some for production inspection. !ome plans focus on safety related issues, while some cover major and minor features. !ome plans allow for reduction of inspection when defect levels decrease, some don:t. !ome plans allow for defects .or inspection mista4es/, some don:t. 8ecause of the compleCity, there are college level courses that cover sampling theory. 5hese courses detail the major plans and elaborate on the AQL tables. #ortunately, you don:t have to ta4e a college course to learn this material. Snap Sampling Plans! uic4ly lets you select and apply the correct AQL sampling plan.

Determine the AQL %


AQL stands for Acceptable Quality Level. AQL is the poorest level of uality for the process that you would consider acceptable. Dou establish the AQL & depending on the feature that under inspection. If the feature has high importance, you will select a lower AQL. AQL percentage can be as low as .;"& and the highest AQL can be ";&. Dou select a number in between these two. In many cases, your customer already determined the AQL. 5o find this information, chec4 the customer drawing or contract. !ampling plans provide tables with multiple AQLs. In general, each plan has a given limit of AQLs. 5he AQL table shows one column with the AQL percentage and another column with a code letter that represents the lot si*e. In some cases these can be hard to interpret because you may need to refer to multiple tables to actually find the eCact sample si*e.

Sampling Plans Parameters


!ince the authors wrote each AQL sampling plan to cover a given inspection situation, each plan has different parameters. 5wo of the common parameters for each plan is AQL percentage and lot si*e. 9ther parameters include defect percentage, sampling level, inspection level, and inspection type. 3ithout reading the standards or receiving training, the parameters can be confusing. Again !nap !ampling <lans= simplifies the selections for the users. 3ithin the standards, for each different parameter, there are different tables. 3hen changing the parameters, you increase the time to find your inspection sampling plan. 9pen the standard, review table A which ta4es you to table > which ta4es you to 5able %.

#ind your inspection criteria on 5able %. >hanging parameters is very time consuming. Snap Sampling Plans! software fiCes this.

Establish the Sample Size, Accept and Reject Criteria


5he main reason that the authors wrote each plan was to determine the sample si*e, accept and reject criteria. After finding this you are done with the standards until the neCt inspection. 5he sample si*e number tells you how many parts to pull from the lot. 5he accept number tells you the maCimum allow number of rejects within that sample to accept the lot. 5he reject number tells you the minimum number of defects within the sample to reject the lot.

Rand ml! Select the Parts


!elect the parts randomly from the lot is critical to ma4ing a sound decision on the lot. If you pull the parts off the top of the pile for the inspection sample, this is not random inspection. In this case you are pulling parts from one moment of production time and that moment does not represent the entire production. ,andom means that the sample comes from an un4nown origin. 5here are many tools that generate random numbers. 7any calculators have this built in feature.

"nspect Each Part


After you select the inspection sample you then inspect the parts. As you inspect the parts, you separate the good parts from the bad parts. Dou record the number of good parts and the number of rejects. Dou may be inspecting multiple features or characteristics on the parts. %epending on the feature importance, you may have different AQLs or Inspection parameters for each feature. 5his is difficult to master if you are relying on reviewing the industry standard for each feature. If you:re doing this, try using Snap Sampling Plans! which ma4es multi@ feature inspection easier.

Accept

r Reject the Remaining Parts

8ased on your accept E reject number and the end results from the sample inspection, you decide whether or not to accept the material. If the number of defects is less then or e ual to the accept number you accept the parts. 7ove the parts to the neCt step. If the number of defects is greater or e ual to the reject number you reject the parts. !egregate the lot and issue corrective action.

After reviewing this page on AQL sampling plans see this for more info on the sample si*e calculator

The AQL Tables, Different Inspection Levels, and the Sampling Plan Selection Process

he Inspection Levels,T!"ee $ene"al and #o%" special inspection levels a"e co&&onl7 %sed( T!e $ene"al inspection levels 81 to 9: a"e t7picall7 %

on,dest"%ctive inspection( Level 2 is conside"ed t!e no"& 8e*cept #o" s&all sa&ple siGes:( Level 1 "eB%i"es onl7 40 pe"cent o# inspection level 2 and can w!e"e less disc"i&ination is needed( Level 9 eB%als 120 pe"cent o# t!e a&o%nt o# inspection level 2( Level 9 will $ive a lowe" "is o# acceptin$ a lot wit! ssive n%&'e" o# de#ects( Howeve", inspection o# a la"$e" n%&'e" o# sa&ples is "eB%i"ed(

ial Levels -,1, -,2, -,9 and -,4 &a7 'e %sed w!e"e "elativel7 s&all sa&ple siGes a"e necessa"7 o" la"$e sa&plin$ "is s can 'e ta en( E*a&ples o# t!is ctions involvin$ dest"%ctive o" costl7 8ti&e cons%&in$: t7pe inspections w!e"e la"$e lots a"e involved, s&all sa&ple siGes desi"ed, and la"$e "is s can ' ated s%c! as "epetitive p"ocesses 8sc"ew &ac!ine, sta&pin$, 'oltin$ ope"ation, etc(: pe"#o"&ed '7 a B%alit7 s%pplie"( La"$e" sa&ple siGes a"e "eB%i"ed ction levels inc"easin$ #"o& -,1 to -,4(

electing a Sampling Plan,)o" a !7pot!etical total s!ip&ent B%anti7 o# 1/00 %nits, 7o% #i"st loo

at Ta'le,1 'elow, on t!e le#t side %nde" ALot o ! -iGeA( =o% will #ind t!at t!e n%&'e" 1/00 #alls wit!in t!e speci#ied 1201,9000 "an$e( T!en &ove ac"oss t!e !o"iGontal access to t!e "i$!t and stop %nd 0ene"al Inspection Levels IIA col%&n w!e"e 7o% will see t!e lette" ANA( Low p"oceed to Ta'le,2 'elow Ta'le,1 and sc"oll down t!e #a" le#t col%&n A-a&p ;ode Lette"A to t!e ANA position( T!e ve"7 ne*t col%&n towa"ds t!e "i$!t is A-a&ple -iGeA w!ic! in t!is case indicates t!e sa&ple lot siGe to 'e 12/ %nit &ove ac"oss t!e !o"iGontal a*is towa"d t!e "i$!t %ntil 7o% a""ive at t!e col%&n o# t!e desi"ed sa&plin$ st"i$enc7 level( En t!e #a" le#t 0(02/ "ep"esents t st"in$ent AQL level and 2(/ on t!e #a" "i$!t "ep"esents t!e &ost lenient AQL level &eanin$ &o"e de#ective %nits a"e allowed(

: T!e AAcA &eans t!e &a*i&%& n%&'e" o# de#ective %nits wit! w!ic! t!e lot can still 'e conside"ed accepted( T!e A>eA "ep"esents t!e n%&'e" at w!ic! pled lot is to 'e "eDected( N>T A%dit ;o"po"ation inspects and "epo"ts 'ac to 7o% %sin$ two st"in$enc7 levels, a no"&al and a ti$!tened level( And don<t 7, t!ese a"e D%st $%idelines w!ic! 7o% as t!e '%7e" can ove""%le so lon$ as 7o%" s%pplie" a$"ees to 7o%" di##e"ent set o# $%idelines and st"in$enc7 levels

e 1:

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# $ t ch se c rrect neral pecti n Le&el ' L le&el...(

ope somebody n help me out h this main estionF)# $ ch se the rrect %eneral specti n &el ' AQL el and $hat he reliabilit! the tc me()

do many pections by neral pection Level H AQL $.+. y 4nowing t this standard ommonly ed.

rect me if I wrong. AQL means that can accept a ect rate of &, which ans I0.+& of goods are n defect.

d by choosing neral pection Level means doing a mple pection and result mpared with AQL table will ermine ection or eptance of the ods. 3hat is

reliability of decision sed on these tistics1

6s say, I do n destructive ts on a batch "+"@$B;pcs. I oose to accept L level ".;. 7y t results ould be I+& urateEreliable. ich General pection Level st I choose1

o4ing forward have your nion.

an4s in vanceJ=
Wesley Lai View Public Profile Find all posts by Wesley Lai Sponsored Links

2 !"t# $uly %&&'( &")&' P*

Tim Folkerts
, r+m - derat r

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,egistration %ateF !ep $;;' LocationF Kansas, L!A AgeF +; ch se the c rrect %eneral "nspecti n Le&el ' AQL le&el...(

Ai 3esley, and welcome to the )lsmar >ove. Lnfortunately, there is no simple answer to your uestion. 5he ?".( .formerly 4nown as 7IL@!5%@";+/ sampling plans are not based on specific statistical criteria. 5he AQL level is a defect rate that will usually get accepted. !o if your have AQL M $.+, then lots with $.+& defective will probably get accepted. .5he probability depends on all sorts of factors. #or normal inspection, the number is typically around I+&, it can be from roughly I;@IB& as I recall/. 5he batches have to be much worse .typically '@"; times

worse/ before you can be moderately sure of rejecting them. 5he only real way to judge the sampliong plans is to loo4 directly at the 9> curves and tables at teh bac4 of the standard.

"a batch of 151-280pcs...AQL level 1.0 ... 95% accurate/reliable. Which Level #ust " choose$"

e!eral "!spectio!

#or a given AQL, you can loo4 up all the different sampling plans, then find the defect rate that will be accepted I+& of the time and the defect rate that will be rejected I+& of the time. >9%)..!A7<L)...A>..,)...I+&......I+& ..........!I?)................A>>)<5.,)N)>5 )........."'..........;...."...;.'I(....$;.A.........+;.........."....$...;.0"+....I."( N..........B;..........$...'....".;'.....0.-K........."$+.........'...(....".;I.....-.$; L.........$;;.........+....-...".'".....+.$#or your eCample, the only sample si*es you would get for a batch of "+"@$B; are +; .Level II O III/ or "' .all the other Levels/ for normal inspection. 5hat doesn6t give you very much fleCibility= Another option is to design you own sampling plan. !elect the defect rate you will accept I+& of the time, the defect rate you will reject I+& of hte time, adn find a sampling plan that will wor4 for your needs.

5im # PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP %o &o!'er is to be(i! to u!'ersta!'.


/han0s t /im , l0erts * r ! +r in* rmati&e P st and1 r Attachment!

+enaud
Tim Folkerts View Public Profile Find all posts by ,im Folkerts Sponsored Links

3 %&t# -ovember %&&'( !!)%& .*

gglntn
"nacti&e Registered 2isit r

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se the c rrect %eneral "nspecti n Le&el ' AQL le&el...(

>oncerning AQL, we use " gallon plastic bottles to pac4age product. >urrently bottles are simply brought in the door with no incoming inspection, sent to the production floor, and used, generally within $( @ (B hours. %uring production, as the operator manually puts the bottles on the conveyor belt leading to the fill station, .!/Ae inspects each one for defects, debris, etc. %efective bottles are immediatlely counted and discarded. !hould QA be doing incoming inspection, and if so, how would we go about chosing an acceptEreject level for the lot, 4nowing that further down the line bottles will be ";;& inspected by the production operator. 3hy would be ned to develop an AQL to reject the lot1 All that would do would be to add an additional step. 5hnC
gglntn View Public Profile Find all posts by gglntn 4 /t# 0ecember %&&'( &')%& .*

david1#ao
"nacti&e Registered 2isit r

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,egistration %ateF Nan $;;0 LocationF 2ingbo,>hina Re. # $ t ch se the c rrect %eneral "nspecti n Le&el ' AQL le&el...(

AQL is related to you and your supplier also.Let6s say AQL was set to ".;,if the vendor6s uality level is +&.reject ratio/,you6ll not get approval of inwards. !o when you set the AQL,chec4 how much failure you can accept.normally the failure will be graded as A,8,> etc which related to safeEregulator,functionEdimension,appearance,etc/, and chec4 with vendor where vendor is. If vendor can not meet the AQL you set and you insist on that,need vendor do ";;&inspection before deliver. As long you have a inspect station.visually/ on site,you can accept more which 4ind of failure will be caught up by inspector. Any way,it6s related to your company, and also your vendor,and it6s active and will be updated when things improved.
da id!hao View Public Profile Find all posts by david1#ao " %2t# February %&&/( &/)34 .*

+enaud
%etting "n& l&ed 34 t 5 P sts6

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,egistration %ateF #eb $;;I LocationF >hina Re. # $ t ch se the c rrect %eneral "nspecti n Le&el ' AQL le&el...(

I agree with 5im6s response. 5o complement itF about your sentence Qby choosing General Inspection Level II, means

doing a sample inspection and the result compared with the AQL table will determine rejection or acceptance of the goodsQF 5he general inspection level II is what the norm calls the QnormalQ level. If you go to a reduced .I/ or tightened .III/ level, the discriminatory ability of your inspection will be different. Dou can switch to one of these levels if you have strong hints@@one way or another@@about the uality level .e.g. if the same supplier6s goods were rejected more than twice over the last + inspections, you should go to level III. I hope it helps.
#ena$d View Public Profile Find all posts by +enaud % %2t# February %&&/( !!)24 .*

Ste e&
Appreciated "n* rmati n Res +rce

<ostsF ++; 5han4s Given to 9thersF "$B 5han4ed +'+ 5imes in $+$ <osts Karma <owerF B$ KarmaF $I$+

,egistration %ateF 2ov $;;0 LocationF 7anchester, LK AgeF +B Re. # $ t ch se the c rrect %eneral "nspecti n Le&el ' AQL le&el...(

In the past for plastic moulding etc the AQL level allowed different AQLs for different defect levels i.e. >ritical .e.g. ;.-+/, 7ajor .e.g. $.+/, 7inor .e.g. -.+/. 5his miight give you some eCtra fleCibility, depending on how you classify the defects. 9r am I just complicating matters1

AQL Inspection !an"al


Inspection Levels T!"ee $ene"al and #o%" special inspection levels a"e p"ovided( T!e $ene"al inspection levels 8I to III: a"e co&&onl7 %sed #o" non,dest"%ctive inspection( Level II is conside"ed t!e no"& 8e*cept #o" s&all sa&ple siGes:( Level I is "eB%i"ed onl7 40 pe"cent o# inspection level II and can 'e %sed w!e"e less disc"i&ination is needed( Level III eB%als 120 pe"cent o# t!e a&o%nt o# inspection Level II( Level III will $ive a lowe" "is o# acceptin$ a lot wit! e*cessive n%&'e" o# de#ects( Howeve", inspection o# la"$e" sa&ples is "eB%i"ed( Unless ot!e"wise speci#ied, inspection Level II will 'e %sed( -pecial Levels -,1, -,2, -,9 and -,4 &a7 'e %sed w!e"e "elativel7 s&all sa&ple siGes a"e necessa"7 o" la"$e sa&plin$ "is s can 'e ta en( E*a&ples o# t!is a"e inspections involvin$ dest"%ctive o" costl7 8ti&e cons%&in$: t7pe inspection, o" w!e"e la"$e lots a"e involved, s&all sa&ple siGes a"e desi"ed and la"$e "is s can 'e tole"ated s%c! as "epetitive p"ocesses 8sc"ew &ac!ine, sta&pin$, 'oltin$ ope"ations, etc(: pe"#o"&ed '7 a B%alit7 s%pplie"( La"$e" sa&ple siGes a"e #o" inspection levels inc"easin$ #"o& -,1 to -,4(

EOA+5LE3 Lot o# 1/00 %nits, AQL o# 2(/, Lo"&al Inspection and -in$le -a&plin$ Level -a&ple -iGe Aceptance L%&'e" I II III -,1 -,2 -,9 -,4 / 0 / 0 20 1 92 1

/0 12/ 200 9 4 10

C!en it is necessa"7 to dete"&ine an inspection level, a n%&'e" o# #acto"s &%st 'e conside"ed in o"de" to opti&iGe t!e cost/"is "elations!ip( T!ese a"e3 a( T!e ope"atin$ c!a"acte"istic 8E;: c%"ves to eval%ate t!e tec!nical p"ope"ties o# va"io%s plans( '( T!e s%pplie"<s "is and disc"i&ination a##o"ded '7 va"io%s inspection levels( c( Nnowled$e o# t!e p"od%ction p"ocess( d( 5"ocess capa'ilit7 nowled$e and past B%alit7 pe"#o"&ance !isto"7( e( Ite& co&ple*it7( #( ;ost and i&po"tance o# e*a&ination o" test, pa"tic%la"l7 w!en testin$ is e*pensive, ti&e cons%&in$ o" dest"%ctive( $( I&po"tance o# t!e B%alit7 c!a"acte"istics to 'e e*a&ined, t!at is, c"itical, &aDo" and so #o"t!( !( Anal7sis o# cons%&e"<s "is (
i# D( AQL 5!I6s inspectors use the 7IL@!5%@";+) tables .also 4nown as AQL tables/ to measure acceptable levels of uality of the products they inspect. 5his method is widely used by the inspection profession to determine whether to accept a production batch without chec4ing every single item of the batch. 8esides AQL, other similar standards such as A2!IEA!Q> ?".(, I!9 $B+I, 2#;-@;$$, 8! -;;", and %I2 (;;B; have been used by different nations and international standardi*ation organi*ations.

k. Batch/Lot
l. A batch or lot is a collection of products R all identical in si*e, type, conditions and time of production R from which a sample will be ta4en to determine whether the batch conforms to the acceptance level.

m. Acceptance Sampling
n. Acceptance !ampling is used to decide whether to accept or reject a production lotF select samples from the production lot and inspect the units in the sample, then use the result to determine whether to accept or reject the lot.

o. General Sampling Level


p. . 5he !ampling Level represents the overall accuracy level of the !ampling 7ethod. #or a given lot si*e, increasing the !ampling Level means increasing the !ample !i*e. 5here are three General !ampling LevelsF I, II, or III. 5!I:s default Level is II.

r. Special Inspection Level

s.

!pecial Inspection Level is used instead of the General Inspection Level when there are special re uirements for the inspection. 5here are four special inspection levelsF !", !$, !' and !(.

t. Samples size code letter


u. 5he code letter is based on lot si*e and inspection level.

v. Sampling size
w. 5he sampling si*e is the total number of units to be inspected.

x. AQL and defect classification


y. *. %efect classification %efects detected during inspections are generally classified in ' categoriesF

aa. @ >ritical defect @ 7ajor defect @ 7inor defect bb. >ritical defectF critical defect is li4ely to result in ha*ardous or unsafe conditions for using andEor maintaining the product. 3e generally set the acceptable critical defect level at ;. cc. 7ajor defectF major defect does not affect safety of the product, but affects the product:s performance. 3e generally set the acceptable major defect level at $.+. dd. 7inor defectF minor defect will not affect normal use of the product. 5he defect is usually the result of less than satisfactory wor4manship. 3e generally set the acceptable minor defect level at (.;.

ee. Ho do I determine the right sample size and acceptance n!m"er#


ff. As an eCample, for an inspection of a 0;;;@unit lot, with General Inspection Level of II, 5able A indicates that the sample si*e code letter should be L. 5able 8 indicates that the sample si*e should be $;; units. gg. #or an AQL of 7ajor $.+ E 7inor (.;, the corresponding acceptance number is 7ajor ";E 7inor "(. 5his means critical defect should be ; pcS major defects should be "; pcs or lessS minor defects should be "( pcs or less. If selected samples have any critical level defects or have major defects of "" or over, or minor defects of "+ or over, the whole batch will fail the inspection. hh# TA$L% A

ii(

&&# (

TA$L% $

AQL tables for prod"ct inspections


These statistical tables are fundamental tools for preparing a sampling plan for a random product inspection. They give you the n!m"er of samples to inspect, and the maxim!m n!m"ers of defects that is allo ed. The first ta"le gives you the code letter for sampling. In this example, if the batch to check contains 5,000 pcs, and if you choose level II (which is chosen by default for most inspections , the letter is !.

The second ta"le (for normal severity gives you the useful information. The letter ! means "00 samples must be checked. If you select the limits as ".5# for ma$or defects and %.0# for minor defects, you re$ect the batch if you find more than &0 ma$or and'or more than &% minor defects.

!ore info abo"t the AQL


To understand the concept of the (cceptance )uality !imit (()! in depth, you should read this article* W#at is t#e .5L6. (nd here are the original ()! charts, straight from the I+,"-5. standard* $hart %&

$hart '&

$ac' to basics: (hat is the )AQL*+


by /enaud (n$oran on "- 0ovember "0&&
The 1()! tables2 are statistical tools at the disposal of buyers (for product inspections . They help determine two key elements*

How &an7 sa&ples s!o%ld 'e inspected1 C!e"e is t!e li&it 'etween accepta'ilit7 and "e#%sal, w!en it co&es to de#ective p"od%cts1

The need for an objective measurement of quality


In virtually every production batch, there will be defective products. It is true even after the manufacturer has checked each individual product and has repaired the defective ones. Thus, in a supplier'buyer relationship, the supplier cannot be expected to deliver defect3free goods. 4owever, the buyer wants to control the 5uality of purchased goods, since he does not want too many defects. 6ut what does 1too many2 mean7 4ow to set the limit between acceptability and refusal in a way that can be agreed upon and measured7

Definition and application of AQL


The limit, as described above, is called the 8()!9. It stands for 8(cceptance )uality !imit9, and is defined as the 15uality level that is the worst tolerable2 (I+, "-5. standard . :or example* 1I want no more than &.5# defective items in the whole order 5uantity2 means the ()! is &.5#. In practice, three types of defects are distinguished. :or most consumer goods, the limits are*

0P #o" c"itical de#ects 8totall7 %naccepta'le3 a %se" &i$!t $et !a"&ed, o" "e$%lations a"e not "espected:( 2(/P #o" &aDo" de#ects 8t!ese p"od%cts wo%ld %s%all7 not 'e conside"ed accepta'le '7 t!e end %se":( 4(0P #o" &ino" de#ects 8t!e"e is so&e depa"t%"e #"o& speci#ications, '%t &ost %se"s wo%ld not &ind it:(

These proportions vary in function of the product and its market. ;omponents used in building an airplane are sub$ect to much lower ()! limits.

Gettin familiar !ith the AQL tables


6efore using the ()! tables, you should decide on three parameters*

T!e Qlot siGeR( I# 7o% o"de"ed di##e"ent p"od%cts, t!e B%antit7 o# eac! p"od%ct is a lot siGe, and sepa"ate inspections s!o%ld 'e ca""ied o%t #o" eac! lot( I# 7o% o"de"ed onl7 one p"od%ct, t!e lot siGe is 7o%" total o"de" B%antit7( T!e inspection level( .i##e"ent inspection levels will co&&and di##e"ent n%&'e" o# sa&ples to inspect( In t!is a"ticle, we will stic to t!e so,called Klevel IIS, %nde" Kno"&al seve"it7S( T!e AQL level app"op"iate #o" 7o%" &a" et( I# 7o%" c%sto&e"s accept very few defects, 7o% &i$!t want to set a lowe" AQL #o" 'ot! &aDo" and &ino" de#ects(

There are basically two tables. The first one tells you which 8code letter9 to use. Then, the code letter will give you the sample si<e and the maximum numbers of defects that can be accepted. (irst ta"le& sample size code letters

4ow to read this table7 It is very easy. If you follow my example, I assume your 8lot si<e9 is comprised between =,"0&pcs and &0,000pcs, and that your inspection level is 8II9. ;onse5uently, the code letter is 1!2. Second ta"le& single sampling plans for level II inspection )normal severit*+

How to read this table? >our code letter is 1!2, so you will have to draw "00pcs randomly from the total lot si<e. 6esides, I assume you have set your ()! at ".5# for ma$or defects and %.0# for minor defects. Therefore, here are the limits* the products are accepted if 0, ?,/@ than &0 ma$or defects (0A 0, ?,/@ than &% minor defects are found. :or example, if you find &5 ma$or defects and &" minor defects, the products are refused. If you find = ma$or defects and B minor defects, they are accepted. 0ote* in 7uality inspections , the number of defects is only one of the criteria. It is sometimes called 15uality2, or 15uality findings2. The other criteria are usually on the inspector9s checklist, which typically includes*

5ac a$in$ con#o"&it7 8'a"codes, inne" pac in$, ca"tons, s!ippin$ &a" sT:( 5"od%ct con#o"&it7 8aspect, wo" &ans!ipT:( I# all t!e p"od%cts a"e in "ed colo" instead o# o"an$e, t!e"e is no need to co%nt eac! sa&ple as a de#ect( It &a es &o"e sense to "e#%se #o" p"od%ct con#o"&it7( -peci#ic tests de#ined in t!e inspection c!ec list 8t!e7 &i$!t not 'e pe"#o"&ed on all inspected sa&ples i# t!e7 a"e ti&e,cons%&in$ o" dest"%ctive:(

To o further
,elated articles& all the basics an importer should know about 5uality control are explained in the articles listed on t#is page. A!thor& /enaud (n$oran is an expert in 5uality assurance and 5uality control. 4is agency helps buyers in ;hina. *ore info #ere.

"requently as#ed questions about AQL


Q: ,hat are the red"ced and tightened inspection severities+
(* They are designed to be used in very specific situations, when a producer is particularly reliable, or on the contrary fails too often. In practice, these severities are used in less than &# of ); inspections. The normal severity already allows for a good variation of sample si<es. In the vast ma$ority of cases, third3party inspectors follow only the normal severity.

Q: So, basicall- I have to a"thori.e the factor- to prod"ce some defects+


(* >es, some defects, since a factory cannot reasonnably be expected to turn out &00# good 5uality. 4owever, it does not mean the buyer tolerates everything as long as the number of defects are below the ()! limits. Clease see below the note issued in the I+,"-5. standard* 1(lthough individual lots with 5uality as bad as the acceptance 5uality limit may be accepted with fairly high probability, the designation of an acceptance 5uality limit does not suggest that this is a desirable 5uality level. +ampling schemes D...E are designed to encourage suppliers to have process averages consistently better than the ()!.2 Q& Based on m* AQL- I calc!lated the proportion of defects a!thorized. .h* don/t the* correspond to the maxim!m n!m"er of defects a!thorized# (* It is true. In our example above, ".5# of "00 samples is 5 samples, but we accept the goods even if &0 samples are found with a ma$or defect. Fhy this difference7 There are heavy statistics behind this issue. To make it simple, the producer runs a risk of re$ection (based on the random element when drawing the sample even though his products (if they were all checked would be accepted. (nd, in the same logic, the consumer runs a risk of accepting bad products. The statisticians had to account for these risks, that9s why the numbers were ad$usted and seem not to make sense.

Q: ,h- not &"st sa-, /(e0ll chec' 112 of the 3"antit-0, or (hatever percentage deemed appropriate+
(* 4ere again, the statisticians tell us it is not that simple. (s we go up in the total 5uantity, the proportion of products checked can decrease, for the same confidence in the inspection results. (s you can see in the chart below, the number of samples to check (vertical axis increases at a slower pace than the total 5uantity (hori<ontal axis .

Q& Ho to choose an AQL limit for m* prod!cts# (* See t#is article.

$ac' to basics: (hat is the )AQL*+


by /enaud (n$oran on "- 0ovember "0&&
The 1()! tables2 are statistical tools at the disposal of buyers (for product inspections . They help determine two key elements*

How &an7 sa&ples s!o%ld 'e inspected1 C!e"e is t!e li&it 'etween accepta'ilit7 and "e#%sal, w!en it co&es to de#ective p"od%cts1

The need for an objective measurement of quality


In virtually every production batch, there will be defective products. It is true even after the manufacturer has checked each individual product and has repaired the defective ones. Thus, in a supplier'buyer relationship, the supplier cannot be expected to deliver defect3free goods. 4owever, the buyer wants to control the 5uality of purchased goods, since he does not want too many defects. 6ut what does 1too many2 mean7 4ow to set the limit between acceptability and refusal in a way that can be agreed upon and measured7

Definition and application of AQL


The limit, as described above, is called the 8()!9. It stands for 8(cceptance )uality !imit9, and is defined as the 15uality level that is the worst tolerable2 (I+, "-5. standard . :or example* 1I want no more than &.5# defective items in the whole order 5uantity2 means the ()! is &.5#. In practice, three types of defects are distinguished. :or most consumer goods, the limits are*

0P #o" c"itical de#ects 8totall7 %naccepta'le3 a %se" &i$!t $et !a"&ed, o" "e$%lations a"e not "espected:( 2(/P #o" &aDo" de#ects 8t!ese p"od%cts wo%ld %s%all7 not 'e conside"ed accepta'le '7 t!e end %se":( 4(0P #o" &ino" de#ects 8t!e"e is so&e depa"t%"e #"o& speci#ications, '%t &ost %se"s wo%ld not &ind it:(

These proportions vary in function of the product and its market. ;omponents used in building an airplane are sub$ect to much lower ()! limits.

Gettin familiar !ith the AQL tables


6efore using the ()! tables, you should decide on three parameters*

T!e Qlot siGeR( I# 7o% o"de"ed di##e"ent p"od%cts, t!e B%antit7 o# eac! p"od%ct is a lot siGe, and sepa"ate inspections s!o%ld 'e ca""ied o%t #o" eac! lot( I# 7o% o"de"ed onl7 one p"od%ct, t!e lot siGe is 7o%" total o"de" B%antit7( T!e inspection level( .i##e"ent inspection levels will co&&and di##e"ent n%&'e" o# sa&ples to inspect( In t!is a"ticle, we will stic to t!e so,called Klevel IIS, %nde" Kno"&al seve"it7S( T!e AQL level app"op"iate #o" 7o%" &a" et( I# 7o%" c%sto&e"s accept very few defects, 7o% &i$!t want to set a lowe" AQL #o" 'ot! &aDo" and &ino" de#ects(

There are basically two tables. The first one tells you which 8code letter9 to use. Then, the code letter will give you the sample si<e and the maximum numbers of defects that can be accepted. (irst ta"le& sample size code letters

4ow to read this table7 It is very easy. If you follow my example, I assume your 8lot si<e9 is comprised between =,"0&pcs and &0,000pcs, and that your inspection level is 8II9. ;onse5uently, the code letter is 1!2. Second ta"le& single sampling plans for level II inspection )normal severit*+

How to read this table? >our code letter is 1!2, so you will have to draw "00pcs randomly from the total lot si<e. 6esides, I assume you have set your ()! at ".5# for ma$or defects and %.0# for minor defects. Therefore, here are the limits* the products are accepted if 0, ?,/@ than &0 ma$or defects (0A 0, ?,/@ than &% minor defects are found. :or example, if you find &5 ma$or defects and &" minor defects, the products are refused. If you find = ma$or defects and B minor defects, they are accepted. 0ote* in 7uality inspections , the number of defects is only one of the criteria. It is sometimes called 15uality2, or 15uality findings2. The other criteria are usually on the inspector9s checklist, which typically includes*

5ac a$in$ con#o"&it7 8'a"codes, inne" pac in$, ca"tons, s!ippin$ &a" sT:(

5"od%ct con#o"&it7 8aspect, wo" &ans!ipT:( I# all t!e p"od%cts a"e in "ed colo" instead o# o"an$e, t!e"e is no need to co%nt eac! sa&ple as a de#ect( It &a es &o"e sense to "e#%se #o" p"od%ct con#o"&it7( -peci#ic tests de#ined in t!e inspection c!ec list 8t!e7 &i$!t not 'e pe"#o"&ed on all inspected sa&ples i# t!e7 a"e ti&e,cons%&in$ o" dest"%ctive:(

To o further
,elated articles& all the basics an importer should know about 5uality control are explained in the articles listed on t#is page. A!thor& /enaud (n$oran is an expert in 5uality assurance and 5uality control. 4is agency helps buyers in ;hina. *ore info #ere.

"requently as#ed questions about AQL


Q: ,hat are the red"ced and tightened inspection severities+
(* They are designed to be used in very specific situations, when a producer is particularly reliable, or on the contrary fails too often. In practice, these severities are used in less than &# of ); inspections. The normal severity already allows for a good variation of sample si<es. In the vast ma$ority of cases, third3party inspectors follow only the normal severity.

Q: So, basicall- I have to a"thori.e the factor- to prod"ce some defects+


(* >es, some defects, since a factory cannot reasonnably be expected to turn out &00# good 5uality. 4owever, it does not mean the buyer tolerates everything as long as the number of defects are below the ()! limits. Clease see below the note issued in the I+,"-5. standard* 1(lthough individual lots with 5uality as bad as the acceptance 5uality limit may be accepted with fairly high probability, the designation of an acceptance 5uality limit does not suggest that this is a desirable 5uality level. +ampling schemes D...E are designed to encourage suppliers to have process averages consistently better than the ()!.2 Q& Based on m* AQL- I calc!lated the proportion of defects a!thorized. .h* don/t the* correspond to the maxim!m n!m"er of defects a!thorized# (* It is true. In our example above, ".5# of "00 samples is 5 samples, but we accept the goods even if &0 samples are found with a ma$or defect. Fhy this difference7 There are heavy statistics behind this issue. To make it simple, the producer runs a risk of re$ection (based on the random element when drawing the sample even though his products (if they were all checked would be accepted. (nd, in the same logic, the consumer runs a risk of accepting bad products. The statisticians had to account for these risks, that9s why the numbers were ad$usted and seem not to make sense.

Q: ,h- not &"st sa-, /(e0ll chec' 112 of the 3"antit-0, or (hatever percentage deemed appropriate+
(* 4ere again, the statisticians tell us it is not that simple. (s we go up in the total 5uantity, the proportion of products checked can decrease, for the same confidence in the inspection results. (s you can see in the chart below, the number of samples to check (vertical axis increases at a slower pace than the total 5uantity (hori<ontal axis .

Q& Ho to choose an AQL limit for m* prod!cts# (* See t#is article.

'eter
Aoes a ?a$or defect also count towards the ?inor defect count7 Gsing your above example (=,"0&3&0,000, level II, ",5H% , what if the result of the inspection was . ?a$or and &= ?inor. Ao the ?a$ors also count towards the ?inor total, for a total of "" defects that are Iat least ?inorI7 ,r, are they always kept separate7

#ena$d (n)oran
0o. 6etter always keep them separate.

Ty*ho +ro$wstra
6etter7 (ctually keeping them separate has funny conse5uences. If the minor defective allowance is exceeded a bit while the ma$or'critical defect allowances still left some spare room, the ()! system would effectively recommend suppliers to smash a few products so that all allowances would be met again.

,ohn+$o
(lthough it seems like it, this is actually not right thinking. ThatJs because there might be totally different manufacturing mistakes that can lead to ma$or and minor mistakes. +o if you have found only & ma$or defect and then more minor defects you cannot group them together since you might end up with a whole bunch of products having the same minor mistake. Then, although there would be only a few pcs of ma$or ones the whole lot would become unacceptable by the end client. ()! has its flaws anyway, like any system i guess, and can be very unfair for the supplier or the buyer, (usually the buyer though . K

#ena$d (n)oran
ThatLs right. AonLt ask me to defend that methodLs logic... I am $ust explaining how it is supposed to be applied.

(ndrew
4ello /enaud, !et9s say an assembly line is producing "000 products a day therefore sample volume would be &"5, with MB and M&0 ma$or and minor defects. 4owever sampling all &"5 at once is not practical and hourly tests want to be done. !et9s say &0 an hour for a &N hour day to cover all options. 0ow does the MB and M&0 ma$or and minor defects have to be totaled up for the whole day or can it be split up into the hourly tests in order to not slow down the assembly line. (lso can figures be modified to fit the company, it is not a food product and safety is not of concern, $ust sending out a 5uality product however the defect limits provided on the ()! charts seem a little intense. Thanks

(ndrew
,n a side note, products get shipped out randomly however they are packed &5 to a crate, would it be wiser to test each crate individually (lots si<e at the = (sampling si<e , and 0 defects in order to have a greater control on the product 5uality.its still a "000 production day but having the lot si<e as per crate, because tracking the products is of concern. (thoughts7

#ena$d (n)oran
( single3stage sampling plan is probably not the most appropriate in your situation. 4ere is what I would advise* 1;ontinuous sampling2 is the best plan when products are made individually in a continuous flow. It makes no sense to pick samples inside each 1batch2. It consists of several phases* 3 (t the beginning, each piece is checked (that9s the 1screening2 . 3 (fter a certain number of pieces were found satisfactory, only certain pieces are checked randomly (that9s the 1sampling2 . 3 If a piece is defective* back to screening.

(ndrew
Cerfect thank you, Is there separate ()! tables for this method or do you $ust choose numbers that fit your process, say screen 50 then randomly check &0 every hour. (lso the company wants a paper trail would you advise to $ust record any failures during screening then record the random sampling 7 thanks

#ena$d (n)oran
AonLt worry about tables. This calculator will give you all the settings you need* #ttp)88www9s7conline9com8mil-s999

Sital k kshetri
If i am buying &00000 pairs of loge and coated on the pack a5l&.5 so what does it men7 It means &500 pairs defected7 Cl< help me to solve the problem.

#ena$d (n)oran
0o, itLs a bit more complicated than that... >ouLd have to read the article above.

#ena$d (n)oran
+an$ay, >ou can certainly do like in the example of this article. !evel II, 0'".5'%.0.

(n -g$yen
Aear /enaud, ILve read this inspection information* I+ample si<e* O&3"0 for & itemI (nd I+ample si<e* ?a$or*50, ?inor*=" for " itemsI Is this method of choosing sample different from ()!7 Fould you mind explaining for me this method7 Thank youP

(n 0guyen

#ena$d (n)oran
There not enough information for me to understand this sampling plan... IO&I might refer to Igeneral level II. ThatLs all I can guess.

(n -g$yen
Thanks for your response. This is the document ILve read*

#ena$d (n)oran
:or the &st inspection, I guess you should follow level I. :or the "nd inspection, it is not clear.

-g$yen (nh Toan


In the example you gave, they were not clearly. :or ex* If I find out there are &- minor defects and 5 ma$or defects , so how can I $udge this Co will be passed or re$ected7 In my experience, If the total defects are not over "% defects and over &0 ma$or defects this Co will be accepted to release. Is it right or not7 Clease kindly advice.

#ena$d (n)oran
If the number of minor defects is above the tolerance, the overall result is :(I!@A. @ven if the ma$or defects are below the tolerance.

-g$yen (nh Toan


4ello ?r (n$oran, Aepend on your idea , which is the higher 5uality between the two cases I will give you Auring the inspection with the same 5uantity as your example , &st case* &- minor defects, N ma$or defects. "nd case* &% minor defects, &0 ma$or defects. Clease advice and help me to $udge which will pass the inspection. Thank youP

#ena$d (n)oran
If you decide to follow this standard and to set ()! tolerances, it can be very dumb. There is no need to look for logic in all the special cases. In some special cases it is $ust dumb. I am not defending this standard at all. I am $ust explaining how it works in practice.

-g$yen (nh Toan


4iP infact, Auring the inspection we will meet these situations and you must make the decision this Co will pass or not. The suppliers want to know this so that they will ship this Co or not. +o you should list all the cases including the special cases, the examples which I showed to you are not special alot. the impotant things are that how could you convince the suppliers this or that order pass or fail the inspection. +ometimes, the minor defects are over the ()! but It will be passed the inspection. If the inspector can not make his or her decision on the orders he or she conducted . what will the suppliers thinking about the inspectors7 the two examples I gave you , all passed the ()! , and the fisrt case the 5uality is better than the second. The total defects should not be over "% defects ( the fisrt condition and the ma$or defects should not be over &0 defects ( the second condition . (nyway thanks for your document because there are alot of document are very usefull for the inspectors, I would like to remind you that when doing the inspection in practice the logic is very important.

.atthew&amenstein
4ello, If we have & item that is a &0 pc set, if we purchase as & pc, and we order 5000 &0 pc sets, is the a5l sample si<e based on 5000 sets or 50000 pcs (&0pcs'set Q 5000 . +hould we sample "00 sets or 500 pcs(which e5uates to 50 sets 7 Thanks, ?att

#ena$d (n)oran
6oth are fine. 6oth have have pros and cons. :or example, when there are too many pieces in & set (and &0 is already on the high side , it loses its meaning. I wrote an article about this on #ttp)88www97ualityinspection9o999.

.atthew&amenstein
4i, I am totally confused about dphu. +ay I have a lot of %000, sample si<e "00. I find 5 defectives and "0 defects. ?y understanding is I take (5R&00 '"00S".5. Fhat do I do with this T7 Thanks.

#ena$d (n)oran
Oood point. I answered it in the =rd )H( on this page, actually.

.atthew&amenstein
+orry, but I do not see the answer below.

#ena$d (n)oran
I mean, it is toward the end of the article. 6ut I am also pasting it here* )* 6ased on my ()!, I calculated the proportion of defects authori<ed. Fhy don9t they correspond to the maximum number of defects authori<ed7 (* It is true. In our example above, ".5# of "00 samples is 5 samples, but we accept the goods even if &0 samples are found with a ma$or defect. Fhy this difference7 There are heavy statistics behind this issue. To make it simple, the producer runs a risk of re$ection (based on the random element when drawing the sample even though his products (if they were all checked would be accepted. (nd, in the same logic, the consumer runs a risk of accepting bad products. The statisticians had to account for these risks, that9s why the numbers were ad$usted and seem not to make sense.

Smarties4/
If we test &00# of our products, does this still applies7 ILm guessing not unless I missed something.

#ena$d (n)oran
0o, this is only applicable if you do random sampling.

(drian
4i /enaud, (re there any method that we can faster the +ampling process by reducing the sample si<e, and how is it performed7 Fhen we can reduce to lower sample si<e, let say use O&7 or when we also need to do higher sample si<e which is O"7 I also found some article that the sampling plan table, that the table have = types which are normal inspection, tightened inspection, and reduce inspection, how does it performed7

#ena$d (n)oran
+ure, there are ways to do this. >ou can read this article* #ttp)88www97ualityinspection9o999. /egarding normal'reduced'tightened* these are the different severities, not the different levels. ?ore info on #ttp)88www97ualityinspection9o999. (nd a good summary of all these concepts is on #ttp)88www97ualityinspection9o999.

(drian
many thanks for your explanation, really helpful

(drian
( very nice explanation, i would like to ask some 5uestion about ()!* &. If I found & ma$or and & minor defect on one unit, which type of defect is used, ma$or (cause its greater than the minor or count separately & ma$or defect and & minor defect7 ". example lot si<e "-&3500 with sample si<e 50, ?a$or &,0 (US& and minor &,5 (US" , during the sampling i found * scenario sampling result * &st unit found both & ma$or criteria, and = minor criteria which means all type of the defect happens in one unit (accept or re$ect 7

#ena$d (n)oran
&. ,nly count the ma$or defect. AonLt count the minor defect. ". ;ount & ma$or defect only on that unit. 0ote* what you call a IunitI should be the smallest selling'usable unit.

#oy .artine!
Is there an exception to critical defects having an inspection that passes 7 ,r is it always 0'&

#ena$d (n)oran
>ou mean, does it happen that buyers accept a certain proportion of critical defects7 I canLt tell for sure, but it probably happens. ItLs all up to the buyer (what is a critical defect, and what the limit for this category of defects is .

Timbo
Fhat about a product that contains items, eg* I sell boxes of nails in packs of &00. :or a lot si<e of "000 boxes insp level " gives V, sample si<e &"5 boxes defects allowed &0 and &%, now what happens if he opens the boxes and

looks at the nails, are the defects still &0'&% or is our sample si<e to be changed to "000x"00 S "00,000 pcs7 4e would now have to inspect C' -00pcs, "&'"&7 (lso the upper limit is "&, so &0 million pcs cannot have more defects than 500V pcs, does not seem fair7

#ena$d (n)oran
Timbo, I strongly advise you to consider that the lot is "00,000 nails, rather than ",000 boxes. ;ount it all in pieces. +ee #ttp)88www97ualityinspection9o999 for more details.

.an)$nath e 0h$te
The 5uality plan submitted to our customer has been commented for )uantum of inspection as per I+, "-5. H they have not mentioned !ot si<e, Inspection level, H ()! level, Cl clrify Fhat does it mean7

#ena$d (n)oran
>ou can click on I); basic conceptsI in the menu of this site, and you will have some responses. !ot si<e is the batch si<e.

1rik
4i /enaud, thanks, your explanation is very simply. I have a 5uestion* are there values ()! internationally recogni<ed for several items7. I would like to determine a ()! for the control assembly of the components of fittings nylon and aluminum. Thank you.

#ena$d (n)oran
>es, this standard can be applied on any products (finished or unfinished , instances of a process, etc. 6ut you should adapt the values of the ()! to your product and your market. ;lck on the last link, at the bottom of the article, if you are wondering how to do that.

+ail 0irks
excellent explanation of what can be a complex concept. thanks

#ena$d (n)oran
Thanks OailP

Sital k kshetri
If i am buying &00000pairs of gloves and on the pack coated a5l&.5 so what does it mean7 Aoes it mean &500 pairs defected7 Cl< solve my problem any one'

#ena$d (n)oran
I donLt understand the 5uestion, sorry...

2e nath 'illai
is the lot si<e refereed here is actual packing by supplier or is been refereed to C., 5uantity. for ex * if p., 5uantity is &"00 pcs H actual packing by supplier is &"&0 pcs so how many samples i need to choose 3 &"5 or -0 samples

#ena$d (n)oran
The lot 5uantity is the actual 5uantity to ship. +pecial case* if the supplier is late in packing and some pieces to be shipped are still unpacked, they are part of the lot.

'eter
Is there any benefit to performing the same inspection on the same lot7 !etLs say that my factory does a ".5 ()! !evel III inspection. Is there any benefit to having a =rd party inspect the same lot at ".5 ()! !evel III after the factory completes its inspection7

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5ete"U= mont#s ago


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Aoes a ?a$or defect also count towards the ?inor defect count7 Gsing your above example (=,"0&3&0,000, level II, ",5H% , what if the result of the inspection was . ?a$or and &= ?inor. Ao the ?a$ors also count towards the ?inor total, for a total of "" defects that are Iat least ?inorI7 ,r, are they always kept separate7

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+enaud .n?oran+od PeterU= mont#s ago

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0o. 6etter always keep them separate.

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,yc#o :rouwstra +enaud .n?oranUa mont# ago

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6etter7 (ctually keeping them separate has funny conse5uences. If the minor defective allowance is exceeded a bit while the ma$or'critical defect allowances still left some spare room, the ()! system would effectively recommend suppliers to smash a few products so that all allowances would be met again.

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Fo!n0%o ,yc#o :rouwstraU% days ago

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(lthough it seems like it, this is actually not right thinking. ThatJs because there might be totally different manufacturing mistakes that can lead to ma$or and minor mistakes. +o if you have found only & ma$or defect and then more minor defects you cannot group them together since you might end up with a whole bunch of products having the same minor mistake. Then, although there would be only a few pcs of ma$or ones the whole lot would become unacceptable by the end client. ()! has its flaws anyway, like any system i guess, and can be very unfair for the supplier or the buyer, (usually the buyer though . K

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+enaud .n?oran+od ,yc#o :rouwstraUa mont# ago

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ThatLs right. AonLt ask me to defend that methodLs logic... I am $ust explaining how it is supposed to be applied.

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.ndrewU" mont#s ago


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4ello /enaud, !et9s say an assembly line is producing "000 products a day therefore sample volume would be &"5, with MB and M&0 ma$or and minor defects. 4owever sampling all &"5 at once is not practical and hourly tests want to be done. !et9s say &0 an hour for a &N hour day to cover all options. 0ow does the MB and M&0 ma$or and minor defects have to be totaled up for the whole day or can it be split up into the hourly tests in order to not slow down the assembly line. (lso can figures be modified to fit the company, it is not a food product and safety is not of concern, $ust sending out a 5uality product however the defect limits provided on the ()! charts seem a little intense. Thanks

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And"ew .ndrewU" mont#s ago

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,n a side note, products get shipped out randomly however they are packed &5 to a crate, would it be wiser to test each crate individually (lots si<e at the = (sampling si<e , and 0 defects in order to have a greater control on the product 5uality.its still a "000 production day but having the lot si<e as per crate, because tracking the products is of concern. (thoughts7

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+enaud .n?oran+od .ndrewU" mont#s ago

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( single3stage sampling plan is probably not the most appropriate in your situation. 4ere is what I would advise* 1;ontinuous sampling2 is the best plan when products are made individually in a continuous flow. It makes no sense to pick samples inside each 1batch2. It consists of several phases* 3 (t the beginning, each piece is checked (that9s the 1screening2 . 3 (fter a certain number of pieces were found satisfactory, only certain pieces are checked randomly (that9s the 1sampling2 . 3 If a piece is defective* back to screening.

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.ndrew +enaud .n?oranU" mont#s ago

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Cerfect thank you, Is there separate ()! tables for this method or do you $ust choose numbers that fit your process, say screen 50 then randomly check &0 every hour. (lso the company wants a paper trail would you advise to $ust record any failures during screening then record the random sampling 7 thanks

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+enaud .n?oran+od .ndrewU" mont#s ago

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AonLt worry about tables. This calculator will give you all the settings you need* #ttp)88www9s7conline9com8mil-s999

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If i am buying &00000 pairs of loge and coated on the pack a5l&.5 so what does it men7 It means &500 pairs defected7 Cl< help me to solve the problem.

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+enaud .n?oran+od Sital k ks#etriU% mont#s ago

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0o, itLs a bit more complicated than that... >ouLd have to read the article above.

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>ena%d AnDo"anUa year ago


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+an$ay, >ou can certainly do like in the example of this article. !evel II, 0'".5'%.0.

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.n -guyenU% mont#s ago


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Aear /enaud, ILve read this inspection information* I+ample si<e* O&3"0 for & itemI (nd I+ample si<e* ?a$or*50, ?inor*=" for " itemsI Is this method of choosing sample different from ()!7 Fould you mind explaining for me this method7 Thank youP (n 0guyen

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+enaud .n?oran+od .n -guyenU% mont#s ago

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There not enough information for me to understand this sampling plan... IO&I might refer to Igeneral level II. ThatLs all I can guess.

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.n -guyen +enaud .n?oranU% mont#s ago

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Thanks for your response. This is the document ILve read*

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+enaud .n?oran+od .n -guyenU% mont#s ago

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:or the &st inspection, I guess you should follow level I. :or the "nd inspection, it is not clear.

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-guyen .n# ,oanU% mont#s ago


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In the example you gave, they were not clearly. :or ex* If I find out there are &- minor defects and 5 ma$or defects , so how can I $udge this Co will be passed or re$ected7 In my experience, If the total defects are not over "% defects and over &0 ma$or defects this Co will be accepted to release. Is it right or not7 Clease kindly advice.

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+enaud .n?oran+od -guyen .n# ,oanU% mont#s ago

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If the number of minor defects is above the tolerance, the overall result is :(I!@A. @ven if the ma$or defects are below the tolerance.

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-guyen .n# ,oan +enaud .n?oranU% mont#s ago

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4ello ?r (n$oran, Aepend on your idea , which is the higher 5uality between the two cases I will give you Auring the inspection with the same 5uantity as your example , &st case* &- minor defects, N ma$or defects. "nd case* &% minor defects, &0 ma$or defects. Clease advice and help me to $udge which will pass the inspection. Thank youP

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+enaud .n?oran+od -guyen .n# ,oanU% mont#s ago

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If you decide to follow this standard and to set ()! tolerances, it can be very dumb. There is no need to look for logic in all the special cases. In some special cases it is $ust dumb. I am not defending this standard at all. I am $ust explaining how it works in practice.

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-guyen .n# ,oan +enaud .n?oranU% mont#s ago

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4iP infact, Auring the inspection we will meet these situations and you must make the decision this Co will pass or not. The suppliers want to know this so that they will ship this Co or not. +o you should list all the cases including the special cases, the examples which I showed to you are not special alot. the impotant things are that how could you convince the suppliers this or that order pass or fail the inspection. +ometimes, the minor defects are over the ()! but It will be passed the inspection. If the inspector can not make his or her decision on the orders he or she conducted . what will the suppliers thinking about the inspectors7 the two examples I gave you , all passed the ()! , and the fisrt case the 5uality is better than the second. The total defects should not be over "% defects ( the fisrt condition and the ma$or defects should not be over &0 defects ( the second condition . (nyway thanks for your document because there are alot of document are very usefull for the inspectors, I would like to remind you that when doing the inspection in practice the logic is very important.

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*att#ew@amensteinU% mont#s ago


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4ello, If we have & item that is a &0 pc set, if we purchase as & pc, and we order 5000 &0 pc sets, is the a5l sample si<e based on 5000 sets or 50000 pcs (&0pcs'set Q 5000 . +hould we sample "00 sets or 500 pcs(which e5uates to 50 sets 7 Thanks, ?att

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+enaud .n?oran+od *att#ew@amensteinU% mont#s ago

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6oth are fine. 6oth have have pros and cons. :or example, when there are too many pieces in & set (and &0 is already on the high side , it loses its meaning. I wrote an article about this on #ttp)88www97ualityinspection9o999.

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*att#ew@amensteinU" mont#s ago


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4i, I am totally confused about dphu. +ay I have a lot of %000, sample si<e "00. I find 5 defectives and "0 defects. ?y understanding is I take (5R&00 '"00S".5. Fhat do I do with this T7 Thanks.

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+enaud .n?oran+od *att#ew@amensteinU" mont#s ago

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Oood point. I answered it in the =rd )H( on this page, actually.

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*att#ew@amenstein +enaud .n?oranU" mont#s ago

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+orry, but I do not see the answer below.

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+enaud .n?oran+od *att#ew@amensteinU" mont#s ago

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I mean, it is toward the end of the article. 6ut I am also pasting it here* )* 6ased on my ()!, I calculated the proportion of defects authori<ed. Fhy don9t they correspond to the maximum number of defects authori<ed7 (* It is true. In our example above, ".5# of "00 samples is 5 samples, but we accept the goods even if &0 samples are found with a ma$or defect. Fhy this difference7 There are heavy statistics behind this issue. To make it simple, the producer runs a risk of re$ection (based on the random element when drawing the sample even though his products (if they were all checked would be accepted. (nd, in the same logic, the consumer runs a risk of accepting bad products. The statisticians had to account for these risks, that9s why the numbers were ad$usted and seem not to make sense.

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Smarties3/U3 mont#s ago

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If we test &00# of our products, does this still applies7 ILm guessing not unless I missed something.

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+enaud .n?oran+od Smarties3/U3 mont#s ago

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0o, this is only applicable if you do random sampling.

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Ad"ianU3 mont#s ago


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4i /enaud, (re there any method that we can faster the +ampling process by reducing the sample si<e, and how is it performed7 Fhen we can reduce to lower sample si<e, let say use O&7 or when we also need to do higher sample si<e which is O"7 I also found some article that the sampling plan table, that the table have = types which are normal inspection, tightened inspection, and reduce inspection, how does it performed7

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+enaud .n?oran+od .drianU3 mont#s ago

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+ure, there are ways to do this. >ou can read this article* #ttp)88www97ualityinspection9o999. /egarding normal'reduced'tightened* these are the different severities, not the different levels. ?ore info on #ttp)88www97ualityinspection9o999. (nd a good summary of all these concepts is on #ttp)88www97ualityinspection9o999.

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Ad"ianU3 mont#s ago


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many thanks for your explanation, really helpful

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Ad"ianU3 mont#s ago


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( very nice explanation, i would like to ask some 5uestion about ()!* &. If I found & ma$or and & minor defect on one unit, which type of defect is used, ma$or (cause its greater than the minor or count separately & ma$or defect and & minor defect7 ". example lot si<e "-&3500 with sample si<e 50, ?a$or &,0 (US& and minor &,5 (US" , during the sampling i found * scenario sampling result * &st unit found both & ma$or criteria, and = minor criteria which means all type of the defect happens in one unit (accept or re$ect 7

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+enaud .n?oran+od .drianU3 mont#s ago

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&. ,nly count the ma$or defect. AonLt count the minor defect. ". ;ount & ma$or defect only on that unit. 0ote* what you call a IunitI should be the smallest selling'usable unit.

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+oy *artine1U2 mont#s ago


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Is there an exception to critical defects having an inspection that passes 7 ,r is it always 0'&

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+enaud .n?oran+od +oy *artine1U2 mont#s ago

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>ou mean, does it happen that buyers accept a certain proportion of critical defects7 I canLt tell for sure, but it probably happens. ItLs all up to the buyer (what is a critical defect, and what the limit for this category of defects is .

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Ti&'oU4 mont#s ago


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Fhat about a product that contains items, eg* I sell boxes of nails in packs of &00. :or a lot si<e of "000 boxes insp level " gives V, sample si<e &"5 boxes defects allowed &0 and &%, now what happens if he opens the boxes and looks at the nails, are the defects still &0'&% or is our sample si<e to be changed to "000x"00 S "00,000 pcs7 4e would now have to inspect C' -00pcs, "&'"&7 (lso the upper limit is "&, so &0 million pcs cannot have more defects than 500V pcs, does not seem fair7

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+enaud .n?oran+od ,imboU4 mont#s ago

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Timbo, I strongly advise you to consider that the lot is "00,000 nails, rather than ",000 boxes. ;ount it all in pieces. +ee #ttp)88www97ualityinspection9o999 for more details.

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+anD%nat! e @!%teU4 mont#s ago


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The 5uality plan submitted to our customer has been commented for )uantum of inspection as per I+, "-5. H they have not mentioned !ot si<e, Inspection level, H ()! level, Cl clrify Fhat does it mean7

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+enaud .n?oran+od *an?unat# e ;#uteU4 mont#s ago

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>ou can click on I); basic conceptsI in the menu of this site, and you will have some responses. !ot si<e is the batch si<e.

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E"i U= mont#s ago


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4i /enaud, thanks, your explanation is very simply. I have a 5uestion* are there values ()! internationally recogni<ed for several items7. I would like to determine a ()! for the control assembly of the components of fittings nylon and aluminum. Thank you.

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+enaud .n?oran+od ArikU= mont#s ago

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>es, this standard can be applied on any products (finished or unfinished , instances of a process, etc. 6ut you should adapt the values of the ()! to your product and your market. ;lck on the last link, at the bottom of the article, if you are wondering how to do that.

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:ail ;irksU= mont#s ago


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excellent explanation of what can be a complex concept. thanks

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+enaud .n?oran+od :ail ;irksU4 mont#s ago

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Thanks OailP

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o

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If i am buying &00000pairs of gloves and on the pack coated a5l&.5 so what does it mean7 Aoes it mean &500 pairs defected7 Cl< solve my problem any one'

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+enaud .n?oran+od Sital k ks#etriU= mont#s ago

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I donLt understand the 5uestion, sorry...

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0evnat# PillaiU= mont#s ago


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is the lot si<e refereed here is actual packing by supplier or is been refereed to C., 5uantity. for ex * if p., 5uantity is &"00 pcs H actual packing by supplier is &"&0 pcs so how many samples i need to choose 3 &"5 or -0 samples

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+enaud .n?oran+od 0evnat# PillaiU= mont#s ago

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The lot 5uantity is the actual 5uantity to ship. +pecial case* if the supplier is late in packing and some pieces to be shipped are still unpacked, they are part of the lot.

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5ete"U= mont#s ago


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Is there any benefit to performing the same inspection on the same lot7 !etLs say that my factory does a ".5 ()! !evel III inspection. Is there any benefit to having a =rd party inspect the same lot at ".5 ()! !evel III after the factory completes its inspection7

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