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Short-cut Method Calculation Procedure:

1. Determination of the key components: -.

 The Heavy Key component ( HK ) The Light Key component ( LK )

2. Minimum Number of stages by Fenske’s Equation: -

N

m

log

x

LK

x

HK

 

D

 

x

HK

x

LK

 

B

log

LK

3. Minimum Reflux Ratio by Underwood’s Equations: -

i

x

iD

i

i

x

iF

i

R

m

1

 q

1

R

R

1

vs

N

m

N

with

R

m

R

m

1

HK

LK

as a parameter

5. Feed Plate location by Kirkbride’s Equation: -

log

s  

N

r

N

0.206log

W x

D x

HK

LK

 

F

 

x

LKW

x

HKD

  

2

 

Illustrative Example:

CHE 411

 A multicomponent hydrocarbon feed mixture is supplied as liquid at boiling point, is to be fractionated to give the product distribution shown in the table below.
 i x iF  i x iD x iW C 3 0.05 5.0 0.11 -- iC 4 0.15 2.6 0.33 -- nC 4 0.25 2.0 0.53 0.02 iC 5 0.20 1.0 0.02 0.34 nC 5 0.35 0.85 0.01 0.64

1- Determination of key components:

Set 0.02 as the minimum acceptable concentration.

LH nC

HK iC

4

5

2- Minimum number of stages: -

N

m

log

x LK

x HK

 

D

 

x

HK

x

LK

 

B

log

LK

log

 

0.53

0.02







0.34

0.02

 

log2

8.81

3- Minimum reflux ratio: -

- Solve for by trial and error.

For q 1

i

x

iF

 

i

1

q

1

1

0

Use tabulation form.

values of

i

x

iF

 

i

for different values of

 x iF  i 1.5 1.3 1.35 0.05 5.0 0.071 0.068 0.068 0.15 2.6 0.355 0.300 0.312 0.25 2.0 1.000 0.714 0.769 0.20 1.0 - 0.400 - 0.667 - 0.571 0.35 0.85 - 0.462 - 0.667 - 0.600   x i iF 0.560 - 0.252 0.022  close enough

1.35 is accepted

-

Solve for

R

m

: From

   i  i x iD    R m  1 x iD  i  x i iD  0.11 5.0 0.15 0.33 2.6 0.69 0.53 2.0 1.66 0.02 1.0 - 0.06 0.01 0.85 - 0.02   i iD  x    R  1 m 2.42

as in table: -

4- Erbar-Maddox correlation for N and R

R

m

1.42

R

m

1

2.42

0.59

Take

For

R 2

then

R 0.67

and

R

1

N

m

N

R

R

1

0.67

R

m

R

m

1

0.59

N

m

N

0.56

R

R 1

0.67

As

N m 8.81 then

N

And so on for other values of R .

8.81

0.56

15.7

Compile a table:

Rm 1.42
R
m
 0.59
R
 1
m
N
m
 0.56

N

 R 2 3 4 5 6 N 15.7 11.9 10.7 10.4 10.1

After R 4 a little change of N , the “optimum” R is near this value.

Take R 3 and N 12

R 3, N 12

(11 stages excluding the Reboiler)

5- From the material balance

Feed Plate location by Kirkbride’s Equation: -

D

45.3 ,

W 54.7

log

 

N

r

N

s

 

0.206log

  

54.9

0.2

45.3 0.25

 

 

0.02

0.02

 

 

2

 

N

r

N

s

0.993

Also

Solving for

N

r

N

s

N

11

r and

N

s :

N s 5.517 6 and N r 5.487 6

CHE 411

H.W

A 100 moles/hr of a multicomponent feed mixture, supplied as liquid at boiling point, is to be fractionated to give the product distribution shown in the table below.

 i x iF x iD x iW  i C 14 0.05 0.157 0.003 6.13 C 16 0.35 0.693 0.197 2.42 C 18 0.50 0.148 0.660 1.00 C 20 0.10 0.002 0.140 0.39

i. Calculate the amount of distillate and bottom products.

ii. Determine the Light Key component and the Heavy Key component.

iii. Calculate the Minimum Reflux Ratio.

iv. Calculate the minimum number of Stages.

v. What will be the change if the feed is supplied half vaporized?