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UNITED STATES vs.

TOMAS ADIAO

EN BANC
[G.R. No. 13785. October 8, 1918.] THE UNITED STATES, plaintiff-appellee, vs. TOMAS ADIAO, defendant-appellant. Victoriano Yamzon, for appellant. Attorney-General Paredes, for appellee. SYLLABUS 1.T E!T" # EN CON$%&&ATE' OR !R%$TRATE'.( One A., a C)*to+*, -n*pector, ab*tracte. a leat/er belt 0al)e. at e-1/t2 centa0o* fro+ t/e ba11a1e of a 3apane*e an. *ecrete. t/e belt -n /-* .e*4 -n t/e C)*to+ o)*e, 5/ere -t 5a* fo)n. b2 ot/er C)*to+* e+plo2ee*. Held6 T/at *-nce t/e offen.er /a. perfor+e. all of t/e act* of e7ec)t-on nece**ar2 for t/e acco+pl-*/+ent of t/e felon2, /e -* 1)-lt2 of t/e con*)++ate. cr-+e of t/eft. 8.9'." 9'. ( T/e .ec-*-on* of t/e *)pre+e co)rt of $pa-n of October 1:, 1898, 'ece+ber 1, 1897, an. 3)ne 13,1888, c-te. an. appro0e..

DECISION

MALCOLM, J 6
p

T/e .efen.ant 5a* c/ar1e. -n t/e &)n-c-pal Co)rt of t/e c-t2 of &an-la 5-t/ t/e cr-+e of t/eft. e 5a* fo)n. 1)-lt2 of t/e le**er cr-+e of fr)*trate. t/eft. e appeale. to t/e Co)rt of !-r*t 9n*tance of t/e c-t2 of &an-la an. a1a-n /e 5a* fo)n. 1)-lt2 of t/e cr-+e of fr)*trate. t/eft, an. 5a* *entence. to pa2 a f-ne of ;1<<, 5-t/ *)b*-.-ar2 -+pr-*on+ent -n ca*e of -n*ol0enc2, an. to pa2 t/e co*t*. T/e *ole error a**-1ne. on appeal -* t/at t/e lo5er co)rt erre. -n /ol.-n1 t/at t/e .efen.ant 5a* 1)-lt2 of t/e cr-+e of t/eft a* .-*clo*e. b2 t/e fact* appear-n1 of recor.. #e /a0e e7a+-ne. t/e e0-.ence caref)ll2 an. fro+ o)r *t).2 are )nable to *a2 t/at t/e proof -* contrar2 to t/e f-n.-n1* of t/e lo5er co)rt. $tate. -n one *entence,

t/e .efen.ant, To+a* A.-ao, a c)*to+* -n*pector, ab*tracte. a leat/er belt 0al)e. at ;<.8<, fro+ t/e ba11a1e of a 3apane*e na+e. T. &)ra4a+-, an. *ecrete. t/e belt -n /-* .e*4 -n t/e C)*to+ o)*e, 5/ere -t 5a* fo)n. b2 ot/er c)*to+* e+plo2ee*. Ba*e. on t/e*e fact*, t/e Co)rt -* of t/e op-n-on t/at t/e cr-+e can not properl2 be cla**-f-e. a* fr)*trate., a* t/-* 5or. -* .ef-ne. -n art-cle 3 of t/e ;enal Co.e, b)t t/at *-nce t/e offen.er perfor+e. all of t/e act* of e7ec)t-on nece**ar2 for t/e acco+pl-*/+ent of t/e felon2, /e -* 1)-lt2 of t/e con*)++ate. cr-+e of t/eft. T/e fact t/at t/e .efen.ant 5a* )n.er ob*er0at-on .)r-n1 t/e ent-re tran*act-on an. t/at /e 5a* )nable to 1et t/e +erc/an.-*e o)t of t/e C)*to+ o)*e, -* not .ec-*-0e" all t/e ele+ent* of t/e co+plete. cr-+e of t/eft are pre*ent. T/e follo5-n1 .ec-*-on* of t/e *)pre+e co)rt of $pa-n are -n po-nt6
=T/e .efen.ant 5a* c/ar1e. 5-t/ t/e t/eft of *o+e fr)-t fro+ t/e lan. of anot/er. A* /e 5a* -n t/e act of ta4-n1 t/e fr)-t /e 5a* *een b2 a pol-ce+an, 2et -t .-. not appear t/at /e 5a* at t/at +o+ent ca)1/t b2 t/e pol-ce+an b)t *o+et-+e later. T/e co)rt *a-.6 =. . . T/e tr-al co)rt .-. not err . . . -n con*-.er-n1 t/e cr-+e a* t/at of con*)++ate. t/eft -n*tea. of fr)*trate. t/eft -na*+)c/ a* not/-n1 appear* -n t/e recor. */o5-n1 t/at t/e pol-ce+en 5/o *a5 t/e acc)*e. ta4e t/e fr)-t fro+ t/e a.>o-n-n1 lan. arre*te. /-+ -n t/e act an. t/)* pre0ente. /-+ fro+ ta4-n1 f)ll po**e**-on of t/e t/-n1 *tolen an. e0en -t* )t-l-?at-on b2 /-+ for an -nter0al of t-+e.= @'ec-*-on of t/e *)pre+e co)rt of $pa-n, October 1:, 1898.A

'efen.ant p-c4e. t/e poc4et of t/e offen.e. part2 5/-le t/e latter 5a* /ear-n1 +a** -n a c/)rc/. T/e latter on acco)nt of t/e *ole+n-t2 of t/e act, alt/o)1/ not-c-n1 t/e t/eft, .-. not .o an2t/-n1 to pre0ent -t. $)b*eB)entl2, /o5e0er, 5/-le t/e .efen.ant 5a* *t-ll -n*-.e t/e c/)rc/, t/e offen.e. part2 1ot bac4 t/e +one2 fro+ t/e .efen.ant. T/e co)rt *a-. t/at t/e .efen.ant /a. perfor+e. all t/e act* of e7ec)t-on an. con*-.ere. t/e t/eft a* con*)++ate.. @'ec-*-on of t/e *)pre+e co)rt of $pa-n, 'ece+ber 1, 1897.A T/e .efen.ant penetrate. -nto a roo+ of a certa-n /o)*e an. b2 +ean* of a 4e2 opene. )p a ca*e, an. fro+ t/e ca*e too4 a *+all bo7, 5/-c/ 5a* al*o opene. 5-t/ a 4e2, fro+ 5/-c/ -n t)rn /e too4 a p)r*e conta-n-n1 :C1 reales an. 8< centimos, an. t/en /e place. t/e +one2 o0er t/e co0er of t/e ca*e" >)*t at t/-* +o+ent /e 5a* ca)1/t b2 t5o 1)ar.* 5/o 5ere *tat-one. -n anot/er roo+ nearDb2. T/e co)rt con*-.ere. t/-* a* con*)++ate. robber2, an. *a-.6 =. . . T/e acc)*e. . . . /a0-n1 +ater-all2 ta4en po**e**-on of t/e +one2 fro+ t/e +o+ent /e too4 -t fro+ t/e place 5/ere -t /a. been, an. /a0-n1 ta4en -t 5-t/ /-* /an.* 5-t/ -ntent to appropr-ate t/e *a+e, /e e7ec)te. all t/e act* nece**ar2 to con*t-t)te t/e cr-+e 5/-c/ 5a* t/ereb2 pro.)ce." onl2 t/e act of +a4-n1 )*e of t/e t/-n1 /a0-n1 been fr)*trate., 5/-c/, /o5e0er, .oe* not 1o to +a4e t/e ele+ent* of t/e con*)++ate. cr-+e.= @'ec-*-on of t/e *)pre+e co)rt of $pa-n, 3)ne 13, 1888.A

T/ere e7-*t* t/e a11ra0at-n1 c-rc)+*tance t/at a.0anta1e 5a* ta4en b2 t/e offen.er of /-* p)bl-c po*-t-on. #/erefore, -n 0-e5 of t/e pro0-*-on* of art-cle* 517 an. 518, No. 5, of t/e ;enal Co.e, an. t/ere be-n1 pre*ent one a11ra0at-n1 c-rc)+*tance co+pen*ate. b2 no +-t-1at-n1 c-rc)+*tance, t/e penalt2 +)*t be -+po*e. -n t/e +a7-+)+ .e1ree. 3).1+ent -* re0er*e. an. t/e .efen.ant an. appellant -* *entence. to t/ree +ont/* an. one .a2 of arresto mayor, 5-t/ t/e co*t* of all -n*tance* a1a-n*t /-+. T/e +erc/an.-*e -n B)e*t-on, attac/e. to t/e recor. a* E7/-b-t A, */all be ret)rne. to t/e la5f)l o5ner, T. &)ra4a+-. $o or.ere.. Torres, Johnson, Street, Avancea an. isher, JJ!, conc)r.