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Work Flow in Oracle APPS

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Work Flow in Oracle APPS

3rd October 2012

Oracle Order Management workflow background process setup

Oracle Order Management workflow background process setup

The Workflow background engine processes deferred activities, notifications, wait activities and time out activities. We need to setup the Workflow background engine when setting up Workflow in our environment. Also we need to schedule the Workflow Background Process concurrent program to re-submit periodically. When scheduling the concurrent program, specify the Order Management work item types as the parameter so that it will only pick up the activities or notifications for Order Management work items.

[http://www.blogger.com/blogger.g?blogID=8067470330200539912]

Schedule the Workflow Background Process concurrent program to resubmit periodically:

Define the Process Deferred parameter as Yes. Set all other parameters to No. Schedule this request to run most frequently.

Define Process Time-out as Yes, and all other parameters as No. This can run less frequently.

Define Process Stuck set to Yes and all other parameters as No. This can run less often.

Run the Workflow Background process from the system administrator responsibility

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Work Flow in Oracle APPS Page 2 of 56 Work Flow in Oracle APPS [http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-

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_27fmUUKO18/UGXc46DzfZI/AAAAAAAACe4/w89MBPvTbuo/s1600/1.png]

Use the Tools Menu and select the Workflow Status to view the current status of the workflow.

Workflow Status to view the current status of the workflow. [http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-_WMAbiNJUGU/UGXc4-

[http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-_WMAbiNJUGU/UGXc4-

a1pLI/AAAAAAAACe8/1WaPrv3ugyw/s1600/2.png]

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[http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-Uj5EfjBQhB0/UGXc47iaTzI/AAAAAAAACe0/xt5p-

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Submit the OEOH & OEOL (Header & line workflow) from database:

BEGIN wf_engine.Background (itemtype=>'OEOH', -- ‘OEOL’ minthreshold => NULL, maxthreshold => NULL, process_deferred => TRUE,

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process_timeout=> FALSE,

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process_stuck => NULL);

END; When an order header workflow is error out, how to retry the workflow for the order? Go to workflow administrator, provide the item key (header_id) and submit to retry the WF for the corresponding order.

Check the workflow documents in downloads page

[http://oracleapps4u.blogspot.in/2010/12/introducing-oracle-applications.html]

Posted 3rd October 2012 by Krishnareddy

3rd October 2012

Oracle Workflows in Order Management

Oracle Workflows in Order Management

Oracle Order Management uses Oracle Workflow to control the sequence of events that occur in the processing of orders, quotes, sales agreements, returns, order lines, and return lines.

Oracle Workflow manages activities, executes functions, sends notifications, maintains completed activity history, detect errors, and initiates error processes.

Oracle Order Management seeded workflows and their associated activities are contained in oexwford.wft file.

[http://www.blogger.com/blogger.g?blogID=8067470330200539912]

The most commonly used Order header flows for outbound lines are:

Order Flow – Generic

Order Flow – Generic with Header Level Invoice Interface

Order Flow – Generic with Header Level Invoice Interface

[http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-8IE5CtYU2vk/UGXEykglz5I/AAAAAAAACd8/Y6k-

rOzneTY/s1600/1.png]

The Order header flows for inbound lines are:

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Order Flow – return with Approval

Work Flow in Oracle APPS

Order Flow – Return with Submission and Approval

Order Flow – Return with Approval and Header Invoicing

Order Flow – Return with Approval and Header Invoicing [http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-gMUiQilQ-

[http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-gMUiQilQ-

JA/UGXEymIeJ1I/AAAAAAAACd4/SrQdYatfF0M/s1600/2.png]

The most commonly used Order Line flows are:

Line Flow – Generic

Line Flow – Generic with Header Level Invoice Interface

Line Flow – Generic with Header Level Invoice Interface [http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-c7KWtfsA-

[http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-c7KWtfsA-

Qg/UGXEypptwjI/AAAAAAAACeA/02_kDLt8Bl8/s1600/3.png]

The Order Line flows for inbound lines are:

Line Flow – Return for Credit Only

Line Flow – Return for Credit Only with Approval

Line Flow – Return for Credit with Receipt

Line Flow – Return for Credit with Receipt and Approval

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The Transaction Type determines the header level process used at the header level on an order.

The Transaction Type window is used to assign the order flow to the order header Transaction type.

Use the Assign Line Flows button to assign line flows to the order header

Line Flows button to assign line flows to the order header [http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-

[http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-

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The combination of order type/line type/item type determines the line workflow.

If you leave Item Type blank, the workflow applies to all item types for the line type (unless they have a specific assignment in this form).

In Process Name, select the workflow that Oracle Order Management should use for the order type/line type/item type combination.

If you do not assign a workflow to a configured item type, the configured item does not use a workflow.

You can perform all standard processing including orders, returns, drop-ship orders, Orders for configured items, and orders for assemble-to-order items using seeded workflows.

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Refer the blog post for Complete OM setups

[http://oracleapps4u.blogspot.in/2012/09/order-management-setup-

steps.html]

Check Order line Workflow Activity Status SELECT COUNT (1) INTO ln_completed_lines FROM wf_item_activity_statuses a, wf_process_activities b, oe_order_lines_all c WHERE a.process_activity = b.instance_id AND b.process_item_type = 'OEOL' AND b.activity_name = <‘Activity_Name’> AND activity_status = 'COMPLETE' AND item_key = TO_CHAR (c.line_id) AND c.header_id = pin_order_header_id

Posted 3rd October 2012 by Krishnareddy

3rd October 2012

Oracle Workflows interview Questions

Oracle Workflows interview Questions

Workflow processes represent business process flows and information routing.

Each workflow process consists of a set of activities and transitions.

Activities can be process activities, notification activities, and function activities.

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The business process flow in Oracle Workflow can have

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decision points (branches), parallel flows, and loops.

[http://www.blogger.com/blogger.g?blogID=8067470330200539912]

The Workflow Builder is a graphical interface for diagramming the workflow process.

The Workflow Engine enforces and executes the workflow process and drives items through the workflow processes.

The Workflow Monitor displays any instances/items and their status within a workflow process.

The Workflow Definitions Loader loads the workflow definition from a flat file or from another database.

Workflow Directory Services obtains the email addresses for roles from the directory repository.

The Notification System sends out messages and solicits responses.

The Workflow Engine is a PL/SQL program that resides on the server and drives items through workflow processes defined in Oracle Workflow.

Each item has a set of attributed values that contains information about the specific item. Each one of these items, with its own set of attribute values in the middle of the workflow process, is referred to as one instance of the workflow process.

Valid states of an activity are Active, Complete, Deferred, Error, Notified, Suspended, and Waiting.

If the state is Error, the changes will roll back to the last savepoint and the error-handling process will be initiated.

Active activities are deferred to the background Workflow Engine if the operating cost is higher than the threshold specified in the Workflow Engine.

If an activity is completed, the Workflow Engine will issue a savepoint and the activities that depend on the completed activity will be set to Active, if appropriate.

If Loop Reset is on and the Workflow Engine comes to an activity that has been executed, then all of the activities will be reversed; otherwise, the transition will be ignored.

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Workflow Engine APIs are found in the WF_ENGINE

package.

The CreateProcess API creates a new runtime process for an item of an instance.

The StartProcess API begins execution of the workflow process.

The CompleteActivity API notifies the Workflow Engine that an activity has been completed for an item.

GetItemAttrInfo obtains type information about an item attribute.

Oracle Workflow obtains information about a role from three views: WF_USERS, WF_ROLES, and WF_USER_ROLES.

Groups of users, as well as individual users, are assigned to roles.

The Email field in WF_ROLES is used if Expand Role is not checked; otherwise, the Email field of the users in the role will be used.

To add more roles and users, you can use the three local tables: WF_LOCAL_USERS, WF_LOCAL_ROLES, and WF_LOCAL_USER_ROLES.

An item type consists of six components/objects:

attributes, processes, notifications, functions, messages, and lookup types.

The internal name of Workflow Builder components must be unique, typed in uppercase, and should not contain spaces.

If there is more than one process attached to an item type, a selector is needed to select the correct process.

Each notification activity must have an attached message.

A message can have its own attributes, and a respond attribute will solicit users to select a valid respond value.

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You can attach a time-out to the notification activity. If

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time passes and a response is not received within the

specified time, a <Timeout> transition will be executed.

Lookup types are used to define lists of lookup codes. Result types must be lookup types.

To monitor workflow and to view its progress, you can use either the Workflow Status form in Oracle Applications or the Java-based Workflow Monitor tool.

There are two modes for both forms: ADMIN and USER.

To diagram a workflow process, drag and drop activities into the Process window and draw lines between them by holding down the right mouse button.

Fill in the performer for a notification activity.

The Continue Flow function and Wait for Flow function work together to coordinate the master/detail process flow.

The Oracle Applications Implementation Wizard—wizard for short—is a module in Oracle Applications that guides you through the setup steps of Oracle Applications.

The Oracle Applications Implementation Method (AIM) is a methodology that guides you through every phase of the implementation process and is complemented by the Implementation Wizard.

The process hierarchy ensures that the common setups are finished before the specific setups.

Primary processes are common processes that span the entire application, requiring setup steps that cross multiple modules across the financial, distribution, and manufacturing product families.

Secondary processes are common processes that cross modules within the product family.

Final processes are processes that are specific to an individual module and have no cross-module dependencies. Enter the context for setup steps that are dependent on organization context. Organization contexts are Business Group, Set of Books, Operating Unit, and

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Inventory Organization. Start the implementation process

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by launching it through the Implementation Wizard form.

If you are assigned a setup step through the wizard, you will receive notification through Workflow, and you can see the notification in the Notifications Summary form.

You can complete the setup and respond with a Done result.

You can respond with a Skipped result and ask the wizard to skip the setup steps.

You can reassign the setup steps to another role.

You can run the wizard installation process to ensure that the wizard is installed correctly.

Sample Interview Questions [http://www.blogger.com/blogger.g?

blogID=1899174461624440431]

1. When will an activity be deferred?

A. Activity cost = 0

B. Activity cost < Workflow Engine threshold

C. Activity cost > Workflow Engine threshold

2. What is the primary purpose of a workflow?

A.

Routes information

B.

Sends notifications

C.

Creates audit trails

D

Defines process rules

3. What job does the SetItemUserKey API perform?

A. Sets the unique identifier for an item

B. Sets the role to be notified

C. Sets the user-friendly identifier for an item

D. Sets the activity ID for an item

4. How will you define the possible results of an activity in

order to drive different transitions?

A. As item attributes for an item

B. As lookup codes for a lookup type

C. Separate the activity into two

D. Use a process activity

5. Time-out parameters apply to which activity?

A. Function

B. Process

C. Notification

D. All of the above

6. What will solicit responses from a notification activity?

A. Having a time-out parameter

B. Having a performer

C. Having a Send message attribute

D. Having a Respond message attribute

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7. Which Work Engine API should you use to begin execution

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of an activity?

A. CreateProcess

B. StartProcess

C. ResumeProcess

D. BeginActivity

8. Which implementation process group comes before the product family processes?

A.

Common application processes

B.

Product family processes

C.

Product-specific processes

D

Common financial

9. What is the proper format for an internal name in the Workflow Builder component?

A. Uppercase

B. No spaces

C. Unique within item type

D. All of the above

10. Which of the following statements is true?

A. Role can be created in Workflow Builder.

B. A user is a role if it has at least one active responsibility.

C. A role can only have one user.

D. A user must be a role.

11. Which component in Oracle Workflow is the graphical

interface for workflow processes? A. Workflow Builder

B. Workflow Engine

C. Workflow Monitor

D. Workflow Definitions Loader

12. When do you need a selector for an item type?

A.

When you must perform role resolution

B.

When performing a voting activity

C.

When more than one process is associated with an item

type

D.

When multiple result codes are possible

13. What does the Workflow Engine do when a function activity

has finished?

A. Issue a savepoint

B. Issue a commit

C. Generate a log file

D. Notify the user

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Answer to the above Questions

1. C.

Activity cost > Workflow Engine threshold

Explanation

than the Workflow Engine threshold. If the activity cost = 0 or if the

An activity is deferred when the activity cost is greater

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activity cost is less than the Workflow Engine threshold, the activity will

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become Active.

2. A., B., D.

Routes information, Sends notifications, Defines

process rules

Explanation

information, send notification, and define process rule. Although some history is maintained automatically by Oracle Workflow, it will not be considered as creating audit trails.

The primary purposes of a workflow are to route

3. C.

Explanation

friendly identifier for an item.

Set the user-friendly identifier for an item

The SetItemUserKey API is used for setting a user-

4. B.

Explanation

different transitions using lookup codes for a lookup type. You cannot use item attributes. Separating the activity into two does not make sense since you want to drive two transactions with the same activity, but with two result codes. A process activity will not help in this scenario.

As lookup codes for a lookup type

You define the possible results of an activity to drive

5.

Explanation

activity since the time-out parameters are used to measure when a notification expires. It does not apply to a function activity or a process activity.

C.

Notification

A time-out parameter only applies to a notification

6. D.

Explanation

responses from a notification activity. The display name will become the prompt and the description will be the instruction. Nothing else, such as a time-out parameter, a performer, or a Send message attribute, will have an affect in soliciting responses.

Having a Respond message attribute

Having a Respond message attribute will solicit

7.

Explanation

The CreateProcess API creates a new runtime process for an item. The ResumeProcess API resumes a suspended item. The BeginActivity determines if the specified activity may currently be performed on the item.

B.

StartProcess

The StartProcess API begins the execution of an activity.

8. A.

Explanation

family processes, which come before product-specific processes. Common financial is one of the product family processes. It does not come before product family processes.

Common application processes

Common application processes come before the product

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9.

D.

All of the above

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Explanation

An internal name for a Workflow Builder component must

be in uppercase, have no spaces, and be unique within item type.

10. D.

A user must be a role.

Explanation

Workflow Builder. Having one active responsibility is not a requirement for a user to be a role. A role can have more than one user.

A user must be a role. A role cannot be created in the

11. A.

Workflow Builder

Explanation

interface for workflow processes. The Workflow Engine drives items through workflow processes. The Workflow Monitor allows you to view and monitor workflow process instances and the Workflow Definitions Loader loads workflow definitions from a text file or database.

The Workflow Builder in Oracle Workflow is the graphical

12. C.

More than one process associated with an item type

Explanation

an item type, you need a selector to select a process. You use the Role Resolution standard activity to perform role resolution. Voting is another standard activity. Multiple result codes drive different transitions, but this is not related to the selector.

When you have more than one process associated with

13. A.

Explanation

activity is completed. The Workflow Engine never issues a commit; the calling application issues a commit. The Workflow Engine does not generate a log file or notify users.

Issue a savepoint

The Workflow Engine issues a savepoint when a function

Posted 3rd October 2012 by Krishnareddy

3rd October 2012

How to Incorporate Standard Activities in a Workflow Process

How to Incorporate Standard Activities in a Workflow Process

Oracle Workflow comes seeded with commonly used standard activities

that you can use in any workflow process. The standard activities are:

· And

· Assign

· Block

· Compare Date

· Compare Number

· Compare Text

· Continue Flow

· End

· Get Monitor URL

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[http://www.blogger.com/blogger.g?blogID=8067470330200539912]

Work Flow in Oracle APPS

·

Loop Counter

· NoOp

· Or

· Role Resolution

· Start

· Default Voting Message Yes/No

· Wait

· Wait For Flow

And When multiple transitions flow into the And function activity, the And function activity is considered complete when all of the transitions are completed.

Assign The Assign function activity has four attributes: Item Attribute, Date Value, Numeric Value, and Text Value. Use the Assign function activity to assign an item attribute specified in the Item Attribute value with the Date Value, Numeric Value, or Text Value. Determine whether to use the Date Value, Numeric Value, or Text Value based on the date type of the item attribute.

[http://www.blogger.com/blogger.g?blogID=1899174461624440431]

Block The Block function activity blocks the activity until a complete activity API call is made.

Compare Date The Compare Date function activity has two attributes: Test Value and Reference Value. Reference Value contains an item attribute. The Test Value is a constant. The Compare Date function activity compares the value of the item attribute in Reference Value to the constant in Test Value and produces results labeled Equal, Greater Than, Less Than, or Null (if the reference value is null). The Compare Date attributes are both of datatype Date.

[http://www.blogger.com/blogger.g?blogID=1899174461624440431]

Compare Number The Compare Number function activity has two attributes: Test Value and Reference Value. The Reference Value contains an item attribute. The Test Value is a constant. The Compare Number function activity compares the value of the item attribute in Reference Value to the constant in Test Value and produces results labeled Equal, Greater Than, Less Than, or Null (if the reference value is null). The Compare Number attributes are both of datatype Number.

Compare Text

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The Compare Text function activity has two attributes: Test Value and

Work Flow in Oracle APPS

Reference Value. The Reference Value contains an item attribute. The

Test value is a constant. The Compare Text function activity compares the value of the item attribute in Reference Value to the constant in Test Value and produces results labeled Equal, Greater Than, Less Than, or Null (if the reference value is null). The Compare Text attributes are both of datatype Text.

[http://www.blogger.com/blogger.g?blogID=1899174461624440431]

Continue Flow Continue Flow is used for master and detail coordination. The master process can start detail processes, and you can use the Continue Flow and Wait for Flow function activities to coordinate a process flow between master and details. The Continue Flow function activity signals the flow of a waited process to continue. The Continue Flow function activity has two attributes: Waiting Activity Label and Waiting Flow. The Waiting Activity Label identifies the label of the activity that was waiting for the completion of this Continue Flow function activity. Waiting Flow identifies whether the waiting activity is a master process or a detail process.

[http://www.blogger.com/blogger.g?blogID=1899174461624440431]

End The End function activity marks the end of a process. You can use it to return result codes. The End function activity is not required; it is only for visual purposes.

[http://www.blogger.com/blogger.g?blogID=1899174461624440431]

Get Monitor URL The Get Monitor URL function activity retrieves the Workflow Monitor and stores the URL in the item attribute specified. You can use the other attribute, administration Mode, to specify whether the Workflow Monitor should be run in admin mode.

[http://www.blogger.com/blogger.g?blogID=1899174461624440431]

Loop Counter You can use the Loop Counter function activity to limit the number of times the Workflow Engine can transition through any particular activity. Use the Loop Limit attribute to specify the limit. If the loop limit is not reached, the activity completes with a result code of Loop; otherwise, the activity will complete with a result code of Exit.

[http://www.blogger.com/blogger.g?blogID=1899174461624440431]

NoOp The NoOp function activity has no functionality. Use it as a placeholder in the workflow process.

[http://www.blogger.com/blogger.g?blogID=1899174461624440431]

Or

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When multiple transitions flow into the Or function activity, the Or

Work Flow in Oracle APPS

function activity is considered complete when any one of the transitions

is completed.

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Role Resolution The Role Resolution function activity selects one user from a role with multiple users. You can use its Method attribute to specify whether you want the user to be selected based on the number of open notifications or just sequentially assigned. The first method is Load Balance and the second method is Sequential.

[http://www.blogger.com/blogger.g?blogID=1899174461624440431]

Start The Start function activity marks the beginning of a process. The Start function activity is not required; it is only for visual purposes.

[http://www.blogger.com/blogger.g?blogID=1899174461624440431]

Default Voting Message The Voting Message is a message you can use to create a notification activity that tallies responses from users or roles, depending on whether Expand Roles is checked. The message subject and the body make up the message that will be sent to the users or roles. It has a Respond message attribute with the internal name of RESULT.

You can specify the list of possible responses for this Respond message attribute using a specific lookup type. In the notification activity that uses the voting message, you must create a Number Type attribute with each possible response value as the name. These attributes will capture the percentages necessary for the response values to become the result. If the value of the attribute is set to Null, then the value will be treated as the default value. In other words, if you have two response values, Yes and No, and you have the attribute Yes set with a value 50 and the attribute No set as Null, anything less than 50 percent Yes will be a No.

You can specify the voting option using the Voting Option attribute. You can select Require All Votes to have the Workflow Engine tally all responses only after all votes have been cast. If not all votes are received before the notification times out, then the timed-out transition is used. Tally on Every Vote instructs the Workflow Engine to keep a running tally after each vote is cast. If the notification times out, the response percentage to date is used. Wait for All Votes instructs the Workflow Engine to wait until all votes come in before tallying response percentages.

The only difference between this option and the Require All Votes option is that, if the notification times out before all of the votes came back,

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the Wait for All Votes option will still tally the response percentages

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before the time-out occurred.

Wait The Wait function activity defines the specified waiting period for a response. It has six attributes. The wait mode specifies whether the wait is calculated by absolute date, day of month, day of week, relative time, or time of day. If the Wait mode is set to absolute date, enter the final date into the Absolute Date attribute. If the Wait mode is set to day of month, enter the day into the Day of Month attribute. If the Wait mode is set to day of week, enter the day of the week into the Day of Week attribute. If the Wait mode is set to relative time, enter the number of days you want to wait in the Relative Time attribute. If the Wait mode is set to time of day, enter the time of day into the Time of Day attribute.

[http://www.blogger.com/blogger.g?blogID=1899174461624440431]

Wait for Flow Wait for Flow is used for master and detail coordination. The master process can start detail processes, and you can use the Continue Flow and Wait for Flow function activities to coordinate the process flow between the master and details. The Wait for Flow function activity signals the process flow to wait. The Wait for Flow function activity has two attributes: Continuation Activity Label and Continuation Flow. The Continuation Activity Label identifies the activity label that must be completed before the Wait for Flow function activity continues. The Continuation Flow activity identifies whether the waiting activity is a master process or a detail process.

[http://www.blogger.com/blogger.g?blogID=1899174461624440431]

Review Questions

1. How do they Continue Flow and Wait for Flow function activities

work together?

2. How does the Voting activity work?

3. How can you use the Role Resolution function activity?

4. Do you need the Start and End function activities?

Posted 3rd October 2012 by Krishnareddy

3rd October 2012

How to Create a Workflow Diagram

How to Create a Workflow Diagram

To prepare a workflow diagram, double-click on the process activity. In our example, double-click on the NEW PO Approval Process. The Process window will appear. The Process window shows the graphical

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representation of your workflow process. Initially, the Process window is

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blank. Drag and drop activities from the Navigator into the Process

window. Between activities, define transitions by drawing arrows using the right mouse button. If the result code of the source activity is None, the transitions will not have a label. If the result code of the source activity is not None, label the transition arrow with the result code that will initiate the transition.

[http://www.blogger.com/blogger.g?blogID=8067470330200539912]

To diagram the NEW PO Approval process, create the item attributes for a NEW PO. To do this, copy the item attributes from the PO Approval item type and paste them to your NEW PO item type. Press CTRL-C on the PO Number from the PO Approval item type. Then press CTRL-V to paste the PO Number to your PO item type. Repeat the same copy-and- paste step for the PO Amount, the Requestor Name Line1, and the Approver User Name (see Figure 16).

Name Line1, and the Approver User Name (see Figure 16). [http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-

[http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-

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Figure 16: Item Attributes for NEW PO item type form You must then create the function that selects the approver, which is the next manager in H.R. Create a PL/SQL stored procedure that will search out the next manager based on the requestor and tie the stored procedure to a function activity. In this review question, you can assume that the stored procedure will always retrieve a valid manager. In this case, the result type of the function activity can be None and the function activity is NEW Get Next Manager in H.R.

Create notifications that allow the manager to approve or reject the PO and that send a reminder if the notification timed out. You do this by creating a message that asks the manager to approve or reject the PO.

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Use NEW_APPROVE as the internal name and New Approval as the

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display name. You can type a message body like the one in Figure 17.

Your message must have a Respond message attribute. Use NEW_RESULT as the internal name. Since the display name becomes the prompt, use Approve as the display name. Enter Please either approve or reject the PO as the description. Select Lookup as the type and, since you are soliciting a response, select Respond as the source. Select Approval as the lookup type. This will allow the user to respond with either Approve or Reject (see Figure 18).

to respond with either Approve or Reject (see Figure 18). [http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-

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Figure 17: Exercise Message Body form

Figure 17: Exercise Message Body form [http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-

[http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-

EvrUy2oWrms/UGblyrmtcDI/AAAAAAAAChM/Zcdu0bXyL_o/s1600/3.png]

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Work Flow in Oracle APPS

Figure 18: Exercise Message Attribute form

Once you have created the New Approval message, attach the message to a notification activity called NEW_APPROVE_PO. Use a display name of NEW Approve PO. Select the same result type as your message, which is Approval, and select New Approval as the message. Click on the Details tab to change the Timeout field to 3 days. Create a reminder notification in the same way. Now you are ready to create the workflow process diagram.

You should start the workflow process with the Start function activity. You can find the Start function activity from the Standard item type. Drag and drop the Start function into the Process window. You are assuming that this NEW PO Process is initiated by a CreateProcess API and StartProcess API with the correct attributes: PO Number, PO Amount, Requestor Name Line1, and Approver User Name.

The Start function activity will be your source activity. The destination activity, NEW Get Next Manager in H.R., will retrieve the appropriate manager. Create a transition by right-clicking the mouse and dragging a line between the Start function activity and the NEW Get Next Manager in H.R. function activity. Since the result code is None, there will be no need to select a result code. Your next activity will be NEW Approve PO notification activity. Drag and drop the NEW Approve PO notification activity into the Process window. Since the result code from NEW Get Next Manager in H.R. function activity is None, you can just connect the NEW Get Next Manager in H.R. function activity to the NEW Approve PO notification activity.

You must identify the performer for the NEW Approve PO notification activity. The performer is the role receiving the notification. In your case, select the item attribute Approver User Name as the performer. To select a performer, double-click on the notification activity in the Process window and select the performer. You can only do this if you invoked the Notification Activity Property window inside the Process

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window; you cannot do this if you invoked the Notification Activity

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Property window in the Navigator (see Figure 11-19).

You can use the Attribute Values tab to specify a value for any selected attribute in this tab. You do not need this feature for this review question.

tab. You do not need this feature for this review question. [http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-3yb29D-

[http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-3yb29D-

8UAs/UGblzFjoYoI/AAAAAAAAChc/lRCakHSrYsQ/s1600/4.png]

Figure 19: Notification Activity Property Window (Process Window) form

The manager can ignore the notification, approve the PO, or reject the PO. Treat all three conditions with three different transitions. If the manager approves or rejects the PO, the workflow process is considered completed. In this case, it must flow to the End function activity. To show the Or condition, you can use the Or function activity. Both the End and Or function activities can be found under the Standard item type. If the manager chooses to ignore the notification, you must send a reminder to the manager and branch back to resend the NEW Approve PO notification activity.

To make sure that the NEW Approve PO notification can be resent, make sure that Loop Reset is not checked. When you create a transition between the NEW Approve PO activity and the Or activity, a window appears and asks which result code should be tied to this transition. Your choices are Approved, Rejected, <Default>, or <Timeout> (see Figure 11-20). The <Default> transition is used if result codes other than any selected result codes are returned.

Choose Approved for the transition. Repeat the same step and create a transition for Rejected between the NEW Approve PO activity and the Or activity. Create a transition between the NEW Approve PO activity to the NEW PO Reminder activity and select <Timeout> for the transition.

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Since you want to route back from the NEW PO Reminder activity to the

Work Flow in Oracle APPS

NEW Approve PO activity, you must create a transition from the NEW

Approve PO activity to the NEW PO Reminder activity.

To see labels, which are display names in the Process window, you can either execute Designer’s View | Show Label | Display Name menu command, or right-click on the Process window and execute the Show Label | Display Name menu command. See Figure 11-21 for the complete process you have created.

See Figure 11-21 for the complete process you have created. [http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-

[http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-

IEk8Nn9N5Lg/UGblzBAz1RI/AAAAAAAAChg/FVjO6cXNR8U/s1600/5.png]

Figure 20: Result codes for transition

Figure 20: Result codes for transition [http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-

[http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-

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Figure 21: Complete PO Workflow Process form

Other options in the Process window include copying diagrams, printing diagrams, and displaying an Overview window. All of these options are found when you click the right mouse button in the Process window. You can verify your workflow process by executing the File | Verify menu command.

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Work Flow in Oracle APPS

Review Questions

1. When will you need to select a label for a transition?

2. What is the purpose of the <Timeout> label?

3. How will your NEW PO Process be invoked?

4. What is a performer and how do you specify a performer for a notification activity?

Posted 3rd October 2012 by Krishnareddy

3rd October 2012

How to Monitor Workflow to View its Progress

How to Monitor Workflow to View its Progress

You can use the Workflow Monitor to view the progress of any workflow process. There are two forms of Workflow Monitor. One is the Workflow Status form in Oracle Applications. The other is the Java-based Workflow Monitor tool. There are two modes for both forms of the Workflow Monitor: user mode and admin mode. admin mode will provide more information and allow more functionality. (You must log in to Oracle Applications as a system administrator to see the Workflow Status form.)

[http://www.blogger.com/blogger.g?blogID=8067470330200539912]

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Figure 15: Workflow Status form

The Workflow Status form has the item type and the item key as the title. It lists the activity name, type, status, result, start date, end date, assigned user, error name, error message, error stack, activity internal

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name, activity description, and user name. You can use the folder tools

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to change the form to fit your needs (see Figure 15).

The Java-based Workflow Monitor tool has four regions:

· Workflow process title

· Process diagram

· Detail tabs

· Administration buttons

[http://www.blogger.com/blogger.g?blogID=1899174461624440431]

Workflow Process Title The process title shows the workflow process name, the item type internal name, and the user item key that identifies the item. These are the context values of the workflow instance.

Process Diagram This shows the process diagram associated with the workflow process. This is for display only. Color is used to represent the state of an activity or transition. Green means active or in progress, yellow means suspended, and red means erred. A thin black transition means that the transition has not been visited. A thick green transition means that the transition has been visited. You may look at the subprocess diagram by double-clicking on any subprocess.

[http://www.blogger.com/blogger.g?blogID=1899174461624440431]

Detail Tabs Select the Detail tab to reveal the definition, usage, status, notification, and item of a node. The Definition tab shows the item type, display name, description, activity type, message, function, result type, any time-out parameters, cost, loop check, and error process. The Usage tab reveals performers and comments. The Status tab shows the status, result, begin date, end date, and any error information. The Notification tab provides recipient, status, begin date, and end date information. The Item tab discloses the item type, item key, item owner, begin date, end date, and item attributes.

[http://www.blogger.com/blogger.g?blogID=1899174461624440431]

Administration Buttons Administration buttons are only available if you are running in the ADMIN mode. These buttons allow you to abort process, suspend process, resume process, reassign process, or expedite process. Each button corresponds to an API call. You may select Attribute to change the value of an item attribute.

[http://www.blogger.com/blogger.g?blogID=1899174461624440431]

Review Questions

1. What is the difference between the ADMIN mode and the USER

mode?

2. What do the colors in the process diagram represent?

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3. What two forms monitor workflow processes?

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4.

For what purposes are the administration buttons used?

Posted 3rd October 2012 by Krishnareddy

3rd October 2012

Define a new Workflow process

Define a new Workflow process

To plan a workflow process, you must identify all of the activities and transitions for your entire workflow process. You must determine, from the start of the workflow process, how the next activity will be selected and transitioned. You will determine how transitions should branch to other activities based on the result codes of a completed activity, and then establish the order of execution. You will decide who needs to be notified and who needs to respond. You also must identify attributes needed for all of the activities and determine where the values of the attributes will come from.

[http://www.blogger.com/blogger.g?blogID=8067470330200539912] There are three

type of activities: process, notification, and function. Transitions can be based on the specified result code of an activity. For example, once your user has created a PO, you will want Oracle Workflow to send a notification to your user’s manager. The notification will include PO information and ask the manager to either approve or reject the PO. The approval or rejection will be sent back to the user as a notification. If the manager does not respond within the time-out period, a time-out notification will be sent to the user.

Every workflow process should have a start and an end function. The start and end functions for the Standard item type is necessary only for visual purposes. In this particular PO approval process, you will need a function activity to find the appropriate manager, and you need four notification activities. One notification activity informs the manager that there is a PO waiting for the manager’s approval.

This notification must solicit a response and will therefore have a respond attribute of Lookup Type and a lookup type of Approval. Another notification informs the user that the manager approved the PO (the manager selected Approve as the response). A third notification informs the user that the manager rejected the PO (the manager selected Reject as the response). The final notification reminds the manager that he or she has not responded in a timely manner and must respond ASAP. Once the manager approves or rejects the PO, the PO status must be updated. You will need a function to update the PO.

During planning, it is best to list all of the activities, prerequisites, and steps.

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Work Flow in Oracle APPS

Table-5 shows the PO approval process described above.

Activity

Prerequisite

Steps

Start

Processes initiated with the CreateProcess API with input variables such as PO number, requestor, PO dollar amount, and other attributes.

Set the item attributes with the input variables. Set the item owner and call the StartProcess API.

Find manager

 

Function activity to find the manager based on the requestor.

Notify

Create message to attach to the notification with a respond attribute of lookup type Approval.

Send notification to manager and ask for response. Response can either be Approve or Reject.

manager

Manager

 

Select Approve or Reject.

responds

Manager does

 

Send reminder to manager and ask for response again.

not respond

Update PO

Manager approves or rejects PO.

Update PO.

End

PO update successfully completed.

 

Table 5: PO Approve Process Plan

[http://www.blogger.com/blogger.g?blogID=1899174461624440431]

Review Questions

1. What factors should you identify when you plan your workflow process?

2. Which two functions must you have in any workflow process?

Posted 3rd October 2012 by Krishnareddy

3rd October 2012

Components of a Workflow Process

Components of a Workflow Process

A workflow process consists of several components. Expand the apps@vd11 line by clicking on the plus sign (+) inside the Navigator. You will see three item types: PO Approval, PO Standard, and Standard. You will also see a Hidden Item Types icon. Double-click on the Hidden Item

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Types icon to display the same Show Item Types window seen when

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you open a Workflow file. Expand the menu attached to PO Approval

and you will see the six components of the PO Approval. They are:

· Attributes

· Processes

· Notifications

· Functions

· Messages

· Lookup types

[http://www.blogger.com/blogger.g?blogID=8067470330200539912]

Item Types Item types categorize the items. Each activity in a workflow process must be associated with an item type. To create a new item type, right-

click on apps@vd11 [http://oracleapps4u.blogspot.in/2012/09/components-of-

workflow-process.html] and choose New Item Type. In this chapter, the right mouse button is assumed to be the secondary button on your mouse. The Item Type Property window will appear. Enter an internal name for the item type. Type the internal name using uppercase letters. The name can include numeric characters, but cannot contain spaces. You cannot update the internal name once the item type is defined.

The internal name must be unique across the entire workflow process. The internal name is used in Workflow Engine APIs. Enter a display name next. The display name is what you use to refer to this item type in any activity. You have the option of entering a description and a selector.

A selector is mandatory [http://oracleapps4u.blogspot.in/2012/09/components-of-

workflow-process.html] if your item type is associated with more than one process. The selector returns the process that must be executed in this multiple-process situation. Selector is a PL/SQL stored procedure. Create a new item type called NEW_PO with a display name of NEW PO Item Type (see Figure 3).

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Work Flow in Oracle APPS Page 28 of 56 Work Flow in Oracle APPS [http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-

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Figure 3: Item Type Properties form

The Role tab is designed to let you specify the role that will read, write, and/or execute the item type. (Unfortunately, these security features are not currently active, so you will need to test them in future versions.) Select the Access tab. The red bar, shaded or crossed, represents the access level that can edit objects in the Oracle Workflow Builder.

A black vertical bar identifies your access level. You can select

combinations of the two options to preserve customizations and lock in at this access level, or to generate different access levels. If both options are checked, you can see that the three levels—Customization, Access, and Protection—are all at 100. This means that only your current access level (100) can update objects. If only the Preserve Customizations option is checked, customization and access are both at level 100 while protection is at level 1000. This means access levels 100 to 1000, equal to or higher than your current access level, can update objects.

If the Lock at this Access Level option is checked, the customization

level is at 0 and both access and protection levels are at 100. This means that access levels 0 to 100, equal to or lower than your current access level, can update objects. If neither option is checked, any access level can update objects. Customization is at level 0 and protection is at level 1000. The red bar will have a crossed pattern if Allow modifications of customized objects is checked. To find this option, execute the Help | About Oracle Workflow Builder menu command. If you checked Allow modifications of customized objects, you can modify and save objects even if your access level is outside of the customization and protection range. Check Allow modifications of customized objects. You must exit

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the New Item Type properties window to do this. Click OK to save your

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definition.

Once you have checked the box under the Help menu, open the Item Type properties window again. Notice that you cannot change the internal name field anymore. Click on the Access tab and check both the Preserve Customizations option and the Lock at this Access Level option (see Figure 4). Click on OK to save your changes.

option (see Figure 4). Click on OK to save your changes.

[http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-c7ixhH4P0gc/UGbcer4qAfI/AAAAAAAACfs/AMw-

c9Kqhuo/s1600/2.png]

Figure 4: Item Type Properties (Access Tab) form

[http://oracleapps4u.blogspot.in/2012/09/components-of-workflow-process.html]

Attributes All items that have the same item type share the same set of attributes. Attributes are information and properties regarding the item type. Each item will have its own set of attribute values. Attributes are similar to global variables in that they can be used by any activity in the workflow process. Workflow Engine APIs allow you to get or set attribute values for an item. Double-click on the attribute to see the properties of the activity. If you want to add a new attribute, right-click when your cursor is on the Attributes icon and choose New Attribute. Either way, the Attribute Property window will appear and the item type will be displayed.

If you are creating a new item attribute, enter an internal name for the item attribute. The internal name must be uppercase and unique across the same item type; the name cannot contain spaces. Next, enter a display name. The display name will be used in a message or activity. You can then enter an optional description. Next, select an attribute type. Valid types are:

· Text

The attribute value is the text datatype. You

can enter an optional length for this attribute type.

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· Number

The attribute value is the number datatype.

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You can enter an optional format mask for this

attribute type.

The attribute value is the date datatype. You

can enter an optional format mask for this attribute type.

· Date

· Lookup

The attribute value is one of the values

specified in a lookup type. You must enter a lookup type for this attribute type.

· Form

The attribute value is the internal function

name used on an Oracle Application form. You can enter optional function parameters for this attribute type. This attribute type is only useful when using Oracle Applications and the Notifications Viewer form. The Oracle Application form will appear in the

Notifications Viewer form. You can bring up the Oracle Applications form from the Notifications Viewer form.

· URL

The attribute value is a Universal Resources

Locator (URL) to a Web location. This attribute type is only useful if you have the Notifications Web page. The URL will appear in the Notifications Web page. Select it to bring up the Web site.

· Document

The attribute value is an attached

document. The attribute value is in the format of a document management system and the document name. In the current release, only the PL/SQL document is supported. The PL/SQL document contains data inserted from a database.

· Role

· Attribute

The attribute value is a role.

The attribute value is the value of another

attribute’s value at runtime. This is called a reference attribute. If you enter an optional default value for your attribute, Oracle Workflow Builder provides all of the necessary validation. For example, if you select Attribute as the attribute type, you can only select a defined attribute within the workflow process. If you select Lookup as the attribute type, you can only select a lookup code that is valid for the selected lookup type Selecting the access level for attributes is the same as selecting the access level for item types. Create a new attribute with an internal name of NEW_FLAG and a display name of NEW Flag. Choose attribute type Lookup and lookup type Boolean. Choose True as the default value. You are not going to use this attribute in your workflow process, but you are going to build on it later. Click OK to save your work.

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Work Flow in Oracle APPS Page 31 of 56 Work Flow in Oracle APPS

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[http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-FGARWH_0xMM/UGbcewVDP2I/AAAAAAAACf4/E-

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Figure 5: Attribute Properties form

Processes Process is a workflow progression. Before you can diagram a workflow process, you must define a process activity. To do this, right-click on the Process icon and choose New Process. The Process Properties window appears. Enter, in uppercase and with no spaces, a unique internal name for your process. Also, enter a display name. The display name is the one that will appear in your process diagram. You have the option of entering a description. Select the result type for this process. Select None if no specified result codes are necessary for the completion of the process.

The result type must [http://oracleapps4u.blogspot.in/2012/09/components-of-

workflow-process.html] be a lookup type. Transitions in the workflow process diagram will differ depending on the result codes of the lookup type. If you have the authority, you can click on Edit to view or edit the result type. Check Runnable if this process can be called from other workflow processes or from Workflow Engine APIs. Create a process activity called NEW_PO_PROCESS.

A display name of NEW PO Approval Process appears as an Approval result type. You have the option of checking the Runnable box. Last, select an icon to represent this process activity. Click on Browse to locate available icons (see Figure-6).

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Work Flow in Oracle APPS Page 32 of 56 Work Flow in Oracle APPS [http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-Ce-

Work Flow in Oracle APPS

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lfCAjjFU/UGbcewL6tFI/AAAAAAAACf0/65C2elyNqxI/s1600/4.png]

Figure 6: Process Activity Properties form

Select the Details tab, where you can select the error-handling process. You can also specify the maximum

[http://oracleapps4u.blogspot.in/2012/09/components-of-workflow-process.html] time

to wait for notification before a time-out occurs. Since this is a process activity and not a notification activity, the time-out parameters are not applicable. The effective date and version are for display only. If you save your workflow process using the Save As option, the effective date and the version number will be changed. Check Loop Reset to identify process activity behavior if a loop condition occurs.

A loop condition occurs when the process activity is revisited by the Oracle Workflow Engine. If Loop Reset is checked, the process activity

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will be reexecuted and all of the subsequent processes will be reversed

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(see Figure -7). Click on OK to save your work.

APPS (see Figure -7). Click on OK to save your work. [http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-

[http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-

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Figure 7: Process Activity Properties (Details) form

The Roles and the Access tabs are the same as the item types and attributes. The next section will demonstrate how to diagram a workflow process.

[http://oracleapps4u.blogspot.in/2012/09/components-of-workflow-process.html]

Notifications Notifications are messages sent to users. To set up a notification activity, you can either (1) drag and drop a defined message into the notifications arm of the same item type or (2) you can right-click on the Notification icon and select New Notification. As in a process activity, you must specify an internal name and a display name for a notification activity. Enter a unique name—in uppercase and without spaces—for your process. The display name is the one that will appear in your process diagram. Entering a description is optional. Select the result type for this process. You can select None if no specified result codes are necessary for the completion of the process. The result type must be a lookup type. Transitions in the workflow process diagram will differ depending on the result codes of the lookup type. Click on Edit to view or update the result type.

Since this is a notification activity, you must select a message. If you use the drag-and-drop message method, the message name will already be filled in. You can click on Edit to view or update the message. If the message you selected expects a response, a Function field will appear. This is the response function. Next, you can check Expand Roles if you want to expand the role to each individual user’s email instead of the

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role’s email. As a last step, you must select an icon to represent this

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notification activity. Click on Browse to locate available icons (see

Figure-8).

Create a notification activity with the internal name of NEW_PO_APPROVE and a display name of NEW PO Approval by dragging and dropping the Approve PO message. You do not have the Approve PO message yet. You can drag and drop the Approve PO message from the PO Approval item type to your item type. Once you have entered all of the data, click on OK to save your work.

entered all of the data, click on OK to save your work. [http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-

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E558Ss3Pc3Q/UGbcfpCkmJI/AAAAAAAACgE/EI_KmabJnxI/s1600/6.png]

Figure 8: Notification Activity Properties form

Select the Details tab. In the Detail form, you may select the error- handling process. If you wish, you can also specify the allowable wait time for notifications before declaring a time-out. Since this is a notification activity, the time-out parameters are applicable. The effective date and version are display only.

If you save your workflow process using the Save As option, the effective date and the version number will be changed. Check Loop Reset to identify the behavior you want the process activity to perform if a loop condition occurs. Loop conditions occur when the process activity is being revisited by the Oracle Workflow Engine. If Loop Reset is checked, the process activity will be reexecuted and all of the subsequent processes will be reversed. The Roles and the Access tabs correspond to the attributes and process activities item types.

[http://oracleapps4u.blogspot.in/2012/09/components-of-workflow-process.html]

Functions

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Functions are PL/SQL stored procedures that can have Workflow Engine

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APIs. To create a new function, right-click on the Functions icon and

select New Function. The Function Properties window will appear. Enter a unique internal name in uppercase letters. The name should not contain spaces. Then enter a display name for the function. The display name will appear in the process diagram. You may enter a description. Next, enter the name of the PL/SQL stored procedure in the format of package_name.procedure_name. Select the result type for this process.

You can select None if no specified result codes are necessary for the completion of the process. The result type must be a lookup type. Various transitions in the workflow process diagram are possible and will depend on different lookup type result codes. Click on Edit to view or update the result type. You can then specify the cost of the activity. Depending on this cost and the threshold of the Workflow Engine, this function activity may be deferred and ultimately processed by the background process. As a last step, you must select an icon to represent this function activity. You can also click on Browse to locate icons from your desktop (see Figure-9). You do not need to create a function activity for this exercise.

do not need to create a function activity for this exercise. [http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-

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Figure 9: Function Activity Properties form

The Details tab, the Roles tab, and the Access tab are identical to the ones described in the previous sections.

[http://oracleapps4u.blogspot.in/2012/09/components-of-workflow-process.html]

Messages Messages are templates used by a notification activity. If you want to create new messages, right-click on New Message. At this time, you need not create a new message. You have already created a message

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called Approve PO. Double-click on the Approve PO message to see its

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properties.

There is an internal name, a display name, and a description. The internal name must be unique and typed in all uppercase with no spaces. You may select a default priority for the message. Valid values are from 1 to 99, with 1 designated as highest priority. Priority selection is for informational purposes only; there is no functionality attached to the assigned priority (see Figure-10).

attached to the assigned priority (see Figure-10). [http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-

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Figure 10: Message Properties form

Select the Body tab to enter the subject of the message and the body. You can assign message attributes to the subject and body by adding an ampersand sign before the attributes’ internal names (see Figure-11).

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The Roles tab and the Access tab are the same as described in the

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previous sections.

described in the Work Flow in Oracle APPS previous sections. [http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-

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Figure 11: Message Properties (Body) form

Notice the plus sign (+) next to the Approve PO message in the Navigator. This indicates that the Approve PO message has message attributes. Click on the plus sign next to Approve PO to see all of the message attributes associated with the Approve PO message. A message attribute may have Send or Respond options. Send attributes are regular attributes.

Respond attributes are message

[http://oracleapps4u.blogspot.in/2012/09/components-of-workflow-process.html]

attributes that solicit responses in the notification message. Display names of the respond attributes become prompts in the response section of the notification message. Descriptions of the respond attributes are used to describe the expected response. If the respond attribute is a lookup type, the user can respond by selecting from a list of lookup codes. You can specify message attributes to get their values from the item attributes. This is indicated by selecting Item Attribute as the default value for the message attribute and selecting the associated item attribute. To create a new message attribute, right-click on

Attribute You must enter a unique internal name typed in all uppercase and without spaces. Next, enter a display name. A description name is optional. Then, select the attribute type. The attribute type of the message attribute is the same as that of the item attribute. Next, specify whether the source is Send or Respond. As a last step, enter a default value, if applicable. You can get the default value from an item

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attribute. (See Figure-12 for the properties of the Approval Action

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message attribute of the Approve PO message.)

in Oracle APPS message attribute of the Approve PO message.) [http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-

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Figure 12: Message Attribute Properties form

[http://oracleapps4u.blogspot.in/2012/09/components-of-workflow-process.html]

Lookup Types The last components are the lookup types. Lookup types are lists of lookup codes defined for use by activities. For example, you can find the Approval lookup type in the Standard item type. If you want to create a new lookup type, right-click on the Lookup Types icon and choose New Lookup Type. Double-click to see the properties of the Approval lookup type. You will see the internal name, the display name, and a description for the lookup type. The Access tab is the same as described previously (see Figure-13). To add a new lookup code, right-click on the Lookup Types icon and choose New Lookup Code. A Lookup Code Properties window appears. Type the internal name and the display name for the lookup code. You can also add an optional description (see Figure-14). Once you have defined a lookup code, it will show up as a separate icon under the Lookup Types icon.

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Work Flow in Oracle APPS Page 39 of 56 Work Flow in Oracle APPS [http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-

Work Flow in Oracle APPS

[http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-

Od1epiZidMo/UGbcdhAFgpI/AAAAAAAACfc/92h6dsRkCoo/s1600/11.png]

Figure 13: Lookup Types Properties form

Figure 13: Lookup Types Properties form [http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-76mYiIVx6Do/UGbceR-

[http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-76mYiIVx6Do/UGbceR-

JbTI/AAAAAAAACfk/BS_102cnLvk/s1600/12.png]

Figure 14: Lookup Code Properties form

Review Questions [http://oracleapps4u.blogspot.in/2012/09/components-of- workflow-process.html]

1. How many types of activities are available?

2. What is a prerequisite for creating a notification activity?

3. When will the time-out parameters apply?

4. How can you find the lookup codes for a specific lookup type?

Posted 3rd October 2012 by Krishnareddy

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Work Flow in Oracle APPS

3rd October 2012

Mapping Oracle Workflow to a

Directory Repository

Mapping Oracle Workflow to a Directory Repository

To map Oracle Workflow to a directory repository, map the three views—WF_USERS, WF_ROLES, and WF_USER_ROLES to the database tables in the directory repository selected. If Oracle Workflow is not stand-alone, but is integrated with Oracle Applications, you can map the roles to users and positions defined in the Oracle Human Resources modules. Oracle Workflow provides a seeded script that you can run to map the three views within Oracle Applications.

[http://www.blogger.com/blogger.g?blogID=8067470330200539912]

The three views are mapped in the following way. WF_USERS is mapped to all employees with active primary assignments. WF_ROLES is mapped to all users listed in WF_USERS and to all positions defined as workflow roles. WF_USER_ROLES is mapped to the combination of WF_ROLES and WF_USERS. In addition, Oracle Workflow provides three local tables that join the three views: WF_LOCAL_USERS, WF_LOCAL_ROLES, and WF_LOCAL_USER_ROLES. You can use these three local views to supplement the database tables in the directory repository.

Review Questions [http://www.blogger.com/blogger.g?

blogID=1899174461624440431]

1. What does the WF_USERS view map to in Oracle Human Resources?

2. What does the WF_ROLES view map to in Oracle Human Resources?

3. What are the names of and uses for the three local tables?

Posted 3rd October 2012 by Krishnareddy

3rd October 2012

How Oracle Workflow Acquires Information About a Role

How Oracle Workflow Acquires Information About a Role

In Oracle Workflow a role is a user or a group of users. Oracle Workflow gets information about a role from the following three views:

· WF_USERS

· WF_ROLES

· WF_USER_ROLES

[http://www.blogger.com/blogger.g?blogID=8067470330200539912] WF_USERS

The WF_USERS view contains information about every user who can receive notifications and responses in Oracle Workflow. The below table shows all of the columns in the WF_USERS view.

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Column

Description

 

The internal name of the user

[http://www.blogger.com/blogger.g? blogID=1899174461624440431] . This column

Name

must be all uppercase and contain no spaces. This is the column that the Workflow Engine will refer to for the user name.

Display_name

The display name of the user.

Description

The description of the user.

Notification_preference

This is the column that identifies the notification preference of the user. Valid values are MAILTEXT, MAILHTML, QUERY, or SUMMARY. When the value is set to MAILTEXT, the user receives notifications and responses by email. When the value is set to MAILHTML, the user receives notifications and responses through HTML email attachments. When the value is set to QUERY, the user receives notifications and responses from the Notifications Web page or Notification Viewer form. The Notification Viewer form is only available to Oracle Applications users. When the value is set to SUMMARY, the user receives emails that contain summaries of all notifications.

Language

The language to use for notification features that are language dependent.

Territory

The territory to determine the date formatting and numeric formatting.

E-mail_address

The email address of the user.

Fax

The fax number of the user.

Orig_system

This column identifies the original system where the user resides.

Orig_system_ID

This column identifies the unique identifier for the user in the original system where the user resides.

Status

The status of the user. Valid statuses are ACTIVE for active users, EXTLEAVE for extended leave, INACTIVE for inactive users, and TMPLEAVE for temporary leave.

Work Flow in Oracle APPS

WF_ROLES The WF_ROLES view contains information about every role in Oracle Workflow that can receive notifications and responses.

Each user in WF_USERS [http://www.blogger.com/blogger.g?

blogID=1899174461624440431] must be a role in WF_ROLES. If the attributes of the role are different than the attributes of the users within

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the role, the attributes of the role will override the attributes of the

Work Flow in Oracle APPS

user. The below table shows all of the columns in WF_ROLES.

Column

Description

Name

The internal name of the role. This column must be all uppercase and contain no spaces. This is the column that the Workflow Engine will refer to for the role name.

Display_name

The display name of the role.

Description

The description of the role.

 

This is the column that identifies the notification preference of this role. Valid values are MAILTEXT, MAILHTML, QUERY, or SUMMARY. When the value is set to MAILTEXT, the user receives notifications and responses by email. When the value

is

set to MAILHTML, the user receives

Notification_preference

notifications and responses through HTML email attachments. When the value is set to QUERY, the user receives notifications and responses from the Notifications Web page or Notification Viewer form. The Notification Viewer form is only available to Oracle Applications users. When the value is set to SUMMARY, the user receives emails that contain summaries of all notifications.

Language

The language to use for notification features that are language dependent.

Territory

The territory determines the formatting of dates and numbers.

 

The email address of the role, most likely

E-mail_address

mail distribution list. You use the email address of the role if you choose not to expand the role into its users.

a

Fax

The fax number of the role.

Orig_system

This column identifies the original system where the role resides.

Orig_system_ID

This column identifies the unique identifier for the role in the original system where the role resides.

WF_USER_ROLES In Oracle Workflow, WF_USER_ROLES is the view that resolves the many-to-many relationship between users and roles. One role can contain many users, and one user can belong to many roles. The below table shows all of the columns in the WF_USER_ROLES view.

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Column

Description

User_name

The internal name of the user.

User_orig_system

The original system where the user resides. Use this and User_orig_sytem_ID to join to WF_USERS.

User_orig_system_ID

The unique identifier for the user in the original system where the user resides. Use this and the User_orig_system to join to WF_USERS.

Role_name

The internal name of the role.

Role_orig_system

The original system where the role resides. Use this and the ROLE_ORIG_SYSTEM_ID to join to WF_ROLES.

Role_orig_system_ID

The unique identifier for the role in the original system where the role resides. Use this and the ROLE_ORIG_SYSTEM_ID to join to WF_ROLES.

Work Flow in Oracle APPS

Review Questions

1. When is the WF_USERS view used?

2. When is the WF_ROLES view used?

3. When is the WF_USER_ROLES view used?

4. How many notification preferences do you have and what is the

purpose of each one?

Posted 3rd October 2012 by Krishnareddy

3rd October 2012

Oracle Workflow Engine APIs

Oracle Workflow Engine APIs

Inside a stored procedure, you must use Workflow Engine APIs to communicate with the Workflow Engine. All Workflow Engine APIs are stored in a PL/SQL package called WF_ENGINE. The following is the list of Workflow Engine APIs present inside the WF_ENGINE package.

[http://www.blogger.com/blogger.g?blogID=8067470330200539912] Variable Procedure Name Description (I=Input, O=Output)
[http://www.blogger.com/blogger.g?blogID=8067470330200539912]
Variable
Procedure Name
Description
(I=Input,
O=Output)
AddItemAttr
Add a new
unvalidated runtime
item attribute.
Item type(I)
Set the value of a
text item attribute.
Item type(I)
SetItemAttrText
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Procedure Name

SetItemAttrNumber

Description

Variable

(I=Input,

O=Output)

Item key(I)

Attribute name

(I)

New value(I)

Item type(I)

Item key(I)

Attribute name

(I)

New value(I)

Item type(I)

Item key(I)

Attribute name

(I)

New value(I)

Item type(I)

Attribute name

(I)

Attribute type

(O)

Subtype(O)

Format(O)

Item type(I)

Item key(I)

Activity ID(I)

Attribute name

(I)

Attribute type

(O)

Work Flow in Oracle APPS

Set the value of a number item attribute.

Set the value of a date item attribute.

SetItemAttrDate

GetItemAttrInfo

Get type information about an item attribute.

Get type information about an activity attribute.

GetActivityAttrInfo

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Variable

Procedure Name

Description

(I=Input,

O=Output)

   

Sub-type(O)

Format(O)

   

Item type(I)

Item key(I)

Set the parent/master process for a detail process.

Parent item

type(I)

SetItemParent

Parent item

 

key(I)

Parent context

(I)

   

Item type(I)

SetItemOwner

Item key(I)

Set the owner of an item.

Owner(I)

   

Item type(I)

SetItemUserKey

Set the user- friendly identifier for an item.

[http://www.blogger.com/blogger.g?

Item key(I)

blogID=1899174461624440431]

 

User key(I)

   

Action(I)

Context(I)

Attribute name

(I)

Callback function used by the Notification System to get and set process attributes, and mark a process complete.

Attribute type

(I)

CB

Text attribute

value(I,O)

Number

 

attribute value

(I,O)

Date attribute

value(I,O)

Work Flow in Oracle APPS

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Variable

 

Procedure Name

Description

(I=Input,

O=Output)

   

Item type(I)

Process all deferred activities within the threshold limits.

Minimum

ProcessDeferred

threshold(I)

Maximum

 

threshold(I)

ProcessTimeOut

Pick up one timed- out activity and execute time-out transition.

Item type(I)

ProcessStuckProcess

Pick up one stuck activity, mark error status, and execute error process.

Item type(I)

   

Item type(I)

Minimum

threshold(I)

Process all current deferred and/or time-out activities within the threshold limits.

Maximum

Background

threshold(I)

Process

 

deferred flag(I)

Process

timeout flag(I)

   

Error buffer(O)

Return code(O)

Item type(I)

Send background process for deferred and/or time-out activities to the concurrent manager.

Minimum

threshold(I)

BackgroundConcurrent

Maximum

threshold(I)

Process

 

deferred flag

Process

timeout flag

 

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Procedure Name

CreateProcess

StartProcess

[http://www.blogger.com/blogger.g?

blogID=1899174461624440431]

Description

Create a new runtime process for an item.

Variable

(I=Input,

O=Output)

Item type(I)

Item key(I)

Root process(I)

Item type(I)

Item key(I)

Item type(I)

Item key(I)

Process to

suspend(I)

Item type(I)

Item key(I)

Process to

abort(I)

Result(O)

Item type(I)

Item key(I)

Process to

resume(I)

Item type(I)

Item key(I)

Activity(I)

Item type(I)

Item key(I)

Activity(I)

Result(I)

Item type(I)

Work Flow in Oracle APPS

Begins execution of the process.

Suspends process execution. Outstanding notifications will be allowed to finish, but activity transitions will not occur.

Abort process execution. Outstanding notifications are cancelled. The process is then considered complete, with a status specified by the result variable.

Returns a process to normal execution status. Used after a process is suspended.

Determines if the specified activity may currently be performed on the item.

SuspendProcess

AbortProcess

ResumeProcess

BeginActivity

CompleteActivity

AssignActivity

Notifies the Workflow Engine that an activity for an item has been completed.

Assigns the user or role (performer)

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Variable

Procedure Name

Description

(I=Input,

O=Output)

   

Item key(I)

who will perform an activity.

Activity(I)

Performer(I)

   

Item type(I)

Resets the process thread to the entered activity and begins execution again from that point.

Item key(I)

HandleError

Activity(I)

Command(I)

Result(I)

Work Flow in Oracle APPS

The last section of the stored procedure body is the EXCEPTION block for exception handling. Any kind of exception handling is allowed in PL/SQL. The only thing you must do is set the context information.

This is done by the API calls

WF_CORE.CONTEXT(‘your_package_name’, ‘your_procedure_name’, itemtype, itemkey, to_char(actid), funcmode)

Your stored procedure can be in a PL/SQL package. The package groups store procedures within the same category.

[http://www.blogger.com/blogger.g?blogID=1899174461624440431]

Review Questions

1. Which Work Engine API should you use to begin execution of an activity?

2. Which Work Engine API should you use to get information about an item’s attributes?

3. For which functions can you use the Work Engine API Background?

4. How do you notify the Work Engine about a completed activity?

Posted 3rd October 2012 by Krishnareddy

3rd October 2012 Applying Workflow Engine APIs to Function Activities

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Applying Workflow Engine APIs to Function Activities

Work Flow in Oracle APPS

Function activities are stored in PL/SQL procedures. There is a standard API format for all stored procedures called by function activities. When the Workflow Engine executes the function activity, the Workflow Engine passes four input variables and, if a result type is set up for the activity, expects one output variable in return. Output variables are:

[http://www.blogger.com/blogger.g?blogID=8067470330200539912]

· Itemtype

A category of items that share the same set of

attributes (e.g., purchase order).

· Itemkey

A unique identifier within the same item type for

the specific item passing through the workflow process.

· Actid

The unique identifier of the activity that calls this

stored procedure.

· Funcmode

The execution mode of the function activity. It

can be run, cancel, or timeout. The timeout mode is used for an expired notification that was intended to solicit a

response. Each notification has a time-out value. If a notification has received no response after the time-out value has been exceeded, the Workflow Engine will execute the dependent activities with an execution mode of TIMEOUT.

· Result

The result of the stored procedure. Results can be:

o

COMPLETE: result_code

Stored procedure

completed. The result code is specified in the type of the function activity.

o

DEFERRED: date

The stored procedure is deferred,

to be processed in the background or at a specified date (optional).

o

ERROR: error_code

The stored procedure erred.

You can, if you wish, provide the error code.

o

NOTIFIED: notification_ID: user

The stored

procedure sent out a notification to a user. You may

return the unique identifier for the notification, the notification ID, and the user who sent the notification.

o

WAITING

The stored procedure has been completed,

but there is a waiting period before the function activity is marked as Complete. The background Workflow Engine will mark the function activity Complete after the waiting period has expired. The stored procedure declaration will be in the following format:

PROCEDURE your_procedure_name ( itemtype in varchar2, itemkey in varchar2, actid in number, funcmode in varchar2, result out varchar2) IS Once the procedure declaration is completed, you will then have the stored procedure body. A pair of BEGIN and END markers encloses the stored procedure body. In the procedure body, you must check the

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Funcmode variable to execute codes that correspond to the RUN,

Work Flow in Oracle APPS

CANCEL, and TIMEOUT modes.

Review Questions [http://oracleapps4u.blogspot.in/2012/09/applying-workflow- engine-apis-to.html]

1. What does the input variable Itemkey represent?

2. What does the input variable Actid represent?

3. What three function activity execution modes are in a stored procedure?

4. What are the possible results of a stored procedure in a function

activity?

Posted 3rd October 2012 by Krishnareddy

3rd October 2012

Overview of the Workflow Engine

Overview of the Workflow Engine

You now know the function of the Workflow Engine in Oracle Workflow. In this section, you will learn more about how the Workflow Engine executes and enforces each item’s defined workflow process. You will also learn how to use Workflow Engine APIs. The following section explains how the workflow engine manages a process and how to apply Workflow Engine APIs to functional activities.

[http://www.blogger.com/blogger.g?blogID=8067470330200539912] How the

Workflow Engine Manages a Process The Workflow Engine drives items through workflow processes defined in Oracle Workflow. Each item has a set of attribute values that contains information about the specific item. A workflow process consists of a combination of activities and transitions. An activity can be a function, a notification, or a process. At any point in time, there may be more than one item passing through the workflow process. These items, which can be at found at any activity or at any transition within the workflow process, have their own sets of attribute values. When in the middle of the workflow process, each one of these items with its own set of attribute values is referred to as one instance of the workflow process. Each instance can have a different state. The state of the instance or item is defined by the states of all activities of the workflow process. The Workflow Engine manages all instances of defined workflow processes. The following describes how the Workflow Engine manages a workflow process. The Workflow Engine is a PL/SQL program residing on the server. It receives APIs from the clients whenever an activity needs to change state. Valid states of an activity are Active, Complete, Deferred, Error, Notified, Suspended, and Waiting. Once the Workflow Engine changes the state of the activity, it evaluates the changed state of the activity. If the activity is changed to a state of Error, the Workflow

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Engine rolls back the changes made by the erred activity and initiates

Work Flow in Oracle APPS

the defined error-handling routine. The Workflow Engine will first try to

run the error-handling routine associated with the erred activity. If no error-handling routine is attached to the erred activity, the Workflow Engine will trace back to the erred activity and determine the parent of the activity. If no error-handling routine is attached to the parent activity, the Workflow Engine trace back to the parent of the parent activity until there is an error-handling routine. Oracle Workflow comes with a default error process, or you can create your own custom error- processing routine that will reset, retry, or ship the erred activity. If the activity is changed to a state of Active, the activity will be executed, unless the activity has a processing cost higher than the Workflow Engine threshold. Executing an activity means running a function activity in run mode, sending notification for notification activity, or initiating a subprocess in a process activity.

In the case where an activity [http://www.blogger.com/blogger.g?

blogID=1899174461624440431] ’s processing cost is higher than the Workflow Engine threshold, the state of the activity will change to Deferred. Activities are marked as Deferred in order to streamline processing. Deferred activities are run in background batches, not in real time. The Workflow Engine running in the foreground has a defined threshold activity processing cost. If the processing cost of an activity exceeds the defined threshold, the foreground Workflow Engine will not execute the activity and marks it as Deferred. The background Workflow Engine picks up all deferred activities and executes them. You can have more than one background Workflow Engine. To further streamline workflow processing, each Workflow Engine can have different thresholds so that other background Workflow Engines can pick up deferred activities with varying processing costs. Setting up background Workflow Engines is optional, but you need at least one background Workflow Engine to handle timed-out notifications.

If the activity is changed [http://www.blogger.com/blogger.g?

blogID=1899174461624440431] to a state of Complete, the Workflow Engine issues a savepoint and evaluates all of the transitions tied to the completed activity. A savepoint is different than a commit. You can roll back to the savepoint, but you cannot roll back after commit. The Workflow Engine never issues a commit; the calling application is responsible for the commit. If the activities that depend on the completed activity have not been executed before, the Workflow Engine will change the state of the dependent activities to Active. If the activities that depend on the completed activity have been executed before, this will cause a loop. Depending on the setup, the Workflow Engine will then do one of two things. If the executed activities are marked as Run Once, the Workflow Engine will simply skip those transitions. If the executed activities are marked as Loop Reset, the Workflow Engine reverses all of the executed activities in the loop from the loop reset point and reexecutes the activities. Reversing all of the executed activities means running the function activities in cancel mode and marking notification activities as

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Cancelled. The Workflow Engine reverses all of the executed activities in

Work Flow in Oracle APPS

reverse order back to the loop reset point and reexecutes the activities

in the normal order from the loop reset point on. If the completed activity also marks the completion of the workflow process, the

Workflow Engine will mark the workflow process as Complete and all outstanding or incomplete activities will be marked Complete with a result code of #FORCE. In summary, the Workflow Engine can perform the following functions for clients:

· Change the state of an activity

· Function activities

· Notification activities

· Process activities

· Transitions

· Error handling

· Maintain workflow history

Changing the State of an Activity The Workflow Engine changes the state of the activity. Valid states are:

· Active

· Complete

The activity is ready for execution.

The activity has been completed and is ready to

transition to the next activity.

· Deferred

The activity is ready for execution; however, when the

processing cost is higher than the foreground Workflow Engine cost threshold, the activity is deferred and eventually executed in the background by the Workflow Engine.

· Error

· Notified

The activity erred and must be rolled back.

The notification activity needs a response and a

notification has been sent to solicit a response.

· Suspended

The activity has been completed, but the transition

is on hold until the activity is resumed.

· Waiting

The completed activity is waiting for other activities in

a master detail process to be completed before transitioning.

Function Activity Function activities are stored in PL/SQL procedures. Each function activity should have two modes: run and cancel. The run mode is for execution of the function activity, while cancel mode is for reversing the function activity. The Workflow Engine can accept parameters from the clients and, depending on processing cost, execute the function activity either in real time or in the background. Notification Activity Notification activities are messages. The Workflow Engine can accept parameters from the clients and send messages to users or roles, which are groups of users. A notification activity can also solicit responses. Process Activity A process activity is a separate workflow process, which can be a subprocess or a process within a process. Transitions When an activity is completed, the Workflow Engine evaluates the transitions and determines whether to mark activities that depend on

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the completed activity as Active. When the activity marking the

Work Flow in Oracle APPS

completion of the workflow process is finished, the Workflow Engine can

mark the process as Complete. If the transition to Active has already been executed, the Workflow Engine may ignore the transition or reverse and reexecute activities. Error Handling If an activity erred, the Workflow Engine rolls back the activity and executes the defined error-handling process. Maintain Workflow History The Workflow Engine maintains records of all completed or erred activities so that they can be reviewed online or through reports. Workflow Monitor uses this history for reporting the status of an item.

Review Questions [http://www.blogger.com/blogger.g?

blogID=1899174461624440431]

1. When will an activity be deferred?

2. What will the Workflow Engine do if the activity erred?

3. If you have Loop Reset on, and the Workflow Engine comes to an activity that has been executed, what will happen?

4. What can happen when evaluating transitions?

Posted 3rd October 2012 by Krishnareddy

3rd October 2012

Oracle Workflow Components

Oracle Workflow Components

Oracle Workflow Components

Oracle Workflow contains six major components:

· Workflow Builder

· Workflow Engine

· Workflow Monitor

· Workflow Definitions Loader

· Workflow Directory Services

· Notification System

[http://www.blogger.com/blogger.g?blogID=8067470330200539912]

Workflow Builder

Workflow Builder is the component

[http://oracleapps4u.blogspot.in/2012/09/oracle-workflow-components.html] that

provides a graphical user interface for creating, reviewing, and maintaining workflow definitions. A workflow definition includes the workflow processes, attributes, notifications, messages, and functions

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that make up the workflow. Like Oracle Applications, Workflow Builder

Work Flow in Oracle APPS

has a Navigator to help you find the various components of your

workflow definition.

Workflow Engine

Workflow Engine is the component that executes and enforces the defined workflow processes. When a workflow process starts or a step is completed, the Workflow Engine is signaled. The Workflow Engine receives and reads a signal from the defined workflow processes and then determines and executes the appropriate next step. To send a signal or to communicate with the Workflow Engine, Oracle Applications provide several standard Workflow Engine application programming

interfaces (APIs).

Workflow Monitor Workflow Monitor is the component of Oracle Workflow that allows you to review the state or status of an item through any particular workflow process. Workflow Monitor can also be used by application administrators to push through certain items that have errored out. Workflow Monitor provides an overview of a given item in the workflow

and helps with tracking.

Workflow Definitions Loader Workflow Definitions Loader is the component that allows you to download or load workflow definitions to and from the database or text

files.

Workflow Directory Services Workflow Directory Services is the component that identifies the directory repository to be used, tells Oracle Workflow how to find the users, interprets the roles of each user, and sends notifications to those

users when necessary.

Notification System The Notification Mailer is a program that concurrently sends emails and receives responses from the Oracle Workflow Notification System. It will send out notifications and process responses by calling the response functions and completing the notification. Unlike Oracle Alert response

processing, you do not need Oracle Office to use this functionality.

Review Questions

1. What does a Workflow Builder do?

2. What does a Workflow Engine do?

3. What does a Workflow Monitor do?

4. What does a Workflow Definitions Loader do?

5. Does Oracle Office need to be configured to run Workflow

Notification?

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Posted 3rd October 2012 by Krishnareddy

Work Flow in Oracle APPS

3rd October 2012

Overview of Oracle Workflow

Oracle Apps 4 Beginners: Overview of Oracle Workflow

Overview of Oracle Workflow This post will explain the concepts of a workflow and describe the separate components within the Oracle Workflow module.

[http://www.blogger.com/blogger.g?blogID=8067470330200539912] Concepts of a

Workflow A workflow consists of numerous processes. Workflow processes represent business process flows and information routing. Oracle Workflow defines process rules. Each workflow process contains a set of activities, which can be notifications, PL/SQL stored procedures, or another sub process. The flow of business processes is less efficient when the information is not routed to the appropriate person(s) or group. The two needs are interdependent. The flow of business processes in Oracle Workflow can have decision points (branches), parallel flows, and loops. A decision point (branch) is where a decision must be made. Various flow options result from choices made at the decision point. Parallel flows are business processes that flow simultaneously. You can decide whether one, some, or all parallel flows must be completed before moving on to the next step. Loops are business processes that flow back to an activity completed earlier.

In the past, information routing was performed primarily on paper. Now, information routing is usually performed through electronic messaging—emails. Electronic messaging is much more efficient, especially if your business process flow includes external organizations or personnel. For example, utilizing email, you can alert relevant parties that a decision needs to be made. You can also notify users when there are current or potential problems, and you can use notifications to solicit responses.

Oracle Workflow drives items or transactions of specific types through workflow processes. If, for example, you use the purchase order approval workflow process, the item type would be the purchase order. Purchase orders of one item type will comprise one specific purchase order. All items that have the same item type share the same set of attributes. Attributes consist of item-type data. Each item will have its own set of attribute values. In this purchase order example, attributes can be the purchase order number and supplier; values can be PO- 12345 and ABC Supplier.

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Work Flow in Oracle APPS

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The workflow process encompasses the entire process, from purchase

Work Flow in Oracle APPS

order creation to completion. A completed purchase order can be

approved, rejected, or cancelled. Oracle Workflow makes sure that the created purchase order is routed to the appropriate person(s) for approval and that the correct procedures are followed throughout the entire workflow process.

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Review Questions

1. What is a workflow?

2. What can a business process flow contain?

3. Why is Internet communication important in workflow management?

4. What information can be communicated through notifications?

5. What is the difference between a process and an activity?

Posted 3rd October 2012 by Krishnareddy

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