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CHNG 1
CAC KY THUAT C S VA CAC BO PHAN CHNH TRONG
HE THONG THONG TIN DI SO

I. CAC BO PHAN CHNH TRONG HE THONG THONG TIN DI ONG SO
1. Gii thieu
- Mang vien thong to ong la mot trong cac ng dung ky thuat vien thong co
nhu cau ln nhat va phat trien nhanh nhat.
- GSM (Global system for mobile communication he thong thong tin di ong
toan cau) vi tieu chuan thong so toan Chau Au mi, se giai quyet s han che dung
lng hien nay. Thc chat dung lng se tang 2 3 lan nh viec s dung tan so tot
hn va ky thuat o nho, do vay so thue bao phuc vu se tang len.
- Lu ong la hoan toan t ong, ban co the em may di ong cua mnh khi i
du lch va s dung mot nc khac. He thong se t ong cap nhat thong tin ve v tr
cua ban cho he thong tai nha ban. Ban cung co the goi i va nhan cuoc goi en ma
ngi goi khong can biet v tr cua ban. Ngoai tnh lu ong quoc te, tieu chuan
GSM con cung cap mot so tnh nang nh thong tin toc o cao, faxcimile va dch vu
thong bao ngan. Cac may ien thoai di ong se ngay cang nho hn va tieu thu t
cong suat hn cac the he trc chung.
- Tieu chuan GSM c thiet ke e co the ket hp vi ISDN va tng thch vi
moi trng di ong. Nh vay tnng tac gia hai tieu chuan nay am bao.
- Nam 1982 GSM bat au phat trien khi cac nc Bac Au gi e ngh en
CEPT e quy nh mot dch vu vien thong chung Chau Au 900MHz.
- T nam 1982 en nam 1985 ngi ta ban luan ve viec xay dng mot he
thong so hay tng t. Nam 1985 quyet nh he thong so. Bc tiep theo la chon la
giai phap bang hep va bang rong.
- Nam 1986 mot cuoc kiem tra ngoai hien trng a c to chc tai Paris cac
hang khac nhau a ua tai vi cac giai phap cua mnh.
- Thang 05/1987 giai phap TDMA bang hep c la chon, ong thi cac hang
khai thac a ky bien ban ghi nh MoU(Memorandem of Understanding) thc hien
cac quy nh a ha se co 1 GSM van hanh vao 01/07/91.
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- Ecrisson vi be day kinh nghiem trong viec thiet ke va san xuat he thong to
ong. He thong CME20 cho GSM c thiet ke tren c s chuyen mach so AXE10.
nc ta co hai he thong ien thoai di ong la Vinaphone, VMS.
- Ve chat lng
Chc nang au tien cua CME20 la cung cap mot dch vu ien thoai di ong
tin cay va chat lng tot. Cac the he may di ong khac nhau cung s dung nhieu loai
dch vu so lieu mi khong can mot modem rieng.
GSM viec ang ky thue bao c ghi modem nhan dang thue bao SIM
(Subscribe Identity Module) card thue bao co mot kch thc nh mot tam tn phieu.
Ban co the cam card thue bao cua mnh vao loai may GSM va ch mnh s dung no.
He thong kiem tra la ang ky thue bao ung va card khong b lay cap. Qua trnh nay
c t ong thc hien bang mot thu tuc nhan thc thong qua mot trung tam nhan
thc.
Tnh bao mat cung c tang cng nh viec s dung mot ma so e ngan
chan hoan toan viec nghe trom vo tuyen.
cac nc ieu kien tng oi tot, chat lng tieng GSM ngang bang vi
he thong tng t. Tuy nhien, cac ieu kien toi do tn hieu yeu hay do nhieu giao
thoa nang, GSM co chat lng tot hn.
Viec s dung cong nghe mi lam cac may ien thoai di ong nho va nhe hn,
s dung che ong ngh t ong lam cho tuoi tho ac qui dai hn.
Cau truc chung cua he thong GSM











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NSS: Mang va he thong con chuyen mach
BSS: He thong con tram goc
OSS: He thong con khai thac
MS: Tram di ong
Hnh 1.1: Cau truc chung cua GSM

1.1. He thong con chuyen mach (SS)
He thong con chuyen mach bao gom cac chc nang chuyen mach chnh cua
GSM cung nh c s d lieu can thiet cho so lieu thue bao va quan ly di ong cua
thue bao. Chc nang chnh cua SS la quan ly thong tin gia nhng ngi s dung
mang GSM vi nhau va vi mang khac.
1.1.1. MSC
SS chc nang chuyen mach chnh c MSC thc hien, nhiem vu chnh cua
MSC la ieu phoi viec thiet lap cuoc goi en nhng ngi s dung mang GSM. Mot
mat MSC giao tiep vi he thong con BSS, mat khac giao tiep vi mang ngoai. MSC
lam nhiem vu giao tiep vi mang ngoai goi la MSC cong. Viec giao tiep vi mang
ngoai e am bao thong tin cho nhng ngi s dung mang GSM oi hoi cong thch
ng (cac chc nang tng tac IWF: interworking function). SS cung can giao tiep
vi mang ngoai e s dung cac kha nang truyen tai cua cac mang nay cho viec
truyen tai so lieu cua ngi s dung hoac bao hieu gia cac phan t cua mang GSM.
Chang han SS co the s dung mang bao hieu kenh chung so 7 (CCS No), mang nay
am bao hoat ong tng tac gia cac phan t cua SS trong mot hay nhieu mang
GSM. MSC thng la mot tong ai ln ieu khien tram goc (BSC). Mot tong ai
MSC thch hp cho mot vung o th va ngoai o co dan c vao khoang mot trieu (vi
mat o thue bao trung bnh).
e ket noi MSC vi mot so mang khac can phai thch ng vi cac ac iem
truyen dan cua GSM vi cac mang nay. Cac thch ng nay c goi la cac chc
nang tng tac (IWF: interworking function) bao gom mot thiet b e thch ng giao
thc va truyen dan. No cho phep ket noi vi cac mang: PSPDN (mang so lieu cong
cong chuyen mach goi) hay CSPDN (mang so lieu cong cong chuyen mach theo
mach), no cung ton tai khi cac mang khac ch n thuan la PSTN hay ISDN. IWF co
the c thc hien trong cung chc nang MSC hay co the thiet b rieng, trng
hp hai giao tiep gia MSC va IWF c e m.
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1.1.2. HLR
Ngoai MSC, SS bao gom cac c s d lieu. Cac thong tin lien quan en viec
cung cap cac dch vu vien thong c lu gi HLR khong phu thuoc vao v tr hien
thi cua thue bao. HLR cung cha cac thong tin lien quan en v tr hien thi cua
thue bao. Thng HLR la mot may tnh ng rieng khong co kha nang chuyen mach
nhng co kha nang quan ly hang tram ngan thue bao. Mot chc nang con cua HLR
la nhan dang trung tam nhan thc AUC ma nhiem vu cua trung tam nay quan ly an
toan so lieu cua cac thue bao c phep.
1.1.3. VLR
VLR la c s d lieu th hai trong mang GSM. No c noi mot hay nhieu
MSC va co nhiem vu lu gi tam thi so lieu thue bao cua cac thue bao hien ang
nam trong vung phuc vu cua MSC tng ng va ong thi lu gi so lieu ve v tr
cua cac thue bao noi tren mc o chnh xac hn HLR.
Cac chc nang VLR thng c lien ket vi cac chc nang MSC.
1.1.4. GMSC
SS co the cha nhieu MSC, VLR, HLR. e thiet lap mot cuoc goi en ngi
s dung GSM, trc het cuoc goi phai c nh tuyen en mot tong ai cong c
goi la GMSC ma khong can biet en hien thi thue bao ang au.
- Cac tong ai cong co nhiem vu lay thong tin ve v tr cua thue bao va nh
tuyen cuoc goi en tong ai ang quan ly thue bao thi iem hien thi (MSC tam
tru).
- e vay, trc het cac tong ai cong phai da tren so thoai danh ba cua thue
bao e tm ung HLR can thiet va hoi HLR nay. Tong ai cong co mot giao dien vi
cac mang ben ngoai thong qua giao dien nay no lam nhiem vu cong e ket noi cac
mang ben ngoai vi mang GSM. Ngoai ra tong ai nay cung co giao dien bao hieu
so 7 (CCS No7) e co the tng tac phan t khac cua SS. Ve phng dien kinh te
khong phai bao gi tong ai cong cung ng rieng ma thng c ket hp vi
MSC.
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1.2. He thong con BSS
Co the noi BSS la mot he thong cac thiet b ac thu rieng cho cac tnh chat to
ong vo tuyen cua GSM. BSS giao dien trc tiep vi cac tram di ong (MS) thong
qua giao dien vo tuyen, v the no bao gom cac thiet b phat va thu ng vo tuyen
va quan ly cac chc nang nay. Mat khac BSS thc hien giao dien vi cac tong ai
SS. Tom lai BSS thc hien au noi cac MS vi cac ngi s dung vien thong khac.
BSS cung phai c ieu khien va v vay no c au noi vi CSS. Cac giao dien
ben ngoai cua BSS cho hnh 1.2.












NSS: Mang va he thong con chuyen mach
BSS: He thong con tram goc
OSS: He thong con khai thac
MS: Tram di ong
Hnh 1.2: Cac giao dien ngoai BSS

BSS bao gom hai loai thiet b: BTS giao dien vi MS va BSC giao dien vi
MSC.
Cau truc ben trong BSS c cho hnh 1.3.
Luong ieu khien
Luong lu lng
OSS
MS BSS NSS
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OSS
BSC NSS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BSS
Giao dien Abis
Giao dien A
Giao dien
Vo tuyen
Hnh 1.3: Cac phan t cua BSS

1.2.1. BTS
Mot BTS bao gom cac thiet b phat thu, anten va x ly tn hieu ac thu cho
giao dien vo tuyen. Co the coi BTS la cac modem vo tuyen phc tap co them mot so
cac chc nang khac. Mot bo phan quan trong cua BTS la TRAU (Transcoder and
rate adapter unit: khoi chuyen oi ma va thch ng toc o). TRAU la thiet b ma
o qua trnh ma hoa va giai ma tieng ac thu rieng cho GSM c tien hanh, ay
cung thc hien thch ng toc o trong trng hp truyen so lieu. TRAU la mot bo
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phan cua BTS, nhng cung co the at no cach xa BTS va tham ch trong nhieu
trng hp c at gia cac BSC va MSC.
1.2.2. BSC
BSC co nhiem vu qua ly tat ca giao dien vo tuyen thong qua cac lenh ieu
khien t xa BTS va MS. Cac lenh nay chu yeu la cac lenh an nh, giai phong kenh
vo tuyen va quan ly chuyen giao (handover). Mot pha BSC c noi vi BTS con
pha kia noi vi MSC cua SS. Trong thc te BSC la mot tong ai nho co kha nang
tnh toan ang ke. Vai tro chu yeu cua no la quan ly cac kenh giao dien vo tuyen
va chuyen giao (handover). Mot BSC trung bnh co the quan ly ti vai chuc BTS phu
thuoc vao lu lng cua cac BTS nay. Giao dien gia BSC vi MSC c goi la giao
dien A, con giao dien gia no vi BTS c goi la giao dien Abis.
1.3. Tram di ong MS
Tram di ong la thiet b duy nhat ma ngi s dung co the thng xuyen nhn
thay cua he thong. MS co the la thiet b at trong o to, thiet b xach tay hoac thiet b
cam tay. Loai thiet b cam tay se la thiet b tram di ong pho bien nhat. Ngoai viec
cha cac chc nang vo tuyen chung va x ly cho giao dien vo tuyen MS con phai
cung cap cac giao dien vi ngi s dung (nh: micro, loa, man hien th, ban phm
e quan ly cuoc goi) hoac giao dien vi mot so thiet b khac (nh: giao dien vi may
tnh ca nhan, fax). Hien nay ngi ta ang co gang san xuat cac thiet b au cuoi
gon nhe e au noi vi tram di ong. Viec la chon cac thiet b au cuoi hien e m
cho cac nha san xuat, ta co the liet ke ba chc nang chnh:
- Thiet b au cuoi thc hien cac chc nang khong lien quan en mang GSM:
Fax.
- Ket cuoi tram di ong thc hien cac chc nang lien quan en truyen dan
giao dien vo tuyen.
- Bo thch ng au cuoi lam viec nh mot ca noi thong thiet b au cuoi vi
ket cuoi di ong. Can s dung bo thch ng au cuoi khi giao dien ngoai tram di
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ong tuan theo tieu chuan ISDN e au noi au cuoi, con thiet b au cuoi lai co the
giao dien au cuoi modem. Cau truc chc nang cua tram di ong cho hnh 1.4.


au cuoi
di ong
au cuoi
di ong
Thch ng
au cuoi
Thiet b
au cuoi
Hnh 1.4: Cau truc chc nang mot tram di ong

1.4. He thong con khai thac OSS
OSS thc hien ba chc nang chnh sau:
- Khai thac va bao dng mang
- Quan ly thue bao va tnh cc
- Quan ly thiet b di ong
1.4.1. Khai thac va bao dng mang
- Khai thac la cac hoat ong cho phep nha khai thac mang theo doi hanh vi cua
mang nh: tai cua he thong, mc o chan, so lng chuyen giao (handover) gia 2
o, nh vay nha khai thac co the giam sat c toan bo chat lng cua dch vu ma
ho cung cap cho khach hang va kp thi x ly cac s co. Khai thac cung bao gom
viec thay oi cau hnh e giam nhng van e xuat hien thi iem hien thi, chuan
b tang lu lng trong tng lai e tang vung phu. Viec thay oi mang co the thc
hien mem qua bao hieu (chang han thay oi thong so handover e thay oi bien
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gii tng oi gia 2 o), hoac thc hien cng oi hoi s can thiep tai hien trng
(chang han bo sung them dung lng truyen dan hay lap at mot tram mi). he
thong vien thong hien ai khai thac c thc hien bang may tnh va c tap trung
mot tram.
- Bao dng co nhiem vu phat hien, nh v va sa cha cac s co, hong hoc.
No co mot so quan he vi khai thac. Cac thiet b mang vien thong hien ai co kha
nang t phat hien mot so s co hay d bao s co thong qua t kiem tra. Trong nhieu
trng hp ngi ta d phong cho thiet b e khi co s co co the thay the bang thiet
b d phong. S thay the nay ch co the thc hien t ong, ngoai ra viec giam nhe s
co co the c ngi khac thc hien bang ieu khien t xa. Bao dng cung bao
gom cac hoat ong tai hien trng nham thay the thiet b co s co.
- He thong khai thac va bao dng co the c xay dng tren nguyen ly TMN
(Telecommunication management Network: mang quan ly vien thong). Luc nay mot
mat he thong khai thac va bao dng c noi en cac phan t cua mang vien thong
(cac MSC, BSC, HLR va cac phan t mang khac tr BTS, v tham nhap en BTS
c thc hien qua BSC). Mat khac he thong khai thac va bao dng lai noi en mot
may tnh chu ong vai tro giao tiep ngi may theo tieu chuan GSM goi la OMC
(Operation and maintenance center: trung tam khai thac va bao dng).
1.4.2. Quan ly thue bao
Bao gom cac hoat ong quan ly ang ky thue bao. Nhiem vu au tien la nhap
va xoa thue bao khoi mang. ang ky thue bao cung co the rat phc tap bao gom
nhieu dch vu va cac tnh nang bo sung. Nha khai thac co the tham nhap c tat ca
cac thong so noi tren. Mot nhiem vu quan trong khac cua khai thac co the tham
nhap c tat ca cac thong so noi tren, mot nhiem vu quan trong khac cua khai thac
la tnh cc cac cuoc goi. Quan ly thue bao mang GSM ch lien quan en HLR va
mot so thiet b OSS rieng chang han mang noi HLR vi cac thiet b giao tiep ngi
may cac trung tam giao dch vi thue bao. Sim card cung ong vai tro nh mot bo
phan cua he thong quan ly thue bao.
1.4.3. Quan ly thiet b di ong
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Quan ly thiet b di ong c bo ang ky nhan dang thiet b EIR (Equipment
Idnetity Register) thc hien. EIR lu gi tat ca cac gi lieu lien quan en tram di
ong MS. EIR c noi en MSC qua ng bao hieu e kiem tra s c phep cua
thiet b. Mot thiet b khong c phep se b cam.
Lu y: Khac vi thiet b, s c phep cua thue bao c AUC xac nhan. GSM
EIR c coi la he thong con SS.
S o mo hnh cua he thong GSM cho hnh 1.5.


AUC
HLR
MSC
EIR VLR
BSC
BTS
MS
OMC
IDNS
PSPDN
CSPDN
PSTN
PLMN
Truyen bao
hieu
l
SS
BSS
AUC: Trung tam nhan thc
VLR: Bo ghi nh v tr tam tru
MSC: Trung tam chuyen mach cac dch vu
di ong
BTS: Tram thu phat goc
SS: He thong con chuyen mach
ISND: Mang lien ket so a dch vu
CSPDN: Mang so lieu cong cong chuyen
HLR: Bo ghi nh v thng tru
EIR: Bo ghi nhan dang thiet b
BSC: Bo ieu khien tram goc
MS: Tram di ong
OMC: Trung tam khai thac va bao dng
BSS: He thong con tram goc
PSPDN: Mang so lieu cong cong chuyen
mach goi
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mach theo mach
PLMN: mang di ong cong cong mat at

PSTN: Mang ien thoai chuyen mach cong
cong

Hnh 1.5: Mo hnh cua he thong GSM

II. CAC KY THUAT C S TRONG HE THONG THONG TIN DI ONG SO
1. Giao dien vo tuyen va truyen dan
1.1. Giao dien vo tuyen
Trong GSM, giao dien radio s dung tong hp ca hai phng thc phan kenh
theo tan so va thi gian: FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access) ca TDMA
(Time Division Multiple Access). Trong FDMA, GSM s dung cac bang tan tai 900
Mhz (goi la GSM 900) va 1800 Mhz (goi la GSM 1800). e n gian hoa ch e cap
en GSM 900. Moi kenh c ac trng b mot tan so (song mang) goi la kenh tan
so RFCH (Radio chanel) cho moi hng thu phat, cac tan so nay cach nhau 200
MHz. Trong GSM 900, MS s dung 124 RFCH trong day tan 25Mhz (t 890 en 915
MHz) va BTS s dung 124 RFCH trong day tan t 935 en 960 Mhz e phat (tat
nhien MS phat th BTS thu va ngc lai). Tai moi tan so TDMA lai chia thanh 8 khe
thi gian (time slot) tc la so kenh c tang len 8 lan. Trong tng lai, so khe se
c tang len la 16. Mot cap RFCH (thu va phat) tai mot khe thi gian c goi la
mot kenh vat ly. Mot kenh c s dung e truyen mot nhom nhat nh tham so
thong tin c goi la kenh logic (logical chanel). Moi kenh vat ly c gan cho mot
hoac mot so kenh logic. Cac kenh c chia thanh 2 loai:
- Kenh dung e tai thong tin cua thue bao, nh thoai, so lieu c goi la kenh
traffic TCH (traffic chanel). Co 2 loai toc o truyen tren TCH la toc o ay u (full
rate) THC/F la loai toc o ang c s dung hien nay va toc o bang mot na (half
rate) TCH/H se c s dung trong tng lai.
- Kenh ieu khien CCH (control chanel) c s dung e truyen thong tin bao
hieu cac thong tin quan ly giao dien Um.
1.2. Nguyen ly lap mo hnh
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Mang GSM am bao truyen dan a dch vu. Nhieu thong tin khac nhau c
truyen dan trong mang nay nh: thong tin thoai, cac dang thong tin so lieu khac (van
ban, hnh anh fax, cac file may tnh, ban tin va cac ban tin bao hieu ben trong mang.
e lap mo hnh truyen dan ta co the s dung cau truc phan lp nh hnh 1.6.








Nut cuoi Nut trung gian Nut cuoi
Mc thap
Mc cao
ng truyen
Hnh 1.6: Cau truc phan lp

Truc ng cua hnh ve the hien cac lp khac nhau cua mo hnh. Lp thap nhat
tng ng vi thong tin tho, con lp cao nhat tng ng vi thong tin a c tinh
che cho ngi s dung. Truc ngang tng ng vi ng truyen dan. Cac thiet b
khac co the c s dung tren ng truyen dan nay. Cac thiet b nay khong nhat
thiet phai biet ay u thong tin ma no truyen. Chang han cac nut trung gian khong
can thiet ay u ng ngha thong tin cua lp cao nhat. Nh vay co the n gian hoa
cac tieu chuan cac giao dien bang cach ch xet cac thuoc tnh lien quan en viec
tryen tai thong tin.
1.3. Truyen dan thong tin t au cuoi nay en au cuoi kia cua mang GSM
Xet qua trnh truyen dan cac thong tin thoai cung nh phi thoai gia ngi s
dung GSM vi ngi s dung GSM khac hay vi ngi s dung mang ien thoai co
nh cong cong PSTN, mang so lien ket a dch vu ISDN, mang so lieu cong cong
chuyen mach goi PSPDN va mang so lieu cong cong chuyen mach theo mach
CSPDN.
1.3.1. Truyen dan tieng (thoai)
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Truyen dan tieng gia mot thue bao GSM va mot thue bao PSTN. Co the c
trnh bay theo cau truc nhieu mat phang truyen dan vi moi mat phang the hien mot
dang tn hieu nh hnh 1.7.


Hnh 1.7: Trnh bay tieng

T hnh ta thay tn hieu phat ra t mieng cua thue bao di ong dang am
thanh c bien oi vao tn hieu so 13 kbit/s sau cac qua trnh bien oi so khac nhau
no ieu che song mang c phat vao khong trung c thu lai anten BTS, c
x ly e khoi phuc lai tn hieu so ban au, c bo oi ma tieng bien oi vao tn
hieu 64 kbit/s cho phu hp vi tong ai so c chuyen mach en thue bao PSTN
c bien oi vao tn hieu tng t va cuoi cung c bien oi ngc tr lai thanh
am thanh en tai nghe thue bao PSTN.
1.3.2. Cac dch vu phi thoai
Cac dch vu phi thoai nay hay con goi la cac dch vu truyen so lieu bao gom
viec trao oi cac thong tin khac nhau sau ay: van ban, cac ban ve, cac file may
tnh, cac hnh anh ong, cac ban tin. Mot so bo phan quan trong cua cac thong tin
Mat phang am thanh
Mat phang tng t
Mat phang so 13 kbit/s
Mat phang so 64 kbit/s
Bo
BTS
chuyen
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nay c x ly cac thiet b au cuoi (cac thiet b nay co the rat phc tap, chang
han server videotex hay he thong x ly ban tin). Cac chc nang x ly cua cac thiet
b au cuoi nh sau:
- Ma hoa nguon: bien oi van ban, hnh anh, am thanh thanh cac ch so c hai
va ngc lai.
- Giao thc gia 2 au cuoi cho thong tin: to chc trang phien va ngon ng.
- The hien thong tin cho ngi s dung bang hien th tao am, in an Cac thiet
b au cuoi co the la may fax, may tnh ca nhan, au cuoi may tnh, videotex..v.v..
Ta xet kha nang mang gia cac thiet b au cuoi. Bien gii gia GSM trong
trng hp nay co the la: PSTN (mang ien thoai chuyen mach cong cong), ISDN
(mang so lien ket a dch vu), PSPDN (mang so lieu cong cong chuyen mach goi),
CSPDN (mang s dung truyen dan bang mach) va thiet b au cuoi. e ket noi GSM
vi the gii ben ngoai ta s dung 2 chc nang:
- Chc nang tng tac mang IWF e ket noi GSM vi mang khac.
- Chc nang thch ng au cuoi TAF e thch ng thiet b au cuoi vi phan
truyen dan vo tuyen chung.
Cac thiet b gia TAF va IWF khong lien quan en dch vu gia cac au cuoi
va c goi la kha nang mang. Tr fax, cac chc nang thch ng phuc thuoc vao cac
kha nang mang va mang so ben ngoai.
1.4. Truyen dan ben trong GSM
Phan ben trong cua mang truyen dan GSM nam gia mot iem nao o ben
trong tram di ong (ben trong TAF oi vi truyen so lieu hay ni ma tieng la mot
tn hieu am thanh oi vi truyen tieng) va iem tng tac gia GSM vi cac mang
ben ngoai. Vay ta co the coi truyen dan ben trong GSM c gii han bi TAF va
IWF.
* Cau truc
Trc het ta khao sat cac chc nang c at bien gii cua GSM (IWF 1
pha, con pha kia la TAF) sau o se khao sat cac phan ben trong GSM.
IWF la tap hp cac chc nang thc hien cac thch ng can thiet gia GSM va
cac mang ben ngoai. Chc nang IWF rat han che vi au noi tieng PSTN hoac cac
14
Luan van tot nghiep
so lieu c ban vi ISDN. Tuy nhien cac trng hp khac chang han fax chc nang
nay rat phat trien. IWF la mot chc nang nam mot ni nao o gia MSC va mang
ben ngoai. IWF co the la mot bo phan nam trong MSC hoac nam rieng.
Bay gi ta hay xet tram di ong. Ton tai nhieu cau hnh khac nhau cua tram
di ong (hnh 1.8).

Thiet b
au cuoi
Thiet b
au cuoi
Tram di ong (kieu 0)
au cuoi di
ong (kieu 2)
au cuoi di
ong (kieu 1)
Giao dien au cuoi vi modem
Thch ng au cuoi
Giao dien ISDN S
Hnh 1.8: Cac cau hnh cua tram di ong

MTO la cau hnh n gian nhat, ay tat ca cac chc nang chung, thiet b au
cuoi, cac chc nang thch ng c ket hp chung vao mot thiet b. Hien nay cau
hnh nay chu yeu cho tieng. Cac tram di ong to hp nh the nay cho cac dch vu so
lieu khac (chang han cho fax) se xuat hien trong tng lai. MT2, TAF va cac giao
dien vi thiet b au cuoi / modem kinh ien c ket hp vi cac chc nang chung
ME trong mot thiet b. MT1 s dung giao dien ISDN S e au noi trc tiep au
cuoi ISDN. e co the au noi au cuoi s dung giao dien au cuoi modem kinh ien
can s dung them bo thch ng au cuoi.
1 LPF
A/D
Bo ma hoa
BTS
RA 1
RA 2
RA0
Lay mau
Toc o d bo ban au
Chang han: 300 hay 9600 bit/s
ong bo
B
Toc o trung gian
(8hay 16 kbit/s)
15
Luan van tot nghiep
a) Truyen dan tieng
Co the chia ng truyen dan tieng ben trong GSM thanh cac oan sau:
- Tram di ong
- T tram di ong en tram goc
- T tram goc BTS en bo chuyen oi ma rieng (TRAU)
- T TRAU en MSC (hay IWF)
Tram di ong
Ma hoa tieng tram di ong co the thc hien toc o 13 kbit/s. S o ma hoa
tieng GSM toc o 13kbit/s. Ma hoa nay cho phep nhan c chat lng nh mang
co nh nhng oi hoi o rong pho tan vo tuyen hep hn.
Tn hieu tieng MS c a qua bo loc thong thap, qua bo bien oi A/D e
c ma hoa PCM (ieu xung ma) ong eu vi tan so lay mau 8Khz va 13 bit ma
hoa cho 1 mau sau o tn hieu nay c a len bo bien oi tng t so (A/D).
au ra cua bo A/D ta c cac khoi 20 ms ma hoa 200 bit lam cho toc o luong ra 13
kbit/s (hnh 1.9).




1 LPF
A/D
Bo ma hoa
BTS
Hnh 1.9: Qua trnh ma hoa tieng GSM ( MS)

Truyen tieng oan t tram di ong MS en tram goc BTS.
Tn hieu sau khi ma hoa c a en bo ma hoa kenh e tao ra cac khoi 456
bit/20ms vi toc do khoang 22,8 kbit/s sau o c ghep xen, mat ma hoa va tao
thanh cac cum e co the at vao khe thi gian danh cho kenh va sau cung c ieu
che roi phat vao khong trung dai song 900MHz. au thu thc hien qua trnh
ngc lai e nhan tn hieu tieng ma hoa nh au phat trc khi a vao bo giai
ieu che.
Truyen tieng tren oan t BTS TRAU.
oan nay neu TRAU at xa se co them bao hieu bo sung vao tieng e
truyen cac thong tin ieu khien TRAU t bo ieu khien chuyen oi ma t xa RTH
16
Luan van tot nghiep
(Remote trancoder handler) at BTS en TRAU BSC. Se co 60 bit bo sung vao
260 bit tieng trong 20 ms nang tong so bit trong 20 ms len 320 bit va toc o cua
luong so cho moi kenh se at 16 kbit/s. Trong so 60 bit bo sung se co 4 bit e trong
e phan gia cac khung 20ms. Nh vay trong mot khung 20ms ch co 316 bit mang
thong tin.
Truyen dan tren oan TRAU at xa ( BSC) en MSC/IWF
oan nay s dung cac ng truyen dan 64 kbit/s luat A theo tieu chuan
G.711.
b) Truyen dan so lieu
oi vi truyen dan so lieu ben trong GSM co the coi mang nay nh la mot
DTE phan bo, con mang ben ngoai nh la DCE. Cac giao dien DTE/DCE c thc
hien cac TAF, TRAU va IWF. e xay dng cac giao dien nay GSM cai tien
khuyen ngh V110 danh cho giao dien DTE/DCE trong trng hp DCE la mang
ISDN. V vay e hieu c truyen dan so lieu trong mang GSM trc het ta xet tieu
chuan V110.
Tieu chuan V110
Tieu chuan nay giai quyet cac van e sau:
- Truyen tai cac thong tin bo sung.
- Truyen tai cac so lieu d bo cac ng truyen ong bo.
- Truyen tai cac so lieu ong bo cac ng truyen ong bo s dung ong ho
oc lap vi nhau.
S o khoi thc hien thch ng toc o RA cua luong so lieu can truyen vi
ISDN, cho hnh 1.10.







17
RA 1
RA 2

Lay mau
Toc o d bo ban au
Chang han: 300 hay 9600
ong bo

em
em
B
Toc o trung gian
(8hay 16 kbit/s)

Luan van tot nghiep


Hnh 1.10: Thch ng toc o ISDN

- Chuyen oi so lieu d bo vao ong bo.
Chc nang nay c thc hien RAO. Luong so lieu d bo la mot chuoi cac
ky t thng c kh au bang 1 bit start va ket thuc bang 1 bit stop. luong
nay khong can thiet cac bit bien phai trung vi sn trc cua xung ong ho. RAO
co the loai bo bit stop e am bao ong ho (hnh 1.11).






Luong d bo
Luong ong bo
Bo mot tn hieu dng

Hnh 1.11: Chc nang RAO

- ieu khien ong ho t xa
Toc o truyen dan trong mang so chang han ISDN c ieu khien bi ong
ho cua mang. Trng hp mot au cuoi c au qua mang PSTN th toc o gia hai
au cuoi co the khac nhau. Trong trng hp nay khoi thch ng toc o phai gi i
thong tin e hieu chnh toc o cho au kia cac thong tin nay co the c gi i cac
bit E4, E5, E6, trong luong so ra cua RA1.
- Cac tn hieu bo sung
ay la cac tn hieu ieu khien modem. V101 cac tn hieu bo sung ch gii
han hai tn hieu hng au cuoi (DTE) en modem (DCE) va 3 tn hieu theo hng
ngc lai. Tuy theo toc o bit cua luong so lieu c s 8 bit, tn hieu nay c truyen
18
Luan van tot nghiep
i trong cac khoang thi gian 5 hay 10 ms. Bang 1.12 di ay a ra cac tn hieu
khac nhau noi tren va toc o lay mau chung.
Bang 1.12: Truyen tai cac tn hieu ieu khien modem V110.
au cuoi en modem Modem en au cuoi Toc o lay mau trung bnh
Trang thai mach 108
(Data terminal ready)
Trang thai mach 107 (Data
set ready)
1,25 ms hay 2,5 ms
Trang thai mach 105
(Request to send)
Trang thai mach 109 (Data
carrier detect)
2,5 ms hay 5 ms
Trang thai mach 108
(Clear to send)
2,5 ms hay 5 ms

Y ngha cua cac tn hieu ieu khien bang 1.12 nh sau:
- Data terminal ready: Thong bao cho modem rang bo ieu khien au cuoi
san sang thong tin.
- Data set ready: Ch th rang modem san sang thiet lap ng noi thong tin va
truyen so lieu vi bo ieu khien cua au cuoi.
- Request to send: Thong bao cho modem rang bo ieu khien san sang gi so
lieu.
- Data carrier detect: Ch th rang modem a phat hien ra song mang so lieu.
- Clear to send: Modem san sang phat.
Cac thong tin nay V110 c ghep vao luong so c s chc nang thch ng
toc o, RA1, cac bt thong tin bo sung luong ra RA1 c cho bang 1.13.
Bang 1.13: Cac bit thong tin bo sung V110
Ten bit Thong tin c truyen Chu thch
S1, S3, S6, S8
(hay SA)
Trang thai mach 108 (Data terminal ready)
hay 107 (Datta set ready) phu thuoc vao
phng truyen.

S4, S9 Trang thai mach 105 (Requset to send hay
109 (Data carrier detect) phu thuoc hng
truyen

19
Luan van tot nghiep
x Trang thai 106 (Clear to send) Gi 2 lan trong mot
khung
E1, E2, E3 Toc o bit thc Bieu thc toc o bit
gia hai au cuoi
E4, E5, E6 ong ho mang oc lap (c s dung
trong cac trng hp ong bo e ieu
khien ong ho t xa khi cac modem khong
c ong bo mang truyen tai
Cac ma nay lam
nhanh hay cham ong
ho bang cach bo qua
hay chen bit

T hnh 1.10 ta thay RA0 thc hien bien oi luong so lieu khong ong bo vao
luong ong bo, au ra cua bo nay ta c cac luong ong bo RA1 thc hien thch
ng toc o lan th nhat. ay no ghep cac bit bo sung vi luong c s e tao thanh
cac luong so co toc o 8 kbit/s (cho luong c s co toc o 4800 kbit/s) va 16 kbit/s
(cho luong c s co toc o 9600 bit/s). oi vi cac luong so co toc o nho hn 4800
kbit/s cac bit c phat lap lai e at c toc o danh nh 4800 kbit/s. Cac khung
RA1 co o lau 5 ms cho 9600 kbit/s va 10 ms cho 4800 kbit/s. cac khung nay cac
bit thong tin c s, cac bit bo sung va cac bit ong bo c ghep chung e at c
toc o 16 va 8 kbit/s. T bang 1.12 ta thay co 15 bit thong tin bo sung va 17 bit ong
bo c ghep vao moi khung RA2 thc hien bien oi cac toc o 16 va 8 kbit/s vao
64 kbit/s cho phu hp vi mang ISDN. Viec bien oi nay c thc hien bang cach
ghep 6 hoac 7 bit 1 vao moi byte.
Cac au noi cho truyen so lieu ben trong mang GSM
Ta xet hai cach au noi so lieu cho mang GSM: au noi trong suot T
(Transparent) va au noi khong trong suot NT (Non transparent). cach au noi th
hai thong tin c phat lai moi khi au kia thu c so lieu sai.
20
Luan van tot nghiep
au noi T: S o thch ng toc o cho au noi T c cho hnh 1.14
Toc o d bo ban au
Chang han: 300 hay 9600
ong bo

RA
2

Lay
em
B
Toc o trung
gian
RA
TA
M
T
Toc o so lieu
trung gian
3,6:6 hay 12 kbit/s
em
BTS+TRA
U
64

Hnh 1.14: Thch ng toc o GSM


RA0 co nhiem vu bien oi luong so d bo vao ong bo. RA1 ghep luong so c
s vi cac tn hieu bo sung e tao thanh cac luong so 12 kbit/s (cho toc o luong c
s 9600 kbit/s), 6 kbit/s (cho toc o luong c s 4800 kbit/s) c phat lap cac bt
thong tin e at c toc o nh danh la 2400 bit/s va 1,2 kbit/s bo sung se c a
them vao e c toc o 3,6 kbit/s. Luong 12 kbit/s c chia thanh cac khung co o
lau la 5 ms, moi khung cha 60 bit trong o co 48 bit t luong c s va 12 bit bo
sung. Cac bit bo sung bao gom cac bit thong tin bo sung cho cho bang 1.13 tr cac
bit E1, E2, E3 mang thong tin ve toc o v mc o thong tin nay c truyen rieng
theo ng bao hieu e thiet lap ng truyen. Luong 6 kbit/s c chia thanh cac
khung 10ms, moi khung co 60 bit vi 48 bit c s va 12 bit bo sung nh trng hp
tren. Luong 3,6 kbit/s bao gom cac khung 10 ms vi 36 bit trong moi khung. Trong
o 24 bit danh cho luong c s con 12 bit danh cho thong tin bo sung. Nh co cac toc
o bit thap hn 8 va 16 kbit/s so vi trng hp ISDN, ta nhan c cac v tr bit d
e thc hien ma hoa kenh cho cac khoi 20ms giao dien vo tuyen. ay la van e
ac biet quan trong truyen dan vo tuyen v truyen dan ay co chat lng xau hn
cac ng day co nh neu khong co cac bien phap bao ve chong loi.
21
Luan van tot nghiep
RA1 co nhiem vu bien oi cac luong toc o trung gian 3,6 kbit/s, 6 kbit/s, 12
kbit/s vao hai luong toc o trung gian 8 hoac 16 kbit/s, viec bien oi nay c thc
hien bang cach chen them cac bt ong bo vao cac khung RA1 thng c at
BTS.
1.5. Nguyen ly a tham nhap
Ton tai ba phng phap a tham nhap: a tham nhap phan chia theo tan so, a
tham nhap phan chia theo thi gian, a tham nhap phan chia theo ma. Nguyen ly a
tham nhap nay c cho hnh 1.15. phng phap a tham nhap phan chia theo
tan so (FDMA) moi tram di ong danh rieng mot kenh vi mot cap tan so e tham
nhap en tram goc (BTS), phng phap a tham nhap phan chia theo thi gian
(TDMA) cac tram di ong s dung chung mot kenh tan so nhng ch c tham nhap
en tram goc cac khoang thi gian khac nhau, phng phap a tham nhap phan
chia theo ma(CDMA) cac tram di ong eu dung chung mot bang tan nhng s dung
cac ma khac nhau e tham nhap en tram goc.
GSM s dung ket hp cac phng phap FDMA va TDMA.
22
Luan van tot nghiep
Hnh 1.15: Nguyen ly a tham nhap
a) a tham nhap phan chia theo tan so (FDMA)
b) a tham nhap phan chia theo thi gian (TDMA)
c) a tham nhap phan chia theo ma (CDMA)
23
Luan van tot nghiep
1.5.1. Cac kenh tan so c s dung GSM
Cac kenh tan so c s dung GSM nam trong day tan so quy nh 900Mhz
xac nh theo cong thc sau:
F
L
= 890,2 + 0,2. (n-1) Mhz
F
u
= FL

(n) + 45 Mhz
1 n 124
T cong thc tren F
L
la tan so na bang thap, F
U
la tan so na bang cao,
0,2Mhz la khoang cach gia cac kenh lan can, 45Mhz la khoang cach thu phat, n so
kenh tan vo tuyen.
Ta thay tong so kenh tan so co the to chc cho mang GSM la 124 kenh. e
cho cac kenh lan can khong gay nhieu cho nhau moi BTS phu mot o cua mang phai
s dung cac tan so cach xa nhau va cac o s dung cac tan so giong nhau hoac gan
giong nhau cung phai xa nhau.
1.5.2. To chc a tham nhap bang cach ket hp gia FDMA va TDMA
Truyen dan vo tuyen GSM c chia thanh cac cum (BURST) cha hang
tram bit a c ieu che. Moi cum c phat i trong mot khe thi gian co o lau
la 15/26s (577 ms) mot trong kenh tan so co o rong 200 Khz noi tren. S o mo
ta cach ket hp FDMA va TDMA c cho hnh 1.16. Moi mot kenh tan so cho
phep to chc cac khung tham nhap theo thi gian, moi khung bao gom 8 khe thi
gian t 0 7 (TS0, TS1,...TS7).



Tan so
(


7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2






PDMA
200 Khz
Cum khe thi


ian 15/26 s
Thi
gian
g
Hnh 1.16: a tham nhap ket hp FDMA va TDMA

24
Luan van tot nghiep
1.1. Qua trnh x ly cac tn hieu so va bien oi vao song vo tuyen
Qua trnh nay c trnh bay lp vat ly 1 trong cac khuyen ngh cua GSM.

Hnh 1.17: X ly tn hieu so va bien oi vao song vo tuyen MS.

1.5.1. Cac kenh vat ly
Cac kenh vat ly la mot khe thi gian mot tan so vo tuyen danh e truyen tai
thong tin ng vo tuyen GSM. Nh phan tren a noi GSM s dung bang tan
sau:
890 915 Mhz ng len (MS phat)
935 960 Mhz ng xuong (BTS phat)
Khoang cach gia cac song mang la 200 KHz.
Trong tng lai khi m rong en he thong DCS 1800 bang tan c s dung se
la:
1710 1785 Mhz ng len
1805 1880 Mhz ng xuong
e am bao cac quy nh ve tan so ben ngoai bang phai co mot khoang bao
ve gia cac bien cua bang (200 KHz). V the GSM 900 ta co 124 kenh tan so vo
tuyen bat au t 8972 Mhz va DCS 1800 ta co 374 kenh tan so vo tuyen bat au t
1710,2 MHz.
Moi mot kenh tan so vo tuyen c to chc thanh cac khung TDMA co 8 khe
thi gian. Mot khe thi gian bat au co o lau 15/26 s. 8 khe thi gian cua 1 khung
25
Luan van tot nghiep
TDMA co o lau gan bang 4,62 ms. BTS cac khung TDMA tat ca cac kenh tan
so tren ng xuong ng ong bo. ong bo cung c ap dung nh vay vi ng
len. Tuy nhien, khi au cua khung TDMA ng len tre mot khoang thi gian co
nh 3 khe. Ly do tre e cho phep MS s dung cung mot khe thi gian ca ng
len lan ng xuong ma khong phai thu phat ong thi. S tre noi tren c mo ta
hnh 1.18.

ng xuong KTS
Khung
TDMA
Khung
TDMA
Khung
TDMA
ng xuong
KTS
Khung
TDMA
Khung
TDMA
Khung
TDMA
ng len KTS
Khung
TDMA
Khung
TDMA
Khung
TDMA
ng len KTS
Khung
TDMA
Khung
TDMA
Khung
TDMA

3TS

Hnh 1.18: Cac khung TDMA

1.5.2. Cac kenh logic
Cac kenh logic c ac trng bi thong tin truyen gia BTS va MS. Cac kenh
logic nay c at vao cac kenh vat ly noi tren.
Co the chia cac kenh logic thanh 2 loai tong quat: cac kenh lu lng va cac
kenh bao hieu ieu khien. Cac kenh lu lng gom 2 loai c nh ngha nh sau:
- Bm hay TCH toan toc (TCH/F), kenh nay mang thong tin tieng hoac so lieu
toc o khoang 22,8 kbit/s.
- Lm hay TCH bao toc (TCH/H) kenh nay mang thong tin toc o vao khoang
11,4 kbit/s. Cac kenh bao hieu ieu khien chia lam 3 loai: cac kenh ieu khien
quang ba, cac kenh ieu khien chung va danh rieng.
1.5.3. Ma hoa kenh
Ma hoa kenh c s dung e phat hien va hieu chnh loi trong luong bit thu
e giam t so bit loi BER. e at c ieu nay ngi ta bo sung cac bit d vao
luong thong tin. Ton tai hai dang ma kenh khac nhau: ma tuyen tnh va ma xoan.
26
Luan van tot nghiep

1.5.4. Mat ma hoa
Mot trong cac u iem ln cua he thong truyen dan so la de dang bao ve tn
hieu nay khoi s can thiep cua ngi th ba khong c phep bang cach mat ma hoa
tn hieu so. GSM phng phap mat ma hoa khong phu thuoc vao dang so lieu
c phat, nhng ch ap dung cho cac cum bnh thng.
Mat ma hoa tn hieu at c bang thao tac hoac loai tr (XOR) gia mot
chuoi ngau nhien vi 114 bit cua cum bnh thng, ngha la vi tat ca cac bit thong
tin tr cac c lay cap bang 1.19. e giai mat ma ngi ta thc hien thao tac hoac
loai tr (XOR) gia tn hieu thu vi chuoi ngau nhien.
Bang 1.19: Nguyen ly mat ma va giai ma tn hieu so
010010111001 Tn hieu so
001011001110 Chuoi mat ma
011001110111 Tn hieu a ma hoa

Chuoi ngau nhien c tao ra t so khung va khoa mat ma K
c
theo thuat
toan A5 (hnh 1.20). Khoa K
c
giong nhau gia thu va phat, so khung thay oi t cum
nay en cum khac, vay moi cum cua mot cuoc thong tin trong mot hng se s dung
chuoi mat ma khac nhau. Thuat toan A5 nh nhau cho mang GSM toan cau v phai
am bao kha nang chuyen mang MS 22 bit so khung ket hp vi 64 bit K
c
theo thuat
toan A5 e tao ra chuoi ngau nhien 144 bit.
27
Luan van tot nghiep


A5
So
khung
Kc (64
S1
(114
S2
(114
Mat ma
Giai mat MS
A5
So
khung
Kc (64
S1
(114
S2
(114
Giai mat
Mat ma BTS










Hnh 1.20: Nguyen ly mat ma va giai mat ma
1.5.5. o va nhay tan
c) o
Trong qua trnh cua mot cuoc goi tram di ong lien tuc bao cao cng o tn
hieu cua cac BTS lan can cho he thong. o cng o tn hieu cua cac BTS lan can
c tram di ong thc hien khi no khong ban lam cac cong viec khac, ngha la
trong khoang thi gian gia phat va thu khe thi gian danh cho no (hnh 1.21).
Cng o tn hieu cua BTS phuc vu tram di ong c o khi thu khe thi gian
danh cho MS. MS c thong bao phai o cac song mang BCCH nao qua thong tin
he thong SACCH. e am bao o ung BTS can thiet, MS phai xac nh c nhan
dang cua BTS nay. Nhan dang cua BTS c cho bi gia tr BSIC c phat tren
SCH TSO/C
o
. V the trong thi gian khung roi a khung cho TCH (26 khung
TDMA). MS phai kiem tra BSIC cua cac tram BTS lan can. MS ch o cng o tn
hieu tng ng vi 6 BSIC cua cac BTS lan can.
Cac hoat ong khac nhau cua MS c ky hieu hnh 1.21 nh sau:
1. MS thu va o tn hieu BTS ang phuc vu no (TS2)
2. MS phat
3. MS o cng o tn hieu mot trong cac o lan can
4. MS oc BSIC tren SCH (TS0) cho mot trong so cac o manh nhat.
28
Luan van tot nghiep
Neu MS khong ong bo vi o ma no muon nhan dang. Th no khong tm c
TS0 mang BCCH. V the no phai o khoang thi gian t nhat la 8 khe thi gian e
am bao xac nh chac chan TS0 mang BCCH.

29

Hnh 1.21: Nguyen ly o cua MS

* Cac a khung trt
51 khung = 235,4 ms
BCCH +CCCH

Luan van tot nghiep

Hnh 1.22 : Cac a khung trt

MS ch oc TS0 cha u, no phai tm c SCH khe nay. Ta nh lai rang a
khung cha SCH c to chc sao cho c 10 khung th co 1 SCH, v vay xac suat MS
thu c khung ung cha BSIC ch la 10%. e giai quyet van e nay cac a khung
TCH trt so vi cac a khung TCH cha 26 khung IDLE se trt len tat ca cac
kenh ieu khien TS0 va cuoi cung no se gap c SCH.
Hnh 1.22 cho thay qua trnh c goi la a khung trt. Hai mui ten s o
anh dau hai trng hp khung IDLE a khung TCH gap SCH a khung ieu
khien. Lu y rang cuoi a khung ieu khien SCH khong xuat hien 10 khung mot
lan v ay moi khung IDLE c a vao, v vay trong trng hp xau nhat viec
xac nh BSIC rat tre.
MS phai co kha nang giai quyet ma BSIC cho 6 o manh nhat trong 10 giay
tham ch trong trng hp xau nhat oi vi 6 o lan can MS van phai ma tat ca 6
BSIC trong 10 giay.
d) Nhay tan
Kha nang nhay tan c ngi khai thac mang s dung hoac tren toan bo
mang hoac mot phan mang. Muc ch chnh cua tnh nang nay la am bao s phan
tap ng truyen dan (ac biet tang hieu qua cua ma hoa kenh va ghep xen oi
vi MS chuyen ong cham) va trung bnh hoa t so tn hieu tren nhieu (C/I) e am
bao t so nay ln hn mc ngng. Nguyen nhan ly nhay tan nh sau: mot khe thi
gian tram di ong phat mot tan so, sau o no chuyen sang phat mot tan so khac
mot khe thi gian sau Nhay tan so xay ra gia cac khe thi gian v the no co toc o
217 lan trong 1 giay. Cac tan so phat va thu luon luon song cong (cach nhau 45
MHz) ngha la cac ng len va ng xuong s dung cung mot chuoi day tan.
Chuoi day tan trong mot o hoan toan trc giao ngha la khong xay ra va cham gia
cac thong tin. Cac chuoi nay cung oc lap vi cac o ong kenh (s dung cung tap
30
Luan van tot nghiep
tan so). Chuoi nhay tan c MS tnh toan tren cac thong so nhan c t BTS moi
khi thay oi kenh (an nh ban au va handover) nh sau:
- An nh o (CA: Cell Allocation): danh sach cac kenh vo tuyen roi trong o.
- An nh di ong (MA: Mobile Allocation): danh sach cac kenh danh cho MS
e nhay tan, ay la mot tap con cua CA (cc ai 64), trng hp khong nhay tan
danh sach ch co mot tan so.
- Dch ch so an nh di ong (MAIO: Mobile Allocation Index Offset): 6 bit so
lieu ac trng cho nhay tan oi vi MS.
- So chuoi nhay tan (HSN: Hopping Sequence Number): chuan cua lan nhay
tan trong o.
e tnh chuoi nhay tan MS phai tnh ch so an nh di ong MAI (Mobile
Allocation Index): ac tnh cho mot tan so mot khung cho trc.
MS tnh MAI nh sau:
Nhay tan tuan hoan:
HSN = 0
MAI = (FN + MAIO) mod N
Trong o FN so khung (Frame Number)
Nhay tan ngau nhien:
M = T2 +RNTABLE (HSN XOR T1R + T3)
M'=M mod (2^ NBIN)
T'=T3 mod (2^ NBIN)
S= M' neu M'<N
S=(M'+T') neu M' N
Trong o :
N : so cac tan so MA
NBIN : so cac bt bieu th N
T1R=T1mod 64
T1,T2,T3 : so khung rut gon RFN (Reduce Frame Number)
Thng th cac kenh cua cung mot o cung HSN nhng MAIO khac nhau.
31
Luan van tot nghiep
Lu y rang kenh vat ly cha BCCH khong nhay va cac khe khac nhau nhay
khac nhau. Qua trnh nhay tan minh hoa hnh 1.23.

Hnh 1.23. Nhay tan (nhn t MS).

1.5.6. ieu che
GSM s dung phng phap ieu che khoa chuyen pha cc tieu Gauss GMSK
(Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying). ay la phng phap ieu che bang hep da tren
ky thuat ieu che dch pha. e giai thch GMSK trc het ta xet MSK bang cach so
sanh no vi PSK. Ta co the trnh bay song mang a c ieu che oi vi PSK va
MSK nh sau:
S (t) = A cos ( t +
0 t
+ )
0
A: bien o khong thay oi

0
= 2f (rad/s) la tan so goc cua song mang

t
la goc pha phu thuocvao luong so a len ieu che
la goc pha ban au
0
oi vi ieu che pha bon trang thai ta c goc pha
t
nh sau :

t
=n. /2 vi n = 0,1,2,3 tng ng vi cap bit c len ieu che la
{00,01,11,10}
32
Luan van tot nghiep
oi vi ieu che MSK ta c goc fa nh sau
t
nh sau:

t
= k
i
(t-iT)
i
Trong o : chuoi bit a len ieu che la (....d
i-1,
d
i ,
d
i+1
)
k
i
=1 neu d =d
i i-1
k =-1 neu d
i i
d
i-1
(t) =/2T.t, T la khoang thi gian cua bit
i
Ta thay MSK neu bit ieu che thi iem xet giong nh bit thi iem
trc o t se thay oi tuyen tnh t 0 /2, ngi lai neu bit ieu che thi iem
xet khac bit trc o th t se thay oi tuyen tnh t 0 -/2.
Thay oi cua t phu thuoc vao cap bit a len ieu che oi vi 4PSK va MSK
c cho hnh 1.24.
S thay oi goc pha ieu che MSK cung dan en thay oi tan so theo quan
he sau:
= d(t)/dt
Trong o : (t) = t + t +
0 0
Neu chuoi bit a len ieu che khong oi (toan so 1 hoac toan so 0) ta co tan
so nh sau:

1
= 2f = +T/2
1 0
Neu chuoi bit a len ieu che thay oi luan phien (1,0,1,0...) th ta co:

2
= 2f = - T/2
2 0
e thu hep pho tan cua tn hieu ieu che luong bit a len ieu che c a
qua bo loc Gauss. GSM bo loc Gauss c s dung BT =0,3, trong o B la o
rong bang tan. Vay o rong bang tan 3dB co the tnh nh sau:
3
B.T = 0,3 hay B=0,3/T = 0,3/ (1/271 x10 ) =81 Khz
Hnh 1.25 cho thay pho cua tn hieu GMSK oi vi cac bo loc khac nhau. T
hnh 1.24 ta thay rang tan so 200 Khz so vi tan so danh nh mc cong suat pho
vao khoang 32dBm oi vi GMSK co bo loc BT=0,3. Tan so chuan la
200/271=0,75. e giam nhieu cac kenh lan can can lu y khi qui hoach tan so.
33
Luan van tot nghiep
V giai ieu che pha lien quan en khoi phuc song mang nen e tao ieu kien
thuan li khi giai ieu che pha luong so ieu che c ma hoa vi sai trc khi a
len ieu che.





























34
Luan van tot nghiep
Hnh 1.24. Phu thuoc t vao cap bit PSK va MSK


Hnh 1.25. Pho cua GMSK

1.5.7. Bo can bang Viterbi
ng truyen dan vo tuyen do anh hng phan xa t nhieu vat khac nhau
dan en giao thoa gia cac ky hieu ISI gay ra loi bit.
e giai quyet van e nay ngi ta ap dung nguyen ly cua may thu toi u: ay
la mot may thu thong minh co kha nang xay dng c mo hnh kenh truyen song
moi thi iem. GSM may thu nay c thc hien bo can bang Viterbi (hnh
1.26). e bo can bang co the xay dng c mo hnh kenh cac thi iem khac
nhau chuoi bit hng dan (S=26) c phat i gia cum, chuoi nay se phan anh
tng oi ung tnh trang truyen song cho may thu. Do chuoi nay c may thu biet
trc nen da tren s sai lech chuoi nay may thu co the xay dng c mo hnh
kenh thi iem ang xet. Sau o may thu se cho cac to hp bit khac nhau co the
qua mo hnh kenh va chon to hp nhanh nhat ngi ta s dung thuat toan Viterbi
35
Luan van tot nghiep


Hnh 1.26: Bo can bang Viterbi

Nguyen ly cua thuat toan nay la trong khi tnh toan ta loai bo cac to hp vao
co xac suat thap nh vay giam c so lng tnh toan can thiet. Bo can bang
Viterbi GSM cho phep x ly cac tn hieu phan xa tre ti 15s. Bo can bang cung
a ra thong tin mem di bo giai ma kenh e tao ieu kien cho bo nay hieu chnh
loi c tot hn.


2. Truyen bao hieu
2.1. Mang bao hieu
Mang bao hieu la mot he thong c s dung e truyen dan cac thong tin bao
hieu cua cac loai ngi s dung khac nhau nh :ien thoai, so lieu, khai thac va bao
dng....mot mang bao hieu bao gom cac iem bao hieu SP (Sinnalling Point) va
cac ng truyen bao hieu SL (Signalling Link) hay cu the hn : mang truyen dan
bao gom mot so cac tong ai (iem nut) thong tin vi nhau qua kenh bao hieu (hnh
1.27).
36
Luan van tot nghiep

STP
SP SP
Tap ng truyen bao
Ket noi tieng
ng truyen bao
Tong ai B
Tong ai C Tong ai A
Ky hieu:
SP: Signalling point = iem bao hieu
STP: Signalling Transfer point = iem

Hnh 1.27: Mang bao hieu
+ Cac phan t cua mang bao hieu
- Cac ng truyen bao hieu (SL : Signal Link)
Cac ng truyen bao hieu la cac phan t c ban trong mot mang bao hieu
dung e noi hai iem bao hieu vi nhau. S1 bao am ieu khien viec truyen cac ban
tin khong mac loi va trnh t truyen cac ban tin.
- Cac iem bao hieu (SP : Signalling Point)
Cac iem bao hieu am bao cac chc nang cua mang bao hieu va co the phat
thu tn hieu t / ti cac ngi s dung khac nhau.
2.2. Bao hieu kenh chung so 7 (CCS N7: common chanel signalling number 7)
CCSN7 ng bao hieu tach rieng so vi ng tieng. mang nay khong
nhat thiet phai co mot kenh bao hieu tren moi ng noi. ieu nay co ngha rang
cac ban tin bao hieu co the co cac ng truyen khac nhau so vi ng tieng e
en c iem thu e tranh nham lan ngi ta gan nhan cho tng ban tin. Kenh bao
hieu co the chiem mot khe thi gian bat ky tren cac ng truyen dan 2Mbit/s va
c s dung e truyen tat ca cac bao hieu cua cac kenh thoai ng noi tng
ng. CCSN7 co rat nhieu u iem :
- Dung lng truyen bao hieu cao, mot kenh bao hieu co the am bao bao hieu
cho 5000 mach tieng(thoai)
- Cho phep s dung nhieu dch vu mi.
37
Luan van tot nghiep
- Cho phep giam kch thc cua cac thiet b v khong can thiet phai an nh
thiet b bao hieu rieng cho tng mach tieng.
- o tin cay cao (nh co d phong)
Neu ban tin bao hieu c phat i cung mot ng truyen PCM va tieng
c truyen cac ng truyen PCM khac nhau th bao hieu c goi la ta lien ket
(hnh 1.28). e tranh s co nghen, ng truyen bao hieu co the tuy chon.
Lien ket
Ta lien Tieng
Bao

Hnh 1.28: bao hieu lien ket va ta lien ket

2.3. Phan truyen ban tin: (MTP)
MTP am bao truyen tai va phan phoi tin cay thong tin cua phan ngi s
dung qua mang bao hieu CCSN7. No cung co kha nang phan ng len cac s co cua
mang va he thong khi cac s co nay anh hng en thong tin cua cac UP va co kha
nang a ra cac bien phap can thiet e am bao truyen cac thong tin nay mot cach
tin cay. Phan ngi s dung MTP la ISDN up, TUP, SCCP va DUP.
38
Luan van tot nghiep

Hnh 1.29: MTP la moi trng truyen dan chung gia cac ngi s dung

Cac chc nang cua MTP c chia thanh cac mc chc nang sau:
MTP lp 1 cac chc nang ng truyen so lieu bao hieu
MTP lp 2 cac chc nang ng truyen
MTP lp 3 cac chc nang mang bao hieu
2.4. Phan ieu khien va noi thong bao hieu SCCP
e ap ng cac nhu cau mi trong tng lai, ngi ta a ra mot goi phan
mem c goi la SCCP, SCCP cung cap cac chc nang bo sung cho MTP e bao
hieu nh hng theo noi thong co the truyen thong tin bao hieu lien quan en mach
va e bao hieu khong nh hng theo noi thong co the truyen thong tin bao hieu
khong lien quan en mach qua mang bao hieu so 7. SCCP cung vi MTP tao nen
phan dch vu mang e am bao bao hieu so 7 phu hp vi mo hnh OSI, SCCP bao
gom tat ca cac chc nang con c thc hien phan mem trung tam sau:
ieu khien nh hng theo noi thong cua SCCP, chc nang nay x ly thiet lap,
truyen so lieu va giam sat cac noi thong logic bao hieu.
ieu khien khong theo noi thong cua SCCP, chc nang nay x ly truyen so lieu
khong theo noi thong.
Quan ly SCCP e x ly cac thong tin trang thai cua mang SCCP. Thong tin nay
lien quan en kha nang san sang cua cac SP va cac ngi s dung khac cua
mang, no c s dung e cap nhat bang nh tuyen ban tin.
39
Luan van tot nghiep
nh tuyen SCCP e x ly viec nh tuyen cac ban tin SCCP trong mang bao
hieu so 7. No bao gom viec dch ten toan cau e nhan a ch mang cu the. Chc
nang nh tuyen SCCP cung am bao viec phan phoi cac ban tin tren c s so he
thong con cua SCCP (SSN: Subsystem Number). SSN nhan dang mot ngi s
dung SCCP chc nang con quan ly SCCP. Ban tin ma a ch phan b goi cua no
la ngi s dung noi hat se c chuyen en phan ieu khien SCCP CO hay CL
con cac ban tin cho ngi s dung xa se c chuyen ti MTP e truyen ti
ngi s dung SCCP xa.
Giao dien gia SCCP va MTP c cho hnh 1.30.
Bien ban SCCP cung cap bon loai dch vu CL va hai cho dch vu CO
Bon loai dch vu nay nh sau :
Loai CL c s
- Loai CL theo trnh t (MTP)
- Loai CO c s
- Loai CO ieu khien luong








ieu
khien
nh
hng
ieu
khien
nh
hng

Quan ly SCCP



ieu
khien
nh
tuyen
SCCP
Cac ngi
s dung
S co
nh
Ban tin
CO
Ban tin
CL
S co
nh
Ban tin thu cho
SS
SCC MTP










Hnh 1.30: Giao dien SCCP vi MTP va cac ngi s dung

40
Luan van tot nghiep
2.5. Mot so v du ve trao oi bao hieu gia cac phan t cua mang
Cap nhat v tr
ang ky lan au
Ri bo IMSI
Nhap lai IMSI
ang ky nh ky
Tm goi
Cuoc goi khi xng t tram di ong
Cuoc goi ket cuoi tram di ong
Cuoc goi quoc te en tram di ong
Chuyen giao
Cap nhat cac dch vu bo sung.
Qua trnh tao va cung cap 3 thong so cho nhan thc va mat ma hoa
2.5.1. Cap nhat v tr
Qua trnh cap nhat v tr c cho hnh (1.31,1.32). hnh 1.31 ta thay cap
nhat v tr xay ra khi tram MS di chuyen t mot vung nh v c xac nh bi mot
so nhan dang vung (LAI) nay sang vung nh v co so nhan dang khac. Ton tai hai
dang cap nhat v tr:










O 1 O 4 O 5
O 1 O 3

BSC


Hnh 1.31: Cac trng hp cap nhat v tr khac nhau.
MSC
LA1 LA2
VL
MSC
BS
LA3
BS
VL
41
Luan van tot nghiep
MS chuyen t O3 thuoc LA2 sang O4 thuoc LA1. Ca hai o nay eu trc thuoc
cung mot tong ai MSC. Trong trng hp nay cap nhat v tr khong can thong bao
en HLR v HLR ch quan ly v tr cua MS en tong ai MSC phu trach MS.
MS chuyen t O3 sang O5 co LA3. Hai o nay trc thuoc hai tong ai MSC
khac nhau. V the cap nhat v tr c thong bao HLR e no ghi lai v tr mi cua tong
ai quan ly MSC.
Thong tin e thc hien cap nhat v tr da tren LAI c thong bao thng
xuyen t BCCH cua moi o. hnh 1.32 ta thay cac trao oi bao hieu can thiet khi
thc hen cap nhat v tr. Trc het MS nhan c thong tin ve LAI mi kenh
BCCH (1). Sau o no thiet lap mot ket noi RR (2a) e nhan c mot kenh ieu
khien danh rieng (SDCCH) (2b). kenh nay no se yeu cau dch vu cap nhat v tr
(3). Sau cac thu tuc nhan thc (4) cap nhat v tr c thc hien VLR va ca HLR.
Neu MSC la MSC mi (s) : ket thuc cap nhat v tr cac kenh bao hieu c giai
phong.




Ky hieu:
(1): Thong tin he thong
(2): Thiet lap ket noi RR: (2a) = yeu cau kenh bao hieu; (2b) = an nh kenh bao
hieu (SDCCH)
(3): Yeu cau dch vu
(4): Nhan thc: (4a) = neu VLR khong co thong so nhan thc. MSC lay thong so



nay t HLR.



42
Luan van tot nghiep
Hnh 1.32: Cap nhat v tr kieu bnh thng

2.5.2. ang ky lan au
Khi MS mi bat nguon no phai thc hien ang ky lan au e nhap mang. Qua
trnh nay c thc hien nh hnh sau (hnh 1.33)
Trc het tram MS quet e tm c tan so ung (FCCH)
Sau o tm en kenh ong bo SCH e nhan c so khung TDMA cho ong
bo.
Cuoi cung no thc hien cap nhat v tr e thong bao cho VLR phu trach va
HLR ve v tr cua mnh. Cac c s d lieu nay se ghi LAI hien thi cua MS. Giong
nh cap nhat v tr bnh thng thong tin ve LAI c MS nhan t kenh BCCH.
Bat au t gi MSC/HLR cong nhan la MS tch cc va anh dau c tham
nhap v tr tch cc vao trng d lieu cua mnh. C nay gan vi IMSI.










VL
MSC
HL
BSC

(2)
(3)
(1)
(4)
Ky hieu:
(1): Cap nhat v tr (LAI mi)
(2): Yeu cau cap nhat v tr (IMSI MSC mi)
(3): Chap nhan cap nhat v tr
(4): Cong nhan cap nhat v tr
Hnh 1.33: ang ky lan au
2.5.3. Ri bo IMSI
Khi tat nguon mot tram MS hay lay ra SIM card se xay ra qua trnh ri bo
IMSI (hnh 1.34). Cac trao oi bao hieu trong trng hp nay c thc hien nh
sau:
- MS yeu cau mot kenh bao hieu e phat i ban tin thong bao cho mang rang
MS chuan b vao trang thai khong tch cc (1), (2). ieu nay co ngha rang mang
khong the at c en MS na.
43
Luan van tot nghiep
- MSC se gi ban tin IMSI en VLR (3), ban tin nay khong c cong nhan v
MS se khong nhan c cong nhan. VLR se thiet lap c ri bo IMSI va t choi cac
cuoc goi en tram MS.
- Thong tin ri IMSI co the c lu gi tai VLR. Tuy chon c ri mang co
the cung c thiet lap HLR (4a) va cong nhan c gi tr lai VLR.
VL
MSC
HL

(2)
(1)
BSC
(3)
(4a)
(4b)

Hnh 1.34: Ri bo IMSI
2.5.4. Nhap lai IMSI
Nhap lai IMSI xay ra khi tram MS c bat lai nguon va tr lai tch cc ma
van vung nh v khi no vao trang thai khong tch cc. Thong tin phat quang ba
cua o se noi cho MS can nhap lai IMSI hay khong.
Qua trnh nhap IMSI trong trng hp nay xay ra nh sau:
- MS yeu cau mot kenh bao hieu (1)
- MSC nhan c nhap lai mang t MS (2)
- MSC gi ban tin nhap lai IMSI en VLR (3)
- VLR xoa c ri bo IMSI va gi ban tin cong nhan nhap lai IMSI en MSC
(4) va tr lai qua trnh x ly cuoc goi nh thng le cho MS.
- MS nhan chap nhan ban tin noi tren (5)
Neu sau khi tat (ri bo IMSI) tram MS thay oi vung nh v, th khi bat lai
nguon no phai tien hanh qua trnh cap nhat v tr bnh thng e vao lai trang thai
tch cc.


44
MSC

(2)
(1)
BSC
(3)
(5) (4)
Luan van tot nghiep







Hnh 1.35: Nhap lai IMSI

Bao hieu cho trng hp cap nhat v tr khi nhap lai IMSI cung giong nh cap
nhat v tr bnh thng ch khac 3 bit yeu cau cap nhat v tr e ch ra kieu cap
nhat va khong can nhan thc.
2.5.5. ang ky nh ky
e tranh viec tm goi khong can thiet khi MSC khong nhan c ban tin ri bo
IMSI MS khong tch cc, ton tai cap nhat mot dang v tr khac c goi la ang ky
nh ky. Qua trnh nay c cho hnh 1.36 nh sau:

(1)
BSC
(2a)
(3b)
(2b)
(3a)
VL
MSC

Hnh 1.36: ang ky nh ky
- Thong tin he thong c phat quang ba (1) se thong bao cho MS ve ang ky
nh ky co c s dung hay khong o. Neu co mang se thong bao cho MS chu ky
can thong bao cho mang rang no ang nhap mang. Thong so nay c thiet lap bi
nha khai thac (0 en 255 cua 6 phut). Neu thong so nay c at bang 1 (6 phut) th
MS phai ang ky vi chu ky 6 phut.
45
Luan van tot nghiep
- Thu tuc nay c ieu khien bi ca bo nh thi MS (2a) va MSC (2b),
MSC co chc nang theo doi thi gian nay.
- Khi het thi gian noi tren MS phai thc hien cap nhat v tr (3a). Cac bo nh
thi MS va MSC c khi ong lai.
- Neu MS khong ang ky trong khoang thi gian noi tren bo phan theo doi cua
MSC se anh dau MS nay vao trang thai ri mang (3b)
2.5.6. Tm goi



Hnh 1.37: Tm goi mot MS LA2
Khi co mot cuoc goi ti tram MS, MSC/VLR se gi ban tin tm goi en MS
(hnh 1.37). ban tin nay se c thong bao tren tat ca cac o thuoc vung nh v (LA)
ang co MS. MS ang di ong trong LA nay se nghe thay ban tin nay CCCH va
tra li ngay lap tc.
2.5.7. Cuoc goi khi xng tram MS (MOC : Mobile Originating Call)
- Khi tram MS trang thai tch cc va a ang ky MSC/VLR phu trach o,
MS co the thc hien cuoc goi. Qua trnh thc hien cuoc goi c cho hnh 1.38 nh
sau:
46
Luan van tot nghiep
- Bang kenh tham nhap ngau nhien MS gi yeu cau kenh bao hieu en BTS
(1)
- MS thong bao rang no muon thiet lap cuoc goi (2). So nhan dang tram di
ong c phan tch va MS c anh dau ban VLR.
- Qua trnh nhan thc c thc hien (3)
- Qua trnh ma hoa c thc hien (4)
- MSC nhan c ban tin thiet lap t MS co cha thong tin ve loai dch vu ma
MS yeu cau, so thoai b goi B (5). MSC kiem tra la MS khong co cac dch vu cam
goi ra (dch vu nay co the kch hoat hoac bi thue bao hoac bi nha khai thac). Neu
khong b cam goi ra qua trnh thiet lap cuoc goi c tien hanh. Gia MSC va BSC
ng truyen c thiet lap va kenh lu lng c chiem. MSC gi yeu cau en
BSC e an nh mot kenh lu lng cho ng vo tuyen.
- BSC kiem tra neu co kenh lu lng roi no an nh kenh nay cho cuoc goi
va yeu cau BTS kch hoat kenh nay. BTS gi tra li cong nhan khi viec kch hoat
kenh lu lng a hoan thanh (6). BSC thong bao cho MSC ve s hoan thanh nay.
He thong con ieu khien lu lng se phan tch cac ch so cua so thoai B va thiet
lap ket noi en thue bao b goi. Cuoc goi c noi thong qua chuyen mach nhom.
(1a
BSC
(2a
(2)
VL
MSC
(1b
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
Ky hieu:
1a, 1b: Thiet lap ket noi
RR
2: Ch th dch vu
3: Nhan thc
4: Thiet lap che o mat
ma hoa
5: Khi au cuoc goi

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Hnh 1.38: Thiet lap cuoc goi khi xng t MS khong co OACSU
(MOC Without OACSU)

- Bao chuong se c gi en tram MS (7) cho thay rang pha b goi ang o
chuong. Tong chuong c tao ra tong ai pha thue bao B va c gi qua
chuyen mach nhom en MS. Nh vay tong chuong c gi qua ng vo tuyen ch
khong tao ra MS.
- Khi thue bao B tra li mang gi ban tin ket noi en MS thong bao rang cuoc
thoai c chap nhan (8). MS tra li bang cong nhan ket noi, nh vay thiet lap cuoc
goi a hoan tat.
- Qua trnh thiet lap cuoc goi khi xng t tram di ong c trnh bay tren
la cho cuoc goi MOC khong co OACSU (Without off Air Call set up:thiet lap sm).
Thiet lap sm co ngha la mang cap phat kenh lu lng cho MS trc khi no khi
au thiet lap cuoc goi mang co nh. Cung co the co tuy chon vi OACSU giai
oan sau cua GSM. (xem hnh 1.39). Luc nay mang se quyet nh khi nao th cap
phat kenh lu lng. Cap phat c thc hien thi iem bat ky sau khi a khi au
thiet lap cuoc goi mang co nh. Cc iem nhat la mang co the cap kenh lu lng
sau khi thue bao B a tra li cuoc goi.
- Ban tin bao chuong se c gi en MS khi o chuong pha b goi. S khac
nhau ay so vi trng hp thiet lap sm (Without OACSU) la tong bao hieu
chuong c tao ra ngay MS v kenh lu lng van cha c cap phat. Khi thue
bao B tra li, mang khi xng thu tuc an nh e cap phat kenh lu lng.
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Hnh 1.39: Thiet lap MOC vi OACSU (With OACSU)
2.5.8. Cuoc goi ket cuoi MS (MTC: Mobile Terminatil Call)
- MTC phc tap hn MOC v pha goi khong biet hien thi MS ang au.
Qua trnh bao hieu cho cuoc goi nay c cho hnh 1.40.
- Pha chu goi quay so thue bao di ong b goi: so mang dch vu, so lien ket
cua thue bao di ong (MS ISDN) (1). Neu cuoc goi khi au t mang co nh PSTN
th tong ai sau khi phan tch so thoai se biet rang ay la cuoc goi cho mot thue bao
GSM.











Hnh 1.40: Cuoc goi t mang co nh ket cuoi MS (MTC).
BTS BTS
BS
GMS
VL
HL
MSC
Tong ai
noi hat
(2) (3)
(5)
(4)
(6)
(7)
(8 (8
(9
(9
PST
N

- Cuoc goi c nh tuyen en tong ai GMSC gan nhat (2), ay la mot tong
ai co kha nang hoi va nh lai tuyen. Bang phan tch MSISDN tong ai GMSC tm
ra HLR ni MS ang ky.
- GMSC hoi HLR (3) thong tin e co the nh tuyen en MSC/VLR ang quan
ly MS. Bang MSISDN tm ra IMSI va ban ghi cua thue bao. IMSI la so cua thue bao
ch s dung trong mang bao hieu, a ch cua VLR ni MS ang ang ky tam thi
c lu gi cung vi IMSI trong VLR.
- HLR giao tiep vi VLR e nhan c so lu ong thue bao (MSRN: Mobile
Subscriber Roaming Number) (4), ay la mot so thoai thong thng thuoc tong ai
MSC.
- VLR gi MSRN en HLR, sau o HLR chuyen so nay en GMSC (S).
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- Bang MSRN GMSC co the nh tuyen lai cuoc goi en MSC tng ng (6),
GMSC gi ban tin nhan c t PSTN en MSC.












Hnh 1.41: Khac nhau gia thiet lap sm (without OACSU) va thiet lap muon
(with OACSU) MTC.
- e giam toi thieu gia thanh, co the s dung PSTN e nh tuyen lai cuoc goi,
cac nc co mang PSTN at hoac hoat ong khong tot th tot nhat la xay dng mot
mang ket noi rieng gia cac MSC va GMSC.
- MSC biet c v tr cua MS va no gi ban tin tm goi en tat ca cac BSC
ang quan ly vung nh v nay (7). mang GSM ton tai hai kha nang hoac thong tin
ve cac o trc thuoc mot vung nh v c lu gi MSC, hoac thong tin nay c
lu gi BSC. mang CME 20 chang han thong tin nay c lu gi BSC.
- MSC gi LAI (nhan dang vung nh v) xuong cac BSC va BSC phan phat
ban tin tm goi en cac BTS (8).
- e tm goi MS, IMSI c s dung (9). Co the s dung so nhan dang tam
thi TMSI e am bao b mat.
- Ngay sau khi nhan c ban tin tm goi MS gi yeu cau kenh bao hieu. MSC
co the thc hien nhan thc va khi au mat ma hoa nh a xet phan tren. MSC co
the gi en MS thong tin ve cac dch vu c yeu cau: tieng, so lieu, fax
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- Bay gi BSC se lenh cho BTS kch hoat kenh TCH va giai phong kenh bao
hieu, bao chuong c gi i t MS cho thay rang tong chuong c tao ra MS.
Tong chuong cho thue bao chu goi c tao ra MSC.
- Khi thue bao di ong nhac may MS gi i ban tin ket noi. Mang hoan thanh
ng noi thong va gi ban tin cong nhan ket noi en MS.
- ay cung ton tai hai phng thc: co OACSU (cap phat TCH muon) va
khong co OACSU (cap phat TCH sm). S khac biet gia hai phng thc nay c
ch ra hnh 1.41. an nh TCH sm mang khi au an nh TCH khi nhan c
ban tin khang nh cuoc goi (bao chuong). an nh TCH muon bao chuong khi
au ngay khi thue bao nhan c cuoc goi, con mang an nh TCH moi thi iem
sau khi bao chuong a c khi au.
2.5.9. Cuoc goi quoc te en MS
T trc en nay ta ch xet cac cuoc goi trong nc, cuoc goi quoc te en mot
MS hien nay rat khong kinh te. Ta xet cuoc goi nay (xem hnh 142) oi vi mang a
thc hien chuyen mang quoc te. Ta xet th du mot ngi Viet Nam cong tac tai Thai
Lan t mang co nh goi cho "sep" cua mnh mang di ong GSM. Gia s ong "sep"
nay hien thi cung Thai Lan va ngi goi khong biet c viec nay. Qua trnh xay
ra nh sau:
- Ngi Viet Nam Thai Lan quay so cho "sep" (1).
- Tong ai noi hat cua Thai Lan sau khi phan tch so thoai nhan ra rang ay la
cuoc goi quoc te ve Viet Nam nen no chuyen cuoc goi nay en tong ai quoc te (2).
- Tong ai quoc te cua Thai Lan so ien thoai cua thue bao B, tm ra nc cua
thue bao nay, nh tuyen cuoc goi en tong ai quoc te Viet Nam (3).
- Sau khi phan tch tong ai quoc te Viet Nam nh tuyen en tong ai GMSC
gan nhat (4).
- Tong ai GMSC co chc nang hoi, no phan tch so thoai va nhan ra HLR cua
MS, GMSC hoi HLR nay (5).
- HLR lien he vi VLR ni thue bao MS ang tam thi ang ky (6).
- HLR nhan so lu ong cua MS (MSRN) (7) t VLR.
- MSRN c chuyen en GMSC (8).
- Nh so nay GMSC nh tuyen cuoc goi en tong ai quoc te Viet Nam (9).
- tong ai quoc te nay lai thc hien s phan tch sau o chuyen ngc cac
cuoc goi tr ve tong ai quoc te cua Thai Lan (10).
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- Cuoi cung th cuoc goi c chuyen en tong ai MSC cua Thai Lan (11).
- MSC nay phan phoi ban tin tm goi en cac BSC tng ng (12) ang quan ly
vung nh v co MS.












Hnh 1.42: Hien tng "bat i bat lai" cuoc goi quoc te hien nay.
- Cuoi cung th MS c tm thay (13).
- Ta thay cuoc goi c nh tuyen t Thai Lan ve Viet Nam roi ngc lai
Thai Lan dan en s cham tre va khong kinh te.

















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Hnh 1.43: Kha nang hoi va nh tuyen tong ai noi hat cho cuoc goi quoc te
trong tng lai.
- Trong tng lai qua trnh goi noi tren se xay ra nh hnh 1.43. e vay phai
nghien cu them mot so ch so GSM e cai at vao moi tong ai, khi nay viec hoi
va nh tuyen lai co the thc hien tong ai noi hat. Hoi HLR c thc hien tong
ai noi hat nen khong can nh tuyen cuoc goi en Viet Nam (xem hnh 1.43).
2.5.10. Chuyen giao (handover)


















Hnh 1.44: Chuyen giao (handover)

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- Chuyen giao la qua trnh xay ra khi lu lng cua MS c chuyen t mot
kenh TCH nay sang mot kenh TCH khac trong qua trnh goi. Co 2 loai chuyen giao:
+ Chuyen giao ben trong o (Intracell hand over).
+ Chuyen giao gia cac o (Intercell hand over).
Chuyen giao gia cac o c phan loai thanh (xem hnh 1.44).
Chuyen giao gia cac o thuoc cung mot BSC: chuyen giao nay do BSC ieu
hanh.
- Chuyen giao gia cac o thuoc hai BTS khac nhau: chuyen giao nay lien quan
en cac tong ai MSC quan ly hai BTS.
- Chuyen giao gia hai o thuoc hai tong ai MSC khac nhau: chuyen giao nay
lien quan en ca hai tong ai phu trach cac o noi tren.
- Trong trng hp chuyen giao nhieu lan gia hai o thuoc hai MSC khac
nhau, tong ai MSC au tien phu trach MS c goi la tong ai qua giang v cuoc
goi luon luon c chuyen mach qua tong ai nay. Lan chuyen giao gia hai o thuoc
hai tong ai khac nhau th nhat c goi la chuyen giao gia cac o thuoc 2 tong ai
lan au, con cac lan sau c goi la chuyen giao gia cac o thuoc hai tong ai tiep
theo.
a) Chuyen giao gia hai o thuoc cung mot BSC
Qua trnh chuyen giao nay c cho hnh 1.45 nh sau:










Hnh 1.45: Chuyen giao cuoc goi ben trong BSC

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- Trong qua trnh goi MS luon luon o cng o trng, chat lng kenh
TCH cua mnh va cng o cua cac o lan can. MS anh gia tr trung bnh cua ket
qua o. Hai lan trong mot giay no gi bao cao ket qua o (1) en BTS cung vi ket
qua o cua cac o lan can tot nhat. BTS bo sung them ket qua o c chnh kenh
TCH va gi bao cao ve BSC (2). BSC chc nang nh v c tch cc e quyet
nh xem co can chuyen giao cuoc goi en o khac do chat lng xau hoac nhieu ln
o ang phuc vu hay khong.
- Trng hp can chuyen giao BSC se lenh chon BTS o mi c cho tch
cc mot kenh TCH (3) va lenh cho BTS nay gi ban tin en MS thong bao ve tan so
va khe thi gian can chuyen en (4).
- MS ieu chnh en tan so mi va gi ban tin tham nhap chuyen giao (HO)
khe thi gian tng ng (5). MS khong s dung bat ky s nh thi trc nao ca, v
vay cum HO la cum rat ngan ch cha 8 bit thong tin. MS khong nhan c bat c
thong tin nao ve nh thi trc cho en khi BTS phat hien ra cum HO.
- MS cung nhan thong tin ve cong suat can s dung (6) kenh FACCH lay cap
t kenh tieng (c lay cap trong tng trng hp nay lap 1).
- BSC se nhan c thong tin t BTS la chuyen giao thanh cong sau khi MS
gi ban tin hoan thanh chuyen giao (7). ng tieng trong chuyen mach nhom thay
oi va BTS cu c ra lenh thao g TCH cu cung vi kenh lien ket SACCH (8).
- chuyen giao ben trong BSC nay chnh BSC x ly moi viec khong co s can
thiep cua MSC. MSC ch c thong bao ve viec thc hien chuyen giao.
b) Chuyen giao gia 2 o thuoc hai BSC khac nhau
Bao hieu thc hien chuyen giao gia hai o thuoc hai BSC khac nhau c cho
hnh 1.46 nh sau:
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Hnh 1.46: Chuyen giao cuoc goi gia cac BSC
- BSC cu da tren cac bao cao ve ket qua o quyet nh chuyen giao en o
mi trc thuoc mot BSC khac. BSC cu (ang phuc vu) gi ban tin "yeu cau chuyen
giao" cung vi nhan dang o mi (1) en MSC.
- MSC biet BTS ieu khien o nay, no gi yeu cau chuyen giao en BTS nay
(2).
- BSC lenh cho BTS mi kch hoat mot kenh TCH neu con kenh roi (3).
- Khi BTS a kch hoat kenh TCH, no gi thong tin ve khe thi gian va tan so
en MSC (4).
- MSC chuyen thong tin nay en BSC cu (5).
- MS c ra lenh chuyen en TCH mi (6).
- MS gi i cum tham nhap chuyen giao (HO) TCH mi (7).
- Ngay sau khi phat hien cum HO, BTS gi thong tin vat ly cha nh trc
thi gian va cong suat ra en MS (8).
- BSC mi nhan c thong tin rang BTS a nhan c cum HO (9), no thong
bao ieu nay qua MSC (10) en BSC cu (11).
- MSC chuyen thong tin noi tren en BSC cu (11).
- BTS cu giai phong TCH va SACCH cu (12).
- MS nhan thong tin ve o mi SACCH lien ket vi TCH mi. Neu o nay
thuoc LAI mi MS phai cap nhat v tr bnh thng sau khi cuoc goi c giai phong.
c) Chuyen giao gia cac o thuoc tong ai khac nhau.
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Qua trnh chuyen giao gia hai o thuoc hai tong ai MSC khac nhau c cho hnh
1.47 nh sau:
- BSC ang phuc vu gi "yeu cau chuyen giao" en MSC giong nh trng
hp tren (1).
- MSC yeu cau MSC chuyen giao (MSC ch) (2) giup . MSC ch cap phat
mot so chuyen giao (so ien thoai thong thng) e nh tuyen lai cuoc goi.
- Yeu cau chuyen giao c gi en BSC mi (3).
- Neu co kenh TCH roi, BSC yeu cau BTS kch hoat mot TCH (4).
- MSC nhan c thong tin ve kenh TCH mi (5) va chuyen thong tin nay tr
lai MSC cu cung vi so chuyen giao (6).
- ng truyen c thiet lap en MSC mi (7).








Hnh 1.47: Chuyen giao cuoc goi gia hai MSC.

- Lenh chuyen giao c gi en MS cung vi thong tin ve tan so va khe thi
gian se c s dung o mi (8).
- MS phat i cum HO (chuyen giao) TCH mi (9).
- Mot ng mi c thiet lap chuyen mach nhom va cuoc goi c chuyen
mach (11).
- TCH va SACCH cu c giai phong.
Tong ai MSC goc van duy tr s kiem tra chnh cuoc goi cho en khi no c
xoa. MSC nay c goi la MSC neo. Giao thc MAP c thc hien gia cac MSC.
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Khi di chuyen vao vung nh v mi th sau khi giai phong cuoc goi no phai
thc hien cap nhat v tr. Do mot vung nh v khong the trc thuoc hai MSC nen
trng nay phai thc hien cap nhat v tr sau khi cuoc goi c giai phong. HLR se
c cap nhat va gi ban tin en VLR cu, MSC nay phai xoa tat ca cac thong tin
lien quan en thue bao.
Lu y rang GSM khong am bao chuyen giao cac quoc gia hay gia cac nha
khai thac.
2.5.11. Cap nhat cac dch vu bo sung
Ta xet trng hp mot MS ang ky chuyen hng cuoc goi khong ieu kien
(CFU: Call Forwarding Unconditional). ay la trng hp ma thue bao khong muon
nhan bat c cuoc goi nao, va moi cuoc goi en no phai c chuyen ti mot thue
bao khac nh trc (thue bao C). Khi thay oi vung phuc vu cua MSC, so thoai cua
thue bao B phai c gi en VLR mi.
Qua trnh thc hien ang ky dch vu bo sung trong trng hp nay c cho
hnh 1.48 nh sau:
- MS gi yeu cau ve dch vu CFU bo sung ng vo tuyen (1).
- MSC gi ban tin khai thac dch vu bo sung en VLR lien ket vi no (2).
- VLR gi ban tin khai thac dch vu bo sung en HLR (3).
- HLR gi lai ban tin cong nhan dch vu bo sung en VLR (4).
- VLR gi ban tin nh tren en MSC (5)
- MSC gi ban tin khang nh dch vu bo sung en MS (6).
Sau khi a ang ky CFU, cuoc goi en thue bao se c chuyen hng nh
sau. Mot cuoc goi t mang co nh vao se c a ti GMSC, GMSC hoi HLR so
MSRN e nh lai tuyen cuoc goi. So tra li t HLR trong trng hp nay la so thoai
C. Tnh cc cho nhanh chuyen hng cuoc thoai trong trng hp nay c thc
hien GMSC
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Hnh 1.48: Cap nhat dch vu bo dung cho chuyen hng cuoc goi vo ieu kien

2.5.12. Qua trnh tao va cung cap bo ba thong so cho nhan thc va mat ma hoa
- Khi ang ky thue bao khoa nhan c thue bao Ki c ghi nh vao Simcard
cua thue bao cung vi IMSI cua no. ong thi khoa nhan thc Ki cung c lu gi
trung tam nhan thc (AUC) e tao ra bo ba thong so can thiet.
AUC cac bc sau ay c tien hanh e tao ra bo ba noi tren (xem hnh
1.49)
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Hnh 1.49: Tao lap va cung cap cac thong so nhan thc, mat ma hoa
Tao ra mot so ngau nhien khong oan c RAND
RAND va Ki c tnh toan bang thuat toan A3 e tao ra mat khau ARES.
RAND va Ki c tnh toan bang thuat toan A8 e tao ra khoa mat ma Kc
Bo ba RAND, Kc, SRES c cung cap cho HLR
Theo yeu cau HLR cung cap bo ba nay cho MSC/VLR
Trong qua trnh nhan thc, RAND c cung cap cho MS theo kenh vo tuyen. MS
bang thuat toan A3 tao ra mat khau SRES ong thi bang thuat toan A8 tao ra khoa
mat ma. Mat khau SRES c gi en MS e so sanh neu giong nhau th nhan thc
c cong nhan. Khi nay mang ra lenh cho MS va BTS vao che o mat ma. Bang
thuat toan A5 MS va BTS thc hien mat ma hoa thong tin cua chung.
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CHNG II
CAU TRUC MANG VINAPHONE VA CAC THIET B
TREN MANG

I. S O CAU TRUC ( tong quan mang VINAPHONE )
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II. CAC THIET B CHNH TREN MANG :
1. BSS ( BTS va BSC )
He thong tram goc vo tuyen BSS trong mang GSM D900 c bao gom hai
phan BSC va nhieu BTS
* BSC:
_ieu khien BTS thc hien x ly cuoc goi , van hanh , bao dng cung nh cung
cap cac giao tiep ( A interface ) gia BSS va MSC .
_Chc nang c ban cua BSS bao gom viec quan ly kenh vo tuyen va chuyen tiep
cac thong tin bao hieu en MS hoac ngc lai .
_BSS co mot ma tran chuyen mach so . Khong ton tai mot ng thong co nh
gia cac kenh vo tuyen va cac ng truyen cua mang co nh ket noi gia MSC
va BSS . Trong khi BSC chon mot kenh vo tuyen th MSC se chon la mot ng,
ma ket noi en MSC. Sau o ma tran chuyen mach trong BSC c s dung e ket
noi kenh vo tuyen tren ng truyen a c MSC chon trc o .
* BTS :
_Moi BTS cung cap cac kenh vo tuyen ( RF carrier ) cho vung phu song RF xac
nh. Kenh RF la ng thong tin gia BSS va MS.
_Mot BTS c thiet ke cung cap vung phu song ang hng hoac vung phu
song theo kieu sector .
* Speech transcoder
_Bo chuyen oi ma tieng noi c yeu cau e thch nghi d lieu PCMA Law
cua mang co nh vi d lieu mang te bao .
_ Speech transcoder( XCDR) la thiet b x ly tn hieu so thc hien cong viec
ma hoa va giai ma . XCDR la bo giao tiep cac kenh 64 kbps mang co nh vi
kenh vocoder 13 kbps c dung Air interface .
_XCDR la mot chc nang cua BSS va co the at tai MSC, BSC hoac BTS tuy
theo v tr at, bo chuyen ma se tac ong cach thc hien viec chuyen ma va so
ng truyen 2Mb/s yeu cau viec ket noi cac BTS en BSC vaBSC en MSC ta
xet XCDR at MSC ( tng ng vi mang VINAPHONE)
.BTS ghep 4 kenh thoai 16 kbps (toc o phu hp vi kenh 13 kbps c dung
Air interface) vao trong mot kenh 64 kbps tren giao tiep BTS va BSC. BSC se
nh tuyen cho kenh 64kbps en bo chuyen ma xa (RXCDR) trong MSC. Tai
ay kenh 64kbps c chuyen thanh 4 kenh 16kbps sau o moi kenh 16kbps c
chuyen thanh kenh 64kbps A_Law giao tiep RXCDR va chuyen en MSC.
+Thiet b BSS : Tat ca cac thiet b can thiet e cau hnh cho BSS c cha trong
cac cabinet BTS va BSC .
_Mot cabinet BTS c trang b vi cac bo thu phat vo tuyen RCU va cac
khoi giao tiep vo tuyen ma tao ra chc nang BTS. Cabinet BTS co the bao gom
thiet b cho 1 en 5 song mang RF thong qua RCU. Moi cabinet BTS co the cung
cap len en 3 vung phu song .
_ Mot cabinet BTS co the trang b vi cac khoi can thiet ch cung cap chc
nang cho BTS. Cau hnh cabinet nay cung cap giao tiep vo tuyen gia MS va giao
tiep ng day en MSC xa.
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_ Mot Cabinet BTS co the c trang b vi cac khoi can thiet e cung cap cac
chc nang cua BSC. Cau hnh nay cho phep nhng chc nang cua BTS /BSC c
tch hp vao trong mot cabinet BTS.
+ Thiet b BSSC: cabinet nay c trang b e cung cap cac chc nang sau:
_ Chc nang BSC
_ Chc nang RXCDR
_ Chc nang ket hp gia BSC va RXCDR
.Thiet b BSC: cabinet BSSC trang b e cung cap cac chc nang BSC cho
viec ieu khien BTS va cha cac khoi can thiet cho giao tiep ng day gia BSC
BTS va giao tiep ng day gia BSC MSC.
.Thiet b RXCDR : cabinet BSSC c trang b e cung cap chc nang
RXCDR cho viec chuyen ma tieng noi c at tai MSC xa va cha nhng khoi
can thiet cho giao tiep ng day gia BSC RXCDR va XCDR nh la mot phan
giao tiep ng day en MSC .
.BSC RXCDR : mot cabinet c trang b e cung ca hai chc nang la
chc nang BSC e ieu khien BTS va chc nang RXCDR e chuyen ma kenh
thoai tai MSC xa. Ngan nay bao gom cac khoi can thiet cho viec giao tiep ng
day gia BSC -BTS , BSC MSC va BSC RXCDR .
S o khoi chc nang BSS c bieu dien nh hnh 2.1
1.1.D( RCU) : Module nay c at tai BTS
_Shelf DRCU bao gom mot ngan e at cac DRCU va bo giai nhiet c at
tren khong kh t ben di ngan DRCU c a qua khung DRCU va cac bo
giai nhiet nh day quat tren . Mot DRCU la bo thu phat cung cap giao tiep vo
tuyen gia BSS va MS . Mot DRCU co the ng dung viec thu phan tap e hoat
ong thu c on nh hn chong lai Fading . Mot ngan may DRCU bao gom mot
khung co 6 DRCU . Sau DRCU cung cap 6 kenh RF cho tong cong 48 kenh khe
thi gian . Cac tn hieu ieu khien va cac kenh lu thong cho mot DRCU c a
qua t mot module DRIM qua module DRIX va hai si cap quang.
1.1.1. Khoi thu phat vo tuyen :
1.1.1.1. Cac bang tan vo tuyen BTS :
Cac kenh vo tuyen BTS trong DRCU tranciever la song cong , thu va phat ,
va co nhng ac tnh sau ay :
. Bang tan phat BTS trong khoang 935 960 Mhz ( o rong bang la 25 Mhz )
. Bang tan thu BTS trong khoang 890 915 Mhz ( o rong bang la 25 Mhz )
. . Khoang cach gia tan so thu va tan so phat la 45
Mhz
. o rong kenh la 200 Khz
. Bang tan BTS c chia thanh 124 kenh
. Bang tan trung tam cua moi kenh la phan chan phan thap phan cua Mhz
( bat au tai 935,2 Mhz va cuoi cung la 959,8 Mhz cho hng phat ; va bat au la
890,2 Mhz va cuoi cung la 914,8 Mhz cho hng thu )
. Bang tan bao ve 100 Khz gia 935 Mhz va 935,1 Mhz va gia 959,9 va 960,0
Mhz cho hng phat ; gia 890,0 Mhz va gia 941,9 Mhz va 915,0 Mhz cho hng
thu .
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1.1.1.2. Radio channel unit .
_RCU la mot bo thu phat vo tuyen va la thanh phan chnh trong he thong
con RF trong he thong tram goc BSS , RCU tao ra tat ca cac tan so RF e thc hien
cac chc nang thu , phat va them vao cac mach so e thc hien viec can bang tam
khe thi gian va cac mach logic ieu khien RCU
_RCU cung cap mot song mang RF song cong ( kenh vo tuyen ) e lien lac
vi cac tram di ong . Tan so song mang RF la:
. Bang tan phat trong khoang 935 en 960 Mhz
. Bang tan thu trong khoang 980 en 915 Mhz
_RCU co the thay oi tan so RF thu/phat trong mot khe thi gian c yeu
cau cho cac ng dung nhay tan va s dung chung thiet b .
Mach ien RCU bao gom cac module . Mach nay bao gom :
. Cac board bo thu
. Cac board synthesizer
. Cac board bo phat
. Board ieu khien can bang CEB
. Board can bang EQB
1.1.1.3. Hoat ong phat :
_Tn hieu s dung NRZ ngo vao khoi ieu che (8 kenh khe thi gian ) t
CEB (Control Equalizer Board ) c a en board ieu che so DDS ( Direct
Digital Synthesizer ) . Tn hieu d lieu NRZ nay c ma hoa , chuyen oi noi tiep
sang song song , loc Gaussian dang so , va sau o c chuyen oi D/A vi song
mang ieu che GMSK tai tan so trung tan IF 7.2 Mhz. Tn hieu IF 7.2 Mhz nay
chuyen oi len mot tan so cao vi song mang ieu che GMSK ay u la trung tan IF
126 Mhz .
_Song mang ieu che GMSK 126 Mhz c a en board up converter DDS
, tai ay tn hieu song mang ieu che c bien oi len mot tan so kenh phat cuoi
cung trong khoang tan phat GSM t 935 en 960 Mhz . Tn hieu song mang ieu
che nay co mc cong suat thap c a en bo kch thch Exciter.
_Mach Exiter khuech ai tn hieu cao tan ngo vao mc cong suat thap
thanh tn hieu ngo ra co mc cong suat trung bnh . Mach Exciter cung cung cap mot
iem ieu khien cho cong suat cao tan phat ngo ra cuoi cung cua RCU . Cong suat
ngo ra cc ai tai board Exciter la +27 dBm . Tn hieu ngo ra mach Exciter c a
en board khuech ai cong suat PAB.
_PAB khuech ai tn hieu cao tan ngo vao co mc cong suat trung bnh en
mot mc cong suat phat cuoi cung . Mach khuech ai cong suat cung co mot bo
Detector cong suat hng ti va bo Isolator va bo Detector cong suat hng ngc .
Ngo ra cua 2 bo Detector c a en board ieu khien cong suat PCB . Da vao
tn hieu nay PCB se quyet nh mc cong suat phat ngo ra cuoi cung cua RCU
.Sau o mach ieu khien cong suat PCB gi mot tn hieu cho bo suy giam ieu
khien c bang ien ap e at mc cong suat ngo ra tng ng . Cong suat ngo
ra cc ai ket noi ngo ra cao tan phat cua RCU la 60W ( 47,78 dBm )
1.1.1.4. Hoat ong thu :
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_Phan thu cua bo thu phat RCU nhan mot tn hieu t anten sau khi a c
loc va khuech ai Preselector qua ma tran thu Receive Matrix hoac 6way spliter (
phan ket cuoi vo tuyen RCU c thiet ke cho hoat ong suy hao cua spliter/
Matrix)
_Tn hieu RF thu t ket cuoi vo tuyen BTS c a en ngo vao board
ket cuoi RCU . Tn hieu thu ngo vao c chuyen oi en mot trung tan th nhat
IF 70.2 Mhz. Tn hieu baseband c tao ra e thc hien lay mau va loc dang song
de dang hn .
_Tn hieu IF th nhat ngo ra c phan thanh hai tn hieu . Mot tn hieu
c a en board ch th cng o tn hieu thu RSSI, tn hieu con lai c a
en board IF chnh (main IF board) .
_Board RSSI chuyen oi tn hieu IF th nhat 70.2 Mhz thanh mot tn hieu
IF RSSI 10.7 Mhz. Cac tn hieu ngo ra IF RSSI c loc va phan tch e cung cap
ien ap dc ngo ra V RSSI . ien ap nay t le vi cong suat tn hieu RF thu c .
ien ap V RSSI c a en CEB e cho x ly RSSI /AGC
_Board main IF giai ieu che tn hieu baseband thanh cac tn hieu I va Q.
Cac tn hieu Iva Q c loc va khuech ai en mot mc cong suat c yeu cau
cho bo chuyen oi A/D tren board CEB.
_Cac bo loc band / cac bo tron (tron RSSI /loc band 10,7 Mhz , tron /loc cac
tn hieu I,Q ) tao ra e loc loai tr het cac tn hieu nhieu ngoai band va cac kenh
ke can .
_Mc cong suat cua tn hieu thu c ieu khien bi hai phan AGC . Mot
phan la AGC RF va phan kia la AGC IF , AGC RF bao gom mot bo suy giam tn
hieu co nh la 35 dBm . Co the c chuyen in hoac out theo yeu cau .
AGC IF bao gom mot bo suy giam tng nac so vi s suy hao tn hieu co the thay
oi t 0 en 80 dBm.

1.1.1.5. Hoat ong cua board CEB
_CEB la board ieu khien so cho phan vo tuyen RCU , CEB cung giao tiep
hai chieu gia DRI(M) va RCU e cac d lieu ieu che va can bang co the truyen
qua c cung vi cac d lieu trang thai va ieu khien .
_ CEB bao gom cac mach so e ieu khien RCU gom cac chc nang sau :
. Giao tiep vi DRI(M )
. Giao tiep vi board RF bao gom viec x ly RSSI / AGC
. Giao tiep can bang vi board EQB
. Giam sat canh bao cac thiet b ben trong va ben ngoai RCU .
. Giao tiep bao dng
. ieu khien cac module ben ngoai ( nh la bo ket hp co the ieu chnh t
xa RTI , Receive Matrix , )
_ Giao tiep gia RCU va DRI(M) la DRIX c at ben trong BSU qua
ng ket noi cap quang toc o 2,048 Mbps . Tat ca cac d lieu kenh va d lieu
ieu khien thu phat . Tat ca cac d lieu tren c trao oi qua ng truyen nay .
Tat ca cac d lieu c ma hoa Manchester NRZ .Mach phuc hoi ong ho cua CEB
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phuc hoi tn hieu ong ho chuan 2,048 Mhz t tn hieu cua luong d lieu ngo vao
2,048 Mbps e ong bo cho d lieu cua RCU .
_ Tn hieu ong ho chuan 2,048Mhz sau khi c phuc hoi cung c a
en vong loop tan so chuan e tao ra mot tan so chuan 2,6 Mhz cho tong hp tan so
. Tren ng TX ( downlink ) ,CEB nhan mot ban tin a c nh dang t DRI(M)
qua bo thu quang . Nhng ban tin nay di dang the loai cua d lieu ieu che ,
d lieu ieu khien RCU va d lieu ieu khien cham ( cac ban tin e RCU thc
hien cac nhiem vu c ban cua no )
_ Cac ban tin en CEB va c bo ieu khien ket noi d lieu mc cao
HDLC lu tr trong mot hang i FIFO 64 bytes . Firmware cua CEB lay cac ban
tin nay va phan phoi chung en cac ch xac nh ( nh la mot bo ieu che , bo can
bang ) hoac la thong dch cac ban tin nay e thc hien mot vai chc nang cau
hnh va ieu khien cham khac .
_ Trong trng hp thong tin hng Mobile (data , thoai ) ban tin c phan
phoi en giao tiep cua bo ieu che va hang i cua bo ieu che FIFO Modulator .
Ngo ra d lieu NRZ t giao tiep nay c a en board ieu che so trc tiep DDS
Modulator. D lieu c ieu che vi song mang RF va phat i en MS .
_ ng len RX , cac tn hieu baseband I va Q t board DIQ c a en
cac bo chuyen oi A/D tren board CEB . Cac bo chuyen oi A/D chuyen oi cac tn
hieu analog I va Q thanh cac t so a tam khoi x ly tn hieu so cua bo can bang
tren board DEQB . DEQB x ly tn hieu baseband thanh tam kenh khe thi gian
cua d lieu can bang .
_ Tn hieu d lieu ngo ra c a ngc tr ve CEB , qua giao tiep can bang
va c nap vao hang i FIFO cua bo can bang . Bo x ly chu cua CEB oc d lieu
a c can bang ra khoi ngo ra FIFO cua bo can bang va nh dang no thanh cac
ban tin , cac ban tin nap vao trong mot hang i ngo ra 64 bytes tren HDLC ,
HDLC truyen tin en DRI(M) qua bo phat quang .
_ Ngay sau ban tin nay ( khi yeu cau ) bo x ly chu oc d lieu ieu khien
uplink t cac thanh ghi cua CEB 1,2 va 3 va gi d lieu nay nh mot ban tin en
DRI(M) . Bat ky thong tin ieu khien cham nao can c gi theo ng len , en
DRI(M) , c phat i bang phan deo nh la mot ban tin tach biet sau cac chuyen
giao phan ng tng ng c thc hien .
_ Tat ca cac ban tin cho ca ng len va ng xuong ( nh a e cap
tren ) phai c thu nhan bi mot thc the tng ng trong mot khe thi gian
TDMA ( chang han ng xuong downlink d lieu ieu che , d lieu ieu khien
RCU , va bat ky ban tin ieu khien cham nao , tat ca phai c chuyen i trong mot
khe thi gian ).
_ Sau ay la tom tat ngan gon ve mot vai nhiem vu chnh c thc hien bi
Firmware cua CEB:
. Thong dch cac ban tin ieu khiem cham vao bo x ly nguon va loai yeu
cau
. Quan ly canh bao digital va analog
. Chon la va chen cum cho ca hoat ong th va hoat ong bnh thng
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. Chen gia theo mot ma chuoi hng dan oi vi bat ky mot khe thi gian
nao. ong thi cung cac bit uoi, bit an toan
. nh dang giao thc cua cac ban tin ieu khien cham vao trong bo x ly
nguon va loai confirm / response
.Giai ghep cac d lieu ieu che hng vao , d lieu ieu khien RCU va cac
ban tin ieu khien cham
. Ghep d lieu can bang , cac ban tin ieu khien ng len va ieu khien
cham
. Thc hien giai thuat nhay tan GSM cho ca ng len va ng xuong tren
mot khe thi gian , v vay thc hien nhay tan bnh thng va dung chung thiet b
. Thc hien tong hp tan thu ( 2 cho phat , 2 cho thu e thc hien nhay tan
tong hp nhanh .)
. Xac nh viec nhay tan qua song mang BCCH trong cac che o nhay tan.
. ieu khien va ket hp nh thi , da tren thc hien ieu khien ngan.
1.1.1.6. Hoat ong cua board EQB.
EQB la mot phan cua CEB cha cac mach so e thc hien :
. Can bang kenh cua d lieu ng len RX
. X ly d lieu RSSI
. Chc nang giao tiep vi CEB .
_EQB la mot board x ly tn hieu so . Do so lng cong viec phai x ly
ln c thc hien nen yeu cau co 8 khoi can bang , moi khoi cho mot khe
thi gian TDMA GSM .
_Moi khoi can bang co mot bo x ly tn hieu so DSP . Cac khoi nay th oc
lap vi nhau , nhng truy nhap cac bus chung e thong tin vi bo x ly chu CEB va
cac thiet b ngoai v at tren CEB . Tat ca cac lien lac vi EQB eu phai thong qua
CEB qua giao tiep gia CEB va DEQB .
-Cac tn hieu d lieu ngo vao cac khoi x ly tn hieu so can bang EQ DSP
c nhan t CEB va cac ngo ra c gi en CEB . Hau het cac ngoai vi cua EQ
DSP c at tren CEB . RAM noi bo , giai ma a ch cac bo nh thi giam sat th
c at tren EQB .
_Cac tn hieu Baseband I,Q t board main IF c a cac mach chuyen oi
A/D tn hieu I,Q tng ng va cac mach hang i d lieu FIFO tren board CEB .
Ngo ra cua mach nay c x ly vao trong 8 kenh khe thi gian d lieu . D lieu
nay c a en EQB . Tn hieu ngo ra trung tan IF th 2 t board ket cuoi RCU
khong co bien o gii han , tuy nhien cac tn hieu Baseband I,Q co cac bien o
khac nhau cua cac kenh thu cho phep tn hieu Baseband c ieu che goc bi cac
khoi EQDSP .
_Cac khoi EQDSP s dung mot giai thuat viterbi , loc so , va cac giai thuat
x ly tn hieu khac e can bang cac tn hieu thong tin baseband I,Q .
_Cac ch th VRSSI t board RSSI c a en chuyen oi A/D em d lieu
, va cac mach RAM tren board CEB . Ngo ra cua cac mach nay c vao 8 kenh khe
thi gian cua d lieu RSSI d lieu nay c a en EQB . Moi khoi EQ DSP x ly
gia tr RSSI , thc hien tnh toan AGC , timing advance trung bnh cho moi kenh khe
thi gian xac nh
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_Tn hieu d lieu ngo ra AGC / timing advance c a ngc tr ve CEB ,
qua giao tiep can bang va nap vao hang i FIFO cua bo can bang . Bo x ly chu
CEB oc d lieu AGC / timing advance t ngo ra hang i FIFO cua bo can bang
ieu chnh nh thi d lieu .
_Bo x ly chu cung nh dang d lieu AGC thanh mot ban tin . Ban tin nay
c a en RAM d lieu AGC , thanh ghi va cac mach logic AGC RF tren board
CEB . Cac tn hieu ieu khien ngo ra cac mach nay c a en cac bo suy giam
co nh tren board front end RCU va cac bo suy giam bien oi c tren board main
IF . Cac bo suy giam ieu chnh o li tn hieu thu ung .
1.2. DRIX : ( Module nay trong thiet b BTS )
_Module DRIX ch co trong BTS la giao tiep vat ly gia DRIM va DRCU .
DRIX chuyen oi ket noi ien tai DRI(M) sang ket noi quang tai DRCU .
_Mot nhom bao gom DRI(M) , DRIX , DRCU tao thanh giao tiep vo tuyen
cho 8 kenh traffic logic GSM .
1.3. DRI(M) :
Giao tiep vo tuyen so ( Digital Radio Interface module ):
_Module DRI(M) ch co trong BTS cung cap giao tuyen logic gia DRCU
va bus DTM . Mot DRIM , DRIX va DRCU ket hp vi nhau e thc hien giao tiep
vo tuyen cho 8 khe thi gian hoac kenh lu thong logic cua GSM . DRIM cung thc
hien bo tr cac kenh logic tren kenh vat ly , chen va giai chen . Ma hoa va giai ma
kenh va nhay tan baseband BBH ( Baseband Hoping ) cho ng xuong downlink .
1.4. GCLK : ong ho chung ( GENERIC CLOCK ) : ( c at thiet b BSC)
_Module GCLK phat ra tn hieu nh thi chuan 16,384 Mhz +/-0,05ppm
va mot tn hieu ong ho 2,048 Mhz c phuc hoi t ng 2,048 Mbps . Cac
module GCLK d phong phai c at trong cung BSU/RXU .
1.5.Bo x ly chung GPROC ( Generic Processor) :
_Module nay trong thiet b BTS nhng moi BTS noi BSC th BSC co GPROC
vi MSI rieng cho BSC o. Module GPROC la Module ieu khien cua
BSC/BTS/RXCDR. Moi BSU/RXU eu co mot GPROC, GPROC trong moi
BSU/RXU. Lien ket lai vi nhau e trao oi cac bao hieu ieu khien. Hn na
GPROC c s dung nh mot giao tiep cua BSC c ket noi vi MSC e nhan cac
thong tin bao hieu ieu khien. Cac lenh bao hieu t MSC va BSC sau o c
GPROC x ly va phan phoi tren mot trong cac bus lien lac en cac moun so tng
ng trong BTS/BSC/RXCDR tng ng.
1.6. KILOPORT SWITCH (KSW) : ( Module nay co trong thiet b BSC )
_Mot module KSW hoat ong vi mot trong hai ng highway TDM hng
vao mot trong BTS/BSC/RXCDR. Mot highway cha 1024 kenh 64 Kbps. KSW
c ieu khien bi GPROC qua bus MCAP va chuyen kenh tren mot ng
highway hoat ong.
1.7. Timeslot switch (TSW) : module TSW hoat ong tng t nh KSW
nhng TSW ch hoat ong trong BTS .
1.8.Giao tiep noi tiep MSI (Multiple serial interface).
Module MSI cung cap 4 ng 2,048 Mbps noi tiep (2 cho phat va2 cho thu)
nh la giao tiep cho cac phan sau :
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_RXCDR en BSC va BSC en BTS , neu bo TRAU khong at cung vi
BSC
_BSC en BTS neu TRAU at cung vi BSC
Moi ng 2 Mbps no tiep co the mang mot kenh 64 Kbps cho ong bo ,
mot kenh 64 Kbps e ieu khien bao hieu va 120 kenh thoai / data c nen vi toc
o 16 Kbps hoac la 30 kenh PCM 64 Kbps luat A en va i t luong highway TDM
hoat ong trong BSU / RXU .
Nhng kenh nay co the c at bat ky trong 1024 kenh tren highway TDM
di s ieu khien cua GPROC . Kenh lu thong tren highway TDM c a en
hoac i t cac module XCDR / MSI . Module MSI cung cung cap bao ve qua ap ,
ong bo khung va thc hien ong bo cho cac XCDR trong mot BSC/RXCDR.
2. He thong chuyen mach bao gom:
2.1. MSC/VLR va GMSC .
_Bo thanh ghi nh v tam tru VLR c lien ket vi trung tam chuyen
mach cac nghiep vu di ong MSC . MSC/VLR thc hien chuyen mach cac cuoc goi
va tao nen iem ieu khien e cap nhat v tr va chuyen giao . MSC chu yeu chu
trach nhiem cho thiet lap cuoc goi , ieu khien cuoc goi tnh cc
_Cac chc nang VLR chu trach nhiem lu gi va cap nhat so lieu thue bao
MSC/VLR coi tat ca cac cuoc thue bao la tam tru , MSC cong noi PLMN vi cac
mang khac . ay la iem ma cac cuoc goi en cac thue bao di ong vao mang
PLMN. GMSC co phng tien hoi , ngha la GMSC co cac chc nang nhan thong tin
t HLR ve v tr hien thi cua thue bao . No cung co cac chc nang nh tuyen lai
cuoc goi en tram di ong theo thong tin nhan c t viec hoi ap tren . Cau truc
phan cng cua ca hai MSC/VLR va GMSC chu yeu la nh nhau:


OMS
CHS
GSS
TCS MTS TSS BSS PSTN
Hnh 2.2 :Cac he thong con cua MSC/ VLR va





2.1.1. He thong con ien thoai di ong MTS MSC /VLR

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TCS




Trunks

Adminitration Analysis

Visitor Register MAP



Access
Conection Management
Mobility Management
Radio Resource Management
SCCP Interface Trunk Interface
HLR
CSS
BSC
TCS
CHS
T
C
A
P
S
C
C
P
C
C
S
Signalling
Signalling
















Hnh 2.3: Cac phan t cua MTS va cac he thong con tng tac
* MTS c thc hien phan mem c chia thanh nam phan sau :
Thanh ghi tam tru ( Visitor Register )
_Thanh ghi tam tru chu trach nhiem x ly d lieu t thue bao nh MSISDN
nhan c t HLR , cac dch vu thue bao , the loai bo ba e nhan thc cung nh
so lieu ong ( ngha la so lieu trao oi thng xuyen ) nh trang thai , v tr
Phan ng dung di ong ( MAP )
MAP chu trach nhiem cho cac thu tuc bao hieu vi HLR . Di ay la mot
so thu tuc .
+ Cap nhat v tr ( c gi en HLR )
+ Xoa v tr ( nhan c t HLR )
+ Gi cac thong so ( e yeu cau HLR cung bo ba mi )
+ Cung cap so lu ong ( gi mot so lu ong en HLR e en GMSC )
Tham nhap :(Access )
Tham nhap c chia thanh cac thanh phan sau :
+ Quan ly au noi (CM : Conection Management ): Ket hp thiet lap cuoc
goi giam sat cuoc goi va giai phong cuoc goi . No cung ho tr cho viec tnh cc .
+ Quan ly di ong ( MM : Mobility Management ) : Quan ly chc nang cap
nhat v tr va thu nhan thc .
+ Quan ly tiem nang vo tuyen ( RR: Radio Resoure ) : Ket hp tm goi ,
chuyen giao, bat au mot ma hoa .No cha cac ban ch ra quan he gia cac BSC
va cac vung nh v khac nhau . No cung cha cac ban cho cac cuoc goi khan cap
e ch ra quan he gia cac o va cac vung khan cap.
+ Giao tiep trung ke BSC ( Trunks interface ) ieu khien cac tuyen en BSC
. Khi thiet lap cuoc goi no chon mot khe thi gian he thong PCM noi en BSC .
+ Giao tiep SCCP : X ly bao hieu .
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Phan tch :
Cha cac chc nang e phan tch cac so IMSI , phan tch ch ra so thoai la
trong nc hay quoc te . Chc nang nay cung s dung IMSI lam tham khao e ch
ra mot ban ghi so lieu ve thue bao tng ng moi khi can tham nhap en ban tin
nay .
Quan ly :
Quan ly ieu khien cac chc nang c khi au bang lenh he thong
nh oc ta ve cac sai so IMSI , BSC ,Cell , so lu lng .
2.1.2. He thong con tnh cc ( TCH )
_ay la mot he thong con c dung e tnh cc cac thue bao di
ong . Cuoc goi c tnh cc theo phng phap lap phieu nghia la d lieu
ve moi cuoc goi nh so thoai chu goi , so thoai b goi , ngay thang , thi gian
goi , o dai cuoc goi ,c ghi lai va c lu gi bang bang t hoac a t .
Administrative centre













Hnh 2.4.Tnh cc bang lap phieu
Manegtic
Disk



Information
About car Magnetic tape









CD T
CHS
FMS
Data link
Computer
Bills
_Mot khoi chc nang co ten la CDR ( ghi d lieu tnh cc ) thu thap thong
tin ve moi cuoc goi can tnh cc . Khi ket thuc mot cuoc goi khoi chc nang TT (
Toll Ticketing ) se lap lai khuon dang thong tin va s dung he thong vao ra e lu
gi thong tin nay vao ia hay bang t . Sau o thong tin nay chuyen en mot may
tnh thong thng e lam hoa n cho thue bao .
2.1.3. He thong con ieu khien lu lng ( TCS) :
Cac chc nang con cua he thong nay nh sau :
_Thiet lap giam sat va xoa cuoc goi
_Chon cac tuyen ra
_Phan tch cac ch so vao
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CL COF SECA SC



Result
Digits
Digits
DA RE
Route Routing case
Case charging case , etc .
RA

CL : Call Supervision Giam sat cuoc goi
COF : Coordination of Flash services Ket hp cac dch vu nhanh
DA : Digit Analysis Phan tch ch so
RE : Route Analysis Chc nang thanh ghi
SC : Subseriber Categories Cac the loai thue bao
SFCA : Semi Permanent Connections Noi thong ban co nh


Hnh 2.5.Mot so chc nang cua TCS

_Chc nang bo ghi(RE) : Khoi nay lu gi cac ch sova ieu khien thiet lap
cuoc goi
_Giam sat cuoc goi (CL) : Khoi nay giam sat cuoc goi ang tien hanh va xoa
chung
_Phan tch ch so (DA) : Khoi nay cha cac ban tin e phan tch ch so phan
tch nay c RE ra lenh .
_Phan tch tuyen (RA) : Cha cac ban e chon cac tuyen ra c RE ra lenh
_Cac the loai thue bao ( SC) : Khoi nay chc cac so ao MSC/VLR.
_Ket hp cac nghiep vu nhanh (COF) : Khoi nay am nhiem cac chc nang
cua RE va CL khi nhieu hn hai thue bao tham gia vao cung mot cuoc noi thong
tieng noi .
_Cac noi thong ban co nh (SECA) : Khoi nay cho phep thiet lap cac noi
thong ban co nh qua chuyen mach nhom .

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2.1.4. He thong con chuyen mach nhom :



TSM
0
ETC
TSM
1
TSM
31


SPM
:
:
Hnh 2.6.Bo chuyen mach nhom hoan chnh













_Chuyen mach nhom la mot chuyen mach dang TST . Cac module chuyen
mach thi gian (TSM) gom cac bo nh em va cac module chuyen mach khong
gian SPM gom cac ma tran cac iem noi cheo .
_Kha nang cua moi chuyen mach thi gian cho phep 512 ng vao , va ln
nhat 32 chuyen mach thi gian noi en mot chuyen mach khong gian (SPM) .


SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM
SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM
SPM SPM SPM
SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM
SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM
SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM
TSM0
TSM31
TSM127

SPM
0 0
SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM
SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM
SPM SPM SPM
SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM
SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM
SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM
TSM0
TSM31
TSM127

SPM
0 0
0
0
0
0
31
SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM
SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM
SPM SPM SPM
SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM
SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM
SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM
TSM0
TSM31
TSM127

SPM
31
SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM
SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM
SPM SPM SPM
SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM
SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM
SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM
TSM0
TSM31
TSM127

SPM
31 31
31 127
127
32
63
64
95
96
127
PCM
System
16384
Multiple positions
65536
Multiple positions















PCM: pulse code modulation; SPM: Space switch module; TSM: Time switch module

Hnh 2.7. Bo chuyen mach nhom hoan chnh

_e am bao tin cay toan bo , mang , chuyen mach c d phong hai
tam lam viec ong bo vi nhau .He thong chuyen mach nhom chu yeu chu trach
73
Luan van tot nghiep
nhiem chon, noi thong, giai toa tieng thoai hay cac trng tn hieu qua chuyen
mach nhom.
_Co the noi 32 TSM en mot SPM e am bao dung lng 32 x 512 = 16
384 au vao.
_Ta co the noi nhieu SPM e tao nen mot ma tran ln nh hnh ve di ,
theo hnh ve chuyen mach cho ta tong dung lng chuyen mach la : 128 x 52 = 65
536 au vao ( 64 kbit/s).
2.1.5. He thong con khai thac va bao dng .
Cac chc nang khai thac va bao dng chung cho cac he thong con
khac nhau he thong con chuyen mach ATP c chon e tao nen mot he thong
con k hieu la OMS .
Cac chc nang OMS la bao dng cac mach trung ke bao gom cac
chc nang sau :
_Giam sat chan
-Giam sat chiem dung
_Giam sat nhieu.
Cac chc nang khac la cac cuoc goi c kiem tra di s ieu
khien cua lenh thong qua TCON hay kiem tra bao hieu ng truyen thong
qua CANS
Ngoai ra OMS cung chu trach nhiem am bao bo x ly khong qua tai .
Cac chc nang khai khac va bao dng lien quan en mot he thong con rieng (
chang han GSS hay MST ) c cai at he thong con tng ng nay





GSS
CANS
TCON

PCD
OMS











Hnh 2.8. Phan cng OMS

2.1.6. He thong con bao hieu trung ke (TSS)
_He thong con nay ieu khien bao hieu va giam sat noi thong en cac tong
ai khac. Theo bao hieu so 7 CCITT, TSS co the ch cung cap 1 kenh bao hieu (khe
thi gian) hay tn hieu c ieu khien bi CCS.
_ETC (mach au cuoi tong ai ) bao am giao tiep phan cng gia chuyen
mach nhom va mot trung ke (he thong PCM). Chau Au he thong PCM 32 kenh c
s dung trong o kenh 0 dung e ong bo va mang thong tin canh bao
74
Luan van tot nghiep
_AST ( au cuoi nghiep vu thong bao ) la mot phng tien thue bao s dung
cac thong bao a c ghi lai e thong bao cho cac thue bao ang goi v sao
khong at c cac so a quay cac thong bao c ghi lai bang li va cac tone
c lu gi dang so .









AST






Hnh 2.9. He thong con bao hieu va trung ke

3.OMC
HLR/AUC :
3.1 .Tong quat :
_Moi hang khai thac co mot c s d lieu trung tam c goi la bo ghi nh
v thng tru (HLR) e lu gi cac ang ky thue bao : thong tin ve so may thue bao
HLR mang thong tin ve tat ca cac thue bao thng tru . ay la cac thue bao a
ang ky en mot hang khai thac GSM nhat nh .
_HLR mang thong tin ve thue bao do cac hang khai thac a vao : cac so
lien quan en thue bao ( IMSI va MSISDN ) va the loai thue bao IMSI va MSISDN.
_HLR cung mang thong tin c goi la so lieu ong ve mot thue bao
thng tru nh : v tr hien thi cua thue bao , cac dch vu bo sung . Kieu thong tin
nay luon luon c cap nhat , v thue bao nay lu ong va hoat ong /huy bo cac
dch vu bo sung nh chuyen hng cuoc goi khi khong co tra li .
_Trung tam nhan thc AUC lien tuc cung cap cac bo ba cho tng
thue bao . Cac bo ba nay cung c coi nh la so lieu lien quan en thue
bao . Mot bo ba : RAND , SRES , khoa mat ma c s dung e nhan thc
mot cuoc goi e tranh trng hp card thue bao b mat . t nhat phai luon co
bo ba mi ( trong mot thue bao ) HLR e luon luon co the cung cap bo ba
nay theo yeu cau cua MSC/VLR .
3.2. Cau truc he thong :
Co the chia HLR/AUC thanh 3 he thong con sau :
+Trung tam nhan thc AUC
+He thong bao hieu ghi nh v thng tru
+He thong bao hieu kenh chung


SS
PCM-System
31 0
ETC
ETC
31 0
PCM-System
AST Announcement service terminal : au cuoi nghiep vu thong bao
ETC Exchange : Mach au cuoi tong ai
GS Group switch : He thong con chuyen mach nhom
75
Luan van tot nghiep
_Trung tam nhan thc
Nhan thc nhan dang thue bao IMSI la s khang nh cua phan tram goc
cua he thong rang nhan dang thue bao IMSI do may di ong gi en qua trnh
nhan dang tren ng vo tuyen chnh la nhan dang c ang ky .
Khi ang ky thue bao khoa nhan thc thue bao kj cung vi IMSI c
danh cho thue bao .Kj se lu gi trung tam nhan thc va c s dung e cung
cap bo ba cho he thong .Cung kj nh vay c lu SIM . AUC cac bc sau
ay c thc hien e tao ra mot bo ba :
Mot so ngau nhien ( RAND ) c tao ra
RAND va kj c s dung e tnh toan tra li c mat hieu
(SRES) va khoa mat ma Kc bang hai thuat toan
RAND , SRES va Kc cung c a en HLR nh mot bo ba .
oi vi moi thue bao cac bo ba se c t ong lu gi HLR va theo
yeu cau c a en MSC/VLR sau cho MSC/VLR co t nhat mot bo ba cha s
dung cho tat ca cac thue bao tam tru cua mnh .

Database:
IMSI and Authentication
IMSI 1
IMSI 2
K
i
K
i
K
c
SRES RAND
Algorithm
For
Ciphering
A3
Genertion frandom
numbers
Algorithm
For
Ciphering
A8
RAN
K
i
SRES
RAND
Result
Result
Tri
ples
dilivered
triplet
AUC Authentication Centre















IMSI: International Mobile Subcriber Identity K
c
: Ciphering key
K
I
: Subcriber Authentication key SRES:Signed Respone;
RAND: Random number

Hnh 2.10. Cung cap bo ba
_He thong con ghi nh v thng tru.( HRS)
HRS c thc hien phan mem trung tam gom 4 phan:
C s d lieu :Cha so thue bao (v tr, the loai, cac dch vu bo sung,
trang thai va cac bo ba lien quan en thue bao c AUC cung cap .
Quan ly : Co trach nhiem la cho cac lenh cua cac khai khac vien co
the hieu c bang phan mem. No cung chu trach nhiem in so lieu ra.
Phan tch : Phan nay chu trach nhiem cho phep tham nhap en so lieu
cua thue bao dung e ch ra so lieu cua thue bao tng ng.
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Luan van tot nghiep
Phan ng dung di ong (MAP): Phan nay thu va gi cac thong bao (qua
ng bao hieu, CCS va TCAP). MAP s dung bao hieu so 7 CCITT e truyen
thong tin va cac giao tiep TCAP cau truc so 7 CCITT.







-------


_He thong con bao hieu kenh chung .
He thong con nay cha cac chc nang cho bao hieu , nh tuyen , giam
sat va hieu chnh cac thong bao c gi i theo so 7 CCITT
.















Hnh 2.12 . Cac au cuoi bao hieu so 7 CCITT

Cac au cuoi bao hieu (ST) cho bao hieu so 7 CCITT c noi en
chuyen mach nhom qua thiet b PCD D ( ma hoa xung so ). V cac au cuoi bao
hieu la thiet b so nen thiet b PCD D khong co chc nang cho tuyen thoai nen
ch phuc vu nh la mot thiet b e thch ng vi chuyen mach nhom en mot kenh
nhat nh ETC.



Via C7
MAP
64 kbit/s(signalling links)
HRL
AUC
T
Hnh.2.11. HLR, cau truc he thong
C
A
C
S
C
GMSK
VLR
Administrtion Analysis
HRS
PC
AUC
Database MAP
Via
IOGII
Micro Vax
- - - -
- - - -

Signaling chanel
31
GS
ETC
PCD-D
ST
ST
ETC Mach au cuoi tong ai
GS Chuyen mach nhom
PCD-D Thiet b ma hoa xung so
au cuoi bao hieu cho CCITT so 7 ST

64 kbit/s
64 kbit/s
77
Luan van tot nghiep
CHNG III
CAC S CO THNG XAY RA TREN MANG VA
CACH KHAC PHUC

I. CAU TRUC C S CUA MANG DI ONG, CAC S CO XAY RA VA
CACH PHAT HIEN S CO.

3

BTS
BTS
BTS

OMC

BSC

MSC
1
2







Hnh 3.1
_Theo ta biet mot BSC quan ly c en 40 BTS gan vao no. Moi BTS lien lac
vi BSC bang mot luong tn hieu so 2Mb/s.ng truyen dan t BTS en BSC co
the qua nhieu giai oan .V du ng truyen t BTS Long Khanh ve BSC ong Nai

Long Khanh Bien Hoa

BTS BSC MS
VTN VTN
2
2 Mbit/s




Long Khanh Bien Hoa Tp. Ho Ch Minh
Hnh 3.2
_au tien tn hieu 2Mbit/s t BTS Long Khanh c a en tram VTN
cua trung tam vien thong lien tnh . Luong 2Mbit/s nay c VTN a len
kenh truyen dan va a en VTN Bien Hoa.Tai VTN Bien Hoa luong tn hieu
nay c tach ra va a en BSC ong Nai .
78
Luan van tot nghiep
_e phat hien ra s co BTS Long Khanh va phan tch s co cua BTS th co
nhieu s co khac nhau co the xay ra:
a) Tat ca cac may di ong a ban trung tam Long Khanh b mat song
(khong lien lac c ).
b) Ch co cac may di ong thuoc mot hng nao o b mat song (khong lien
lac c).
c) Cac may di ong eu bat song t tram BTS nhng khong thc hien c
cuoc goi cung nh khong nhan c cac cuoc goi.
d) Khi tat ca cac tram BTS gan vao cac BSC eu mat lien lac th ta biet
c BSC o a xay ra s co nghiem trong hoac ng truyen gia BSC va
MSC b mat hoac b loi bit nghiem trong hoac xay ra tai MSC.
Bien Hoa Tp.Ho Ch Minh Ha Noi





BSC
VTN
MS OMC
2Mbit/s
2Mbit/s
622 Mbit/s
Cap Quang
Bien Hoa Tp.Ho Ch Minh
Hnh 3.3
_Do OMC giam sat toan bo s hoat ong cua toan he thong mang nen khi
co bat c s co nao xay ra tren BTS hoac BSC hoac MSC th OMC se phat
hien kp thi va bao cho cac n v quan ly trc tiep cac thiet b nay e cung
ket hp x ly.
II. CAC BC TIEN HANH X LY S CO KHI XAY RA TREN MANG
1. Tat ca cac may di ong a ban trung tam Long Khanh b mat song (
khong lien lac c)
Vdu tai BTS Long Khanh
79
Luan van tot nghiep
Long Khanh Bien Hoa



2Mbit/s 2Mbit/s
VTN VTN
BTS BSC OMC

Long Khanh Bien Hoa Tp. HCM Ha Noi
Hnh 3.4
_Trng hp tat ca cac may di ong ang hoat ong thuoc BTS Long
Khanh b mat lien lac luc nay tren may di ong khong bat c song cua tram
phat BTS.
_OMC se phat hien s co va thong bao ngay cho bo phan quan ly thiet b
BTS va neu s co do mat ng truyen gia BTS va BSC th OMC cung
thong bao cho biet e cung phoi hp giai quyet s co.
_Khi s mat ng truyen xay ra th nhan vien tai BTS Long Khanh,
VTN Long Khanh,VTN Bien Hoa, BSC Bien Hoa cung phoi hp kiem tra e
phat hien ra mat ng truyen oan nao tren tuyen t BTS Long Khanh ve
BSC Bien Hoa.
e kiem tra ng truyen gia hai iem A va B, do ng 2Mbit/s gom
hai si mot thu va mot phat.
A B
2Mbit/s a




b
Thiet b A Thiet b B
Hnh 3.5

80
Luan van tot nghiep
e kiem tra thiet b A co phat tot hay khong ta lam nh sau

a
b


Hnh 3.6
_Ta noi hai au day a va b nh hnh 3.6 va kiem tra thiet b A co thu tot
hay khong. Neu thu tot chng to rang thiet b A phat tot. Tng t nh vay ta
cung co the kiem tra thiet b B.
_Muon kiem tra ng truyen co b loi hay khong ta se dung may o e o
loi taiB

a
A May
o b
Thiet b A


Hnh 3.7
Trong suot qua trnh x ly s co OMC eu giam sat va kiem tra qua
ng bao hieu so 7
Ta se x ly s co tren nh sau:
_au tien nhan vien vao BTS va BSC e xem co en canh bao nao sang
hay khong neu co canh bao th xem en nao canh bao va card nao canh bao
e thay card hoac x ly phan mem hoac reset lai card e khac phuc s co cho
ta thay nh sau:
Module GPROC
Led xanh sang : Bo x ly hoat ong tot
Led o sang : Bo x ly ngng hoat ong
Ca hai led sang : Bo x ly chay nhng disable board
Module KSW/TSW
Led xanh sang : Bo x ly hoat ong tot
Led o sang : Bo x ly ngng hoat ong hoac reset
Ca hai led sang : Bo x ly chay nhng disable board
81
Luan van tot nghiep
Ca hai led tat : Khong co nguon tren board
Module MSI
Led xanh sang : Bo x ly hoat ong tot
Led o sang : Bo x ly ngng hoat ong hoac reset
Ca hai led sang : Bo x ly chay nhng disable board
Ca hai led tat : Khong co nguon tren board
Module DRIM
Led xanh nhap nhay : i code download
Led xanh sang : Bo x ly hoat ong tot
Led o sang : Bo x ly ngng hoat ong hoac reset
Ca hai led sang : Bo x ly chay nhng canh bao tn hieu chuan va
TDM clock hoac h hong ng truyen noi tiep
Ca hai led tat : Khong co nguon tren board
Module GCLK
Led xanh sang : Master hoat ong nhng khong canh bao
Led o sang : Canh bao Master khong hoat ong
Ca hai led sang : Master khong hoat ong ,khong canh bao
Ca hai led tat : Master khong hoat ong ,khong canh bao(hoac khong
co nguon tren board).
_Neu BTS va BSC khong co en nao bao chay th ta se kiem tra cac oan
ng truyen .
Ta phai bat au t BSC Bien Hoa en VTN Bien Hoa (phai ket hp vi
nhan vien VTN Bien Hoa, MSC Thanh pho Ho Ch Minh va OMC Ha Noi)
Nhan vien BSC nh nhan vien VTN. Loop tai au VTN e OMC se o tn
hieu BSC Bien Hoa thong qua ng bao hieu




OM
C
a
b
Bien Hoa
82
Luan van tot nghiep
Hnh 3.8
_Neu tn hieu thu tai BSC tot chng to BSC phat tot va ieu nay c
OMC bao cho nhan vien tai BSC biet.Neu nh tn hieu thu khong tot th ta
phai kiem tra lai BSC cho en khi OMC nhan nh la BSC a tot. Khi BSC a
tot ta khong tiep tuc kiem tra ng truyen na ma nh nhan vien VTN au
thang tr lai va OMC xem va cho biet la BTS Long Khanh a hoat ong lai
hay cha .Neu nh a hoat ong th xem nh s co a c giai quyet neu
cha hoat ong ma OMC van phat hoac mat ng truyen th viec kiem tra
ng truyen lai tiep tuc va cung se bat au t BTS Bien Hoa.


VTN VTN

Hnh 3.9
Tiep tuc kiem tra neu oan t BSC en VTN a tot ngha la BSC phat tot,
ta bao cho VTN kiem tra tren oan cua ho (oan t VTN Bien Hoa en VTN
Long Khanh). Khi oan nay a tot th nh VTN au thang e OMC theo doi
BTS Long Khanh a tot hay cha, neu cha tot ta tiep tuc kiem tra oan t
VTN Long Khanh en BTS Long Khanh cho en khi oan nay tot va au
thang thong ca tuyen t BTS Long Khanh en BSC Bien Hoa, neu van cha
hoat ong c th luc nay se kiem tra lai thiet b BTS Long Khanh va BSC
Bien Hoa.
Kiem tra phan mem ieu khien va giao dien cung nh cac mach thu phat
tai BTS Long Khanh.
Kiem tra phan mem ieu khien tai BSC, kiem tra card MSI tai BSC card
nay ieu khien BTS Long Khanh. Neu phat hien hoac h hong th sa cha
phan mem hoac thay the card MSI.
2. Ch co cac may di ong thuoc mot hng nao o khong thu c song
cua cua BTS
83
Luan van tot nghiep
_Trng hp nay ng truyen gia BTS va BSC khong b mat do o ta
khong kiem tra ng truyen ma chu yeu phai kiem tra BTS.
_Do cau tao cua mot BTS co Anten thu phat song va co 2 loai Anten la
loai ang hng va loai sector 3 hng. Loai ang hng la co mot tan so
phat va mot tan so thu. S co loai nay th loai ang hng khong the xay ra
ma xay ra cau truc Anten sector b mat mot hng trong 3 hng tren.
Trng hp nay card thu phat (theo hng mat lien lac) tai BTS co the b treo
hoac b h. Ta khac phuc bang cach nh OMC reset nong card nay neu van b
th ta thay card h nay, s co se c khac phuc.
Anten cua






Hnh 3.10
3. Cac may di ong eu bat c song t tram BTS nhng khong
thc hien c cuoc goi cung nh khong nhan c cuoc goi:
_Khi cac may di ong eu bat c song t tram BTS th cho ta nhan
xet rang tram BTS thu phat tot.
_Nh ta a biet Anten sector 3 hng ma moi hng co mot kenh bao
hieu cac kenh bao hieu nay c ghep hp lai vi nhau tai tram BTS thanh
mot ng bao hieu chung .Do o khi cac may di ong bat c song ma
khong thc hien c cuoc goi th ta co the nhan xet rang ng bao hieu co
van e .Ta kiem tra lai ng bao hieu hoac lien he vi MSC tng ng e
reset card lien quan hoac xem lai phan mem co b loi hay khong e khac phuc
cho en khi nao s co c giai quyet xong.
4. Khi tat ca cac tram BTS gan vao BSC eu mat lien lac:
84
Luan van tot nghiep
_ay la s co nghiem trong bi v thong thng co nhieu BTS gan vao
BSC va toi a la 40 BTS co the gan vao mot BSC, tai ong Nai co 12 BTS
gan vao BSC ong Nai v vay khi BSC ong Nai b s co th ca 12 BTS gan
vao no cung se b s co va he thong VINAPHONE ong Nai se b mat lien
lac.
_Ngay sau khi s co nay xay ra th OMC Ha Noi phat hien ngay
lap tc va thong bao s co nay cho MSC Thanh pho Ho Ch Minh va ky thuat
VINAPHONE ong Nai e cung phoi hp x ly s co







VTN
ong Nai
MSC
Tp.Ho
BSC
ong Nai
VTN
Tp.Ho
Ch Minh
2M
2M 2M
Hnh 3.11
_Neu OMC thong bao la s co xay ra do ng truyen tn hieu (luong
2Mb/s) gia BSC ong Nai va MSC Thanh pho Ho Ch Minh b mat th
MSC Thanh pho Ho Ch Minh ,VTN va ky thuat VINAPHONE ong Nai
cung phoi hp e khac phuc (cac bc kiem tra ng truyen nh tren ).
_Neu OMC thong bao ng bao hieu so 7 gia BSC ong Nai va MSC
Thanh pho Ho Ch Minh b mat do phan mem tai BSC b loi th co the reset
lai card MSI chu tai BSC neu van khong c th OMC co the sa cha phan
mem thong qua ng bao hieu hoac co the sa cha trc tiep phan mem tai
BSC bang may tnh ca nhan truy cap trc tiep vao BSC . Neu van khong c
th co the thay card MSI chu e khac phuc s co.
85
Luan van tot nghiep
CHNG IV
CAC DCH VU TREN MANG VA DCH VU TREN
MAY DI ONG MS

I. CAC DCH VU MANG THONG TIN DI ONG :
Mang ien thoai di ong VINAPHONE la mot he thong vien thong tng
oi hoan chnh cung cap ay u cac loai hnh dch vu cho khach hang .
Cac dch vu cua VINAPHONE co the c chia lam ba loai dch vu sau
ay:
_ Cac dch vu c ban
_ Cac dch vu bo sung
_ Cac dch vu bo sung khong phai GSM
1. Cac dch vu c ban :
1.1. Dch vu Fax:
Dch vu nay cho phep ban co the nhan va chuyen Fax t mot may tnh
Latop c VINAPHONE cung cap khi ban co yeu cau, ngoai ra ban can
phai co may tnh Latop , card modem va day noi, trong may tnh Latop phai
cai at chng trnh chuyen, nhan Fax co ten la Trio Data Fax. Viec thc hien
chuyen nhan fax c thc hien qua mang GSM -D 900 cua VINAPHONE.

G
S
M
M
S
ISDN
PSTN
au cuoi
Fax
au cuoi
Fax
M
S










Hnh 4.1

86
Luan van tot nghiep
Nh tren hnh 4.1 chuyen , nhan Fax bang cach ket noi may tnh Latop
vi may di ong co the c thc hien ti t mot may tnh Latop khac hay
nhng thiet b fax au cuoi .
1.2. Dch vu ban tin ngan SMS :
Dch vu ban tin ngan SMS cho phep may di ong co the nhan va gi i
cac ban tin dang so hoac dang ch (dai toi a 160 ch/so) c cung cap cho
cac thue bao thuoc mang VINAPHONE khi thue bao co nhu cau. Co hai
phng thc gi ban tin nh sau :
1.2.1. Nhan t ong :
_Neu may co kha nang gi ban tin th ban co the t tao mot ban tin
tren may va chuyen cho mot may di ong khac thuoc mang VINAPHONE.
Tuy nhien e gi c ban tin th tren may cua ban phai cai at so cua trung
tam dch vu la +8491020005 (tuy thuoc vao cau truc menu tren tng may au
cuoi e chung ta co the cai at so cua trung tam dch vu)
_Khi a so thue bao can nhan ban ch can vao so thue bao can nhan,
v du neu muon nhan cho so may 091200133 th ch can vao 200133. Nhan
dc tin nhan ban se biet chnh xac so may gi tin cho ban ngay tren man
hnh cua may hang tren dong tin nhan.
_Neu may di ong cua ban khong co kha nang gi ban tin th ban co
the dung cach nhan qua khai thac vien.
1.2.2. Nhan qua khai thac vien:
_oi vi hnh thc nay may di ong cua ban c s dung nh mot
may nhan tin. Muon nhan cho mot may di ong thuoc mang VINAPHONE
ban ch can quay so tat 141 e trung tam nhan tin thong bao cho khai thac
vien so may va noi dung can nhan. Khi nhan c tin nhan, trc dong tin
nhan c co so ni gi la +141 la so cua trung tam dch vu .
_Mot ieu lu y rang, tat ca cac thue bao di ong thuoc mang
VINAPHONE eu co the quay 141 ti trung tam dch vu SMS.
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Luan van tot nghiep
_ Tat ca thue bao co nh khu vc mien bac t Nghe An tr ra (bao
gom Ha Noi, Hai Phong, Nghe An, Hai Dng, Ha Bac, Lang Sn, Quang
Ninh va Vnh Phu. Cac tnh nay hien a phu song VINAPHONE ) eu co the
quay so tat 141 e ti trung tam nhan tin (trung tam SMS nay hien nay ang
at ta bu ien Giap Bat) vi hnh thc nhan tin t mang co nh , dch vu
SMS rat hieu qua cung nh cac dch vu nhan tin toan quoc 107 va dch vu
nhan tin 133.
_Hien thi ch mi co cac thue bao thuoc mang co nh t Nghe An tr
ra (thuoc mot so tnh neu tren la co the quay so tat 141, trong mot tng lai
gan chung ta se m them hai trung tam nhan tin t xa at tai a Nang va
TPHCM. Cac cuoc goi t thue bao co nh thuoc khu vc mien trung se c
nh tuyen vao trung tam nhan tin tai a Nang va cac cuoc goi t thue bao co
nh thuoc khu vc mien Nam se c nh tuyen vao trung tam nhan tin at
tai TP.HCM (hnh 4.2)
_Mot ac tnh u viec cua he thong nhan tin SMS o la khi thue bao di
ong ang tat may hoac ngoai vung phuc vu th ban tin van c gi tai trung
tam nhan tin va khi thue bao bat may hoac tr lai vung phuc vu th thue bao
se nhan c ay u cac ban tin a g trc o.
_Van e cc oi vi dch vu ban tin ngan SMS nh sau:
1) Thue bao di ong nhan tin thue bao di ong theo phng thc t
ong th khong thu cc .
2) Thue bao di ong nhan tin cho thue bao di ong qua ban khai thac
vien thu cc nh dch vu nhan tin toan quoc oi vi ghi se theo phng thc
3+1 cua mang co nh la 1200/ 3 phut au, phut tiep theo la 400/1 phut.
Nhn vao s o hnh 4.2 ta co the thay c cau truc mang nhan tin
VINAPHONE .
3) thue bao co nh nhan tin cho thue bao di ong (qua ban khai thac
vien): thu cc nh trong dch vu nhan tin toan quoc. Cu the nh sau:
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Luan van tot nghiep
+ Neu khach hang la thue bao th tnh cc vao mc cc khoan
thang cua thue bao.
+ Neu khach hang nhan tin ghi se, ai ly th tnh cc theo phng
thc 3+1 cua mang co nh la: 1200/3 phut au, phut tiep theo la 400/ 1
phut.

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Luan van tot nghiep















ROUTER ROUTER
ROUTER
He
thong

MSC BSC
Mang
nhan tin
at tai
Giap Bat
Ha Noi

Hnh 4.2
1.3. Dch vu cuoc goi khan ( emergency call)
_Cuoc goi khan la mot cuoc goi xuat phat t di ong ti mot trung tam
(cu hoa, cu thng hay canh sat... ). Dch vu cuoc goi khan bat nguon t
dch vu ien thoai thng nhng no cung cap cach n gian va thong nhat e
thiet lap cuoc goi khan.
_GSM thc hien so goi khan chuan 112 a c chuan hoa. Them vao o
cac hang san xuat thiet b di ong co the cung cap phm SOS e thc hiec
cuoc goi khan bang cach bam vao phm o .
_Cuoc goi khan co the c thc hien ke ca khong co modul nhan dang
thue bao hay con goi la SIM card. Hien nay oi vi VINAPHONE goi khan
c nh tuyen ti trung tam cu thng 115.

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Luan van tot nghiep
2. Cac dch vu bo sung :
2.1. Dch vu i cuoc goi va gi cuoc goi:
_May di ong cua ban co the nhan cuoc goi th 2 khi ban ang lien lac
vi cuoc goi th nhat, dch vu nay c goi Call Waiting. Khi cuoc goi th 2
en ban se nghe thay nhng tieng tut..tut...tut.. nho va thue bao goi en se
nhan c tn hieu bao chuong t may ban. Neu chap nhan, th ban co the
luan phien noi chuyen hoac noi chuyen roi ngat mot trong hai cuoc am thoai.
Dch vu luan phien cuoc goi goi la call hold . Sau khi ang ky s dung dch
vu nay, th ban phai can thiep vao menu trong may e kch hoat no khi ban
muon dung.
_Dch vu gi cuoc goi Call hold khong co g khac la so vi viec tnh cc
mot cuoc am thoai thong thng. Nguyen tac ch goi ra la tnh cc con goi
vao la khong tnh cc, goi cuoc nao tnh tien cuoc nay,
_Trong khi gi cuoc goi, khi am thoai vi mot ngi ban phai gian
oan vi ngi con lai. Song ban khong nen ngh la tong ai se tr cc cho
ban thi gian ngat quang ma tnh ca cho ban. Cho nen khi s dung dch vu
Call hold ban nen lu tam.
2.2. Dch vu chuyen cuoc goi (call forwarding).
_Dch vu chuyen cuoc goi sang mot so may khac theo khuyen ngh 02
.82 cua GSM va thuoc vao the loai dch vu bo sung . Dch vu nay tren menu
cua cac may di ong ghi la Divert. Vi dch vu nay thue bao b goi B (neu co
ang ky dch vu chuyen cuoc goi) c phep chuyen cac cuoc goi en (cuoc
goi ket cuoi di ong - MTC) sang mot so ien thoai khac, chang han so ien
thoai C. Mang thong tin di ong GSM cua VINAPHONE a ap ng dch vu
nay mot cach hoan hao. Bao gom cac trng hp chuyen cuoc goi sau ay:
_All call (chuyen cuoc goi khong ieu kien- call forwarding
unconditional) : trong the loai nay , toan bo cac cuoc goi en c chuyen
sang so may khac.
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Luan van tot nghiep
_If busy (chuyen cuoc goi trong trng hp may ban - call forwarding on
mobile subscriber busy): neu c thiet lap che o nay, toan bo cac cuoc goi
en se c chuyen sang so may khac neu may cua ban ang ban .Xin lu y
rang khi at che o nay th may cua ban phai bo tam thi che o call
waiting . Bi v call waiting co o u tien cao hn.
_If no reply (chuyen cuoc goi trong trng hp khong tra li _ call
forwarding on no reply): chuyen toan bo cac cuoc en may ban sang mot so
may khac sau mot khoang thi gian tuy theo ban at (trong mot khoang thi
gian cho phep la t1 en 30s) may cua ban o chuong ma ban khong biet hay
khong muon tra li.
_Sau khi ban ang ky dch vu chuyen cuoc goi, tong ai trung tam se cai
at dch vu nay cho ban, ban co the s dung hay khong s dung bang cach can
thiep menu tren may ban.
_Lu y rang khi ban kch hoat, ban muon chuyen cuoc goi sang so may
khac th ban phai vao ay u ca ma vung. V du ban muon chuyen cuoc goi
sang may khac tai Ha Noi 8.645309 th ban phai a vao so 04.8645309.
_Chung ta co the ket hp dch vu nay vi dch vu hop th thoai VMS
mot cach rat hieu qua va tien li.
* Van e cc ph khi s dung dch vu chuyen cuoc goi :
Dch vu chuyen cuoc goi la mot qua trnh phc tap va a dang gia s
thue bao B goi thue bao A va thue bao A chuyen cuoc goi sang so may khac.
cac trng hp chuyen cuoc goi c mo ta nh sau :
+ Trng hp 1: chuyen cuoc goi en mot thue bao C nao o ma cac
thue bao A, B, C eu la thue bao di ong ( hnh 4.3).





G

S
B
A
C
Hnh 4.3
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Luan van tot nghiep
Trong trng hp nay cc c chia lam 2 phan :
_Phan 1: Cuoc goi t B en A .Tnh cc B theo vung cc trong
bang cc thong tin di ong .
_Phan 2: Cuoc goi chuyen t A en C , tnh cc theo vung cc trong
bang cc thong tin di ong hien hanh ap dung trong trng hp may di ong
goi may di ong
+ Trng hp 2: chuyen cuoc goi en thue bao C nao o ma cac thue
bao A ,B la thue bao di ong , C la thue bao co nh ( Hnh 4.4).
Trong trng hp nay cc c chia lam 2 phan :
_Phan 1: Cuoc goi t B en A , tnh cc B theo vung cc trong
bang cc thong tin di ong hien hanh , ap dung trng hp may di ong goi
may di ong .
_Phan 2: Cuoc goi chuyen t A en C tnh cc A theo vung cc
trong bang thong tin di ong hien hanh , ap dung trng hp may di ong goi
may co nh.



G



+Trng hp 3: chuyen cuoc goi en thue bao C , trong o B la thue
bao co nh va A , C la thue bao di ong ( hnh 4.5)







S
B A
PSTN
C
Hnh 4.4
G B A
PSTN
S
M
C
Hnh 4.5
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Luan van tot nghiep
_Phan 1: cuoc goi t B en A , tnh cc B theo vung cc trong
bang cc ien thoai co nh , ap dung trong trng hp co nh goi di ong.
_Phan 2: Cuoc goi chuyen t A en C, tnh cc A theo vung cc
trong bang cc thong tin di ong hien hanh , ap dung trng hp may di
ong goi di ong .
+ Trng hp 4:
Chuyen cuoc goi en thue bao C trong o A la thue bao di ong va B, C la
thue bao co nh ( hnh 4.6)




G
S
M
B
PSTN
A
C
Hnh 4.6

Trong trng hp nay cc c chia lam 2 phan :
_Phan 1: Cuoc goi t B en A tnh cc B theo vung cc trong
bang cc ien thoai co nh , ap dung trong trng hp may co nh goi may
di ong .
_Phan 2: cuoc goi chuyen t A en C , tnh cc A theo vung cc
trong bang cc thong tin di ong hien hanh , ap dung cho trng hp may di
ong goi may co nh .
Tat ca cac trng hp tnh cc tren eu ap dung trong bang cc
thong tin di ong hien hanh theo thi gian va c ly tng ng .
* Moi lien he vi cac ac iem khac.
Dch vu chuyen cuoc goi co ieu kien ( no reply, if no
reachable va if busy) khong the c kch hoat neu nh chuyen cuoc goi
khong ieu kien. all calla c kch hoat.Neu nh trng hp chuyen cuoc
goi all call c kch hoat trong khi chuyen cuoc goi co ieu kien a c
kch hoat th che o chuyen cuoc goi co ieu kien tam thi c loai bo. en
khi chuyen cuoc goi khong ieu kien c loai bo th che o chuyen cuoc goi
94
Luan van tot nghiep
ban au se c kch hoat lai . ieu nay co ngha rang divert trong trng hp
All call co o u tien cao nhat .
Neu mot cuoc goi c chuyen en thue bao C ( C co ang ky Clip)
th thue bao C se nhan c so thue bao A ( neu A khong ang ky Clir) ieu
nay ch ap dung oi vi mang va nhng getway mang co kha nang truyen
nhng thong tin nay .
Moi lien he vi dch vu chan cuoc goi : neu dch vu chan tat ca cac
cuoc goi ra ( BAOC) c kch hoat khong co dch vu chuyen cuoc goi nao
c thc hien .
2.3. Dch vu hien so chu goi (Clip) va dch vu cam hien so chu goi (Clir).
_Theo khuyen ngh 02.81 cua GSM , dch vu Clip thuoc vao nhom cac
dch vu bo sung . ac iem nay cho phep thue bao di ong bi goi ( a c
cung cap dch vu nay ) hien th so may chu goi . Dch vu Clip thng c s
dung vi dch vu Clir. Dch vu Clir cho phep thue bao di ong ( c cung cap
dch vu nay ) cam hien so may cua mnh tren may thue bao b goi .
_Khi ban ang ky dch vu nay VINAPHONE se cai at cho ban . Sau khi
a cai at th khi co mot cuoc goi en, may ban se hien th so chu goi trong
trng hp sau ay :
Mang ma thue bao chu goi phai ho tr dch vu Clip .
Va thue bao chu goi khong ang ky dch vu Clir.
* Moi lien he vi cac dch vu khac :
_Dch vu cam hien th so chu goi : thue bao di ong c cung cap dch
vu Clip se khong nhan c so chu goi neu so chu goi c cung cap dch vu
Clir.
_Dch vu i cuoc goi( Call waiting) : mot thue bao ban , co ang ky
dch vu call Waiting se c thong bao ve cuoc goi . Neu thue bao nay co
ang ky dch vu Clir, them vao o se nhan c so thue bao chu goi cua cuoc
goi en mi.
95
Luan van tot nghiep
_Dch vu chuyen cuoc goi( call fowarding): thue bao ma cuoc goi c
chuyen ti neu ang ky dch vu Clip th se nhan c so chu goi phat sinh
cuoc goi (tc la so khi au cuoc goi)
2.4. Dch vu chan cuoc goi ( call Barring)
_Mang GSM _ D.900 cua VINAPHONE cho phep thue bao di ong co
kha nang chan cac cuoc goi en va chan cac cuoc goi i nhat nh. ieu nay
co li trong trng hp may di ong cua ban cho ngi khac mn . Trong
trng hp nay s dung c han che , chang han ch e nhan cuoc goi hay
nhng cuoc goi chi ph ve cc thap. e kch hoat huy bo viec chan cuoc goi
co the c bao quan bang mot mat khau, cho phep chu thue bao la ngi duy
nhat co the ieu khien cong viec nay.
_Dch vu chan cuoc goi nam trong cac nhom dch vu bo sung tuan theo
khuyen ngh 02.88 cua GSM .
_Tien ch nay cho phep mot thuebao di ong co the chon la loai cuoc
goi nao can thiet phai c chan. Sau ay la cac the loai:
Cac cuoc goi ra (Outgoing call).
Tat ca cac cuoc goi ra.
Tat ca cac cuoc goi i quoc te.
Tat ca cac cuoc goi i quoc te ch tr cac cuoc goi hng ve mang
PLMN thng tru cua thue bao (Trng hp nay khong tnh en bi cha co
roaming quoc te)
Cac cuoc goi en (Incoming call)
_Ngi cung cap dch vu se cung cap dch vu call barring ti mot thue
bao di ong neu thue bao di ong o ang ky. Co 2 chon la ang ky.
+ au tien, nhng dch vu chan cuoc goi c ban nao ma thue bao
ang ky .
+ La chon th 2 lien quan en quyen ieu khien chan cuoc goi .
Thue bao co the ang ky chon quyen ieu khien dch vu bang mot mat khau
hay co the chuyen quyen ieu khien en nha khai thac hay VINAPHONE.
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Luan van tot nghiep
_Neu thue bao co ang ky quyen ieu khien dch vu bi ban than thue
bao th VINAPHONE se cung cap cho thue bao mot mat khau (password). Sau
o thue bao co the thay oi mat khau neu mat khau o b lo .
* Moi lien he vi cac dch vu khac
_Mot cuoc goi khan luon c thiet lap, ke ca dch vu chan cuoc goi ra
c kch hoat hay khong.
_ Viec kch hoat dch vu chan cac cuoc goi ra khong anh hng en bat
ky viec i cuoc goi xuat phat bi thue bao chu goi .
_ Khi kch hoat dch vu chan cuoc goi ra , th khong the kch hoat dch
vu chuyen cuoc goi sang so may khac ma ang b chan .
3. Dch vu bo sung khong phai GSM.
* Dch vu hop th thoai (VMS)
_Neu ban ang ky dch vu hop th thoai, trung tam hop th thoai se
cung cap cho ban mot hop th ien thoai co so hop th trung vi so ien thoai
cua ban nhng bo ch so 0 au.Vdu neu so ien thoai ban la 091.206022
th so hop th cua ban se la 91.206022.Tuy nhien ban khong can phai quan
tam en so hop th trong qua trinh s dung dch vu nay, ieu na se c sang
toa khi chung ta i vao chi tiet dch vu nay.
_Khac vi dch vu ban tin ngan, hop th nay lu tr tin nhan cho ban
di dang tieng noi. Thong qua hop th nay li nhan cua ban be , ngi than
cua ban se c lu tr . ban co the truy nhap vao hop th cua ban e nghe .
_Sau ay la cac trng hp thong tin khi s dung dch vu nay cua
VINAPHONE va ban la ngi a ang ky s dung dch vu hop th thoai.
_Mot ngi muon nhan mot thong bao cho ban , th ngi o phai la
thue bao di ong thuoc mang VINAPHONE bang cach quay so tat 142 e truy
nhap vao he thong th thoai . Co 2 trng hp xay ra:
_ Neu ngi nhan co ang ky dch vu hop th thoai VMS th khi quay so
tat 142 ngi o se truy nhap thang vao hop th thoai cua ho . Khi a truy
nhap c vao hop th thoai ho se co the nghe thong bao nam trong hop th
cua ho , cung nh co the g thong bao sang hop th thoai ban (lu y khi vao
97
Luan van tot nghiep
so hop th thoai ni en ch can vao 91xxxxxx neu so thue bao la 091xxxxxx
.
_ Ban dung dch vu chuyen cuoc goi (a e cap tren) vao hop th thoai
ban bang cach chuyen cuoc goi vao so 144 .Chung ta thiet ngh ay la hnh
thc s dung ac biet hieu qua oi vi ien thoai di ong v ban khong muon
mat thong tin khi thue bao di ong cua ban ang tat may hoac ngoai vung phu
song hoac ang ban . Cac cuoc goi en ban se c chuyen vao hop th thoai
mo ta bang hnh 4.7.









So may 091200038
Tong ai

So hop th
thoai
91200038
May co nh goi so
may 091200038
He thong hop th VMS
Hnh 4.7
_au tien mot may co nh goi may di ong 091200038 may di ong at
che o chuyen cuoc goi vao hop th thoai ( so 144) . Nh vay cuoc goi se
c chuyen vao hop th 91200038. Trong trng hp may di ong goi may
di ong ang che o chuyen cuoc goi vao hop th thoai th cung tng t
nh trng hp tren . Lu y rang tat ca cac so may tham gia vao qua trnh
nhan tin vao hop th thoai eu (v du nh trong hnh ve tren ca may co nh
lan may di ong 091 200038) phai at che o Tone.
_Khi co mot tin thoai en hop th thoai ban , ngay lap tc tren may di
ong ban se nhan c ban tin ngan( bi v he thong hop th thoai VMS c
ket noi vi he thong nhan tin SMS) vi noi dung sau ay: you have 1 new
voice mail message, ..., luc o ban co truy nhap vao hop th thoai e nghe
hay khong la tuy ban
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Luan van tot nghiep
_Neu ban co ang ky s dung dch vu VMS ban co 3 so ien thoai e s
dung dch vu, o la 142,143,145.
_ 142: so nay bao gom tat ca cac chc nang cua hop th thoai , nghe tin
nhan , gi tin nhan i , lu tr hay xoa bt tin nhan. Nhng yeu cau cu the cua
ban ve viec gi tin nhan, hay nghe tin nhan nh : Gi i ngay , gi vao mot
thi nh an nh nao o , ban tin khan hay khong khan , bao cho ngi nhan
phai tra li ngay, at mat khau e b mat thong tin , thay oi hay bo mat khau
khi b lo hay khong can thiet... eu co the thc hien qua so nay. So nay c
he thong nh nghia la so thue bao truy nhap.
_143: Chc nang cua so nay la e ban lam chu hop th thoai mnh, ghi
am hay thay oi li chao. Li chao cua ban chnh la giong noi ban a ghi am
vao he thong c phat ra khi co ai o a truy nhap c vao hop th thoai e
chuan b nhan tin cho ban. Goi t so 143 cung co the lam chu c hop th
thoai nh cac chc nang so 142, ch co ieu ban khong the nghe c tin
nhan.
-145: so nay c nh ngha e cho khach truy nhap vao.T khach
ay co ngha la mot ngi nao o thue bao di ong cua VINAPHONE muon
nhan tin cho ban. Khi mot may di ong thuoc mang VINAPHONE quay 145
e nhap vao he thong hop th thoai e co the nhan vao mot hop th thoai cua
mot thue bao di ong khac co ang ky dch vu VMS. Trong trng hp nay
thue bao khach co the ang ky dch vu hop th thoai hoac la khong ,eu co
the thc hien nhan tin c .
+Van e cc trong khi s dung dch vu hop th thoai:
_Hien nay cha thu cc ang ky dch vu hop th thoai va cc thue
bao hang thang oi vi dch vu VMS ch thu cc khi s dung dch vu trong
trng hp sau:
_Thue bao di ong goi cac so 142, 143, 145 se c ghi cc ngay sau
khi ket noi c vi he thong hop th thoai, nghe cac li hng dan, thao tac
thay oi, ngay co khi khong nghe tin va gi li nhan. Viec tnh cc trong
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Luan van tot nghiep
trng hp nay c xac nh trong cac van ban hng dan tnh cc thong tin
di ong cua tong cong ty. Thue bao di ong mien Nam goi cac so nay c
coi nh cach vung, thue bao di ong mien Trung c coi nh lien vung. Thue
bao di ong mien Bac c coi nh noi vung.
4. Dch vu tra tien trc: (Prepaid service)
4.1. Dch vu tra tien trc:
+ Khong co hp ong thue bao:
+ Khong phai tra ph hoa mang va ph thue bao thang
+ Tra trc tuy theo kha nang
+ Khong co hoa n cc thang
+ Tra tien trc roi mi s dung dch vu: khach hang c cap 1 tai
khoan trong he thong va gia tr tai khoan c tr dan khi khach hang s
dung dch vu.
4.2. Li ch dch vu tra tien trc :
4.2.1. oi vi nha cung cap dch vu:
+ Giai quyet c mot phan tnh trang n ong cc
+ Giam bt cong viec hanh chnh nh quan ly thue bao, thu cc, quan
ly cc va phat hanh hoa n cc.
+ Tiep can c mot phan oan th trng mi.
+ a dang hoa loai hnh dch vu cung cap.
+ Cung vi dch vu roaming quoc te, dch vu Prepaid cho phep khai
thac c nhu cau cua khach nc ngoai du lch hoac lam viec tai Viet Nam.
+ Tang thu nhap cho nha khai thac.
4.2.2. oi vi khach hang s dung dch vu Prepaid.
+ Cho phep khach hang s dung dch vu thong tin di ong trong thi
gian ngan khi co nhu cau ot xuat ma khong phai lam cac thu tuc ang ky
thue bao , khong phai tra hoa n cc thue bao thang va toan bo cc hoa
mang .
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Luan van tot nghiep
+ Khach hang co the chu ong kiem soat c mc cc s dung dch
vu .
+ Cho phep khach hang th s dung dch vu , kiem tra chat lng
cua mang li trc khi co the ky hp ong thue bao dai han.
4.3. Cc thong tin:

TRA TIEN SAU(POSTPAID) TRA TIEN TRC(PREPAID)
Ph hoa mang :
1.500.000
Ph hoa mang: mien ph
Cc thue bao thang: mien ph
Cc thong tin(phut):
Cc thue bao thang: 250.000
_Noi vung: 3.500
Cc thong tin(phut) :
_Can vung: 6.000
_Noi vung : 1.800
_Cach vung: 8.000
_Can vung : 3.200
_Quoc te: IDD +1.800
_Cach vung: 4.600
Theo quyet nh so:
_Quoc te: IDD + 1.800
749/1998/Q_TCCB cua Tong Cuc B
Theo quyet nh so:
(Mc cc tren a bao gom VAT 10%)
749/1998/Q_TCCB cua Tong Cuc B
(Mc cc tren a bao gom VAT 10%)
4.4. San pham va dch vu cung cap:
4.4.1. San pham:
4.4.1.1. The SIMCARD:
_S dung e truy nhap he thong VINAPHONE
_The simcard s dung cho dch vu prepaid va postpaid hoan toan
giong nhau, ch khac nhau cach khai bao trong tong ai.
_Cach anh so thue bao : theo cach thong thng va theo day so thue bao
a phan bo cho tng bu ien Tnh , Thanh pho.
_Khai bao thue bao :
+Thue bao postpaid: khai bao ve he thong ABC( he thong, quan ly,
tnh cc va DVKH)
+ Thue bao prepaid: khai bao ve he thong PPS( prepaid sevice
system)
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_Gia ban: 150.000 ong /the.
4.4.1.2. The cao VINACARD:
_S dung e truy nhap dch vu tra trc
_The vinacard c lam bang plactic, tren the co in menh gia the,
hng dan s dung va ma so the (ma tai khoan). Ma so b mat nay c in
phu bang kim loai.
_ Hnh thc san pham: The cao c bao goi kem theo t hng dan
chi tiet cach s dung dch vu.
_Cac loai menh gia the: 300.000 ong, 500.000ong,1.000.000 ong


1. Goi 155 t may ien thoai di ong VINAPHONE
2. Sau li ch dan, bam 2 e nhap ma the
3. Nhap ma the sau ay
4. Nghe thong bao gia tr tai khoan va thi han s dung
5. Quay so thc hien cuoc goi theo cach thong thng
Moi chi tiet ve dch vu Tra trc mang VINAPHONE
xin lien he 151( mien ph)
Het han SD: 1/1/2000
HNG DAN S DUNG THE VINACARD

VINACARD
300.000










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Menh gia the 300.000 500.000 1.000.000
Thi han s dung
(thang)
12 12 12
Thi han co gia tr
goi i (ngay)
20 30 60
Thi han c nhan
cuoc goi khi het tien
hoac het han goi i
(ngay)
15 15 15
4.4.2. Dch vu cung cap:
_Dch vu thoai
_Cac dch vu gia tang khac:
+ Chuyen cuoc goi
+ Hop th thoai
+ Fax
4.5. Quy trnh s dung dch vu:
Bc 1: Khach hang ang ky s dung dch vu





Khach hang
Lan au s dung dch vu
thong tin di ong
ang la thue bao postpaid
cua VINAPHONE
ang la thue bao postpaid
cua mang di ong khac
Ca hang, ai ly
VINAPHONE
Ca hang, ai ly
VINAPHONE
Ca hang, ai ly
VINAPHONE
_Mua the SIMCARD
mang VINAPHONE
_ien phieu ang ky s
dung dch vu prepaid mang
VINAPHONE.
c cap so thue bao mi
_Thanh toan het cc va
huy hp ong thue bao
_ien phieu ang ky s
dung dch vu prepaid
_c gi nguyen simva
so thue bao
_Mua the SIMCARD mang
VINAPHONE
_ien phieu ang ky s
dung dch vu prepaid mang
VINAPHONE.
c cap so thue bao mi
FAX phieu ang ky ve trung
tam PSS_ Cong ty GPC
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Luan van tot nghiep
Bc 2: Thc hien ang ky s dung dch vu


Phieu ang ky



Trung tam PPS_Cong ty GPC





_Tiep nhan phieu ang ky
_Nhap d lieu vao may tnh
_Thc hien ang ky the SIM
di hnh thc thue bao




The SIM b khoa chieu en,
chieu i ch c goi 155 va cac
so khan cap

Cai the SIM prepaid vao may

Bc 3: Nap tien vao tai khoan


May di ong +the SIM
Mua the cao VINACARD
300.000,500.000,1 trieu
Cao ma so the va goi 155
Truy nhap vao he thong IVR
Bam 1:Tieng Viet
Bam 2:English
Main menu
Bam 1
Kiem tra gia
tr TK va thi
han s dung
Bam 2
Nap tien vao
tai khoan
Bam 3
Goi trung tam
dch vu
Thong bao Nhap ma so the
Gac
may
e
thoat
Bam

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Luan van tot nghiep
Bc 4: Thc hien cuoc goi













May di ong +
the SIM
VINAPHONE
Quay so thc hien
cuoc goi theo cach
thong thng
Tong ai
MSC phan
tch cuoc goi
Chuyen sang
Service Node
Kiem tra TK
Hien trang tot So d thap
,sap het han
Cha nap
tien,het tien
e ngh goi
155 e nap
Thong bao Xac nh thi
gian toi a,
tnh cc
Chuyen tiep
cuoc goi
PSTN,VTI
Prepaid
Postpaid


Bc 5:Nhan cuoc goi

Cuoc goi en thue
bao
Tong ai MSC
phan tch cuoc
Chuyen sang
Service Node
Kiem tra TK
Cha nap tien,het
thi han nhan,trong 6
thang sau khi b khoa
Thong bao thue
bao khong hoat
Xac nh thi gian toi
a tnh thi gian
c phep nhan
Goi en thue bao Prepaid
Chuyen tiep
cuoc goi
Thue bao
prepaid

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Luan van tot nghiep
Bc 6:Nap them tien ,kiem tra TK trong qua trnh s dung dch vu
1.Kiem tra TK:



May di ong + SIM
gia
Muon kiem tra
hien trang TK
Goi 155.Bam1
e kiem tra
Nghe thong bao
ve hien trang TK
Prepaid+TK co
tr s dung

2. Nap them tien:








Hien trang TK tot
TK sap het tien
hoac sap het
thi han goi i
Muon nap them tien
vao TK
Mua the Goi 155,Bam2 e
nha



Bc 7:Thue bao ri mang

TK het tien hoac
het thi han goi i
Khoa goi i va c
nhan cuoc goi 15 ngay
Trong vong 6 thang
sau khi b khoa ca
chieu i va en
p ma so the
cao
Sau 6 thang ke t khi
thue bao b khoa
cachieu i va chieu en
D lieu ve thue
bao (SIM) b xoa
khoi he thong
Thue bao thc
s ri mang
Phai mua the SIM
mi va ang ky lai
Muon s dung lai
dch vu Prepaid
Phai thc hien cac thu
tuc hoa mang bnh
thng, c cap the
Muon chuyen
sang Postpaid
Phai thc hien cac thu tuc
thong thng, c gi
SIM va so thue bao cu
Trong 6 thang ke t
khi thue bao b khoa
ca chieu i va en
Muon chuyen sang
Postpaid
Phai thc hien cac thu tuc
thong thng , gi SIM va
so thue bao cu,khong c
tra lai so tien con tha
trong TK
TK con tien va cha
het thi han c
phep goi i
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Luan van tot nghiep
4.6. Cac noi dung khac:
4.6.1. Mua nhieu the cao va nhap lan lt gia tr vao TK:
+ c cong don cac gia tr the
+ c cong don thi han co gia tr goi i
V du: nhap ma so cua 1 the 300.000, sau o la 1 the 500.000, he
thong se thong bao so tien hien co trong TK la 800.000 va thi han goi i
c phep la 50 ngay.
4.6.2. Nhap them tien vao TK khi TK ang trang thai tot:
+ c cong don gia tr con lai va thi han co gia tr goi i.
4.6.3.Thue bao prepaid e ngh hoa n chi tiet:
_Goi 155, bam3 hoac goi thang 151
_Cung cap ma dch vu va e ngh c cap ban ghi chi tiet cuoc goi.
4.7. He thong phan phoi san pham :


Cong ty GPC
Nhap khau SIMCARD va the
Cung cap cho cac BTT
He thong cac ai ly
VINAPHONE
K.san,ca hang ien
t,sieu th,ai ly
Cac ca hang trc
thuoc
Khach hang
The SIM+The
The
The SIM+The













II. CAC DCH VU TREN MAY DI ONG MS:
Trong thong tin di ong cac dch vu c s dung tren may la:
+ Dch vu nhan tin SMS
+ Dch vu hop th thoai
+ Dch vu chuyen cuoc goi
+ Dch vu gi cuoc goi va i cuoc goi
+ Dch vu chan cuoc goi
+ Dch vu hien so chu goi va cam hien so chu goi
1. Dch vu nhan tin SMS:
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Luan van tot nghiep
_Dch vu nhan tin cho phep may di ong co the nhan va gi i cac ban tin
dang so hoac ch cung cap cho cac thue bao thuoc mang VINAPHONE khi
thue bao co yeu cau.
_ May di ong cua ban co the tao ra ban tin tren may, e chuyen cho mot
may di ong khac trong mang.May di ong hoac may co nh goi en trung
tam nhan tin (SMS) bang cach quay so tat 141 va thong bao cho khai thac
vien so may va noi dung can nhan.
2. Dch vu hop th thoai.
_Cho phep thue bao co the nhan va chuyen i cac thong bao dang tieng
noi . Khi ban ang ky s dung dch vu, Vinaphone se cai at so hop th thoai
trung vi so may di ong cua ban va mot so tat 144 cho phep chuyen cac cuoc
goi en so may tat ay bang cach at Divert.
2.1. Thc n chnh:
ay la iem bat au cua he thong hop th thoai . Khi ban truy nhap hop
th thoai he thong se nhac ban nhan cac phm tng ng nh (1) e nghe ,(2)
e gi ,(3) e thay oi hoac (8) e giup .
2.2. Gi th thoai:
Khi ban chon phm (2) e gi th thoai he thong se nhac ban gai so hop
th thoai ni en ,sau o an phm * ban co the la chon gi en :
_Mot hop th thoai :Gai so hop th thoai ni en sau o an phm * ban
se nghe c li chao cua ngi nhan th
_Mot danh sach th thoai : Gai so th t cua danh sach th thoai (so th
t cua danh sach th thoai la 1-20) sau o an phm *
_ Nhieu hop th thoai cung mot luc: Ban co the gi cung luc nhieu hop
th thoai bang cach an phm* trc ,sau o gai so cua cac hop th thoai ni
en (hop th thoai co the la mot so th t cua mot danh sach th thoai ) chu y
sau moi lan gai mot so hop th thoai phai an phm *. Sau khi gai so cuoi cung
an phm * .Sau khi gai xong so cua ni en ,ban co the ghi am ngay lap tc
bang cach an phm so 2.
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Luan van tot nghiep
Chu y : khi ban truy nhap hop th thoai ban se luon nghe thay li ch dan cua
he thong .Neu ban a s dung thanh thao ban co the bo qua cac li ch dan va thc
hien theo lenh cua ban .
3. Dch vu chuyen cuoc goi:
Cho phep ban co the chuyen cac cuoc goi en may di ong cua mnh sang
may di ong khac cung mang hoac may co nh hoac th thoai.
3.1. Cai at dch vu tren may :
* oi vi may ERICSON GH388/GF388.
+ An tm Divert
+ An Yes xuat hien phone number, an Yes lan na tren man hnh xuat hien
cac phng thc chuyen cuoc goi:
All Calls: Chuyen tat ca cac cuoc goi
On Busy: khi may ban
Unreachable: khi khong the ket noi hoac tat may
+ Dung e chon phng thc chuyen cuoc goi
+ An Yes chon Activate
+ An Yes xuat hien Enter No : ien so phone chuyen
* oi vi may NOKIA 8110
+ An _ trai xuat hien View
Menu
+ An lien tuc xuat hien Call
Divert
+ An _ trai xuat hien View
Option
+ An xuat hien: Divert
All calls
On busy
When not answererd
If not reachable
+ Neu chon che o nao dung chuyen ve che o chon roi an _ trai xuat
hien : Activate
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Luan van tot nghiep
Cancel
Status
+ An OK xuat hien: Voice Mail
Other No
+ An e mui ten dch ve ch Other No
Number
+ An OK xuat hien Enter, gai so chuyen che o
+ Neu :
_ Chuyen ve hop th thoai gai 144
_ Chuyen ve may co nh gai so co nh
Vdu: 0.4.8654309 ( ma vung + so may)
_Chuyen ve may di ong gai so may di ong
Vdu : 091200038
+ An OK xuat hien Divert Requesting, sau o lai xuat hien:
Divert
Activate
Che o thc hien xong
* oi vi may PANASONIC G500
+ An F , an 3( divert) xuat hien cac phng thc chuyen cuoc goi :
1. All Calls: chuyen tat ca cac cuoc goi
2. If Busy: chuyen cuoc goi khi may ban
3. No Aswer: Khi ban khong tra li sau khoang 30s
4. Unreachable: khi khong ket noi c / Tat may
+ Chon mot trong cac phng thc tren bang cach an phm so la STT
cac phng thc tren
+ Tren may se xuat hien Forward no ? ( chuyen sang so may nao , vao
so ien thoai can chuyen )
+ An OK xuat hien Press
+ An e xac nhan lai
Sau o tren man hnh se xuat hien Call divert set: a cai at xong .
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Luan van tot nghiep
3.2. Xoa viec chuyen cuoc goi
* oi vi may ERICSON GH388/ GF388
+ An Yes xuat hien phng thc chuyen cuoc goi ( Activate)
Vidu : ban chon phng thc chuyen cuoc goi khi may ban On Busy luc
nay tren man hnh se xuat hien On Busy (Activate)
+ An Yes , dung chon Cancel
+ An Yes xuat hien : Please wait
* oi vi may NOKIA 8110
Thc hien lan lt tng bc nh chon che o Divert en khi man
hnh xuat hien dong ch: Activate
Cancel
Status
+ An a mui ten ve Cancel
+ An OK xuat hien Divert
Cancel
Che o a c thc hien .
* oi voi may PANASONIC G500:
+ An F, an 3(divert), an 5 (status)
+ An
+ An OK chuyen trang thai ve Call Divert off
4. Dch vu chan cuoc goi:
4.1. Thiet lap che o chan cuoc goi tren may
* oi vi may ERICSON GH388/GF388
+ An chon Access
+ An Yes xuat hien Barring
+ An Yes xuat hien cac kieu chan cuoc goi :
All outgoing calls: Tat ca cac cuoc goi i
All incoming calls: Tat ca cac cuoc goi en
All incoming when roam: Tat ca cac cuoc goi khi chuyen vung
+ Dung chon dang cam .
+ An Yes xuat hien Enter
111
Luan van tot nghiep
Password
Nhap mat ma sau o an Yes . Ban co the phai ch mot khoang thi gian ngan
trc khi mang tra li . Trong thi gian o , thong bao please wait se xuat hien .
Theo sau se la mot thong bao rang che o a c thc hien .
* oi vi may NOKIA 8110
+ An Menu bang phm _ trai , xuat hien View
Menu
+ An chon Security, an select xuat hien View
Option
+ An chon Call Barring , an select
+ An xuat hien No
Outgoing
Calls
+ An OK xuat hien Activate
Cancel
Status
+ An OK xuat hien Nextwork , Password gai mat ma ( mat ma do
tong ai cung cap).
+An OK che o a c thc hien .
4.2. Xoa che o chan cuoc goi
*oi vi may ERICSON GH388/GF388
+ An chon Access
+ An Yes xuat hien Barring
+ An Yes xuat hien cac kieu chan cuoc goi :
All outgoing calls: Tat ca cac cuoc goi i
All incoming calls: Tat ca cac cuoc goi en
All incoming when roam: Tat ca cac cuoc goi khi chuyen vung.
+ An Yes, dung chon Cancel
+ An Yes xuat hien Enter
Password
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Luan van tot nghiep
Nhap mat ma sau o an Yes . Thong bao Please Wait , tiep o thong bao
khang nh che o chan cuoc goi a c huy bo .
* oi vi may NOKIA 8110
+ An Menu bang phm _ trai xuat hien View
Menu

+ An chon Security, an select xuat hien View
Option
+ An chon Call Barring , an select
+ An xuat hien No
Outgoing
Calls
+ An OK xuat hien Activate
Cancel
Status
+ An xuong ch Cancel Nextword gai mat ma ( mat ma do tong ai cung
cap).
+An OK che o a c thc hien.
* oi vi may PANASONIC G500: th dch vu nay khong co .
5. Dch vu gi cuoc goi va i cuoc goi :
Cho phep ban gi cuoc am thoai vi hai may cung mot luc .
5.1. Thiet lap che o gi cuoc goi tren may :
* oi vi may ERICSON GH388/GF388
+ An chon Access
+ An Yes , dung chon Call waiting
+ An Yes xuat hien Activate , an Yes xuat hien :
Please wait: xin ch mot chut
Call waiting On : che o a c thc hien
* oi vi may PANASONIC G500
+ An F, an 4 ( call wait) , an 1 ( call wait). xuat hien call wait set ?
+ An OK xuat hien Press .
+ An .Luc nay mang se lam viec , tren man hnh xuat hien
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Luan van tot nghiep
Please wait : xin ch mot chut
Call wait set
* oi vi may NOKIA 8110
+ An _ trai , an , chon Phone
Setings
+ An Select, an lien tuc chon call waiting
+ An Select xuat hien Activate
Cancel
Status
+ An OK che o a c thc hien
5.2. Xoa che o gi cuoc goi:
* oi vi may Ericson GH 388 / GF 388
+ An chon access
+ An Yes, dung chon Call waiting
+ An Yes xuat hien Activate , an Yes xuat hien:
Please wait: xin ch mot chut
Call waiting On : che o a c thc hien
Call Waiting
Activate
+ Dung chon cancel
+ An Yes . Hoan thanh thao tac xoa che o gi cuoc goi .
* oi vi may NOKIA 8110
+ An _ trai , an , chon Phone
Setings
+ An Select, an lien tuc chon Call Waiting
+ An select xuat hien Activate
Cancel
Status
+ An xuong ch cancel roi an OK che o a c thc hien .
* oi vi may PANASONIC G500
+ An F , an 4 , an 2 Status .
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Luan van tot nghiep
+ An
+ An OK chuyen sang Call Wait Off .An Ok
5.3. Cach gi cuoc goi :
* oi vi may ERICSON GH388/GF388: th dch vu nay khong co.
* oi vi may NOKIA 8110:
Khi ban ang am thoai vi thue bao B mot thue bao C goi en cho ban
may se co tieng keu tut ...tut...tut...
Xuat hien Call 1
Call 2 nhap nhay
+ An xanh cuoc am thoai vi thue bao B tam dng quay sang am thoai
vi thue bao C .
+ An xanh lan na ban lai am thoai vi thue bao B .
* oi vi may PANASONIC G500:
Khi ban ang am thoai vi thue bao B mot thue bao C goi en cho ban
may se co tieng keu tut ...tut...tut...
Xuat hien Accept? ( co chap nhan cuoc goi th hai nay khong ?). hien th so
phone cua thue bao C.
+ An OK (neu chap nhan cuoc goi vi thue bao C ).
Xuat hien Call 1
Call 2
Swap? co chap nhan cuoc goi khong ?
+ An OK neu muon.
6. Dch vu hien so chu (CLIP) va cam hien so chu (CLR)
_ Dch vu CLIP cho phep thue bao b goi nhn len man hnh may biet c
thue bao nao ang goi ien cho mnh .
_Dch vu CLR cho phep thue bao chu goi khong cho hien so may mnh tren
may b goi .
_ Mot thue bao di ong co the ang ky s dung ca dch vu hien so chu goi va
cam hien so chu goi cung mot luc.

115