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Classification of radio wavesRadio waves are electromagnetic waves.

Electromagnetic waves include waves such as X rays, ultraviolet light,

visible light, infrared rays and so on, but you probably imagine radio waves to be quite different from these waves. Of the various kinds of electromagnetic waves, radio waves have a longer wave length than infrared rays, and are defined by the Radio Law as 'electromagnetic waves with a frequency of less than 3,000 GHz (3 THz)'. Ultralow frequency radio waves below 3kHz radio waves 3kHz~ 3THz infrared rays 3THz~ 380THz visible light 380THz~ 790THz ultraviolet light 790THz~ 105THz X rays 105THz~ 107THz rays above 107THz

*K:kilo 1*103, M:mega 1*106, G:giga 1*109, T:tera 1*1012 Names of radio waves Frequency Wave length Principal applications

VLF(Very Low Frequency)

3kHz ~ 30kHz

100km ~ 10km

LF(Low Frequency)

30kHz ~ 300kHz

10km ~ 1km

Vessel / Airplane beacon

MF(Medium Frequency)

300kHz ~ 3MHz

1km ~ 100m

AM radio, Marine radio, Amateur radio

HF(High Frequency)

3MHz ~ 30MHz

100m ~ 10m

Shortwave broadcasting,

Marine / Air radio, Amateur radio

VHF(Very High Frequency)

30MHz ~ 300MHz

10m ~ 1m

TV, FM, Fire radio, Police radio, Disaster PA radio network

UHF(Ultra High Frequency)

300MHz ~ 3GHz

1m ~ 10cm

Low power radio, Mobilephone, Taxi radio, Amateur radio, TV, Wireless LAN

SHF(Super High Frequency)

3GHz ~ 30GHz

10cm ~ 1cm

Satellite broadcasting, Radar

EHF(Extremely High Frequency)

30GHz ~ 300GHz

1cm ~ 1mm

Satellite broadcasting, Radio astronomy, Radar

submillimeter waves

300GHz ~ 3THz

1mm ~ 0.1mm

Radio frequencies and their primary mode of propagation

Band Extremely ELF Low Frequency VLF Very Low Frequency Low 330 kHz 10010 km Guided between the earth and the ionosphere. Guided between the earth and the D layer of the ionosphere. 101 km Surface waves. Surface waves. 1000100 m E, F layer ionospheric refraction at night, when D layer absorption weakens. 3300 Hz 1000-100,000 km Frequency Wavelength Propagation via



Frequency 300 kHz




Frequency 3000kHz High


Frequency (Short Wave) Very High

E layer ionospheric refraction. 330 MHz 10010 m F1, F2 layer ionospheric refraction.



Infrequent E ionospheric (Es) refraction. UncommonlyF2 layer ionospheric 101 m refraction during high sunspot activity up to 50 MHz and rarely to 80 MHz. Generally direct wave. Sometimes tropospheric ducting. 10010 cm Direct wave. Sometimes tropospheric ducting.

Frequency 300MHz Ultra High 300


Frequency 3000MHz

Super SHF High Frequency Extremely EHF High Frequency 30 300GHz 330 GHz 101 cm Direct wave.

101 mm

Direct wave limited by absorption.