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Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a condition characterized by excessive thirst and excretion of large amounts of severely diluted urine, with

reduction of fluid intake having no effect on the concentration of the urine. There are several different types of DI, each with a different cause. The most common type in humans is central DI, caused by a deficiency of arginine vasopressin (AVP), also known as antidiuretic hormone (ADH). The second common type of DI is nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, which is caused by an insensitivity of the kidneys to ADH. It can also be an iatrogenic artifact of drug use. Although they have a common name, diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus are two entirely separate conditions with unrelated mechanisms. Both cause large amounts of urine to be produced (polyuria), and the term "diabetes" is derived from the Greek word meaning siphon. However, diabetes insipidus is either a problem with the production of antidiuretic hormone (central diabetes insipidus) or kidney's response to antidiuretic hormone (nephrogenic diabetes insipidus), whereas diabetes mellitus causes polyuria via a process

called osmotic diuresis, due to the high blood sugar leaking into the urine and taking excess water along with it. The incidence of diabetes insipidus in the general population is three in 100,000. Diabetes Insipidus Symptoms The lack of ADH causes increased plasma osmolarity and not enough liquid is retained in the

Diabetes Insipidus Diagnosis The diagnosis should be suspected in any person presenting a clinical picture compatible with recent rise and sudden onset of thirst sensation associated with increased water intake and urine output. Should be investigated family history of diabetes insipidus, and the existence of possible causes as head injuries,tumors, infections or other illnesses. The essential diagnosis is based on the determination of urinary osmolarity, to be diminished below 300 mOsm / kg with an also reduced urinary density (below 1010), and a high plasma osmolarity, 295 mosm above / kg. It could determine the levels of DHA in the blood, but not usually done by the high cost of its determination. When performing a brain MRI will neurohypophysis less brilliant than usual in a normal person, but this imaging is required for diagnosis. Diabetes Insipidus Treatment Treatment will differ depending on the central or renal origin of diabetes insipidus. In diabetes insipidus of central origin, for lack of ADH, the patient will be given the missing hormone, or ADH as desmopressin. In patients with a certain level of production of ADH has been that the administration of chlorpropamide or

carbamazepine may stimulate secretion. In the case of diabetes insipidus treatment will be directed to restricting fluid intake and salt and the use of diuretics such as thiazides. It should monitor blood sodium levels to prevent dehydration or hyponatremia states. Diabetes Insipidus Precautions Since most of the time the cause is unknown, there are no preventive measures against the disease. However, it should tell people with these symptoms to come as soon as possible endocrine.

kidney, which the person has a persistent polyuria. This triggers a severe sensation of thirst, so that the patient drinks water constantly, which is known as polydipsia. Nevertheless fails to quench their thirst, so drinking continued for a total of 4-6 liters of water a day, which in extreme cases can reach 16 liters per day.The onset of symptoms is usually sudden and is accompanied by a little concentrated urine osmolality and low, unlike blood, which will be high.