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Chapter 1 Key terms Politics the concern with developing knowledge and understanding of government and society.

y. In particular, it is about the struggle for power and influence between competing individuals and groups Democracy people power, as in Abraham Lincolns phrase government of the people, by the people and for the people Equality the belief that people should be treated equally and given equal opportunities, as long as there are no grounds for treating them differently Authoritarian regimes in non democratic countries where there is a very strong direction and control. !here may be elections but the range of candidates would be limited or the campaigning is made very difficult for those who take an alternate view to those in power Legitimate "here the system of government is one in which the authority of the government is widely accepted by those who are sub#ect to it. "e speak of the authority of an official, but the legitimacy of a regime. Participation the engagement of the population in forms of political action such as elections Direct democracy a form of democracy in which the citi$ens themselves assemble to debate and decide issues of public importance Representative democracy %or indirect& where the people elect a representative who will make decisions on their behalf Elitism the recognition that society should be governed by and elite or small group Pluralism rule by many relates to a society in which there are many diverse and competing centres of power, which seek to e'ert influence over government Pressure groups compromise organisations that do not stand for elections themselves, but rather seek to influence those who do gain political office and are therefore in a position to shape public policy Electorate the voters Franchise !he right to vote for representatives in a legislative %also known as u!!rage&

A"stainers those who do not vote. !his may be due to involuntary reasons such as sickness. (r a deliberate choice not to vote perhaps due to their area being a safe seat Devolved assem"lies the national parliament in )cotland, the *ational Assembly in "ales and the Assembly in *orthern Ireland. Apathy the lack of interest or enthusiasm, in this case for playing a part in the political system. (thers might see it as representing broad satisfaction with things as they are, so that there is no need to e'ert oneself to register ones viewpoint or take an active role Alienation means a feeling of separateness, of being alone and apart from others. In this sense, it refers to the feeling of being estranged from the rest of the community, society or the world Capitalism relates to free enterprise economic systems in which the means of production are mostly private owned and operated for profit, as in much of the western world Communism an ideology that seeks to establish a classless society based on common ownership of the means of production. It represents a strand of the broader socialist movement, sometimes being regarded as a revolutionary form of socialism #he Cold $ar the state of constant rivalry, suspicion and sometimes e'treme tension in the post +,-. era between communist eastern /urope and the "estern nations %led by the 0)& Post%materialist age is an era in which people are less concerned about their material needs %such as the basic requirement of food, clothing and shelter& which are all available to the ma#ority and are more concerned with quality of life issues Ecology !he study of relationships between living organisms and their environment &nitiative A procedure through which an individual or group may propose legislation by securing the signatures of a required number of qualified voters Re!erendum a vote of the people on a single issue of public policy, e.g. on some proposed law or policy, perhaps to amend the constitution %1harter 22& Recall vote is an infrequently used device that enables a certain number of voters to demand a vote on whether an elected official should be removed from office. A famous recall was held in 1alifornia 3445. It

resulted in the removal of the state governor and the election in his place of Arnold )chwar$enegger London "om"ings refers to the 6uly 7th terrorist attacks on London in which .3 and the subsequent attack on the 3+ st 6uly %4 deaths& uicide "om"ers are those who are prepared to kill themselves along with innocents to register their protest and establish their particular vision. 'pinion poll a survey designed to find out the voting intentions or attitudes of members of the public on the government, parties and even the 89 Focus groups small groups of people whose views are probed on a range of questions Direct action political action outside the constitutional and legal framework Anti%glo"alisation relates to the political outlook of those social movements that protest against global trade agreements and the impact they have on the worlds poorest people, on the environment and the prospects for international peace. (ne such movement is known as the :lobal 6ustice 9ovement ()*+)*+) society a society in which -4; of the population have secure employment and are comfortably or well off. 54; are in an insecure employment and the remaining 54; are the economically and socially marginalised, #obless or working for poverty wages and barely able to subsist ocial capital relates to the connections between individuals, and the social networks and trustworthiness that arise from them. A strong fund of social capital %i.e. good social ties between individuals who trust each other& is said to enable a community to develop political institutions and processes that have the capacity to solve societys problems ocialisation is the instilling of political attitudes and values via agencies such as family upbringing education and the media ocial class relates to the hierarchical distinctions between individuals or groups in society. It is the division of people with similar characteristics into strata or distinct levels. <or e'ample the term working class has traditionally related to the section of society dependent on physical labour, especially those paid by hourly wage

u!!ragettes supporters of the "omens )ocial and 8olitical 0nion which campaigned for the right of women to vote in the early 34 th 1entury. !hey often used aggressive tactics before the <irst "orld "ar