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MCAT CHEMISTRY

Review 1

DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS We use dimensional analysis as a tool to interconvert between units. - Design the problems to ______________ with your known, and to _____________ with the unit of your unknown.
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EXAMPLE 1: A sample of gaseous N2 contains 0.10 moles and occupies a volume of 7.0 m . Find its density in g/cm . a. 0.40 g/cm . b. 4.0 x 10 c. 4.0 x 10 d. 4.0 x 10
-3 -5 -7 3 3

g/cm . g/cm . g/cm .


3 3

EXAMPLE 2: If a person is taking a prescription of Betaxol after surgery and the recommended dosage is 50.0 mg/kg of body mass. Calculate the recommended dosage for a person who weighs 100 lbs.

MASS CONVERSIONS The _______________ is the chemical unit for the amount of a substance.
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One mole (1 mol) contains 6.022 x 10

entities, which is known as __________________________________.

Entities means ______________________ , ______________________ or ______________________. We use ______________________ when dealing with a single, individual element. We use _________________ or _________________when dealing with more than one element or a compound.
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6.022 x 10

atoms of Fe

is equal to

1 mole of Fe and has a mass of

55.85 amu

Atoms

Moles

Grams

Use Avogadros Number 6.022 x 10 23

Use Atomic Mass

EXAMPLE: Determine the number of oxygen atoms in 16.0 grams of ozone, O3?

6.022 x 10

23

molecules of HCl is equal to 1 mole of HCl

and has a mass of

36.46 amu

Molecules

Moles

Grams

Use Avogadros Number 6.022 x 10 23

Use Molecular Mass

EXAMPLE 1: Determine the grams of water found in 3.01 x 10

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oxygen.

EXAMPLE 2: What is the number of ammonia, NH3, molecules found in 170.0 g NH3?

MASS PERCENT Mass or weight percent is the percentage of a given element in a compound.

Mass Percent (%) =

Mass Component 100 Total Mass of Compound

EXAMPLE 1: What is the mass percent of oxygen in calcium carbonate, CaCO3? a. b. c. d. 40% 25% 16% 48%

EXAMPLE 2: What is the mass percent of a 1.0 m NaOH solution? a. b. c. d. 4.0% 3.0% 3.8% 5.0%

EXAMPLE 3: What is the mass percent of a 2.8 M KOH solution with a density of 1.50 g/cm3? a. b. c. d. 7.2% 5.8% 6.3% 9.0%

STOICHIOMETRIC REACTIONS

2 H2 (g) + 1 O2 (g)

2 H2O (g)

In the above equation the numbers that are in bold are called _______________________. They tell us the number of ______________ of each compound that reacts. This numerical relationship between compounds in a balanced equation is called __________________________. STOICHIOMETRIC CHART Before we get into solving stoichiometric reactions lets work out a plan of attack. Entities means ______________________ , ______________________ or ______________________.

Entities of Given Moles of Given Grams of Given Moles of Unknown

Entities of Unknown

Grams of Unknown

Use this chart when given a chemical equation with the ____________ quantity of a compound or element and asked to find the ____________ quantity of another compound or element.

EXAMPLE 1: How many grams of calcium chloride are needed to prepare 72 g of silver chloride according to the following equation?

CaCl2 (aq) + 2 AgNO3 (aq)

Ca(NO3)2 (aq) + 2 AgCl (s)

EXAMPLE 2: What is the percent yield for a reaction in which 27 g of Cu is produced by reacting 32.5 g of Zn in excess CuSO4 solution?

Zn (s) + CuSO4 (aq)


a. b. c. d. 84% 75% 90% 50%

Cu (s) + ZnSO4 (aq)

EXAMPLE 3: A sodium azide air bag inflates to a volume of 45 Liters at STP. According to the information contained in the passage, what is the mass of NaN3 (Mol. Wt. = 65) that is required to inflate the bag?

2 NaN3

2 Na + 3 N2

a. 76 grams
b. c.

81 grams 87 grams

d. 130 grams

MOLARITY Molarity (M) can serve as the connection between the interconversion of ____________ to ____________ and vice versa. For example, a 5.8 M NaCl solution really means _______________________ per _____________________.

Molarity =

( LitersSolution)

( MolesSolute)

A typical mixture consists of a smaller amount of one substance, the ________________, dissolved in a larger amount of another substance, the __________________. Together they form a __________________.

EXAMPLE 1: Stock hydrochloric acid solution is 36.0% by volume HCl. If you assume that the density of the solution is 2.50 g/cm . What is the molarity of the solution?
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SOLUBILITY The ___________________________ of a compound represents the maximum amount of solute that dissolves in a solvent. SOLUBILITY RULES SOLUBLE IONIC COMPOUNDS 1. Group 1A ions (Li+, Na+, K+, etc.) and ammonium ion (NH4+) are soluble. 2. (Nitrates) NO3- , (acetates) CH3COO- or C2H3O2-, and most perchlorates (ClO4-) are soluble. 2. INSOLUBLE IONIC COMPOUNDS 1. (Hydroxides) OH- and (Sulfides) S2-, are insoluble except when with Group 1A ions (Li+, Na+, K+, etc.), ammonium ion (NH4+) and Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+. (Carbonates) CO32- and (Phosphates) PO43- are insoluble except when with Group 1A ions (Li+, Na+, K+, etc.), ammonium ion (NH4+). 3. Cl- , Br- , and I- are soluble, except when paired with Ag+ , Pb2+ . 4. (Sulfates) SO42- are soluble, except those of Ca2+ , Sr2+ , Ba2+ , Ag+ , Hg2+ and Pb2+ .

When we classify a compound as soluble it means that the compound is _______________________, it is also known as a(n) _______________________ because it conducts electricity.

NaNO3 (s)

H2O

Na+ (aq) + NO3 (aq)

When we classify a compound as insoluble it means that the compound is a _______________________, it is also known as a(n) _______________________ because it doesnt conduct electricity.

CH3OH (l)

H2O H2O

CH3OH (aq)

BaSO4 (s)

BaSO4 (aq)

OXIDATION-REDUCTION REACTIONS Chemists use some important terminology to describe the movement of electrons. In ______________ reactions we have the movement of electrons from one reactant to another.

L E O Agent
Rules for Assigning an Oxidation Number (O.N.) A. General Rules

G E R Agent

1. For an atom in its elemental form (Na, O2, S8, etc.): Oxidation # = 0 2. For an ion the O.N. equals the charge: Na+ , Ca2+ , NO3 B. Specific Rules 1. Group 1A: 2. Group 2A: 3. For hydrogen: O.N. = +1 O.N. = +2 O.N. = +1 with nonmetals O.N. = -1 with metals and boron 4. For Fluorine: 5. For oxygen: O.N. = -1 O.N. = -1 in peroxides (X2O2 , X = Group 1(A) element) O.N. = - 1 in superoxides (XO2 , X = Group 1(A) element)
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O.N. = - 2 in all other compounds 6. Group 7A O.N. = -1 (except when connected to O)

EXAMPLE: Give the oxidation number of the underlined atom in the following molecules and ions: a) PO43c) H3AsO4

b) V2O52-

d) NaO2

EXAMPLE 2: Use the following choices to answer the following questions: a. Metathesis b. Acid-Base c. Hydrogen Displacement d. Combustion e. Metal Displacement

a) Ba(NO3)2 (aq) + Na2SO4

BaSO4 (s) + 2 NaNO3 (aq)

b) Mg (s) + 2 HCl (aq)

MgCl2 (aq) + H2 (g)

c) Ca (s) + 2 LiNO3 (aq)

Ca(NO3)2 (aq) + 2 Li (s)

d) C3H8 (g) + 5 O2 (g)

3 CO2 (g) + 4 H2O (g)

e) NaOH (aq) + HBr (aq)

H2O (l) + NaBr (aq)

ELECTRON ORBITAL THEORY The main atomic sub-levels are the s, p, d and f. Each atomic sub-level has a set number of atomic or electron orbitals. Each electron orbital can hold up ________ electrons. The s sub-level contains one electron orbital _______

The p sub-level contains three electron orbitals _______ _______ _______

The d sub-level contains five electron orbitals _______ _______ _______ _______ _______

The f sub-level contains seven electron orbitals _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______

ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE In this chapter we will focus on how an elements ________________________________________ - the distribution of electrons within the orbitals of its atoms relates to its chemical and physical properties. History Lesson: In 1870, Dmitri Mendeleev arranged 65 elements into a ___________________________________ . He summarized their behavior in the _______________________________. When arranged by atomic mass, the elements exhibit a periodic recurrence of similar properties.

The Electron Configuration According to the ______________ Principle you first have to totally fill in the lowest energy level before moving to the next. According to the ______________ Principle no two electrons can have the same four quantum numbers. Hunds Rule states that electron orbitals that are ______________________ are first half-filled before they are totally filled.

1s

2s

2p

3s

1s

2s

2p

EXAMPLE 1: Give the electron configuration for each of the following elements and its ion. For the ion, state if it is paramagnetic or diamagnetic: a. Cu

Cu+

b. Mn

Mn5+

QUANTUM NUMBERS OF AN ATOMIC MODEL An atomic orbital is characterized by three quantum numbers. The __________________ quantum number deals with the atomic orbitals size and energy. It tells us the relative distance of the electron from the nucleus. It uses the variable ___________ and provides the shell number of the electron. EXAMPLE: Calculate the principal quantum number of each atomic sublevel. a. 6s b. 3p c. 8f d. 5d

The electron capacity of each shell can be determined by using the formula: ____________________ .

Electron Shell (n) 1 2 3 4

Maximum Number of Electrons

The _______________________ quantum number deals with the shape of the atomic orbital. Each atomic orbital has a specific shape. It uses the variable ___________ and formula _______________________.

Each atomic sub-level has an L value associated with it. Sublevel L value s 0 p 1 d 2 f 3 g 4

The ________________________________ quantum number deals with the orientation of the orbital in the space around the nucleus. It is a range of the previous quantum number: -l to +l. It uses the variable ___________. Sublevel L value ML value s 0 p 1 d 2 f 3

The ____________ quantum number (mS) helps to discuss the rotational spin of the electron and is _______ and _______. EXAMPLE: What l or ml values are allowed if n = 3? How many orbitals exist for n = 3?

EXAMPLE: How many electrons can have the following quantum sets? a) n = 4

b)

n = 3, l = 1

c) n = 4, mL = -2

d) n = 5, l = 2, mL = -2

EXAMPLE: Give the set of four quantum numbers that represent the indicated electron in each of the following elements. a. P (13th electron) n= ,l= , ml = , ms =

b. Ni2+ (23rd electron)

n=

,l=

, ml =

, ms =

c. Cr3+ (21st electron) n =

,l=

, ml =

, ms =

ELECTRON SHIELDING When looking at any particular electron within an atom it experiences two major forces. A(n) ________________ force from the nucleus and a(n) _______________ force from the surrounding electrons.

Now the electron can become shielded from the full force of the nucleus because of the other surrounding electrons. _________________________________ (Zeff) measures the force exerted onto an electron by the nucleus, and can be calculated using ______________ Rule.

e-

e-

e-

+2

ee-

Z=

Zeff = Z S

S=

EXAMPLE 1: Answer the following questions dealing with the indicated orbitals. A) 1s B) 4f C) 3s D) 3d E) 2p

i. In which orbital below would an electron (on average) be farthest from the nucleus?

ii. In which orbital below would an electron (on average) be closest to the nucleus?