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ADVANCED

MACHINE WOR

TEXT-BOOK OF ADVANCED MACHINE WORK

IRobert 1benr Smitb

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Text-Book of the Principles of Machine Work

333 pp., 5x 8, 342 Illustrations.

Text-Book of Advanced Machine Work

575 pp., 5x8, 609 Illustrations.

INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION BOOK COMPANY

BOSTON, IT. 8. A.

TEXT-BOOK OF ADVANCED

MACHINE WORK

PREPARED FOR

STUDENTS IN TECHNICAL, MANUAL TRAINING,

AND TRADE SCHOOLS, AND FOR THE

APPRENTICE IN THE SHOP

ROBERT H. SMITH

MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

609 Illustrations

THIRD EDITION,

REVISED AND ENLARGED

INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION BOOK COMPANY

BOSTON, U. S. A.

COPYRIGHT, 1910, 1912, 1915,

BY

ROBERT H. SMITH

Stanbops ipms

F. H. GILSON COMPANY

BOSTON. U.S.A.

THIS TEXT-BOOK IS DEDICATED

To the Teachers of Technical and Industrial Edu-

cation, and to the Experts of Shop and Factory,

Who, with Exceptional Ability and Devotion,

Are Increasing the World's Knowledge and Power

and, Consequently, Its Prosperity and Happiness.

FOREWORD

TO

PRINCIPLES OF MACHINE WORK

AND

ADVANCED MACHINE WORK

Text-books.

To teach any subject rapidly, good text-

books are a necessity. For the study of languages, mathe-

matics, physics, chemistry, etc., in the class-room and the laboratory, excellent text-books are obtainable scientifically

arranged to lead the student progressively and rapidly through

elementary and advanced principles.

Lack of Text-Books on Machine Work.

In this Age of

Machinery, teachers, students, apprentices, machine oper- ators and all those who are interested in the art and science of

machine construction have been handicapped by the lack o

text-books comparable with those that aid the student and

teacher in other subjects.

Need of Text-books on Machine Building.

To meet the

urgent demand for such text-books, the author prepared and

published two books in 1910,

The Elements of Machine

Work, and The Principles of Machine Work and promised the early issue of the third book, Advanced Machine Work, that

beginners might have the advantages of text-books as in the

older subjects and be able to acquire in a short time, the

fundamental and the advanced principles of machine building,

logically, systematically and progressively.

Two Books Preferred.

In this, the third edition of these

books, all the material published in Elements of Machine Work

and Principles of Machine Work, and the matter prepared for Advanced Machine Work have been revised, and rearranged,

and published in two books,

and Advanced Machine Work.

Principles of Machine Work

" Principles of Machine Work " describes the metals and

materials used in machine construction and names the tools

7

8

ADVANCED MACHINE WORK

and instruments and schedules of operations of hand processes.

It treats of Laying Out Work; Chipping, Filing and Scraping;

Hardening and Tempering Carbon and High-speed Steels;

Pipe Fitting; Soldering and Brazing; Lacing Belts, Alining

Shafting and Installing Machines; Drills and Drilling; Taps

and Tapping; Speed Lathes, Hand Tools and Hand Turn-

ing; Pneumatic Chipping and Riveting; Autogenous Weld-

ing.

" Advanced Machine Work " treats of Engine Lathe Work;

Cutting Tools; Measuring; Turning; Fitting; Threading;

Chucking; Reaming; Mandrels or Arbors; Curve Turning

and Forming; Inside Calipers and Inside Micrometers; Bor-

ing and Inside Threading ; Brass Finishing; Broaching; Drill-

ing Jigs; Boring, Boring Bars and Boring Machines; Ec-

centric Turning; Nurling; Cylindrical, Internal, Surface and

Cutter Grinding; Planing; Milling; Spur, Bevel, Worm

and Spiral Gear Cutting; Toolmaking; Spiral Milling; The

Plug and Button Methods of Locating Holes of Precision in

Jigs and Fixtures; Sine Bar.

Books in Sectional Form.

These text-books are divided

into Sections.

Illustrations.

Each Section is complete in itself.

Machines, mechanisms and tools, prob-

lems and processes, methods and operations are graphically illustrated by perspective and mechanical drawings.

The drawings have been made especially for these books

and are so clearly marked with letters, words, and figures,

that many of them are self-explanatory of the operations and processes which they represent and tell things far better

than could be told by words. Schedules of Operations.

To secure efficiency in teach-

ing or manufacturing, it is necessary to be equipped with a well-defined plan of attack for the problem in hand. The

schedules of operations in these text-books provide the student

and teacher with a complete plan in table form, for the rapid

production of standard and typical problems in machine

They name the time necessary to complete

construction.

the work, the materials, machines, speeds, feeds, tools, jigs,

FOREWORD

9

and fixtures for each consecutively numbered or lettered

operation, and the accompanying illustration is numbered

and lettered to correspond.

These schedules of operations have been used by the author

for many years in his classes and are the methods now used in

all modern manufacturing efficiency systems.

To the Student. These text-books constitute a complete

treatise on the indispensable principles and processes of

modern machine-shop practice for the production of ma-

chine parts, machines and tools. They tell how to do things

with that theory which connects principles and practice and no person can build machines or superintend the construc-

tion of machinery without consciously or unconsciously under-

standing and applying these principles. The basic operations

and processes have been reduced to problem form. The

study and practice of these problems and methods supple-

mented by lectures, demonstrations, and instruction, will give the student not only an excellent training in machine

work, but also, a broader training by teaching him to plan

methods of doing things, to study his movements and avoid

wasting steps and motions, and thus to conserve his time and

his energy, thereby obtaining mental and physical precision

and scientific efficiency.

To the Instructor these text-books will be of great assistance

by furnishing an organized course. They will supplement

the lectures, enrich the individual instruction, , and supply

information and answers to the innumerable questions of the

students, thereby conserving the instructor's time and ena-

bling the students to work with greater efficiency and dispatch.

To obtain the greatest benefit, the use is urged of as many of the problems as time and conditions will permit, and in the

order given in the books, so far as the equipment of special

machines will allow. These books will be found valuable

in experimental work and in building apparatus and ma-

chines, as the schedules of operations and the processes give

the correct methods for making machine parts, tools, and for

building machines.

10

ADVANCED MACHINE WORK

In fact, the schedules of problems and processes are com-

plete and condensed lessons in scientific efficiency, and teach

the shortest, quickest and easiest way to obtain results.

These books do not teach casual ideas but scientific principles

These

developed by thirty years'

study of the

subject.

powerful lessons enable the student to make the most of his

efforts and time without waste of energy.

To the Machine Operator.

To the man who has been

trained on one machine, or to perform but few operations, these text-books open the door of opportunity to a broader

training, increased efficiency, and greater earning power.

To the Apprentice.

These books will be of great value

to apprentices and to young machinists for any problem which may arise in the machine shop, as neither the super-

intendent, foremen, toolmakers nor machinists have the time

to instruct the apprentices in the principles and processes

presented.

An apprentice or young machinist may have worked a long

time in the shop without seeing or doing a particular kind of work, for shop work depends on commercial requirements.

When new work comes to such a man he will find the method

of procedure so clearly set forth in these books that he will have but little difficulty in following directions.

As these principles and processes can be applied to all machine work, their faithful study by the apprentice or young

machinist will not only increase his knowledge, develop high

efficiency and rapid and accurate workmanship, but will also

make him more valuable to his employer during his period of

learning by largely increasing his power of production.

Furthermore, these text-books teach the apprentice to read

and understand technical literature.

translate printed matter into intelligent action.

They train him

to

This is a

great acquisition, for in no other way can an apprentice

keep abreast of everything technical and scientific.

It is

self-evident that the training we have so briefly outlined will tend to increase his earning power and to fit him for. a better position at the close of his apprenticeship.

FOREWORD

11

To the Machinist.

To machinists who have served their

apprenticeships in the small machine shops, with limited

equipment and range of work; to those who were trained in the large machine shops well equipped with improved ma-

chinery, but where intensive methods of manufacturing and repetitional production may have limited their opportunities

to acquire that broad fundamental training so necessary to

future success; and to all machinists who wish to fit them-

selves for better positions by further study, these books will

Even to those who have had

be an aid and an inspiration.

a superior training, such as managers, superintendents and foremen, they will be valuable as works of reference.

The Increased Efficiency obtained at the Massachusetts

Institute of Technology by use of these text-books, and the kind reception given them by the technical press, schools

and shops, teachers and students, apprentices and machinists,

have shown the need of text-books on machine work and

justified their production.

The increasing number of state universities, technical, trade,

and manual training schools that are adopting these books

as a required text is evidence that the want they meet is wide-

spread.

To the teachers and edu-

Grateful Acknowledgment.

cators, manufacturers and engineers, foremen and mechanics,

associates, and other friends in all parts of the country, who have kindly assisted with information, help and encourage-

ment, I take this opportunity to express my indebtedness

and appreciation.

Boston, U. S. A., May 1, 1915.

R. H. S.

Special Index.

Engine Lathes.

CONTENTS

Section i

LATHE WORK

PAGE

Evolution of lathes, swing, length, and classes of

Countershaft, line shaft, and belt connections de-

scribed Horizontal section of head-stock Transparent

view of lathe apron, showing the three distinct feed mechanisms

lathes

Care of machines, tools, and benches

Attachments for

lathes

Engine lathe with rapid change-gear mechanism

Electrically-driven

lathe Truing and Alining Centers.

Machine

Tools.

Electrically-driven

engine

Center gage

Requirements for

successful use of engine lathe

Truing engine lathe centers

with center truing tool Grinding centers Setting dead cen-

ter in alinement for straight turning

Center Holes.

Table of center hole dimensions

Hand and machine method of centering

Counter-sink

Straightening

shafting, rods, and bolts

Cutting Tools.

Rake, clearan.ce, and cutting angle defined

Roughing and finishing

Lathe Cutting Tools for Cast Iron.

Right and left tools

Angles

of lathe-cutting tools

Height of tools for cutting operations

Rough and finish squaring

Rough and finish turning

Grinding Lathe Tools.

Grinding round-nose, side, diamond-point,

101

Ill

113

117

125

126

and threading tools Grinding high-speed cutters Grinding boring tools Universal tool grinder for duplicating shapes and

angles of lathe and planer tools

Setting and Using Outside Calipers.

Oilstoning tools

Adjusting tool to turn to de-

sired diameter

to another

Transferring settings from one pair of calipers

Cutting Speeds, Cut Meter, and Feeds.

Cut Meter

Attachment

135

143

for speed indicator for obtaining surface speed Rules for ob-

taining cutting speeds Table of cutting speeds of various

metals for carbon and high-speed steel tools

Cutting feeds

Lubricants for Cutting Tools.

Table showing when to use* a lubri-

cant and when to machine dry Inspecting and Measuring Material (Stock).

Oiling and cleaning

machines Lubricating bearings Treatment when bearings

13

145

148

14

CONTENTS

" rough up "

Rust and corrosion

Changing speed belts of

lathes

Warning against loose sleeves and careless actions near

running belts, gears, milling cutters, etc

Section 2

LATHE WORK

Time Element and Schedules of Operations.

How to start lathe

work

Mounting work on centers

Turning work of one

diameter from end to end

Centering, Squaring, and Straight Turning.

Schedule of operations .

Filing Lathe Work.

(Mill files.)

Speed for filing

Method of

filing

Filing inside rounds and fillets

Micrometer Calipers.

Micrometer principle of measuring

PAOB

150

201

303

205

Measuring work and reading micrometer

ing micrometer to measure work held in the hand, lathe, or on

the bench

Large micrometers Table of decimal equiva-

Methods of hold-

lents of common fractions

Vernier Calipers.

Vernier principle of measuring

Measuring

Making inside measurements with

work and reading vernier

vernier

rel

A ten-thousand micrometer with vernier on the bar-

Dimension-Limit System.

Double dimensions

Fits in Machine Construction, with Tables of Allowances.

Typical

examples of fits

Classes of fits

Materials used for different kinds of bearings

Allowances and limits for running, driving,

and forcing fits

for forcing fits

tables of allowances and limits Standard holes Turning

Examples of forcing and shrinking fits, with

Taper forcing fits

Pressures and allowances

and filing fits

Grinding fits

Standard and Limit Gages.

Ring, plug, and caliper gages and re-

ference disks

Special gages

Standard end-measuring rods and limit gages

Taper Turning and Fitting.

How expressed Standard and special

Method of turning Calculating distance to set over foot- stock Using a pattern to obtain set-over Turning, filing,

and fitting a Morse taper, with schedule of operations Taper

attachment for turning tapers in an engine lathe

Turning a

taper on a large drill socket

Straight Turning and Fitting.

To turn and file a straight running

fit, with schedule of operations

Tables and Diagrams.

Morse, Brown & Sharpe, and Jarno tapers

207

211

213

214

223

226

231

CONTENTS

15

Section 3

LATHE WORK

Lathe Tools for Steel or Wrought Iron.

Side and diamond-point

tools

tools

Roughing tools

Finishing tools

Left side and left diamond-point tools

Spring and shear

Half diamond-

point tools

Holders and Cutters.

Straight holders and cutters

Useful forms

PAGB

301

of cutters Chart of lathe tool holders for squaring, turning, boring, threading, and forming Off-set or bent holders

High-speed steel

Stellite

Turning Steel.

operations

Double Holder and Cutters.

Making plain machine handle, with schedule of

Facing two sides of gear blank at

once

Cutting-Off Tools.

Cutting off stock (material) with forged tool

Cutting-off tool holder and cutter

with multiple schedule of operations

Preparing shaft blanks,

Threading or Screw Cutting.

Screw threads

Forms of threads

Right and left threads Single and multiple threaded screws

Pitch and lead of thread Threads per inch Measuring

threaded work

Counting threads

The Sharp V-thread

The United States Standard thread Threading tools for United

States Standard and Sharp V-threads Setting tool Thread-

Calculating simple gearing Preparing screw

and nut blanks, with schedule of operations Description of

screw-cutting mechanism To set up lathe for screw cutting and

cutting the thread, with schedule of operations Fitting thread to nut To reset tool to resume cut after regrinding To cut

left threads

ing taper work

To thread to a shoulder

Fractional threads and

methods of calculating gearing Compound gearing To

calculate gearing for a given lead

metric screw threads with English lead screws Translating

Catching the thread or threading

gears

To calculate gearing for

Metric lead screw

long screws without backing belt

worth (English) standard threads

Thread indicator

Whit-

Bolt and Nut Making.

drels

tions

Nut man-

Squaring and turning bolts

Squaring and chamfering nuts, with schedule of opera-

Making clamp nut

To make finished

bolt, with

schedule of operations

schedule of operations

Making Tensile Test Specimen.

Making pair of spring bolts, with

With schedule of operations

306

310

312

313

318

339

346

16

CONTENTS

Tables.

United States Standard bolt heads and nuts

tional and French Standard threads

Interna-

Indexing in Engine Lathe.

Dividing the circumference of work into

equidistant parts for drilling, filing, etc

Making Engine Lathe Live Center.

Automobile Screws and Nuts. Lock washers

With schedule of

Constants for finding

diameter at bottom of U. S. S., U. S. F. and V threads

Section 4

LATHE WORK

Chucks.

Independent, universal, combination, drill, draw-in, and

special chucks

Use and care of chucks

Face Plates.

Holding work on face plate

Balancing work with

counterweights

Holding work with angle plate on face plate .

Chucking in engine lathe, with schedule of operations

with drill holder and steady rest reamers

Chucking

Chucking with flat drills and

Reaming.

Classes

Reamers for brass

of reamers

Irregularly

Hand reaming in vise

spaced

teeth

Reaming in verti-

cal drilling machine and engine lathe, with schedule of operations

Adjustable reamers Reaming stands Fluted chucking

reamers Power reaming in engine lathe, with schedule of

operations Rose chucking reamer Fluted and broach reamers for taper pins Taper reaming in speed lathe

Machining Alloys, Etc.

Bronze

Copper Aluminum Bab-

bitt

Lead

Vulcanite or hard rubber

Fiber

Rawhide

Mandrels or Arbors.

Solid, expanding, built-up, gang and special

PAGE

350

352

352

354

401

406

408

413

419

Bridges in hollow castings Revolving dead center for pipe turning Special mandrels Driving or pressing mandrels in or

out of work

Mandrel or arbor block

Mandrel or arbor press 420

Turning Flanges.

Rough and finish facing and turning

a cast-iron flange, with schedule of operations

Making

424

Turning Pulleys.

Tapering or crowning face

Making a pulley,

with schedule of operations

Locating set screws

Polishing Lathe Work.

Abrasives, speeds, and machines used

Order of applying different numbers of emery cloth

flanges and shafts

Polishing brass and copper

Polishing

Curve Turning and Forming.

Curve turning

Forming tools for

engine lathe work

Forming cutter and holder

Making Formed Machine Handles.

Single handles Templets

as guides to uniform production Making a formed machine

handle, with schedule of operations

Polishing, Buffing and Lacquering. wheels and belts

Lacquering

Polishing and buffing with

428

432

435

437

440

CONTENTS

17

Section 5

LATHE WORK

Inside Calipers and Inside Micrometers.

Measuring diameter of

holes

reading

Inside micrometer calipers, and method of using and

Boring and Inside Threading.

Setting and using boring tools in

lathe Holders and cutters Inside threading tools for United

States Standard or Sharp V threads

Setting inside threading

tools

Schedule of operations for inside threading

inside thread with tap

inside thread to a shoulder

Interrupted thread taps

Finishing

Cutting an

Square Threads.

Inclination

ing tools

Table of thread sizes

Holders and cutters

Square threading tools

Setting square thread-

Method of cutting a square

Square thread taps

thread screw, with schedule of operations

and fitting the screw

Making the nut

Acme Standard or 29 Threads.

Table of thread sizes

the tool

Setting 29 threading tools

29 thread taps

ting a 29 thread screw, with schedule of operations

the nut and fitting the screw

Making

Cut-

Making

Multiple Threads.

Cutting double square threads, with schedule

of operations

Multiple threading tools

Brass Finishing.

Turning brass in engine lathe

Use of round-

nose and front tools

Monel metal

Making binding post and

nuts, with schedule of operations

Alinement Drilling and Tapping.

Fixed nuts

Drilling and tap-

PAGE

501

504

510

521.

531

533

ping cross-feed screw nut in axial alinement, with schedule of

operations Making a bronze bushing, with schedule of opera-

tions

:

Drilling, Tapping and Hand Threading in Speed Lathe

Broaching Holes, Keyways and Slots.

Machine broaching

Chart of broached holes

Lubricant for broaching

tion of holes for broaching

circular holes

Hand broaching

Prepara-

Broaching

Section 6

538

540

543

DRILLING JIGS, BORING BARS, ECCENTRIC TURNING

Drilling Jigs, and Multiple-Spindle Drilling Machines.

Inter-

changeable machine parts

vised jigs

Plate jigs Drilling and tapping engine cylinder

heads Multiple-spindle drilling machines Box jigs Use

Classes of drilling jigs

Impro-

18

CONTENTS

PAGE

of box jigs, with schedule of operations

Drilling, reaming, and

tapping in different directions with box jig

Radial Drilling Machines.

Plain and