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Nietzsche,Freud and Memory

Nietzsche states in "On the Genealogy of Morality"(1887) that nature endowed us with ability to forget,but in the same time,paradoxically,"breeds an animal with the prerogative to promise".Active forgetfulness is necessary to maintain our mental order;it is suppressing our perceived experiences to make us able to cope with the world.There is "a counter-device,memory,with the help of which forgetfulness can be suspended in certain cases". Memory,in addition to make promises possible,is also the "active desire not to let go ";it is in fact " the will´s memory". To be active means to affect the future,but this require causal thinking and distinguishing between accidental and designed.The result is the man who is reliable,regular and who is able to calculate and compute.This was made by "technique of mnemonics" which uses pain to make something unforgettable.Making memory means inflicting pain on yourself or someone else.

When we think of ourselves as a beings with the free will,we are relying on our memory in which the chain of previous will´s exist.Before we were animals with instincts,now we are responsible agents disciplined by "social straitjacket" imposed on us by the morality of custom.

We,autonomous and supra-ethical,meaning above the customs and free-what good do we have from memory?Nietzsche sees nothing good in that.Our instinct,will to power,will be internalized and make us suffer even more.And our memory,as the chain of will,is in fact the chain of torments .Without the memory,we would be able to live in the present moment exercising our truly free instincts at the expense of society. So,we see the paradox of nature-human beings willing to live in community and wanting to act on instinct.

Freud saw in this paradoxical situation the main cause for the mental disturbances.In "Civilization and Its Discontent"(1929) he highlights the distinction between "ordinary forgetting signified (by) destruction or annihilation of the memory-trace",and psycho-analytical vision of forgetting as repression.Painful experiences are buried in the unconscious and never forgotten.They manifest them self as the symptoms of diseases. He was under the influence of the physics of his time,so he explains the mental processes in terms of energy and it´s conservation.Sexual energy,the libido,can never be destroyed.In one moment it is placed in the unconscious in the form of memory,at the other it is discharged as repeating involuntary action;or as the dream;or as something else. Just like the individual has his psychological organization,so does the society.The impressions left by some great personalities are the originators of the super-ego of the epoch,states Freud.Common memory of society gives rise to the conscience of that same society.Memories of the primordial father is the example for the fate of Jesus Christ,and possibly the other religions.

Freud considers mental disturbances curable; the cause ,that lies in the

memory ,has to be made conscious by regression through psychoanalytical procedure.Freud saw in the memory some kind of help for mental health.Every experience that is will be painful tucked away in the unconscious by the censorship of mental apparatus.It will reemerge again as disease,but it is treatable by accessing the memory . Nietzsche,on the other hand,saw memory as fundamental for development of autonomous individual with free will.But,truly free individual is in fact the animal with will to power,memory is not required.

Frederich Nietzsche,"On the Genealogy of Morality"(1887) Sigmund Freud,"Civilization and Its Discontent"(1929)