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Chapter 8 Multivariable Calculus

Section 3 Maxima and Minima (Part 1)

Learning Objectives for Section 8.3 Maxima and Minima


The student will be able to identify critical points and maxima and minima of functions.

Barnett/Ziegler/Byleen Business Calculus 12e

Local Maxima and Minima

We want to examine local maxima and minima for functions of the form z = f (x, y). We are going to extend the secondderivative test previously developed for y = f (x).
Definition: f (a, b) is a local maximum if there exists a circular region about (a, b) such that f (a, b) f (x, y) for all (x, y) in the region. f (a, b) is a local minimum if there exists a circular region about (a, b) such that f (a, b) f (x, y) for all (x, y) in the region.

Barnett/Ziegler/Byleen Business Calculus 12e

Local Maxima and Minima


When you have a function with one independent variable, such as = () , you can use the second derivative test to determine if there is a local max or min. A similar test can be made for functions with two independent variables such as = , . We will assume that all 2nd order derivatives exist for the function f in some circular region in the xy-plane. This guarantees that the surface has no sharp points or breaks.

Barnett/Ziegler/Byleen Business Calculus 12e

Function Assumptions

Barnett/Ziegler/Byleen Business Calculus 12e

Local Extrema and Partial Derivatives


Theorem 1:

Let f (a, b) be a local extremum (local minimum or maximum) for the function f . Then f x (a, b) = 0 and f y (a, b) = 0
Example: z = x2 + y2. This is a paraboloid with vertex at the origin and opening upward. Consider the local minimum (0, 0). f x(x, y) = 2x and f x(0, 0) = 0 f y(x, y) = 2y and f y(0, 0) = 0

Barnett/Ziegler/Byleen Business Calculus 12e

Second-Derivative Test for Local Extrema


Theorem 2:Use this theorem to determine if the function has any local extrema. 1. Find 2. Set equal to zero then solve the equations simultaneously to find our critical point(s): (a, b), (c, d) 3. For each critical point, find , , , , (, )

4. Let A = fxx(a, b), B = fxy(a, b), C = fyy(a, b)


(continued)
Barnett/Ziegler/Byleen Business Calculus 12e 7

Second Test (continued)


Then
Case 1. If AC B2 > 0 and A < 0, then f (a, b) is a local maximum. Case 2. If AC B2 > 0 and A > 0, then f (a, b) is a local minimum. Case 3. If AC B2 < 0, then f (a, b) is a saddle point. Case 4. If AC B2 = 0, the test is inconclusive.

Barnett/Ziegler/Byleen Business Calculus 12e

Test Results

Case 1 Local Minimum

Case 2 Local Maximum


Case 4 Test Inconclusive

Case 3 Saddle Point

Barnett/Ziegler/Byleen Business Calculus 12e

Example 1
Find local extrema for f (x, y) = 3 x2 y2 + 6y Step 1. Find the critical point(s): = 2y + 6 = 2

0 = 2
= 0

0 = 2 + 6 2 = 6
= 3

: (0,3)

Barnett/Ziegler/Byleen Business Calculus 12e

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Example 1
Find local extrema for f (x, y) = 3 x2 y2 + 6y : (0,3) = 2 = 2y + 6

Step 2. Compute A = fxx(0, 3), B = fxy(0, 3), C = fyy(0, 3). = (0,3) = 2 2 = 2 2 0 = 4 0,3 = 3 02 32 + 6 3 = 12

= (0,3) = 0
= (0,3) = 2

Since AC B2 > 0 and A < 0, then f (0, 3)=12 is a local maximum.

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Example 2
Find local extrema for , = 3 + 3 6 Step 1. Find the critical point(s): = 3 2 6 = 3 2 6
1 1 2 = 2 2 = 1 1 4 2 4
2

6 = 3 2 1 2 = 2

6 = 3 2 1 2 = 2
= 0 = 2

= 0 = 2 . . 0,0 & (2,2)


Barnett/Ziegler/Byleen Business Calculus 12e

1 = 4 8 1 4 0 = 8 1 3 0 = 1 8
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Example 2 (continued)
Find local extrema for , = 3 + 3 6
. . 0,0 & (2,2)

3 2

= 3 2 6

Step 2. Compute A = fxx(0, 0), B = fxy(0, 0), C = fyy(0, 0). = (0,0) = 6 = 0 = (0,0) = 6 = (0,0) = 6 = 0 2 = 0 0 (6)2 = 36

Since AC B2 < 0 then f (0, 0) is a saddle point.


Barnett/Ziegler/Byleen Business Calculus 12e 13

Example 2 (continued)
Find local extrema for , = 3 + 3 6
. . 0,0 & (2,2)

= 3 2 6

= 3 2 6

Step 2. Compute A = fxx(2, 2), B = fxy(2, 2), C = fyy(2, 2). = (2,2) = 6 = 12 = (2,2) = 6 = (2,2) = 6 = 12 2 = 12 12 (6)2 = 144 36 = 108 2,2 = 8

Since AC B2 > 0 and A>0 then f (2, 2)=-8 is a local minimum.


Barnett/Ziegler/Byleen Business Calculus 12e 14

Example 3
Find local extrema for , = 2 2 2 + + + 10 5 Step 1. Find the critical point(s):
= 2 + + 1 0 = 2 + + 1 = 4 + + 10 0 = 4 + + 10 4 = 8 + 4 10 = 4 14 = 7 2 = = 3 : 2,3
Barnett/Ziegler/Byleen Business Calculus 12e 15

1 = 2 + 10 = 4

Example 3 (continued)
Find local extrema for , = 2 2 2 + + + 10 5
: 2,3 = 2 + + 1 = 4 + + 10

Step 2. Compute A = fxx(2, 3), B = fxy(2, 3), C = fyy(2, 3). = (2,3) = 2 = (2,3) =1 = (2,3) = 4 2 = 2 4 (1)2 =7 2,3 = 11

Since AC B2 > 0 and A < 0 then f (2, 3)=11 is a local maximum.


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Example 4
Find local extrema for , = 10 2 3 + 2 Step 1. Find the critical point(s): = 2 + 2 0 = 2 + 2 = 1 Since 0 for all (x,y), then , . = 3

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Example 5
Find local extrema for , = 1 + 7 + 3 + 3 2 Step 1. Find the critical point(s): = 7 + 3 2 0 = 7 + 3 2 =

Since 0 for all (x,y), then , .

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Homework

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Chapter 8 Multivariable Calculus


Section 3 Maxima and Minima (Part 2)

Learning Objectives for Section 8.3 Maxima and Minima


The student will be able to solve applications by finding critical points and maxima and minima of functions.

Barnett/Ziegler/Byleen Business Calculus 12e

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Example 1
The annual labor and automated equipment cost (in millions of dollars) for producing TV sets is given by C (x, y) = 2x2 + 2xy + 3y2 16x 18y + 54, where x is the amount spent per year on labor, and y is the amount spent per year on automated equipment (both in millions of dollars). Minimize the cost.

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Example 1 (continued)
C (x, y) = 2x2 + 2xy + 3y2 16x 18y + 54

Step 1. Find the critical point:


C x( x, y) = 4x + 2y 16 = 0 C y( x, y) = 2x + 6y 18 = 0 4 + 2 = 16 2 + 6 = 18 12 6 = 48 2 + 6 = 18 10 = 30 = 3 = 2 . (3,2)
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Example 1 (continued)
C (x, y) = 2x2 + 2xy + 3y2 16x 18y + 54 C x(x, y) = 4x + 2y 16 = 0 C y(x, y) = 2x + 6y 18 = 0
Step 2. Compute A = Cxx(3, 2), B = Cxy(3, 2), C = Cyy(3, 2). = 6 = 2 = 4 Step 3. Evaluate AC B2 and classify the critical point. AC B2 = 20, A > 0. f(3, 2) = 12 is a local minimum.

The minimum cost is 12 million dollars, when we spend 3 million dollars on labor and 2 million dollars on automated equipment each year.
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Example 2
A satellite TV station is to be located at P(x,y) so that the sum of the squares of the distances from P to the three towns A, B, and C is a minimum. Find the coordinates of P that will minimize the cost of providing satellite TV for all three towns.
(6,9)

(, )

(0,0)

(9,0)
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Barnett/Ziegler/Byleen Business Calculus 12e

Example 2 (continued)
(6,9)

P , = =
2

+
2

+
2

(, )

+ 0

= 2 + 2

(0,0)

(9,0)

+ 9
2

2
2 2

= 6 9

+ 9

=
Barnett/Ziegler/Byleen Business Calculus 12e

+ 0
2

= 9

+ 2
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Example 2 (continued)
, =
2

= 2 + 2 + 6 2 + 9 2 + 9 2 + 2 = 2 + 2 + ( 2 12 + 36) + ( 2 18 + 81) + ( 2 18 + 81) + 2 = 3 2 + 3 2 30 18 + 198 Now find critical point of P(x,y): = 6 18 = 6 30 0 = 6 18 0 = 6 30 = 3 = 5 Critical point is (5,3)
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Example 2 (continued)
(, ) = 3 2 + 3 2 30 18 + 198

= 6 30

= 6 18

Critical point is (5,3) = = 6

Now find A, B & C: = = 6 = = 0 2 = 36 > 0 > 0 P(5,3)=96 is a local minimum.

The coordinates of the location of the TV satellite that will minimize the cost of providing services to all 3 towns is: P(5,3)
Barnett/Ziegler/Byleen Business Calculus 12e 28

Example 3
The packaging department in a company needs to design a rectangular box with no top and a partition down the middle. The box must have a volume of 48 cubic inches. Find the dimensions of the box that will minimize the amount of material used to construct the box. How much material will be used?

Barnett/Ziegler/Byleen Business Calculus 12e

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Example 3 (continued)
Material = Base + front & back + sides & partition , = + 2 + 3 = = 48 48 = 48

48 , = + 2 + 3

96 144 , = + +

This is the function we must minimize.

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Example 3 (continued)
96 144 , = + + = 144 2 0 = 144 2 y= 144 2 = + 96 1 + 144 1 4 = 216 216 = 4
2

First find critical point of M(x,y): = 96 2 0 = 96 2 = 96 2 = 96 144 2 = 96 144 96 4 = 20736


Barnett/Ziegler/Byleen Business Calculus 12e

2 4

0 = 4 216 0 = ( 3 216)

= 0 6 = 4 Critical point is (6,4)


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96 144 , = + +

Example 3 (continued)
= 96 2 Critical point is (6,4) = = 192 3 (6,4) = 192 4
3

= 144 2

Now find A, B & C: = = 288 3 = = 1

(6,4) = 288 6
4 = 3

=3

2 = 4 1 = 3 > 0 > 0 M(6,4)=72 is a local minimum. The dimensions of the box that will use 48 48 = = = 2 the least amount of material are 6 by 4 24 by 2. 72 2 of material will be used.
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Homework

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