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# Chapter 8 Multivariable Calculus

## Learning Objectives for Section 8.3 Maxima and Minima

The student will be able to identify critical points and maxima and minima of functions.

## Local Maxima and Minima

We want to examine local maxima and minima for functions of the form z = f (x, y). We are going to extend the secondderivative test previously developed for y = f (x).
Definition: f (a, b) is a local maximum if there exists a circular region about (a, b) such that f (a, b) f (x, y) for all (x, y) in the region. f (a, b) is a local minimum if there exists a circular region about (a, b) such that f (a, b) f (x, y) for all (x, y) in the region.

## Local Maxima and Minima

When you have a function with one independent variable, such as = () , you can use the second derivative test to determine if there is a local max or min. A similar test can be made for functions with two independent variables such as = , . We will assume that all 2nd order derivatives exist for the function f in some circular region in the xy-plane. This guarantees that the surface has no sharp points or breaks.

Function Assumptions

## Local Extrema and Partial Derivatives

Theorem 1:

Let f (a, b) be a local extremum (local minimum or maximum) for the function f . Then f x (a, b) = 0 and f y (a, b) = 0
Example: z = x2 + y2. This is a paraboloid with vertex at the origin and opening upward. Consider the local minimum (0, 0). f x(x, y) = 2x and f x(0, 0) = 0 f y(x, y) = 2y and f y(0, 0) = 0

## Second-Derivative Test for Local Extrema

Theorem 2:Use this theorem to determine if the function has any local extrema. 1. Find 2. Set equal to zero then solve the equations simultaneously to find our critical point(s): (a, b), (c, d) 3. For each critical point, find , , , , (, )

(continued)

## Second Test (continued)

Then
Case 1. If AC B2 > 0 and A < 0, then f (a, b) is a local maximum. Case 2. If AC B2 > 0 and A > 0, then f (a, b) is a local minimum. Case 3. If AC B2 < 0, then f (a, b) is a saddle point. Case 4. If AC B2 = 0, the test is inconclusive.

Test Results

## Case 2 Local Maximum

Case 4 Test Inconclusive

Example 1
Find local extrema for f (x, y) = 3 x2 y2 + 6y Step 1. Find the critical point(s): = 2y + 6 = 2

0 = 2
= 0

0 = 2 + 6 2 = 6
= 3

: (0,3)

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Example 1
Find local extrema for f (x, y) = 3 x2 y2 + 6y : (0,3) = 2 = 2y + 6

Step 2. Compute A = fxx(0, 3), B = fxy(0, 3), C = fyy(0, 3). = (0,3) = 2 2 = 2 2 0 = 4 0,3 = 3 02 32 + 6 3 = 12

= (0,3) = 0
= (0,3) = 2

## Since AC B2 > 0 and A < 0, then f (0, 3)=12 is a local maximum.

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Example 2
Find local extrema for , = 3 + 3 6 Step 1. Find the critical point(s): = 3 2 6 = 3 2 6
1 1 2 = 2 2 = 1 1 4 2 4
2

6 = 3 2 1 2 = 2

6 = 3 2 1 2 = 2
= 0 = 2

## = 0 = 2 . . 0,0 & (2,2)

1 = 4 8 1 4 0 = 8 1 3 0 = 1 8
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Example 2 (continued)
Find local extrema for , = 3 + 3 6
. . 0,0 & (2,2)

3 2

= 3 2 6

Step 2. Compute A = fxx(0, 0), B = fxy(0, 0), C = fyy(0, 0). = (0,0) = 6 = 0 = (0,0) = 6 = (0,0) = 6 = 0 2 = 0 0 (6)2 = 36

## Since AC B2 < 0 then f (0, 0) is a saddle point.

Example 2 (continued)
Find local extrema for , = 3 + 3 6
. . 0,0 & (2,2)

= 3 2 6

= 3 2 6

Step 2. Compute A = fxx(2, 2), B = fxy(2, 2), C = fyy(2, 2). = (2,2) = 6 = 12 = (2,2) = 6 = (2,2) = 6 = 12 2 = 12 12 (6)2 = 144 36 = 108 2,2 = 8

## Since AC B2 > 0 and A>0 then f (2, 2)=-8 is a local minimum.

Example 3
Find local extrema for , = 2 2 2 + + + 10 5 Step 1. Find the critical point(s):
= 2 + + 1 0 = 2 + + 1 = 4 + + 10 0 = 4 + + 10 4 = 8 + 4 10 = 4 14 = 7 2 = = 3 : 2,3

1 = 2 + 10 = 4

Example 3 (continued)
Find local extrema for , = 2 2 2 + + + 10 5
: 2,3 = 2 + + 1 = 4 + + 10

Step 2. Compute A = fxx(2, 3), B = fxy(2, 3), C = fyy(2, 3). = (2,3) = 2 = (2,3) =1 = (2,3) = 4 2 = 2 4 (1)2 =7 2,3 = 11

## Since AC B2 > 0 and A < 0 then f (2, 3)=11 is a local maximum.

Example 4
Find local extrema for , = 10 2 3 + 2 Step 1. Find the critical point(s): = 2 + 2 0 = 2 + 2 = 1 Since 0 for all (x,y), then , . = 3

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Example 5
Find local extrema for , = 1 + 7 + 3 + 3 2 Step 1. Find the critical point(s): = 7 + 3 2 0 = 7 + 3 2 =

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Homework

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## Chapter 8 Multivariable Calculus

Section 3 Maxima and Minima (Part 2)

## Learning Objectives for Section 8.3 Maxima and Minima

The student will be able to solve applications by finding critical points and maxima and minima of functions.

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Example 1
The annual labor and automated equipment cost (in millions of dollars) for producing TV sets is given by C (x, y) = 2x2 + 2xy + 3y2 16x 18y + 54, where x is the amount spent per year on labor, and y is the amount spent per year on automated equipment (both in millions of dollars). Minimize the cost.

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Example 1 (continued)
C (x, y) = 2x2 + 2xy + 3y2 16x 18y + 54

## Step 1. Find the critical point:

C x( x, y) = 4x + 2y 16 = 0 C y( x, y) = 2x + 6y 18 = 0 4 + 2 = 16 2 + 6 = 18 12 6 = 48 2 + 6 = 18 10 = 30 = 3 = 2 . (3,2)

Example 1 (continued)
C (x, y) = 2x2 + 2xy + 3y2 16x 18y + 54 C x(x, y) = 4x + 2y 16 = 0 C y(x, y) = 2x + 6y 18 = 0
Step 2. Compute A = Cxx(3, 2), B = Cxy(3, 2), C = Cyy(3, 2). = 6 = 2 = 4 Step 3. Evaluate AC B2 and classify the critical point. AC B2 = 20, A > 0. f(3, 2) = 12 is a local minimum.

The minimum cost is 12 million dollars, when we spend 3 million dollars on labor and 2 million dollars on automated equipment each year.

Example 2
A satellite TV station is to be located at P(x,y) so that the sum of the squares of the distances from P to the three towns A, B, and C is a minimum. Find the coordinates of P that will minimize the cost of providing satellite TV for all three towns.
(6,9)

(, )

(0,0)

(9,0)
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Example 2 (continued)
(6,9)

P , = =
2

+
2

+
2

(, )

+ 0

= 2 + 2

(0,0)

(9,0)

+ 9
2

2
2 2

= 6 9

+ 9

=

+ 0
2

= 9

+ 2
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Example 2 (continued)
, =
2

= 2 + 2 + 6 2 + 9 2 + 9 2 + 2 = 2 + 2 + ( 2 12 + 36) + ( 2 18 + 81) + ( 2 18 + 81) + 2 = 3 2 + 3 2 30 18 + 198 Now find critical point of P(x,y): = 6 18 = 6 30 0 = 6 18 0 = 6 30 = 3 = 5 Critical point is (5,3)

Example 2 (continued)
(, ) = 3 2 + 3 2 30 18 + 198

= 6 30

= 6 18

## Now find A, B & C: = = 6 = = 0 2 = 36 > 0 > 0 P(5,3)=96 is a local minimum.

The coordinates of the location of the TV satellite that will minimize the cost of providing services to all 3 towns is: P(5,3)

Example 3
The packaging department in a company needs to design a rectangular box with no top and a partition down the middle. The box must have a volume of 48 cubic inches. Find the dimensions of the box that will minimize the amount of material used to construct the box. How much material will be used?

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Example 3 (continued)
Material = Base + front & back + sides & partition , = + 2 + 3 = = 48 48 = 48

48 , = + 2 + 3

96 144 , = + +

## This is the function we must minimize.

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Example 3 (continued)
96 144 , = + + = 144 2 0 = 144 2 y= 144 2 = + 96 1 + 144 1 4 = 216 216 = 4
2

## First find critical point of M(x,y): = 96 2 0 = 96 2 = 96 2 = 96 144 2 = 96 144 96 4 = 20736

2 4

0 = 4 216 0 = ( 3 216)

## = 0 6 = 4 Critical point is (6,4)

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96 144 , = + +

Example 3 (continued)
= 96 2 Critical point is (6,4) = = 192 3 (6,4) = 192 4
3

= 144 2

## Now find A, B & C: = = 288 3 = = 1

(6,4) = 288 6
4 = 3

=3

2 = 4 1 = 3 > 0 > 0 M(6,4)=72 is a local minimum. The dimensions of the box that will use 48 48 = = = 2 the least amount of material are 6 by 4 24 by 2. 72 2 of material will be used.