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CORRUPTION IN THE MIDDLE EAST STARTS HERE MAKE DEALS WITH THE CORPORATE FELONS – THEN
CORRUPTION IN THE MIDDLE EAST STARTS HERE MAKE DEALS WITH THE CORPORATE FELONS – THEN
CORRUPTION IN THE MIDDLE EAST STARTS HERE MAKE DEALS WITH THE CORPORATE FELONS – THEN
CORRUPTION IN THE MIDDLE EAST STARTS HERE MAKE DEALS WITH THE CORPORATE FELONS – THEN

CORRUPTION IN THE MIDDLE EAST STARTS HERE

MAKE DEALS WITH THE CORPORATE FELONS – THEN AWARD THEM BILLION DOLLAR CONTRACTS

SEAL AND COVER-UP THE CASES ON FOREIGN COMPANIES PAYING KICKBACKS AND BRIBES

NO FOREIGN COMPANY OWNERS INDICTED OR JAILED FOR PAYING BRIBES

NO SUSPENSIONS FOR CERTAIN COMPANIES IN MAJOR JOHN COCKERHAMS BRIBE BOOK

U.S. SMALL BUSINESS DOES HAVE AN ENEMY FOR VIOLATING THE SMALL BUSINESS ACT OVERSEAS

YOU ARE LOOKING AT THEM ALL HERE

BOOK U.S. SMALL BUSINESS DOES HAVE AN ENEMY FOR VIOLATING THE SMALL BUSINESS ACT OVERSEAS YOU
BOOK U.S. SMALL BUSINESS DOES HAVE AN ENEMY FOR VIOLATING THE SMALL BUSINESS ACT OVERSEAS YOU
BOOK U.S. SMALL BUSINESS DOES HAVE AN ENEMY FOR VIOLATING THE SMALL BUSINESS ACT OVERSEAS YOU
BOOK U.S. SMALL BUSINESS DOES HAVE AN ENEMY FOR VIOLATING THE SMALL BUSINESS ACT OVERSEAS YOU
BOOK U.S. SMALL BUSINESS DOES HAVE AN ENEMY FOR VIOLATING THE SMALL BUSINESS ACT OVERSEAS YOU
BOOK U.S. SMALL BUSINESS DOES HAVE AN ENEMY FOR VIOLATING THE SMALL BUSINESS ACT OVERSEAS YOU

Latvian Connection LLC Shareefa Complex

5 th Floor

Kuwait City, Kuwait Tel: 011 965 5012 2072

October 28, 2013

Ms. Christina H. Sklarew, Esq. Procurement Law Division Office of General Counsel U.S. Government Accounting Office 441 G Street, NW Washington, D.C. 20548

Subject: Comments to Air Force Request for Dismissal of B-408913

Dear Ms. Sklarew,

This letter and the indexed attachments will give Latvian Connection LLC‘s

response to the Air Forces request to dismiss B-408913. This protest addresses not setting

aside the solicitation in a contingency area for U.S. Small Business and also not abiding

by the Competition in Contracting Act. If there were actually an exception, then Incirlik

Air Base should have put that a Justification and Approval on the solicitation and cited

what they believe the exception for not following the Competition in Contracting Act.

The World Trade Organization‘s Government Procurement Agreement to which

the United States and Turkey are both signers of (ATTCH 1 and 2) which has the stated

purpose of:

Fundamental Obligations Regarding Nondiscriminatory Treatment

1. Nondiscriminatory Treatment: The cornerstone of the GPA is the requirement that goods, services and service suppliers of signatories must be given non- discriminatory treatment. Signatories must treat goods, services and service suppliers of other signatories no less favorably than their own goods, services and service suppliers (national treatment) or those of other signatories (MFN) in competing for contracts for government purchases covered by the GPA.

Obligations Regarding Procurement Procedures

1. Procedural Requirements: To ensure that the signatories apply the basic principles

of the GPA, the Agreement sets out detailed operational rules for the procurement process. These cover the nature of the technical specifications to be applied, tendering procedures, qualification of suppliers, publication of invitations to participate in procurements, selection procedures, time limits for tendering, the provision of tender

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documentation, the receipt and opening of tenders, procedures for the award of contracts, negotiations with tenderers, limited tendering, publication of awards and provision of information on why tenders have not been successful.

2. Notice: The procuring entity must publish a notice of procurement in one

the official languages of the WTO (English, French, or Spanish).

1995

Turkey has been a member of WTO since 26 March 1995

PRINCIPALS OF THE WORLD TRADING SYSTEM

1. Trade without discrimination

a. Most-favoured-nation (MFN):

Under the WTO agreements, countries cannot normally discriminate between their trading Partners. Grant someone a special favour (such as a lower customs duty rate for one of their products) and you have to do the same for all other WTO members. This principle is known as most-favoured-nation (MFN) treatment. It is so important that it is the first article of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which governs trade in goods. MFN is also a priority in the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) , although in each agreement the principle is handled slightly differently. Together, those three agreements cover all three main areas of trade handled by the WTO.

b. National Treatment:

Imported and locally-produced goods should be treated equally - at least after

the foreign goods have entered the market. The same should apply to foreign and domestic services, and to foreign and local trademarks, copyrights and patents.

2. Freer Trade

Since GATT‘s creation in 1947-48 there have been eight rounds of trade negotiations. A ninth round, under the Doha Development Agenda, is now underway. At first these focused on lowering tariffs (customs duties) on imported goods. As a result of the negotiations, by the mid-1990s industrial countries‘ tariff rates on industrial goods had fallen steadily to less than 4%. Opening markets can be beneficial, but it also requires adjustment. The WTO agreements allow countries to introduce changes gradually, through

―progressive liberalization‖. Developing countries are usually given longer to fulfil their obligations.

3. Predictability

With stability and predictability, investment is encouraged, jobs are created and consumers can fully enjoy the benefits of competition choice and lower prices. The multilateral trading system is an attempt by governments to

make the business environment stable and predictable. In the WTO, when countries agree to open their markets for goods or services, they ―bind‖ their commitments. For goods, these bindings amount to ceilings

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on customs tariff rates. Sometimes countries tax imports at rates that are lower than the bound rates. Frequently this is the case in developing countries. In developed countries the rates actually charged and the bound rates tend to be the same.

4. Promoting Fair Competition

The rules on non-discrimination MFN and national treatment which we explained before are designed to secure fair conditions of trade. So too are those on dumping (exporting at below cost to gain market share) and subsidies. The issues are complex, and the rules try to establish what is fair or unfair, and how governments can respond, in particular by charging additional

import duties calculated to compensate for damage caused by unfair trade.

5. Encouraging development and economic reform

The WTO system contributes to development. On the other hand, developing countries need flexibility in the time they take to implement the system‘s agreements. And the agreements themselves inherit the earlier provisions of GATT that allow for special assistance and trade concessions for developing countries. Over three quarters of WTO members are developing countries and countries in transition to market economies. During the seven and a half years of the Uruguay Round, over 60 of these countries implemented trade liberalization programmes autonomously. Turkey has been a member of WTO since 26 March 1995, For personal interest

Goods schedules of Turkey,

Services schedules and MFN exemptions of Turkey ,

Trade Policy Reviews of Turkey,

Dispute cases involving Turkey, can be browsed on http://www.wto.org/english/thewto_e/countries_e/turkey_e.htm

Jean Heilman Grier, Senior Procurement Negotiator, Office of the U.S. Trade

Representative stated in a presentation that:

(ATTCH 4) Market Access Opportunities under the GPA

Specify the procurement to be opened to foreign suppliers

Certainty that they will be given fair market access opportunities

Participation facilitated by increased use of electronic procurement

Basic premise: all goods are covered, unless explicitly excluded

Assures foreign suppliers of ability to participate in procurement on same basis as domestic suppliers.

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A U.S. law generally prohibits federal agencies from purchasing goods or services covered by the GPA from any country that is not a Party to the GPA or an FTA.

That means that non-GPA Parties do not have access to U.S. federal procurement covered by GPA more than $800 billion in 2007.

In a section of the document the Air Force presented it is stated that:

[RELATED NOTE] REPUBLIC OF TURKEY March 29th, 1980 MINISTRY OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS No. 1658 Dear Mr. Ambassador ,

1. I have the honor to refer to Article V, para 3 of the Agreement for Cooperation

On Defence and Economy between the Governments of the Republic of Turkey and the

United States of America in accordance with Articles II and III of the North Atlantic Treaty signed on March 29th., 1980 regarding the status of the force and civilian component of the United States of America and of their dependents assigned to or stationed in the territory of the Republic of Turkey for the purposes of the said

Agreement.

2. Taking into account the requirements of a mutually beneficial defence

cooperation, I hereby wish to inform you that the Turkish Government is prepared to continue with the implementation of the below listed agreements related to the Status of United States Forces, as of the date of entry into force of the Agreement of Cooperation on Defence and Economy, signed on March 29th ,1980:

a. The Agreement Between the Parties to the Atlantic Treaty, regarding the Status of Their Forces, dated June 19, 1951, ratified by Turkish Law No. 6375.

b. The Agreement for the Relief from Taxation on Defence Expenditures dated June

23, 1954, 19 ratified by Turkish Law No. 6426.

c.

Agreement Related to the Implementation of the Agreement Between the Parties

to

the North Atlantic Treaty,

H,E. James W. SPAIN Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary

of the United States of America

A n k a r a

19 TIAS 2996:5 UST 1258

This agreement is not to limit trade so that ONLY Turkey can supply the U.S.

Forces at Incirlik Air Base. One of the purposes of this to acknowledge that there is a relief

from Taxation on Defense Expenditures made by the United States.

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Unites States businesses have the right, under the WTO GPA agreement to bid on contracts

originating from the United States Federal Procurement system, www.fbo.gov and to be

treated fairly and equally by the other WTO member country Turkey.

Federal Register /Vol. 77, No. 126 / Friday, June 29, 2012 /Rules and Regulations 38737 (ATTCH 3) 252.2257002 Qualifying Country Sources as Subcontractors.

* * * * *

(a) Definition. Qualifying country, as used in this clause, means a country with a Reciprocal defense procurement memorandum of understanding or international agreement with the United States in which both countries agree to remove barriers to purchases of supplies produced in the other country or services performed by sources of the other country, and the memorandum or agreement complies, where applicable, with the requirements of section 36 of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2776) and with 10 U.S.C. 2457. Accordingly, the following are qualifying countries:

Australia

Austria

Belgium

Canada

Czech Republic

Denmark

Egypt

Finland

France

Germany

Greece

Israel

Italy

Luxembourg

Netherlands

Norway

Portugal

Spain

Sweden

Switzerland

Turkey
Turkey

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

In June 2012, the FAC recognized and published that Turkey has dropped its barriers to

competition for United States businesses. Latvian Connection LLC, a California

corporation is one of those businesses that wishes to bid on one of its own countries

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procurements which uses a United Stated Federal Acquisition Regulations, and the Agency

is a United States Department of Defense Agency, spending United States tax payer money

and using a contracting officer that is a member of the United States Air Force.

It just doesn‘t seem patriotic of Colonel Shestko that the United States Air Force would try

to exclude a Veteran Owned Small Business from bidding on a solicitation for the very

branch of the military that he spent 23 + years of service working for.

The same FAC, Federal Register /Vol. 77, No. 126

( ATTCH 3) also added Turkey into

252.2257036 Buy AmericanFree Trade AgreementsBalance of Payments Program. * * * * * (a) * * * ‗‗Qualifying country‘‘ means a country with a reciprocal defense procurement memorandum of understanding or international agreement with the United States in which both countries agree to remove barriers to purchases of supplies produced in the other country or services performed by sources of the other country, and the memorandum or agreement complies, where applicable, with the requirements of section 36 of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2776) and with 10 U.S.C. 2457. Accordingly, the following are qualifying countries:

Australia

Austria

Belgium

Canada

Czech Republic

Denmark

Egypt

Finland

France

Germany

Greece

Israel

Italy

Luxembourg

Netherlands

Norway

Portugal

Spain

Sweden

Switzerland

Turkey
Turkey

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United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

U.S. Trade and Development Agency (ATTCH 8) USTDA Mission Statement is to help companies create U.S. jobs through the export of

U.S. goods and services for priority development projects in emerging economies.

USTDA links U.S. businesses to export opportunities by funding project planning

activities, pilot projects, and reverse trade missions while creating sustainable

infrastructure and economic growth in partner countries. USTDA provides grant funding

to overseas project sponsors for the planning of projects that support the development of

modern infrastructure and an open trading system. The hallmark of USTDA development

assistance has always involved building partnerships between U.S. companies and

overseas project sponsors to bring proven private sector solutions to developmental

challenges. Contact Verinda Fike at vfike@ustda.gov for more information.

OVER 1,000 AMERICAN FIRMS REGISTERED IN TURKEY (ATTCH 10)

According to the U.S. Embassy in Turkey:

Turkey is a long-term ally of the United States and a charter member of NATO with

strong links to global institutions. Turkey has a key role to play in most of the major

regional issues facing the United States. Our two countries currently enjoy a close and

vibrant partnership, extending into key issues such as Syria, Iraq, Afghanistan and

Cyprus. However, bilateral relations have been occasionally difficult. Under the Obama

administration, continued high-level government contacts have created a constructive

atmosphere, with a special emphasis on building bilateral commercial relations. The

governments Framework for Strategic Economic and Commercial Cooperation and the

private sector led U.S.-Turkish Business Council are examples of intensified efforts to

increase bilateral trade and investment. Over 1,000 American firms are registered in

Turkey, ranging from large multinationals to small and medium size firms. While

Turkey‘s economic growth in 2012 is expected to slow, the longer-term prospects for

many American firms in Turkey remain excellent.

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OTHER DoD Agency Procurements in Turkey

The U.S. Army Corp of Engineers conducted solicitation W912GB-13-R-0008 last Fiscal

Year and did not have any such mention of a barrier to competition that the U.S. Air

Force has tried to use. (ATTCH 5).

The Army conducted solicitation W52P1J-13-R-0160 (ATTCH 12) and there is no such

mention of any barrier to competition in their sources sought outline.

The State Department required Life Insurance for the employees of the U.S. Embassy in

Turkey and there was no limitation on sources that could bid. ( ATTCH 13)

COMPETITION IN CONTRACTING ACT

In enacting CICA, Congress explained: ―Effective competition is predicated on advance procurement planning and an understanding of the marketplace.‖ S. Rep. No. 50, 98th Cong., 2d Sess. 18 (1984), reprinted in 1984 U.S.C.C.A.N. 2191. The Senate Report also quoted with approval the following testimony regarding the need for advance planning:

Opportunities for obtaining or improving competition have often been lost because of untimely, faulty, or the total lack of advance procurement planning. Noncompetitive procurement or inadequate competition also has resulted many

times from the failure to develop specifications

competition, Congress will serve notice on the agencies that they will need to do more than the minimum to comply with the statute. S. Rep. No. 50, 98th Cong., 2d Sess. 19 (1984), reprinted in 1984 U.S.C.C.A.N. 2192. Finally, in interpreting this statutory requirement, our Office has noted that contracting officials have a duty to promote and provide for competition and to obtain the most advantageous contract for the government. Precision Logistics, Inc., B-271429, July 18, 1996, 96-2 CPD ¶ 24 at 5; National Aerospace Group, Inc., B-282843, Aug. 30, 1999, 99-2 CPD ¶ 43. In

By requiring effective

other words

, contracting officials must act affirmatively to obtain and safeguard

competition

; they cannot take a passive approach and remain in a sole-source

situation when they could reasonably take steps to enhance competition. In this case, the Army's actions over the past several years fail to comply with CICA's statutory mandate for reasonable advance planning. (HEROS, Inc., B-292043, June 9, 2003) Under CICA, 41 U.S.C. sect. 253(a)(1)(A), contracting officers have a duty to promote and provide for competition and to provide the most advantageous contract for the government. In their role of promoting and providing for competition, contracting officials must act affirmatively to obtain and safeguard competition; they cannot take a passive approach and remain in a noncompetitive position where they could reasonably take steps to enhance competition. VSE Corp., Johnson Controls World Servs., Inc., B- 290452.3 et al., May 23, 2005, 2005 CPD para. 103 at 8; HEROS, Inc., B-292043, June

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9, 2003, 2003 CPD para. 111 at 7; National Aerospace Group, Inc., B-282843, Aug. 30, 1999, 99-2 CPD para. 43 at 8. See also S. Rep. No. 98-50, at 18 (1984), reprinted in 1984 U.S.C.C.A.N. 2174, 2191 (stating that CICA requires agencies to “make an affirmative effort to obtain effective competition”). CICA further provides that under no circumstance may noncompetitive procedures be used due to a lack of advance planning by contracting officials. 41 U.S.C. sect. 253(f)(5)(A); Signals & Sys., Inc., B-288107, Sept. 21, 2001, 2001 CPD para. 168 at 9. Although the requirement for advance planning is not a requirement that such planning be successful or error-free, see Abbott Prods., Inc., B-231131, Aug. 8, 1988, 88-2 CPD para. 119, at 8, the advance planning must be reasonable. Signals & Sys., Inc., supra, at 13. Here, we conclude that the agency has failed to comply with the CICA mandate for reasonable advance planning.

The United Stated Air Force have failed to abide by the Competition in Contracting Act

and failed to heed the developments of Turkey in the respect to Turkey being a signer of

the WTO Government Procurement Agreement where they agree that other member

countries can bid on contracts in their country including United States solicitations for

supplies and services to be used in the country of Turkey. Turkey is a member of NATO

and that has been the policy for years that other NATO countries my bid on procurements

in other NATO countries. FEDBIZOPPS is routinely used by other NATO countries to

bid on procurements in other Contingency Areas as recognized in the National Defense

Appropriation Act and in no other country that the Air Force has a contingency operation

do they try to limit competition as they have done in Turkey. Turkey realizes that to stock

the U.S. Military in Turkey, the United States has the Federal Acquisition Regulations

and the Competition in Contracting Act and when they signed with the WTO, they fully

acknowledged those facts. According to the Competition in Contracting Act, if there were

actually an international agreement, then the Head of the Agency of the Air Force would

have to have a Letter of Offer and Acceptance on file and there is no such letter on file

and be referred to. There is no such letter by the Head of the U.S. Air Force.

TURKISH CITIZENS BANNED ON U.S. GOVERNMENT CONTRACTS UAE (Exhibit 14) Military Security has banned Turkish citizens from performing on USG contracts and this can be seen on RFP

SECURITY REQUIREMENT

The United States Government is fighting a War on Terrorism and we need your

The United States Government is fighting a War on Terrorism and we need your

assistance.

The United States Government is fighting a War on Terrorism and we need your assistance.

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Policies and procedures have been strictly tested and developed to provide maximum Force Protection to those personnel living and working on Al Minhad Airbase, UAE. The policies and procedures apply to all military, U.S. Government civilians, and contractors. All contract workers and equipment may be inspected and searched by U.A.E. and/or U.S. Forces prior to working in and around Al Minhad Airbase, UAE at any time during the performance of this contract. The host Nation base will not grant access for individuals of the following nationalities:

IRAN, IRAQ, CUBA, CHINA, LIBYA, TURKEY, AFGHANISTAN, SYRIA, PALESTINE, SUDAN, YEMEN, JORDAN, AND, NORTH KOREA.

Force Protection has put Turkish citizens in the same category as citizens from other

terrorist harboring countries who do not have the UNITED STATES current interests at

heart. Why is the U.S. Air Force allowing Turkish companies and personnel on Incirlik

Air Base ?

ORGANIZATIONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST

Since the filing of the original GAO protest, a report has been released from seal

by the same Department of Justice that covered up the corruption. It is a well known fact

that the Air Force OSI could not find its own shadow let alone corruption that was all

around the Air Force in Kuwait and the same Organizational Conflicts of Interests are in

Turkey. Latvian Connection LLC reported already to AF OSI in Turkey and they did not

even write to acknowledge receipt of the request for investigation. The Air Force

leadership has failed to abide by the Competition in Contracting Act.

Until Congress removes the function of contracting from the Department of

Defense, only then will the element of corruption be removed. ATTCH 15 chronicles

what was happening in Kuwait and 386 ECONS just 40 miles away were dealing with the

same corrupt contractors paying bribes and still are to this day. KMS and Future

Services are listed in MAJ John Cockerhams ledger book that he called his Appreciation

book, and the Air Force OSI did not make one single arrest in Kuwait and the Air Force

in Kuwait still award contracts to both companies. The AF OSI are inept at stopping

corruption and the Air Force leadership condones it.

CONCLUSION

Latvian Connection LLC requests that the GAO rule that there should be no

limitation of United States firms from competing for a United States solicitation posted

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on www.fbo.gov or any other electronic commerce site to exclude American businesses

when solicitations are posted from the United States Air Force at Incirlik Air Base,

Turkey. DFARS 252.2257036, states that Turkey has removed barriers to trade.

‗‗Qualifying country‘‘ means a country with a reciprocal defense procurement

memorandum of understanding or international agreement with the United States in

which both countries agree to remove barriers to purchases of supplies produced in the

other country or services performed by sources of the other country, and the

memorandum or agreement complies, where applicable, with the requirements of section

36 of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2776) and with 10 U.S.C. 2457. Turkey is

a permanent member of NATO and the WTO and should be abiding by all the

Government Procurement Agreements in effect and that means that solicitations posted

on FEDBIZOPPS spending United States Tax Payer money, using United States Air

Force Personnel, using a United States Federal Procurement system and being conducted

on a website overseen by the United States Government Services Administration should

be available for a United States Veteran Owned Small Business.

Incirlik Air Base is one of dozens of Contingency Operation bases (ATTCH 9)

and it is the only base that the United States Air Force(Not Turkey) creates a barrier to

competition with this 1952 document that now only has the purpose to not tax goods

shipped in for the U.S. Military or to tax services provided. Every other base that the Air

Force is using in a foreign country has a SOFA and Turkey is now part of the same

European Union and none of the Air Force bases in those countries has this outdated

barrier to competition to steer contracts exclusively to Turkish companies.

 

Sincerely,

 
   

Keven L. Barnes CEO Latvian Connection LLC

Latvian Connection LLC

OCTOBER 28, 2013

FA5685-13-T-0045 (B-408913)

ATTACHMENTS

ATTCH 1 WTO AGREEMENT ON GOVERNMENT PROCUREMENT (GPA) ATTCH 2 WTO ¦ Government procurement - Parties and observers to the GPA ATTCH 3 FAC TURKEY fr_2012-D043 REMOVAL OF BARRIERS ATTCH 4 US Trade Market Access Opportunities under GPA ATTCH 5 ARMY TURKEY JOC ( 2012 ) W912GB-13-0008 ATTCH 6 EXPORT.GOV - commitment to increase bilateral trade and investment ( OBAMA - ERDOGAN ) ATTCH 7 EXPORT.GOV and SBA ON TURKEY - US LARGE BUSINESSES STORIES IN TURKEY ATTCH 8 EXPORT.GOV and SBA ON TURKEY ATTCH 9 List_of_Air_Expeditionary_units_of-R ATTCH 10 Doing Business in Turkey _ Embassy of the United States Ankara, Turkey ATTCH 11 ARMY TURKEY JOC ( 2012 ) W912GB-13-0008 ATTCH 12 20--Stevedoring and Related Terminal Services in Turkey - W52P1J-13-R-0160 ATTCH 13 General Services Office _ Embassy of the United States Ankara, Turkey ( LIFE INSURANCE ) ATTCH 14 (RFP) #20130815 BOA+RFP+NTV'S_UAE_ ( NO TURKISH PERSONNEL ) ATTCH 15 Gulf Group

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GOVERNMENT PROCUREMENT

THESE DOCUMENTS ARE WRITTEN AND PERIODICALLY UPDATED BY U.S. GOVERNMENT ATTORNEYS, AS TIME AND RESOURCES PERMIT. PLEASE NOTE THE DATE INDICATED AT THE END OF THE DOCUMENT YOU RETRIEVE AND BE ADVISED THAT THE INFORMATION CONTAINED THEREIN IS CURRENT UP TO THAT DATE.

GOVERNMENT PROCUREMENT

Jean Heilman Grier

I.

OVERVIEW OF GOVERNMENT PROCUREMENT

 

A. Significance of "Government Procurement"

B. International Disciplines on Government Procurement

 

1. Plurilateral: WTO Agreement on Government Procurement.

2. Regional: NAFTA.

3. Bilateral, e.g., procurement agreements with Japan and the EU.

 

C. Pending Negotiations: FTAA, Chile and Singapore Free Trade Agreements

II.

GATT

 
 

A.

Government Procurement Exclusion: Government purchases of goods for their own use are

effectively excluded from the scope of the GATT (A rticle III:8). GATS (Article XIII) provides a similar exclusion for the purchase of services.

B.

State Trading Enterprises : GATT Article XVII provides standards for purchases by state trading

enterprises. This is important for transition economies that are not GPA members.

C.

GATT Agreement on Government Procurement (GATT Code) : Negotiated during Tokyo Round

of Multilateral Trade Negotiations; only 12 signatories (parties to the agreement); entered into force on Jan. 1, 1981, continued in effect through 1996. Required signatories to provide non-discriminatory treatment in the purchase of goods of other signatories.

III.

WTO AGREEMENT ON GOVERNMENT PROCUREMENT (GPA)

A. Plurilateral Agreement under the Agreement Establishing the WTO

1. Negotiated during the Uruguay Round of Multinational Trade Negotiations as a plurilateral

agreement, which means that the GPA applies only to those WTO Members who have explicitly accepted it.

2. 27 Signatories: Canada, the European Union (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France,

Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands (including Aruba), Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom), Hong Kong China, Israel, Japan, Norway, South Korea, Liechtenstein, Singapore, Switzerland and the United States.

3. Entered into force on January 1, 1996 for most signatories (Korea was allowed an

additional year).

http://www.osec.doc.gov/ogc/occic/gpa.htm[3/21/2013 6:51:43 PM]

GOVERNMENT PROCUREMENT

4. Substantial Improvements over the GATT Code

a) Expanded the scope of coverage to services, including construction services,

and sub-central governmental entities and other government entities and enterprises such as public utilities; and imposed stricter procedural disciplines on the signatories.

b) Opened an estimated $350 billion annually in government contracts to

international bidding, an approximate 10-fold increase over contracts subject to the GATT Code.

B. Scope and Coverage

1. Coverage: Each signatory negotiated coverage on a reciprocal, bilateral basis with the

other signatories of the GPA.

2. Application of the GPA to a Specific Procurement : The GPA applies when the following

four elements exist:

a) The country involved is a signatory of the GPA;

b) The entity conducting the procurement is covered by the GPA;

c) The particular procurement is covered by the GPA; and

d) The value of the procurement is within the GPA threshold.

3. Entities Covered by the GPA : Each signatory specifies its covered entities in its annexes to

the GPA.

a) Central government entities are listed in Annex 1.

b) Sub-central government entities are listed in Annex 2. (The United States

covers 37 states.)

c) Other government entities (government-owned enterprises) are listed in Annex

3. (The United States covers entities such as Tennessee Valley Authority.)

4. Modification of Coverage: Signatories may withdraw entities from GPA coverage on the

grounds that "government control or influence over it has been effectively eliminated." Other signatories may object within 30 days of notification. Article XXIV:6

5. Types of procurements covered by the GPA

a) Goods

b) Services, including construction services, as described in Annexes 4 and 5 for

each signatory. Most signatories use a positive list, which means that only the services listed in their annexes are subject to GPA procurement disciplines. The United States uses a negative list, listing only those services that it does not cover.

c) Exceptions: Each signatory negotiated the exclusion of certain procurements

from GPA obligations, which are noted in its Annexes.

6. Thresholds (Value of the procurement)

http://www.osec.doc.gov/ogc/occic/gpa.htm[3/21/2013 6:51:43 PM]

GOVERNMENT PROCUREMENT

a) The GPA does not apply to every procurement of the covered entities.

Coverage depends on whether the value of the procurement is at or above the GPA threshold. Thresholds differ depending on the type of procurement and level of government making the purchase.

b) Thresholds are stated in terms of the IMF's accounting unit of Special

Drawing Rights (SDRs). (The dollar values used below were set on March 1, 2000 and will remain valid until March 2002).

c) Central government entities

(i) 130,000 SDRs (US $177,000) for procurements of goods and

services; and

(ii) 5 million SDRs (US $6,806,000) for procurements of

construction services.

d) Sub-central government entities

(i) 200,000 SDRs for goods and services, except for the United

States and Canada which apply a 355,000 SDR (US $483,000) threshold; and

(ii) 5 million SDRs (US $6,806,000) for construction services,

except for Japan and the South Korea, which apply a 15 million SDRs threshold.

e) Government-owned enterprises

(i) 400,000 SDRs (US $545,000) for goods and services, except that

the United States applies a $250,000 threshold for federally owned utilities; and

(ii) 5 million SDRs (US $6,806,000) for construction services,

except for Japan and Korea, which apply a threshold of 15 million SDRs.

C. Fundamental Obligations Regarding Nondiscriminatory Treatment

1. Nondiscriminatory Treatment: The cornerstone of the GPA is the requirement that goods,

services and service suppliers of signatories must be given non-discriminatory treatment. Signatories must treat goods, services and service suppliers of other signatories no less favorably than their own goods, services and service suppliers (national treatment) or those of other signatories (MFN) in competing for contracts for government purchases covered by the GPA. Article III

2. Custom duties, import regulations and other aspects of market access or of regulation of

trade in goods and services are governed by relevant GATT and GATS rules, not by the GPA. Article III:3

3. Offsets: The GPA prohibits government entities from considering, seeking or imposing

"offsets" as a condition for award of contracts, unless a signatory country has specifically negotiated an exception to this obligation. "Offsets" are measures used to encourage local development or improve the balance-of-payments accounts by means of domestic content,

http://www.osec.doc.gov/ogc/occic/gpa.htm[3/21/2013 6:51:43 PM]

GOVERNMENT PROCUREMENT

licensing of technology, investment requirements, counter-trade or similar requirements. Article XVI

D. Obligations Regarding Procurement Procedures

1. Procedural Requirements: To ensure that the signatories apply the basic principles of the

GPA, the Agreement sets out detailed operational rules for the procurement process. These cover the nature of the technical specifications to be applied, tendering procedures, qualification of suppliers, publication of invitations to participate in procurements, selection procedures, time limits for tendering, the provision of tender documentation, the receipt and opening of tenders, procedures for the award of contracts, negotiations with tenderers, limited tendering, publication of awards and provision of information on why tenders have not been successful.

2. Notice: The procuring entity must publish a notice of a procurement in one the official

languages of the WTO (English, French, or Spanish).

3. Tendering Procedures: Three types of procedures that may be used (Article VII):

a) Open tendering: All interested suppliers may submit a tender.

b) Selective tendering: Only suppliers invited by the procuring entity may

submit tenders.

c) Limited tendering (also known as single tendering or sole sourcing):

Procuring entity may contact suppliers individually under specified conditions.

4. Technical Specifications: The GPA prohibits the adoption or application of technical

specifications whose purpose or effect is to create unnecessary obstacles to trade. Where

appropriate, technical specifications must be based on performance rather than design, and on

international or national standards.

specifications from a supplier that may have a commercial interest in the procurement, if such advice would impede competition. Article VI

Entities may not seek or accept advice in the preparation of

5. Qualification of Suppliers: Conditions for participation must be limited to those "essential

to ensure the firm's capability to fulfill the contract." Article VIII

6. Information for Prospective Suppliers: Notice of procurement, etc. Article IX

7. Time Limits for Tendering and Delivery : Time period must be "adequate." Article XI

8. Award of Contract s: Contracts must be awarded to suppliers who offer the lowest price or

most advantageous tender based on various criteria such as quality, technical merit, delivery costs and price. Article XIII

9. Post-Award Information : Entities must publish post-award notice within 72 days of

awarding the contract, and provide an unsuccessful supplier, upon request, with an explanation as to why its tender was not selected. Article XVIII

E. Exceptions. As with the GATT and the GATS, each signatory has specified certain exceptions to its

coverage (Article XXIII) .

1. National Security: Provision applies to actions necessary for protection of essential

security interests relating to the procurement of arms, ammunition or war materials, or to procurement indispensable for national security or for national defense purposes.

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GOVERNMENT PROCUREMENT

2. General Exceptions: Provision applies to measures necessary to protect public morals,

order or safety; protect human, animal or plant life or health; protect intellectual property; or relating to the products or services of handicapped persons, of philanthropic institutions or of prison labor.

F. Dispute Settlement

1. Bid Challenge System (for suppliers): The GPA requires all signatories to establish a bid

challenge system to enable suppliers that believe a procuring entity has not fulfilled its GPA obligations to pursue a complaint with that entity. Signatories are required to set up "non- discriminatory, timely, transparent and effective procedures" for that purpose, using a court or other impartial and independent review body. The procedures must provide for correction of a breach of the Agreement or compensation for loss or damages suffered. These procedures are entirely separate from the WTO dispute settlement procedures. Article XX

2. WTO Dispute Settlement Procedures (for governments) Article XXII

a) The WTO dispute settlement procedures apply if a signatory to the GPA

makes a formal complaint that benefits due to it are being nullified or impaired because of another signatory's measure or failure to live up to its obligations.

b) Cross retaliation between the GPA and other WTO agreements is prohibited.

That means that nullification or impairment of benefits under the GPA may not be used as justification for suspending other WTO commitments, nor may procurement concessions be withdrawn to balance injury under another WTO agreement.

G. Accession to GPA

1. Any WTO Member may accede to the GPA "on terms to be agreed between that

government and the Parties" to the GPA. Article XXIV:2

2. GPA signatories evaluate the national procurement legislation of the government that is

seeking accession to ensure that it is consistent with the GPA's procedural and substantive requirements.

3. Acceding countries submit a list of entities that they intend to cover under GPA. This offer

forms the basis for bilateral negotiations between the acceding country and interested GPA signatories on the scope and coverage of the acceding member.

4. The accession process has ordinarily taken between 14 months and 2 years to complete.

H. Oversight of Operation of GPA: The Committee on Government Procurement oversees the operation

of the GPA. While the Committee operates within the institutional framework of the WTO and is required to keep the General Council (the body responsible for management of the WTO) informed of its activities, the Committee is not strictly a subsidiary of the General Council.

IV. WTO TRANSPARENCY IN GOVERNMENT PROCUREMENT INITIATIVE

A. Establishment of Working Group: The WTO established a Working Group on Transparency in

Government Procurement in December 1996 to "conduct a study on transparency in government procurement practices, taking into account national policies, and, based on this study, to develop elements" of an agreement on transparency in government procurement.

http://www.osec.doc.gov/ogc/occic/gpa.htm[3/21/2013 6:51:43 PM]

GOVERNMENT PROCUREMENT

B. Scope: The aim is to develop a multilateral agreement that would impose transparency obligations, but

not market access obligations, on all WTO members. If such an agreement were concluded, the WTO members could maintain "buy national" or other purchasing restrictions.

For further information, please contact:

Adam Bobrow Attorney-Advisor

Tel:

E-mail: occic@doc.gov

Adam Bobrow Attorney-Advisor Tel: E-mail: occic@doc.gov 202-482-0937 Websites: Office of the Chief Counsel for

202-482-0937

Websites:

Office of the Chief Counsel for International Commerce: http://www.ogc.doc.gov/intl_comm_home.html WTO: http://www.wto.org/

September 2001

http://www.osec.doc.gov/ogc/occic/gpa.htm[3/21/2013 6:51:43 PM]

WTO ¦ Government procurement - Parties and observers to the GPA

 

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GOVERNMENT PROCUREMENT: THE PLURILATERAL AGREEMENT ON GOVERNMENT PROCUREMENT (GPA)

   
 

Parties and observers to the GPA

     
 

The Committee on Government Procurement comprises the Parties to the Agreement as well as observers.

 
           

Click the + to open an item.

Parties to the Agreement

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Government

             

procurement

       

Most Parties have been bound by the Agreement since its entry into force on 1 January 1996. For some, it entered into force at a later date. Some Parties have joined the Agreement by way of accession.

     
             
 

Parties

           
   

Date of entry into

     
   

force/accession

     
             

Armenia

 

15 September 2011

     

Canada

1 January 1996

     

European Union with regard to its 27 member States:

         

1

January 1996

     

Parties & Observers

Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland,

       

France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxemburg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom

         

Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary,

1

May 2004

     

Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovak

         

Republic and Slovenia

         

Bulgaria and Romania

 

1 January 2007

     
 

19 June 1997

     

Hong Kong , China Iceland

28 April 2001 1 January 1996

     

Israel

1 January 1996

     

Japan Korea Liechtenstein the Netherlands with respect to Aruba Norway Singapore

1 January 1997 18 September 1997 25 October 1996 1 January 1996 20 October 1997 1 January 1996

     

Switzerland Chinese Taipei United States

15 July 2009 1 January 1996

     
             
             
           

Observers — WTO Members

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Observer government

Date of acceptance by committee as

     
 

Albania *

observers 2 October 2001

     
 

Argentina

24 February 1997

     
 

Australia

4 June 1996

     
 

Bahrain

9 December 2008

     

http://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/gproc_e/memobs_e.htm[3/21/2013 6:32:48 PM]

WTO ¦ Government procurement - Parties and observers to the GPA

Cameroon Chile China * Colombia Croatia Georgia * India Indonesia Jordan * Kyrgyz Republic * Malaysia Moldova * Mongolia Montenegro New Zealand * Oman * Panama * Saudi Arabia Sri Lanka Turkey Ukraine * Viet Nam

3 May 2001 29 September 1997 21 February 2002 27 February 1996 5 October 1999 5 October 1999 10 February 2010 31 October 2012 8 March 2000 5 October 1999 18 July 2012 29 September 2000 23 February 1999 31 October 2012 9 December 2008 3 May 2001 29 September 1997 13 December 2007 23 April 2003 4 June 1996 25 February 2009 5 December 2012

* negotiating accession.

Observers — International intergovernmental organizations back to top

How to become an observer?

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Article XVII of the Agreement on Government Procurement establishes basic transparency requirements for becoming an observer to the Agreement. The process of becoming an observer is set out by a Decision of the Committee on Government Procurement GPA/1, Annex 1 .

process of becoming an observer is set out b y a Decision of the Committee on

The World Trade Organization (WTO) deals with the global rules of trade between nations. Its main function is to ensure that trade flows as smoothly, predictably and freely as possible.

http://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/gproc_e/memobs_e.htm[3/21/2013 6:32:48 PM]

Market Access Opportunities under the GPA

Market Access Opportunities under the GPA Jean Heilman Grier Senior Procurement Negotiator Office of the U.S.

Jean Heilman Grier Senior Procurement Negotiator Office of the U.S. Trade Representative

Historical Perspective

Historical Perspective Government procurement excluded in first 30 years of multinational trading system. First

Government procurement excluded in first 30 years of multinational trading system.

First government procurement agreement (GATT Code on Government Procurement) in 1981.

Limited to goods purchased by central government entities.

Expansion with establishment of WTO/GPA in 1996 to include:

Services

Sub-central government entities

Government enterprises (and other entities)

Benefits of Market Access under GPA

Benefits of Market Access under GPA Government procurement generally constitutes 10-15% of GDP. Access to wide

Government procurement generally constitutes 10-15% of GDP.

Access to wide variety of market access opportunities in government procurement of 41 WTO Members.

Assures foreign suppliers of ability to participate in procurement on same basis as domestic suppliers.

A U.S. law generally prohibits federal agencies from purchasing goods or services covered by the GPA from any country that is not a Party to the GPA or an FTA.

That means that non-GPA Parties do not have access to U.S. federal procurement covered by GPA – more than $800 billion in

2007.

GPA Market Access:

Balances Interests
Balances Interests

Balances interests of governments and suppliers

Governments

 

Not expected to open all procurement

Specify the procurement to be opened to foreign suppliers

Covered procurement reflects differences in government structures

Suppliers

Certainty that they will be given fair market access opportunities

Participation facilitated by increased use of electronic procurement

Annex 1 - Central Government:

Scope of Coverage
Scope of Coverage

Annex 1 coverage based on:

Positive lists (Most Parties specify entities covered) Description/category coverage

Executive/Administrative

Parties cover all or most central government entities.

Judiciary

Several Parties cover courts

Legislature

Several Parties cover legislative bodies

Central Government Entities:

Market Access under GPA
Market Access under GPA

EC: 2 EU-wide entities and entities for each Member State

More than 100 entities: Norway and Switzerland

75 to 85 entities: Canada and United States

40 to 60 entities: Hong Kong China and Korea

20 to 25 entities: Japan and Singapore

Less than 10 entities: Aruba, Iceland, and Liechtenstein

Annex 2 - Sub-central Entities:

Approaches to Coverage
Approaches to Coverage

Two approaches to GPA coverage of sub-central entities

 

Positive list of specific entities

Coverage by sectors not listing of entities

Type of coverage depends on governmental structure

Centralized procurement systems

Federal systems

Sub-central Entities:

Market Access under GPA
Market Access under GPA

Listing of entities

 

Israel: 3 entities

Japan: all prefectures plus large cities

Korea: 15 sub-central entities including large cities

Switzerland: 26 Cantons

United States: 37 states

Coverage by definition

EC, Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway

Annex 3 - Government Enterprises and Other Entities:

Approaches to Market Access
Approaches to Market Access

Two approaches to GPA market access to procurement of government enterprises and other entities

Listing of specific entities

Coverage by sectors with no listing of entities (or partial listing)

Government Enterprises and Other Entities:

Market Access under GPA
Market Access under GPA

Coverage of specific entities

 

More than 130 entities: Japan

10 to 25 entities: Israel, Korea, Singapore and United States

Less than 10 entities: Hong Kong China and Aruba

Coverage by sectors

EC, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland

Sectors covered: electricity, urban transport, airports ports and water.

Access to Procurement of Goods under GPA

Access to Procurement of Goods under GPA Goods Basic premise: all goods are covered, unless explicitly

Goods

Basic premise: all goods are covered, unless explicitly excluded

Access to procurement of defense goods generally based on positive list

Access to Procurement of Services under GPA

Access to Procurement of Services under GPA Services (and Construction Services) Positive list that provides access

Services (and Construction Services)

Positive list that provides access only to listed services

Used by all Parties except United States

Negative list that provides access to all services except those listed

Only used by the United States

Z--Turkey Job Order Contract (JOC) FY2013 - W912GB-13-R-0008 (Archived) - Federal

Page 1 of 3

- W912GB-13- R -0008 (Archived) - Federal Page 1 of 3 Welcome, Business Development Officer Accessibility
- W912GB-13- R -0008 (Archived) - Federal Page 1 of 3 Welcome, Business Development Officer Accessibility

Welcome, Business Development Officer

Accessibility

Z--Turkey Job Order Contract (JOC) FY2013

Solicitation Number: W912GB-13-R-0008 Agency: Department of the Army Office: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Location: USACE District, Wiesbaden

N o t i c e D e t a i l s Packages Interested

Notice Details

Packages

Interested Vendors List

N o t i c e D e t a i l s Packages Interested Vendors

Note: There have been modifications to this notice. To view the most recent modification/amendment, click here

Complete View

Original Synopsis Presolicitation Nov 19, 2012 2:15 am

Changed Jan 04, 2013 9:17 am Solicitation

Changed Jan 07, 2013 4:59 am

Changed Jan 31, 2013 7:28 am

Changed Feb 01, 2013 7:35 am

Changed Feb 15, 2013 8:10 am

Return To Opportunities List

Solicitation Number:

Notice Type:

W912GB-13-R-0008

Solicitation

Synopsis:

Added: Nov 19, 2012 2:15 am The U.S. Government is soliciting interest for an indefinite delivery, indefinite quantity (IDIQ) Job Order Contract (JOC). The purpose of this indefinite delivery, indefinite quantity (IDIQ) this Job Order Contract (JOC) is to acquire real property repair, maintenance, minor construction, and/or asbestos abatement. Use of the JOC will provide the Government with a construction product delivery method that can accommodate quick and straight-forward projects, as well as some small but complex projects, and can help minimize design effort and related overhead expenditures, as well as handle compressed schedules. This work includes, but is not limited to, incidental new minor construction, excavation, plumbing, demolition, electrical, structural, mechanical, concrete work, force protection, and environmental remediation work. Each project task ordered awarded under a Job Order Contract is normally comprised of a number of pre-described and pre-packed tasks as described in each Task Order and the Unit Price Book. The geographical area covered by this contract includes work in Turkey in direct support of the U.S. Government, U.S. Department of Defense Facilities, U.S. Forces, and other U.S. facilities located throughout Turkey. Some work not to exceed 15% may be performed outside these locations. The Government reserves the right to issue additional solicitations and award additional contracts within the region covered by this solicitation. a. PERFORMANCE PERIOD:

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Z--Turkey Job Order Contract (JOC) FY2013 - W912GB-13-R-0008 (Archived) - Federal

Page 2 of 3

One base year and four (4) option periods not to exceed 365 days each.

b. MAXIMUM CONTRACT VALUE:

$30,000,000 for the life of contract with an estimated annual amount of $6,000,000 and not-to-exceed $25,000,000 in any one period.

c. MINIMUM GUARANTEE:

The minimum guarantee amount is $5,000 for the base period and all option

periods.

d. TASK ORDER LIMITATIONS:

The minimum task order is $2,000 and the maximum task order is $1,000,000 (reference clause 52.216-19). On a case-by-case basis the Contracting Officer has the authority to issue task orders that may exceed the maximum task order limit, but not exceeding the amount of sustainment, restoration, and modernization (SRM) authority delegated to the installation by the ACOM and/or HQDA. Any interested parties are encouraged to submit their company name, mailing address and telephone, fax number and e-mail address of an English speaking contact no later than 10 December 2012 to Contract Specialist:

Raquel Blankenhorn at, e-mail: Raquel.O.Blankenhorn@usace.army.mil, telephone number: +49(0)611 816 2372 and Abraham Curry at, e-mail:

Abraham.Curry@usace.army.mil and Wendy Fields at, e-mail:

Wendy.D.Fields@usace.army.mil. You will be informed when and where you may obtain a copy of the solicitation documents as well as details on any potential site visit. Solicitation will be issued on or about the week of 04 January 2013. Solicitation cancellation with no obligation to the Government- quote mark Note to offerors: The Government reserves the right to cancel the solicitation, either before or after the proposal opening with no obligation to the offeror by the Government. quote mark

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Classifica Z -- Maint alteration

NAICS C 238 -- Spe Contracto Specialty

Please consult the list of document viewers if you cannot open a file. Solicitation 1
Please consult the list of document viewers if you cannot open a file.
Solicitation 1
Type: Solicitation
Posted Date: January 4, 2013
https://acquisition.army.mil/asfi/solicitation_view
Description: See Solicitation
Amendment 1 Type: Mod/Amendment Posted Date: January 7, 2013 https://acquisition.army.mil/asfi/solicitation_view
Amendment 1
Type: Mod/Amendment
Posted Date: January 7, 2013
https://acquisition.army.mil/asfi/solicitation_view
Description: See Solicitation

Z--Turkey Job Order Contract (JOC) FY2013 - W912GB-13-R-0008 (Archived) - Federal

Page 3 of 3

- W912GB-13- R -0008 (Archived) - Federal Page 3 of 3 Amendment 2 Type: Mod/Amendment Posted
- W912GB-13- R -0008 (Archived) - Federal Page 3 of 3 Amendment 2 Type: Mod/Amendment Posted
Amendment 2 Type: Mod/Amendment Posted Date: January 31, 2013 https://acquisition.army.mil/asfi/solicitation_view
Amendment 2
Type: Mod/Amendment
Posted Date: January 31, 2013
https://acquisition.army.mil/asfi/solicitation_view
Description: See Solicitation
Amendment 3 Type: Mod/Amendment Posted Date: February 1, 2013 https://acquisition.army.mil/asfi/solicitation_view
Amendment 3
Type: Mod/Amendment
Posted Date: February 1, 2013
https://acquisition.army.mil/asfi/solicitation_view
Description: See Solicitation
Amendment 4 Type: Mod/Amendment Posted Date: February 15, 2013 https://acquisition.army.mil/asfi/solicitation_view
Amendment 4
Type: Mod/Amendment
Posted Date: February 15, 2013
https://acquisition.army.mil/asfi/solicitation_view
Description: See Solicitation
Contracting Office Address:

USACE District, Europe, CMR 410 BOX 7, APO, AE 09096

Place of Performance:

USACE District, Europe CMR 410 BOX 7, APO AE

09096

DE

Point of Contact(s):

RAQUEL BLANKENHORN, 061197442372

User Guide

USACE District, Europe

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For Help: Federal Service Desk

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10/21/13

Export.gov- U.S-Turkish Business Development

10/21/13 Export.gov- U.S-Turkish Business Development U.S.–Turkish Business Development Turkey, a long standing

U.S.–Turkish Business Development

Turkey, a long standing political and military partner of the United States and a key NATO ally, is becoming an increasingly important business destination for American companies. In 2011 and into 2012, there is increasing positive momentum in the U.S.– Turkish business relationship. Chevron and Exxon Mobil have conducted both seismic and drilling operations in the Black Sea; GE Transportation began production and marketing of its Fasttrain (High Speed Train) locomotive in Eskisehir; Boeing has increased market share with Turkish Airlines and smaller carriers; Cummins and Pratt and Whitney announced new investments in Izmir; and Sikorsky was selected by the Turkish government in a closely watched $3.5 billion tender for utility helicopters. The American Business Forum in Turkey, the American Turkish Council, and the Turkish American Businessmen’s Association maintain active programming in support of U.S.–Turkish business development.

President Obama’s April 2009 visit to Turkey – on his first overseas trip – emphasized the importance of closer commercial ties between our two countries. The U.S. and Turkish governments created the Framework for Strategic Economic and Commercial Cooperation (FSECC), a Cabinet-level body to lay out a long-term roadmap for enhanced bilateral trade and investment while resolving key issues impacting businesses. The U.S.-Turkish Business Council, comprised of twenty American and Turkish businesses, will make policy recommendations to the FSECC to ensure a strong private sector voice to G2G discussions. The Trade and Investment Framework Agreement talks, the Energy Working Group, and the Economic Partnership Commission also support this overall effort through ongoing dialogue on bilateral economic issues. The first meeting of the FSECC in Washington in October 2010 yielded a number of tangible results, and future meetings are planned in 2012.

For more information on government to government efforts to increase U.S.-Turkish trade and investment, please contact Kristin Najdi, Turkey Desk Officer, Office of Market Access and Compliance, U.S. Department of Commerce at Kristin.Najdi@trade.gov

U.S. Energy Efficiency Projects in Turkey

Fact Sheet: DOE Near-Zero Zone Project in TurkeyU.S. Energy Efficiency Projects in Turkey WASHINGTON -The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), in

WASHINGTON-The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), in coordination with other U.S. agencies, is launching the Near-Zero Zone project, a demonstration project for industrial energy efficiency in Turkey. This interagency project, which has the support of the Turkish government and business organizations, will help industrial companies operating within the Izmir Ataturk Organized Industrial Zone (IAOSB) to reduce their energy intensity through a series of cost- effective efficiency upgrades. The project aims to demonstrate the impact that reducing energy consumption can have on companies’ profitability, promote bilateral trade and investment, and serve as a replicable model for companies and industrial zones throughout Turkey.

Background on the NEAR-ZERO ZONE Project

Turkey’s economy is nearly twice as energy intensive as the OECD average and its industrial sector accounts for nearly 40 percent of its total energy consumption. The Near-Zero Zone project is meant to support Turkey’s goals to reduce its industrial energy intensity while supporting Turkey’s broader energy objectives, including reducing its reliance on energy imports, bolstering its energy security, and decreasing greenhouse gas emissions.

The IAOSB zone was selected to host the project for three primary reasons. First, with over 500 companies operating onsite, the zone provides opportunities to work with companies of varying sizes and diverse industries, enhancing the project’s reach. Second, all of the zone’s utilities – including electricity, heat, and wastewater treatment – are provided by the zone management company, further enhancing the energy efficiency opportunities in the zone. Finally, IAOSB is located near one of Turkey’s largest ports and in a region with significant renewable energy potential, amplifying the potential for related bilateral trade and investment.

DOE will work with U.S. agencies including State, Commerce, Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC), US Trade and Development Agency (TDA) and Export-Import Bank on this project. In addition to support from the U.S. and Turkish governments, additional participants may include European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) and TURSEFF, an entity composed of four Turkish banks (Vakifbank, Akbank, Garanti Bank and Deniz Bank), as well as a number of private companies.

Key components of the Near-Zero Zone project will include:

Baseline Energy Audit: ORNL, a DOE national lab, is expected to conduct a preliminary energy audit for : ORNL, a DOE national lab, is expected to conduct a preliminary energy audit for the participating companies. The audit will measure current energy usage and identify areas in which energy consumption can be reduced. This baseline data will ultimately be compared to data gathered at the project’s conclusion to determine the impact of the energy efficiency measures.

Technical Assessments: For the IAOSB zone management company and approximately 20 participating companies, experts will develop : For the IAOSB zone management company and approximately 20 participating companies, experts will develop detailed studies of their energy consumption and issue recommendations on cost-effective energy efficiency measures. Each recommendation developed will include the cost of implementation and the potential impact on profitability so that companies can make business-motivated decisions. TDA and OPIC are expected to finance up to twenty technical assessments. Other financial sources may become available to fund additional technical assessments.

Energy Efficiency Upgrades: Based on the recommendations developed in the experts’ technical assessments, the zone management and : Based on the recommendations developed in the experts’ technical assessments, the zone management and companies will be provided with information on appropriate equipment and service suppliers. The U.S. Commerce Department will provide direct access to a number of equipment and service suppliers through a trade delegation scheduled for autumn 2011. Companies will also be introduced to various lenders – including EBRD, TURSEFF, OPIC, Ex-Im and others – and offered financing options from which they can choose based on their business needs.

Energy Efficiency Results: After the IAOSB management company and other participating companies implement the energy efficiency measures they After the IAOSB management company and other participating companies implement the energy efficiency measures they feel will enhance their productivity and profitability, an assessment of the project’s impact on energy consumption will be completed. DOE has requested that Turkish business organizations disseminate the findings to their member companies through whatever means they believe will have the greatest impact. This is intended to make companies across Turkey aware of the positive effect that energy efficiency can have on their bottom line.

Replicability: The project is intended to promote the adoption of similar energy efficiency measures by companies The project is intended to promote the adoption of similar energy efficiency measures by companies and industrial zones elsewhere in Turkey. Given the strong presence of Turkish firms in Central Asia, the Middle East and Europe, this project may also help create opportunities for industrial energy efficiency in those regions.

Project Timeline:

10/21/13

Export.gov- U.S-Turkish Business Development

Winter 2011: Conduct initial energy audit : Conduct initial energy audit

Spring/Summer 2011: Prepare technical studies and issue recommendations : Prepare technical studies and issue recommendations

Fall 2011: Present companies in the zone with equipment/service and financing options Present companies in the zone with equipment/service and financing options

Winter/Spring/Summer 2012: Implement efficiency upgrades

Fall 2012: Complete final assessment and disseminate project results Complete final assessment and disseminate project results

Who Wins: This pilot project represents a ‘win-win’ for Turkish and American companies, as well as the U.S. and Turkish governments. On the Turkish side, companies would benefit directly from U.S. technologies, financing, and associated reductions in energy costs while the government would benefit from the sharing of best practices and reduction in industrial sector energy consumption. On the U.S. side, companies would be able to provide equipment and services to up to 500 companies in the industrial zone, as well as to establish a strong foothold in Turkey’s growing energy efficiency and clean energy markets. Meanwhile, the USG would make significant progress in advancing President Obama and Prime Minister Erdogan’s shared commitment to increase bilateral trade and investment.

Contact Info: For more information, please contact Merryl Burpoe (merryl.burpoe@hq.doe.gov; 202.586.5154) or Ilan Stein (ilan.stein@hq.doe.gov), (202.586.9925) at the U.S. Department of Energy.

10/21/13

Export.gov- Success Stories

10/21/13 Export.gov- Success Stories U.S. Companies in Turkey: Success Stories 2010-2011 This is the first in
10/21/13 Export.gov- Success Stories U.S. Companies in Turkey: Success Stories 2010-2011 This is the first in

U.S. Companies in Turkey: Success Stories 2010-2011

This is the first in an occasional series of profiles on U.S.-Turkish business success stories

U.S. and Turkish firms have generally proven very successful in a range of business and sectors, including agent/distributor relationships, joint venture partners, and other representation arrangements. Small, medium and large size American firms have made strong and lasting partnerships with qualified Turkish firms. A selected overview is provided below:

The world's leading aerospace company, Boeing is a principal manufacturer of commercial jetliners and military aircraft. Boeing exports to over 90 countries worldwide with some 160,000 employees both domestic and offshore. Dating back to the delivery of the first DC-3/C-47 aircraft to Turkish Airlines in 1945, the Turkish-Boeing relationship continues to lead technological innovation, industrial partnerships, education, arts and culture, human services and international investment in Turkey.

Today Boeing collaborates with Turkish aerospace industries in commercial and military aviation programs, such as the Peace Eagle and 787, to grow local capabilities and provide secure, high-value jobs. “Today we are not only a provider of commercial airplanes to the airlines of Turkey and a supplier to the Turkish armed forces but we have become a trusted partner of the Turkish aerospace industry and a good Corporate citizen of Turkey with more than 70 education programs in 30 cities that have helped educate over 125,000 students in the past 10 years alone," said Greg Pepin, President of Boeing Turkey. More at: http://www.boeing.com/

Chevron is one of the world's largest integrated energy companies and recently acquired a 50 percent interest in a western portion of Black Sea License 3921, an 8,700 square mile (22,505 square km) offshore block located 220 miles (350 km) northwest of the capital city of Ankara. Türkiye Petrolleri Anonim Ortaklığı (TPAO) holds the remaining 50 percent interest in the license. TPAO was the operator of the initial exploratory well which was drilled in 2010. Future exploratory activities are currently being reviewed by the partnership. TPAO would also be the operator of a second exploratory well and Chevron would become operator during any future development phase of the project. Chevron’s other interests in Turkey include marine transportation and pipeline operations. More at: http://www.chevron.com/

Cummins, a US-based designer and manufacturer of diesel and natural gas engines, has announced an investment plan to establish a production base in Izmir, Turkey. The roughly 70 million Greenfield investments involve the production of filters for motor vehicles as well as generators. Cummins’ establishment of a production plant in Turkey will create roughly 800 jobs over five years, while roughly 85 percent of the manufactured goods will be exported. The company aims to utilize Turkey’s favorable geographical location for easy access to markets in surrounding countries. More at:

ExxonMobil affiliates and predecessor companies had continuous business involvement in Turkey for more than 100 years. ExxonMobil is involved in the upstream sector in the deepwater Kastamonu, Samsun, and Sinop sub-blocks offshore Black Sea, Turkey. ExxonMobil has a 50 percent interest in the Kastamonu and Samsun sub-blocks and the Turkish national oil company TPAO has the remaining 50 percent. ExxonMobil also has a 25 percent interest in the Sinop sub-block, with Petrobras having 25 percent and TPAO having the remaining 50 percent.

ExxonMobil has contracted a world-class drillship called the Deepwater Champion (DWC) for use in ultra-deepwater areas like the Black Sea. DWC has arrived in the Black Sea and is expected drill the first ExxonMobil operated well in the Turkish Black Sea in the 2Q2011. ExxonMobil also produces and sells a wide range of finished lubricants in Turkey. More at: http://www.exxonmobil.com/Corporate/

Ford Otosan is currently investing an additional USD 630 million in its existing factory in the northwestern province of Kocaeli. With this investment, Ford Otomotiv will start producing new generation Transit vans in Turkey. According to Turkey’s Automotive Industry Exporters’ Association, in the first nine months of 2010, the total volume of car exports rose by 19.3 (for passenger car) percent compared to the previous year, to USD 11.6 billion from USD 10.2 billion a year earlier. Nearly 561,000 vehicles were exported from Turkey in the first nine months of the year, which represents an annual rise of 28.9 percent. More at: http://www.fordotosan.com.tr/

GE Transportation, a unit of General Electric Company (NYSE: GE), and Tülomsaş have reached a significant milestone in their partnership with the assembly of the first GE PowerHaul™ in Eskişehir, Turkey. Under the terms of agreement established with the signing of the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) in 2008, GE has provided Tülomsaş with the necessary technology and material to assemble GE’s PowerHaul series locomotives in Turkey for the European, Middle East and North African markets. Lorenzo Simonelli, President and CEO of GE Transportation said: “We're investing in Turkey because of its strategic proximity to the customers we wish to serve and its advanced technology and manufacturing skills. Finally, we hope to leverage GE’s longstanding expertise and global reach to be a true partner in the economic development of the country.” Although the locomotive will function exclusively under a test program for the next year, GE and Tülomsaş also will continue to work collectively to expand market opportunities throughout the region. More at:

Goodrich Corporation (NYSE: GR) and Turk Technic, Inc. have signed all appropriate agreements related to the formation of a joint venture company to provide maintenance, repair and overhaul (MRO) services in Istanbul, Turkey. The facility will initially employ about 20 people with plans to expand to more than 70 employees within 10 years. The facility is expected to be operational early in the third quarter 2011. The Goodrich Turkish Technic Service Center will meet the needs of Turkish Airlines by providing a local maintenance solution for the airline's growing fleet. More at: http://www.goodrich.com/Goodrich

Hilton Worldwide has had a presence in Turkey since 1955, with the iconic Hilton Istanbul. Hilton Worldwide has nominated Turkey as a strategic development market for the growth of its multiple brand portfolios and sees opportunities in major city locations, such as Istanbul; regional centers; and coastal resorts. Across the country, recent openings have included the DoubleTree by Hilton Istanbul – Old Town; as well as Hilton Garden Inn Konya; and DoubleTree by Hilton Avanos – Cappadocia. According to a senior Hilton Worldwide representative, Turkey is one of the leading countries in Hilton's strategic global growth plans. More at: http://www.hiltonworldwide.com/

International Electronic Machines (IEM) is the leader in hardy instrumentation design with its unique multispectral imaging and sensor solutions. The company specializes in integrated systems development ranging from custom design of specific cameras, optics, and sensors, to specific software solutions for safety or security monitoring. With the help of the US Commercial Service in Turkey, IEM identified a Turkish partner, with whom it was able to bid on projects of the Turkish State Railways (TCDD). With continual advocacy assistance, IEM signed an agreement with the Turkish State Railways (TCDD) receiving their first contract with the IZBAN Railway to supply and install a state of-the-art transit railway monitoring system. Partnering with companies

10/21/13

Export.gov- Success Stories

both domestic and abroad, founder Zack Mian has worked to expand IEM business in the global market with products in use in over 15 countries, distributing through a dedicated network of 32 countries. More at: http://www.iem.net/

Minnesota-based Mattracks Incorporated produces one of America’s top-ranked track conversion systems, providing vehicles up to 25 thousand pounds with greater floatation mobility, rotation and access to areas with difficult terrain. Mattracks produces 66 different types of durable products for numerous commercial and recreational industries mainly in areas subject to high snowfall. These rubber-track conversion systems and four-wheel drives assist in transporting passengers, supplies, as well as plowing and maintaining winter roads.

Founded by Glen Brazier in 1992 and incorporated three years thereafter, Mattracks’ international sales outside US and Canada have matured from 15% to over 50% between 2000 and 2011 now employing over 40 people from its initial 9 in 1992. The company exports to over 72 countries such as Chile, Kazakhstan, South Africa, China and Russia with buyers on seven continents. With the assistance of the U.S. Commercial Service in Turkey now stands as one of Mattracks’ primary clients with commercial and military buyers. During a U.S. Senate sub-committee hearing, the Mattracks Director of International and Government Sales noted “International sales growth is integral to the Mattracks’ plan for success…these services and resources offered by the Commercial Services locally and around the world have been extremely valuable to the growth of Mattracks’ international business.” The company was awarded the ‘Faces of Trade Award’ in 2009 by the U.S.

Chamber of Commerce recognizing Mattracks’ success and expansion of exports in the international market. More at: http://www.mattracks.com/

Aircraft engine manufacturer Pratt & Whitney and Turkey’s Kale Group have established a joint venture to compliment Pratt & Whitney’s American-based production facilities. Pratt & Whitney, a United Technologies Corp. company, established the joint venture with 51 percent of the shares belonging to the Kale Group. In a separate action by Pratt & Whitney, the company has opened the Turkish Engine Center, located adjacent to the Sabiha Gokcen International Airport in the Anatolian peninsula, as a location for maintenance, repair and overhauls of CFM56 and V2500 engines within the region. More at: http://www.pw.utc.com/

Prepared by Gregory Taevs, Principal Commercial Officer with Juliayn R. Lake

Summer-Fall 2011

Source: US Mission Commercial Service in Ankara, Istanbul and Izmi

Comments and other U.S. success stories welcome to Manoj.Desai@trade.gov

10/21/13

Export.gov- Financing:The Keyto Success in Turkey

10/21/13 Export.gov- Financing:The Keyto Success in Turkey Financing the Export of U.S. Goods and Services Trade

Financing the Export of U.S. Goods and Services

in Turkey Financing the Export of U.S. Goods and Services Trade and project financing in Turkey

Trade and project financing in Turkey can be a deal maker – or breaker – for American firms. For a number of factors, Turkish banks are sometimes hesitant to lend into projects or offer exacting terms and conditions to local importers, thus creating a sweet spot for American exporters and financial institutions. American exporters should come prepared to speak about payment terms when meeting with new Turkish partners and include a full range of options from 30/60/90/120 days credit terms to export credit insurance – an affordable but often overlooked way to secure payment of receivables while mitigating risk. Open account terms are not recommended until Turkish partners have demonstrated an ability to pay in full, on time, and over an extended period.

The U.S. Commercial Service in Turkey maintains strong relationships with local and U.S. banks as well as the U.S. Export-Import Bank, the Overseas Private Investment Corporation and the U.S. Trade and Development Agency to provide finance to qualified American firms helping them to compete and win in Turkey. Our corporate partners, including PNC Bank, Daruma Finance (an agent of M&T Bank), and UPS Capital have a strong presence in the market. PFS Finance also provides trade and project finance. For more information on these programs, contact Gorkem.Yavilioglu@trade.gov

The Export-Import Bank of the United States

The Export-Import Bank of the United States (Ex-Im Bank) is the official export credit agency of the United States. Ex-Im Bank's mission is to assist in financing the export of U.S. goods and services to international markets.

Ex-Im Bank enables U.S. companies — large and small — to turn export opportunities into real sales that helps to maintain and create U.S. jobs and contribute to a stronger national economy.

U.S. jobs and contribute to a stronger national economy. EXIM Master Guarantors in Turkey Overseas Private

Overseas Private Investment Corporation

OPIC is the U.S. Government’s development finance institution. It mobilizes private capital to help solve critical world challenges and in doing so, advances U.S. foreign policy. Because OPIC works with the U.S. private sector, it helps U.S. businesses gain footholds in emerging markets catalyzing revenues, jobs and growth opportunities both at home and abroad. OPIC achieves its mission by providing investors with financing, guarantees, political risk insurance, and support for private equity investment funds.

Faruk Kahraman ofk@accordatlantic.com 113 Barksdale Professional Center Newark, DE 19711 USA www.accordatlantic.com Tel: 302-309-9176 Fax: 302-309-9177 Cell: +90-532-283-8330

U.S. Trade and Development Agency

USTDA Mission Statement is to help companies create U.S. jobs through the export of U.S. goods and services for priority development projects in emerging economies. USTDA links U.S. businesses to export opportunities by funding project planning activities, pilot projects, and reverse trade missions while creating sustainable infrastructure and economic growth in partner countries.

USTDA provides grant funding to overseas project sponsors for the planning of projects that support the development of modern infrastructure and an open trading system. The hallmark of USTDA development assistance has always involved building partnerships between U.S. companies and overseas project sponsors to bring proven private sector solutions to developmental challenges. Contact Verinda Fike at vfike@ustda.gov for more information.

The U.S. Small Business Administration

The U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) dedicates its energy and resources to providing support to small businesses and small-business owners across the nation.

Since its inception nearly sixty years ago, SBA has helped millions of small business owners by providing the financial support, contracts, counseling and other forms of assistance they need to succeed. SBA's programs now include financial and federal contract procurement assistance, management assistance, and specialized outreach to women, minorities and armed forces veterans. SBA also provides loans to victims of natural disasters and specialized advice and assistance in international trade. Go to www.sba.gov for more information.

List of Air Expeditionary units of the United States Air Force

1

List of Air Expeditionary units of the United States Air Force

Air Expeditionary Wings/Groups (AEW/AEG) are a Wing/Group concept used by the United States Air Force. These units are activated under temporary orders by the owning MAJCOM for a specific purpose or mission. Once the subject mission is completed, these units are inactivated.

Air Expeditionary Units

Unit

Shield

Location

Reports

Status

Aircraft

Notes

to

13

AEG

13 AEG Christchurch IAP, New Zealand PACAF     Joint Task Force-Support Forces Antarctica [ 1
   

Joint Task Force-Support Forces Antarctica [1]

16

AEW

16 AEW   USAFE Inactive    
 

Inactive

   

40

AEW

40 AEW Diego Garcia PACAF Inactive B-52 , B-1  

Inactive

 

64

AEG

64 AEG Eskan Village, Saudi Arabia AFCENT Active    

Eskan Village, Saudi Arabia

Active

   

320

AEW

320 AEW Joint Base Anacostia-Bolling , AFDW Inactive    

Inactive

   
 

DC

321

AEW

321 AEW New Al Muthana Air Base , Iraq AFCENT Inactive    

Inactive

   

322

AEG

322 AEG   AFCENT Inactive    
 

Inactive

   

323

AEW

323 AEW Balotesti, Romania USAFE Inactive   Activated from 14 Mar to 30 Apr

Balotesti, Romania

Inactive

 

Activated from 14 Mar to 30 Apr

 

2008.

332

AEW

 

Inactive

 
 

363

AEW

363 AEW Prince Sultan Air Base , Saudi ACC Inactive   Redesignated 363 FTG

ACC

Inactive

 

Redesignated 363 FTG

 

370

370   ACC Inactive    
 

ACC

Inactive

   

376

AEW

376 AEW Transit Center at Manas , AFCENT Active KC-135  

Active

 
 

379

AEW

379 AEW Al-Udeid Air Base , Qatar AFCENT Active KC-135 , C-130  

Active

 

List of Air Expeditionary units of the United States Air Force

2

380

AEW

380 AEW Al Dhafra Air Base , UAE AFCENT Active U-2 , RQ-4 , KC-135 ,

Active

 
 

384

AEW

384 AEW   ACC Inactive    
 

ACC

Inactive

   

385

AEG

 

AMC

Active

   

386

AEW

386 AEW Ali Al Salem Air Base , Kuwait AFCENT Active C-130  

Active

 

387

AEG

387 AEG Kuwait City IAP, Kuwait AFCENT Active    

Active

   

398

AEG

398 AEG   ACC Inactive    
 

ACC

Inactive

   

401

AEW

401 AEW   USAFE Inactive    
 

Inactive

   

404

AEG

404 AEG Ramstein AB , Germany USAFE Active C-130 Supports contingencies for 3 AF

Active

Supports contingencies for 3 AF

405

AEW

405 AEW   ACC Inactive B-1  
 

ACC

Inactive

B-1

 

406

AEW

406 AEW   ACC Inactive    
 

ACC

Inactive

   

407

AEG

407 AEG Ali Air Base , Iraq AFCENT Inactive C-130H  

Inactive

 

409

AEG

[2]

 

Inactive

   

410

AEW

410 AEW   ACC Inactive    
 

ACC

Inactive

   

416

AEG

416 AEG   ACC Inactive    
 

ACC

Inactive

   

432

AEW

432 AEW Creech Air Force Base , Nevada ACC Active MQ-1 , MQ-9  

ACC

Active

 

438

AEW

438 AEW Kabul IAP, Afghanistan AFCENT Active    

Active

   

444

AEW

   

ACC

Inactive

   

447

AEG

447 AEG Iraq USAFE Inactive    

Inactive

   

449

AEG

449 AEG Camp Lemonier , Djibouti USAFE Active    

Active

   

List of Air Expeditionary units of the United States Air Force

3

451

AEW

451 AEW Kandahar Air Base , Afghanistan AFCENT Active HH-60, C-130, A-10  

Active

HH-60, C-130, A-10

 

455

AEW

455 AEW Bagram Air Field , Afghanistan AFCENT Active F-16C  

Active

F-16C

 

457

AEG

457 AEG   AFCENT Inactive    
 

Inactive

   

466

AEG

466 AEG Transit Center at Manas , Kyrgyzstan AFCENT Active    

Active

   

467

AEG

467 AEG Iraq AFCENT Inactive   Inactivated Dec 2011

Inactive

 

Inactivated Dec 2011

484

AEW

484 AEW   ACC Inactive    
 

ACC

Inactive

   

485

AEW

485 AEW Iraq AFCENT Inactive C-130  

Iraq

Inactive

 

486

AEW

486 AEW   ACC Inactive C-130  
 

ACC

Inactive

 

487

AEW

487 AEW   ACC Inactive    
 

ACC

Inactive

   

506

AEG

506 AEG Joint Base Balad , Iraq AFCENT Inactive C-130  

Inactive

 

651

AEG

[3]

Active

Activated 29 June 2011

References

[1] 13AF Public Affairs: "13th Air Expeditionary Group adopts new emblem" (http://www.13af.pacaf.af.mil/news/story.

Article Sources and Contributors

4

Article Sources and Contributors

List of Air Expeditionary units of the United States Air Force Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=563565277 Contributors: Bahamut0013, BrownHairedGirl, Buckshot06, Dcfowler1, EagleWSO, Ktr101, LanceBarber, Lineagegeek, Ndunruh, PhoenixBlue, Pmsyyz, Rich Farmbrough, SGT141, Sadads, Tdrss, YUL89YYZ, Δ, 36 anonymous edits

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors

File:13th Air Expeditionary Group - Emblem.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:13th_Air_Expeditionary_Group_-_Emblem.png License: Public Domain Contributors: United States Air Force

File:USAF - 16th Air Expeditionary Wing.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:USAF_-_16th_Air_Expeditionary_Wing.png License: Public Domain Contributors:

Chesipiero, SGT141

File:40th Air Expeditionary Wing.PNG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:40th_Air_Expeditionary_Wing.PNG License: Public Domain Contributors: AFHRA

File:64th Air Expeditionary Group.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:64th_Air_Expeditionary_Group.png License: Public Domain Contributors: United States Air Force

File:320th Air Expeditionary Wing.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:320th_Air_Expeditionary_Wing.png License: Public Domain Contributors: AF HRA

File:321st Air Expeditionary Wing.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:321st_Air_Expeditionary_Wing.png License: Public Domain Contributors: AF HRA

File:322dtacticalairliftwing-patch.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:322dtacticalairliftwing-patch.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: United States Air Force

File:323d Air Expeditionary Wing.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:323d_Air_Expeditionary_Wing.png License: Public Domain Contributors: AF HRA

File:USAF - 363rd Air Expeditionary Wing.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:USAF_-_363rd_Air_Expeditionary_Wing.png License: Public Domain Contributors:

United States Air Force

File:370th Air Expeditionary Advisory Group.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:370th_Air_Expeditionary_Advisory_Group.png License: Public Domain Contributors: United States Air Force

File:376th Air Expeditionary Wing.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:376th_Air_Expeditionary_Wing.png License: Public Domain Contributors: United States Air Force

File:379th Air Expeditionary Wing color.PNG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:379th_Air_Expeditionary_Wing_color.PNG License: Public Domain Contributors: AF Historical Research Agency

File:380th Air Expeditionary Wing.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:380th_Air_Expeditionary_Wing.png License: Public Domain Contributors: United States Air Force

File:USAF - 384th Air Expeditionary Wing.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:USAF_-_384th_Air_Expeditionary_Wing.png License: Public Domain Contributors:

Chesipiero, SGT141

File:386th Air Expeditionary Wing.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:386th_Air_Expeditionary_Wing.png License: Public Domain Contributors: United States Air Force

File:387th Air Expeditionary Group - Emblem.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:387th_Air_Expeditionary_Group_-_Emblem.png License: Public Domain Contributors: United States Air Force

File:398thoif-patch.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:398thoif-patch.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: United States Air Force

File:401st Air Expeditionary Wing.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:401st_Air_Expeditionary_Wing.png License: Public Domain Contributors: Original uploader was Tdrss at en.wikipedia

File:404th Air Expeditionary Group.PNG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:404th_Air_Expeditionary_Group.PNG License: Public Domain Contributors: AF Historical Research Agency

File:405th Air Expeditionary Wing.PNG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:405th_Air_Expeditionary_Wing.PNG License: Public Domain Contributors: AFHRA

File:406th Air Expeditionary Wing.PNG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:406th_Air_Expeditionary_Wing.PNG License: Public Domain Contributors: AFHRA

File:407th Air Expeditionary Group.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:407th_Air_Expeditionary_Group.png License: Public Domain Contributors: United States Air Force (User:Pmsyyz converted JPEG to PNG, added transparency, resized)

File:410th Air Expeditionary Wing.PNG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:410th_Air_Expeditionary_Wing.PNG License: Public Domain Contributors: AF HRA

File:USAF - 416th Air Expeditionary Group.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:USAF_-_416th_Air_Expeditionary_Group.png License: Public Domain Contributors: Chesipiero, SGT141

File:432d Wing.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:432d_Wing.png License: Public Domain Contributors: United States Air Force (User:Pmsyyz converted JPEG to PNG, added transparency, resized to 900px wide)

File:438th Air Expeditionary Wing.PNG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:438th_Air_Expeditionary_Wing.PNG License: Public Domain Contributors: AF HRA

File:USAF - 447th Air Expeditionary Group 2.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:USAF_-_447th_Air_Expeditionary_Group_2.png License: Public Domain Contributors: Chesipiero, SGT141

File:449th Bombardment Wing.PNG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:449th_Bombardment_Wing.PNG License: Public Domain Contributors: United States Air Force

File:451st-airexpeditionarywing-emblem.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:451st-airexpeditionarywing-emblem.png License: Public Domain Contributors: United States Air Force

File:455th Air Expeditionary Wing.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:455th_Air_Expeditionary_Wing.png License: Public Domain Contributors: United States Air Force

File:457thaeg-emblem.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:457thaeg-emblem.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: United States Air Force

File:466th Air Expeditionary Group.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:466th_Air_Expeditionary_Group.png License: Public Domain Contributors: USAF

File:467th Air Expeditionary Group.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:467th_Air_Expeditionary_Group.png License: Public Domain Contributors: Pmsyyz

File:484th Air Expeditionary Wing.PNG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:484th_Air_Expeditionary_Wing.PNG License: Public Domain Contributors: AF HRA

File:485th Air Expeditionary Wing.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:485th_Air_Expeditionary_Wing.png License: Public Domain Contributors: AF HRA

File:486th Air Expeditionary Wing.PNG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:486th_Air_Expeditionary_Wing.PNG License: Public Domain Contributors: AF HRA

File:487tmissielwing-patch.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:487tmissielwing-patch.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: United States Air Force

File:506th Air Expeditionary Group.PNG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:506th_Air_Expeditionary_Group.PNG License: Public Domain Contributors: AF HRA

License

10/21/13

Doing Business in Turkey| Embassyof the United States Ankara, Turkey

DOING BUSINESS IN TURKEY

Doing Business in Turkey: 2012 Country Commercial Guide for U.S. Companies

Market Overviewin Turkey: 2012 Country Commercial Guide for U.S. Companies Market Challenges Market Opportunities Market Entry Strategy

Market ChallengesCountry Commercial Guide for U.S. Companies Market Overview Market Opportunities Market Entry Strategy Market Overview

Market OpportunitiesGuide for U.S. Companies Market Overview Market Challenges Market Entry Strategy Market Overview Turkey’s rapidly

Market Entry StrategyMarket Overview Market Challenges Market Opportunities Market Overview Turkey’s rapidly expanding economy,

Market Overview

Turkey’s rapidly expanding economy, political and economic stability, and the possibility of EU membership has attracted the attention of a variety of American companies. In 2011, U.S. exports to Turkey reached a record $15 billion, a 34% increase from 2010. That trend is expected to continue, however an expected economic slowdown in Turkey in 2012 might give pause to some importers’ buying decisions. Turkey’s financial sector is stronger than that of many other countries, in part due to a series of reforms in the wake of the 2001 financial crisis, which left Turkish banks better leveraged than many of their U.S. and European counterparts. However, banks here remain hesitant to extend trade and project credit.

Across many sectors, U.S. exporters have excellent immediate and medium-term prospects in this diverse market. Perhaps the most important sector for the next decade will be energy. Electricity demand has been growing at 6.4 percent a year, and will continue to grow rapidly. Turkey realizes it must