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TYPOGRAPHY DECONSTRUCTED

TAKING A CLOSER LOOK THE BUILDING BLOCKS OF TYPE

TYPOGRAPHY DECONSTRUCTED SYDNEY GOLDSTEIN UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS SPRING 2013

6 14 16 26 28 32 36 40 54 58 60 64 68 70 80 88 100 108 116

RULES DEFINED SPECIAL CHARACTERS GRID STRUCTURES QUOTES APOSTROPHES & DASHES SMALL CAPS NUMERICAL X-HEIGHT COLUMN WIDTH LEADING KERNING ALIGNMENTS HYPHENATION RULES JUSTIFICATION COMBINING TYPEFACES PARAGRAPH BREAKS HEADERS, SUBHEADS & CROSSHEADS CAPTIONS & NOTES FONT SPECS

RULES DEFINED
A LIST OF TWENTY-SEVEN RULES EVERY TYPE DESIGNER NEEDS TO LIVE AND BREATHE

1.

INSERT ONLY A SINGLE SPACE AFTER ALL PUNCTUATION

Inserting two spaces after a period was common when using a typewriter. Monospace typefaces were designed to occupy the same amount of space no matter the width of the character. Therefore, two spaces were needed to identify the end of a sentence and the beginning of another sentence. With the introduction of the Mac and digital type, characters are designed proportionately, which allows for the correct practice of using one space after all punctuation.

2.

USE PROPER EM DASHES, EN DASHES, AND HYPHENS

An em is a unit of measure equal to the point size that you are using. An em dash is a type of punctuation used to offset clauses in a sentence or to indicate an abrupt change in thought. An en dash is equal to half the length of an em dash. En dashes are used to denote duration.

3.

USE PROPER QUOTE AND APOSTROPHE MARKS

Use true quotation marks and apostrophes instead of using inch marks and feet marks. Place all punctuations inside the quotation marks.

4. USE TRUE SMALL CAPS

When setting text that contains acronyms, select a typeface with small caps as a family. Selecting small caps from the style menus is not a good choice because the computer reduces the overall size of the type by 80%. This changes the stroke weight and the feel of the font. Expert sets in the Adobe Type Library have small caps options.

5.

ADD LETTER SPACING TO CAPITALIZED TEXT AND SMALL CAPS

Letterspacing is the amount of space between characters in a word. Some software programs caller letterspacing tracking. Use positive number values (to about 2 or 3) to open up letterspacing to capitalized text and small caps, except when periods are used between characters.

6.

USE OLD STYLE FIGURES WHEN APPROPRIATE

Old style gures, also known as non-lining gures do not line up on the baseline as regular or lining numerals do. They can be found in various fonts. If the body text has a signicant amount of numbers, research a font family where they are included. If non-lining numerals are not available, use a smaller point size for the lining numbers. Think of lining numbers as upper case numbers and non-lining numbers as lower case numbers.

7.

USE CAPS PROPERLY

With options given to you by almost any type family (bold, point size, etc) you will seldom need to use all caps to draw attention to your text. Not all typefaces are legible when set in all caps; esp. True for script and decorative typefaces. Short headlines may be the once exception to this rule.

8. USE COPYRIGHT, REGISTER, AND TRADEMARK MARKS PROPERLY

The copyright, register, and trademark characters need to be reduced to work with body text. At times, depending on the typeface, you may need to reduce the mark somewhere between 50% and 70%. The goal is to match the x-height. The copyright mark should be approximately 70% of the surrounding text. Unlike the symbol, the should NOT be super scripted and should remain on the baseline. The symbol is usually superscripted for the chosen font. and are also normally set higher then other marks. If you choose to superscript , reduce it to about 60% of the size.

9.

ELLIPSIS CHARACTER

Use the ellipsis character and NOT three periods. You can access the ellipsis by typing Option + : (colon). To allow a small amount of space before and after text. However if there is no over crowding the text, leave no space at all.

10.

AVOID UNDERLINED TEXT

This was useful back in the days of the typewriter to draw attention to the text. With digital type and their families, you should not need to use underlined text.

11.

INCREASE LINE SPACING TO IMPROVE THE READABILITY IN YOUR BODY TEXT

SOLID LEADING NEGATIVE LEADING

12/12 pt 12/10 pt

Line spacing (aka leading) refers to the space between lines of text. It is important for readability and appearance. Leading is measured from baseline to baseline. As a rule of thumb, allow leading that is 120% of the point size. For sans serif, you may need 130% or more.

12. BODY COPY SIZE

Body text is set anywhere from 9-12 points. When you print text, it is usually larger than what it looked like on the screen. So, print out your text before nalizing your layout. Try type studies to will help you determine the proper size before you proceed with your layout.

13. ALTERING FONTS

Dont alter the original typeface by stretching or condensing the letters improperly. Certain type families should provide you with a lot of exibility, so you won't not need to destroy or alter text.

14.

LEGIBILITY OF FONTS

Sans serif typefaces work well for headlines and to set text that is aligned to vertical/horizontal lines. Certain sans serif typefaces which are not very geometrical work well for body copy (i.e. Frutiger, Meta, Scala Sans, etc.)

15.

DECREASE LINE LENGTH AND INCREASE MARGINS

Line length is a measure of text on one line. Any measure between 45 and 75 characters is comfortable for single column widths. The ideal measure for body text length is about 66 characters (counting both letters, punctuation, and spaces.) For more than one column, a measure between 40 and 50 characters is ideal.

16.

AVOID LETTERSPACING LOWERCASE BODY COPY

Dont letterspace body copy as it really hampers the legibility. Use letterspacing when working with caps. small caps, numbers and display text, looser type spacing may increase the legibility.

17. WORD SPACING SHOULD BE FAIRLY CLOSE

Text meant for extended reading, the amount of space between words in a paragraph needs to be fairly closeabout the width of a lowercase i. If the word spacing is too close, it appears as one giant word and legibility is decreased. Try keeping the spaces between words fairly thin and consistent

18. IDEAL COLUMN WIDTH

For single-column pages, 4.25 inches is ideal. For two-column width, columns can be as narrow as 2 inches. Turning on the hyphenation feature can improve word spacing.

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19.

JUSTIFICATION OF TEXT

Justication can be appropriate in certain places. However, it can create certain problems such as rivers and word spacing. Adjusting size of margins, decreasing body copy size, turning on auto hyphenatation and manually hyphenating the text are all examples of possible solutions.

20.

CHOOSE THE ALIGNMENT THAT FITS

Make sure the alignment chosen for all areas of text are legible and consistent with the design and guidelines. Left aligned text is easier to read and set. Justied text is harder to set with out inevitable word spacing problems. Right aligned and centered are generally not used for body copy.

21.

RULES OF HYPHENATION

EXAMPLE ELE-GANTLY RIGHT! ELEGANT-LY WRONG!

Dont rely on the software to judge where hyphens should be placed. At the end of lines, it is best to leave at least two characters behind and take at least three forward. Avoid leaving the stub end of a hyphenated word or any word shorter then four letters as the last line of a paragraph Try to avoid more then three consecutive hyphenated lines. Don't hyphenate or break proper names and titles. Creating a non-breaking space before and after the name will ensure that the name will not break.

22. AVOID BEGINNING THREE CONSECUTIVE LINES WITH THE SAME WORD

Since software programs deal with line breaks automatically based upon a number of variables, it is possible to have paragraphs with consecutive lines beginning with the same word. When this happens simply adjust the text to avoid/x the problem.

23.

24. ALWAYS SPELL CHECK!

Spell check is an application program that ags words in a document that may not be spelled correctly. Spell checkers may be stand-alone, capable of operating on a block of text, or as part of a larger application. Once you are nished with your design, spell check the text using both of the following:

A. USE SPELL CHECK OPTION THAT COMES WITH THE SOFTWARE YOU ARE USING FOR THE PROJECT.

B. PRINT THE DOCUMENT AND READ IT. THE MONITOR AND DESIGN OF THE DOCUMENT WILL MAKE TEXT LOOK PERFECT WHEN IT MAY NOT BE. EVEN IF TEXT IS GIVEN TO YOU BY A CLIENT, CHECK IT. NEVER EVER ASSUME THAT IT IS CORRECT. KEEP A DICTIONARY CLOSE BY AS WELL.

DON'T RELY SOLELY ON SPELL CHECK! IT'S NOT PERFECT.

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24.

AVOID WIDOWS AND ORPHANS

Widows are either single words alone on a line or single sentences alone on a new page. Orphans are single lines of copy alone at the end of a page.

25.

KERNING IN HEADLINES

Adjust the space between two particular letters to allow for more consistent negative space.

26.

INDENTS

In continuous text, mark all paragraphs after the rst with an indent of at least one em. Do NOT use three spaces but rather use the tabs or indents option in your software.

27. ITEMS IN A SERIES

Items in a series do not use a comma before the word and. (i.e., peaches, apples and oranges.)

MARKS
THE COPYRIGHT, REGISTER, AND TRADEMARK CHARACTERS NEED TO BE REDUCED TO WORK WITH BODY TEXT.

At times, depending on the typeface, you may need to or be asked to reduce the mark between 50% and 70%. The goal is to match the x-height. The copyright mark should be approximately 70% of the surrounding text. Unlike the symbol, the should NOT be superscripted and should remain on the baseline. is usually superscripted for the chosen font. and are normally set higher then some of the other marks.

REDUCE = 70% = 60%

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FI FL

Option Option Option Option Option Option

+ + + + + +

[ Shift + [ ] Shift + ] Hyphen Shift + Hyphen

OPENING DOUBLE QUOTE CLOSING DOUBLE QUOTE OPENING SINGLE QUOTE CLOSING SINGLE QUOTE EN DASH EM DASH
ELLIPSIS

Option + ; Option + 8 Option + Shift + 5 Option + Shift + 6 Option + G Option + 2 Option + Shift + 8 Option + $ Option + Shift + 2 Option + Shift + 1 Option + 1 Option + Shift + ? Option + 3 Option + c Option + Shift + C

BULLET LIGATURE OF F AND I LIGATURE OF F AND L COPYRIGHT TRADEMARK DEGREE SYMBOL CENT SYMBOL EURO SYMBOL FRACTION BAR UPSIDE DOWN ! UPSIDE DOWN ? POUND SYMBOL CEDILLA CAPITAL CEDILLA

ELLIPSIS CHARACTER
Use the ellipsis character and NOT three periods. You can access the ellipsis by typing Option + : (colon). Allow a small amount of space before and after. However if it is not crowding the text, leave no space at all.

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GRID STUCTURES
THE GRID PROVIDES A FRAMEWORK WHERE TEXT, IMAGE AND SPACE CAN BE COMBINED INTO A COHESIVE MANNER

A grid subdivides a page vertically and horizontally into margins, columns, intercolumn spaces, lines of type, and spaces between blocks of type and images. These subdivisions form the basis of a modular and systematic approach to the layout, particularly for multi-page documents, making the design process quicker, and ensuring visual consistency between related pages. At its most basic, the sizes of a grids component parts are determined by ease of reading and handling. From the sizes of type to the overall page or sheet size, decision-making is derived from physiology and the psychology of perception as much as by aesthetics. Type sizes are generally determined by the hierarchy captions smaller than body text and so oncolumn widths by the optimum word counts of eight to ten words to the line, and overall layout by the need to group related items. This all sounds rather formulaic, and easy. But designers whose grids produce dynamic or very subtle results take these rules as a starting point only, developing exible structures in which their sensibility can ourish. Grids often need to be designed to give more exibility than the single column of text per page (Jan Tschichold's grid). This is due to to a change in our reading patterns. Grid structures have to accommodate a greater variety of material such as photographs, illustrations, headings, captions, references, charts; they need to be more complicated than a grid using only text and may utilize more modules. The design of the grid had to be relevant to the purpose.

COLUMNS
Columns are vertical bands of modules. There can be any number of columns in a grid. More columns leads to more exibility, but can also make the grid difcult to work with.

MODULES
Modules are individual units of space that are separated by regular intervals. Modules are the basic building blocks of grids. When repeated they create columns and rows.

BASELINE GRID
THIS BASE OF LAYOUTS

Modular grids are created by positioning horizontal guidelines in relation to a baseline grid that governs the whole document. Baseline grids serve to anchor all (or nearly all) layout elements to a common rhythm. Create a baseline grid by choosing the typesize and leading of your text, such as 10-pt Scala Pro with 12 pts leading (10/12). Avoid auto leading so that you can work with whole numbers that multiply and divide cleanly. Use this line space increment to set the baseline grid in your document preferences. Adjust the top or bottom page margin to absorb any space left over by the baseline grid. Determine the number of horizontal page units in relation to the numer of lines in your baseline grid. Count how many lines t in a full column of text and then choose a number that divides evenly into the line count to create horizontal page divisions. A column with forty-two lines of text divides neatly into seven horizontal modules with six lines each. If your line count is not neatly divisible, adjust the top and/or bottom page margins to absorb the leftover lines.

GRID SPECS: LEADING: 12 PTS FONT SIZE: 10 PTS MARGIN SIZE: 1' 2' 1' 2'

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TSCHICHOLD'S GRID
SYMMETRICAL GRID

Symmetric grids sit centrally on a single page so that the left and right margins are equal. the term can also be applied to a grid system used across facing pages where the position of the margins and text areas are symmetrically reected or mirrored. Margins are not necessarily equal but run both left and right of the text area on single pages and are mirrored across the spread.

FIBONACCI SEQUENCE
THE GOLDEN SPIRAL

This example shows a grid where the proportions of the text area are established from the shape of the page, i.e. the height of the text area is the same as the width of the full page. Note that the text are will always remain the same, regardless of the scale of the page. Grids often need to be designed to give more exibility than the single column of text per peg This is due to a change in our reading patterns. Although we still read consecutively , our attention is drawn to both magazines and coffee table books which are often larger in format and highly illustrated. The grid structures for these formats have to accommodate a greater variety of material such as photographs, illustrations, headings, captions, references, charts; they need to be more complicated than those for a grid using only text and may utilize some more modules. Therefore, the design of the rid has to be relevant to its purpose. The golden section has been used for centuries. The Greeks used the golden section to establish balance in the design for architecture, for example the Parthenon, and it was re-discovered by artists and architects during the Renaissance period. The golden section is constructed through mathematical calculations : the ratio being 1:1:61803. The Fibonacci sequence is a mathematical series discovered in the 12th century by Leonardo Fibonacci and is used to establish proportion. The sequence of numbers demonstrate that the sum of two numbers establishes the next number.

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RECTANGLES FIBONACCI SEQUENCE PROPORTIONS

3:5 - 5:8 - 8:13 - 13:21 - 21:34 - 34:55 - 55:89 - 89:144 - 144:233 - 233:377 - 377:610 3 - 5 - 8 - 13 - 21 - 34 - 55 - 89 - 144 - 233- 377 - 610 1:1.667 1:1.618

COLUMN GRID
THE MORE COLUMNS YOU CREATE THE MORE FLEXIBLE YOUR GRID BECOMES

These may consist of simply of a number of vertical columns used to position text and image matter and may include the space between columns- the gutters- and the margins of the page, which must be given consideration. It may be necessary to produce grids with narrower sub columns to enable a greater degree of exibility in the design and layout of pages. Text widths can be set to multiples of the narrower columns, allowing the design to accommodate different matter thus allowing for a change of pace, rhythm and style from one page or section to the next, while still relating the content.

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MODULAR GRID
GREAT FOR DIVIDING SPACE

Modular grids are associated with Swiss typography or the 'International style' of the 1950's and 60s. As well as a vertical division of space, modular grids divide space hormonally too, creating units or cells. The depth of the cell may depend upon the size of the text type and leading being used. Multiples of the line depth (leading size) form a good basis on which to construct the cells. Use a modular grid to arrange a text in as many ways as you can. By employing just one size of type and ush left alignment only, you will construct a typographic hierarchy exclusively by means of spatial arrangement. To make the project more complex, begin adding variables such as weight, size, and alignment.

ASYMMETRICAL GRID
OFF-CENTERED GRIDS

These grids may have an off-center appearance either as single pages or combined in spreads. If used in spreads, the grid is not mirrored from one page to the next as in symmetrical grids, but is more likely to appear repeated in a single position from page to page. Again, as with all grid systems, attention to the relationship of the margins is important, It can be this element alone that determine the success of the eventual layout.

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"NEVER DATE A GIRL WHO WORKS IN A AN ART SUPPLY STORE. IF THE RELATIONSHIP ENDS, YOU WON'T BE ABLE TO BUY SUPPLIES ANYMORE."

RODNEY DAVIDSON

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OPENING DOUBLE QUOTE: CLOSING DOUBLE QUOTE: OPENING SINGLE QUOTE: CLOSING SINGLE QUOTE:

TYPE: OPTION + [ TYPE: OPTION + SHIFT + [ TYPE: OPTION + ] TYPE: OPTION + SHIFT + ]

QUOTES
USE TRUE QUOTATION MARKS AND APOSTROPHES INSTEAD OF USING INCH MARKS AND FEET MARKS. PLACE ALL PUNCTUATIONS INSIDE THE QUOTATION MARKS.

Use real quotation marks never those grotesque generic marks that actually symbolize ditto/inch or foot marks: use and not and. Most software applications will convert the typewriter quotes to the real quotes for you automatically as you type. Check the preferences for your application youll nd a check box to tell your application to automatically set something like TYPOGRAPHERS QUOTES, SMART QUOTES, or CURLY QUOTES. Then as you type using the standard ditto key (), the software will set the correct quotation marks for you. It is necessary to know how to set smart quotes/real quotes yourself because sometimes the software doesnt do it or does it wrong.

BRIDGE CLEARANCE: 16'7" THE YOUNG MAN STOOD: 6'2" THE LENGTH OF THE WALL IS: 153'9"

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APOSTROPHE
PEOPLE OFTEN ARE CONFUSED ABOUT WHERE THE APOSTROPHE BELONGS. THERE ARE A COUPLE OF RULES THAT WORK VERY WELL:
APOSTROPHE: OPTION + SHIFT + ]

POSSESSIVES:
Turn the phrase around. The apostrophe will be placed after whatever word you end up with. For example, in the phrase the boys camp, to know where to place the apostrophe say to yourself, The camp belongs to the boys. The phrase the boys camp says The camp belongs to the boy. The big exception to this is its. Its used as a possessive never has an apostrophe! The word it only has an apostrophe as a contraction its always means it is or it has. It may be easier to remember if you recall that yours, hers, and his dont use apostrophes and neither should its.

CONTRACTIONS
The apostrophe replaces the missing letter. For example: you're always means you are; the apostrophe is replacing the a from are. Thats an easy way to distinguish it from your as in your house and to make sure you dont say: Your going to the store. As previously noted, its means it is; the apostrophe is indicating where the i is left out. Dont means do not; the apostrophe is indicating where the o is left out.

OMISSION OF LETTERS
In a phrase such as Rock n Roll, there should be an apostrophe before and after the n, because the a and the d are both left out. And dont turn the rst apostrophe around just because it appears in front of the letter does not mean you need to use the opposite single quote. An apostrophe is still the appropriate mark (not n). In a phrase such as House o Fashion, the apostrophe takes the place of the f. There is no earthly reason for an apostrophe to be set before the o. In a phrase such as Gone Fishin the same pattern is followed, the g is missing.

DASHES
USE PROPER EM DASHES, EN DASHES, AND HYPHENS. NEVER USE TWO HYPHENS INSTEAD OF A DASH.

Everyone knows what a hyphens is that tiny little dash that belongs in some words, like mother-in-law, or in phone numbers. Its also used to break a word at the end of a line, of course. You might have been taught to use or given text that uses a double hyphen -- to indicate a dash. This is a typewriter convention because typewriters didnt have the real dash used in professional typesetting. On a Mac, no one needs to use the double hyphenwe have a professional em dash, the long one, such as you see in this sentence. We also have an en dash, which is a little shorter than the em dash.

1. NEVER USE TWO HYPHENS INSTEAD OF A DASH 2. USE HYPHENS, EN DASHES, AND EM DASHES APPROPRIATELY

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MOTHER-IN-LAW X-HEIGHT SANS-SERIF

OCTOBER DECEMBER 4 6 YEARS OF AGE 6:30 8:45 A.M.

WHEN USING AN NO SPACE IS USED ON EITHER SIDE

HYPHEN -

EN DASH
OPTION + HYPHEN

EM DASH
OPTION + SHIFT + HYPHEN

A hyphen is one third of the em rule and is used to link words. It serves as a compound modier where two words become one, such as x-height. A hyphen is also used to break works at syllables in text blocks.

An en dash is half of the em rule (the width of a capital N) and is used between words that indicate a duration, such as time or months or years. Use it where you might otherwise use the word to. In a page layout application, the en dash can be used with a thin space on either side of it. If you want you can kern it so it is not a full space.

The em dash is twice as long as the en dashits about the size of a capital letter M in whatever size and typeface youre using at the moment. This dash is often used in place of a colon or parentheses, or it might indicate an abrupt change in thought, or its used in a spot where a period is too strong and a comma is too weak. It is also used for attribution of text. Mac is not a Typewriter Our equivalent on the typewriter was the double hyphen, but now we have a real em dash. Using two hyphens where there should be an em dash makes your look very unprofessional. When using anno space is used on either side.

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SMALL CAPS
SMALL CAPS ARE UPPERCASE (CAPITAL) LETTERS THAT ARE ABOUT THE SIZE OF NORMAL LOWERCASE LETTERS IN ANY GIVEN TYPEFACE.

Small caps are less intrusive when all uppercase appears within normal text or can be used for special emphasis. Computer programs usually can generate small caps for any typeface, but those are not the same as true small caps. True small caps have line weights that are proportionally correct for the typeface, which mean that they can be used within a body of copy without looking noticeably wrong. When setting text that contains acronyms, select a typeface with small caps as a family. Selecting small caps from the style menus is a poor choice because the compute reduces the overall size of the type by 80%. This changes the stroke weight and the feel of the font. Expert sets in the Adobe Type Library have small caps options. Small caps are capital letters that are about the size of normal lowercase letters in a typeface.

ACRONYMS
Set acronyms such as NASA or NASDAQ in small caps when they appear in body text or headlines.

ABBREVIATIONS
Set common abbreviations such as AM or PM in small caps so they dont overpower the accompanying text. Use small caps for A.M. and P.M.; space once after the number, and use periods.

TRUE SMALL CAPS


Avoid simply resizing capital letters or using the small caps feature in some programs. Instead use typefaces that have been specically created as small caps.

THIS IS AN EXAMPLE OF FAKE SMALL CAPS


This Is An Example Of True Small Caps

USE SMALL CAPS IN ACRONYMS SUCH AS NBA, NFL, CIA, CNBAM, OR BET

If you set acronyms in regular all caps, their visual presence is unneccessarily overwhelming. Traditionally, a.m. and p.m. are set with small caps. If you were taught to type on a typewriter (or if you were taught on a keyboard by someone who has taught on a typewriter), you probably learned to set these abbreviations in all caps because there were no small caps on typewriters. But now that you have the capability, you can and should set them properly.

NO SMALL CAPS

Harriet, an FBI agent, turned on CNN to get the dirt on the CIA before going to bed at 9:30 P.M.
SMALL CAPS

Harriet, and FBI agent, turned on CNN to get the dirt on the CIA before going to bed at 9:30 P.M.

THE CAPITAL LETTERS IN THE MIDDLE OF THE SENTENCE CALL TOO MUCH ATTENTION TO THEMSELVES. NOTICE HOW THE SMALL CAPS BLEND IN WITH THE TEXT. THE CAPITAL LETTERS FOR P.M. ARE MUCH TOO LARGE THE ABBREVIATION IS NOT THAT IMPORTANT.

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USE SMALL CAPS IN ACRONYMS SUCH AS NBA, NFL, CIA, CNBAM, OR BET

There are quite a few font families that include true-drawn small capsletter forms that have been redesigned to match the proportions and thickness of the uppercase. These families are of called EXPERT sets or SMALL CAP SETS. The result is a smooth, uniform, undistrupting tone throughout the text.

TYPEFACES WITH SMALLCAPS: BASKERVILLE CENTURY CHOLLA META MRS. EAVES SWIFT
I META GUY AND HE WAS ALL LIKE CHOLLA AT YO GURL MRS. EAVES. IT TOOK A CENTURY TO SWIFT HER OFF HER FEET TO BASKERVILLE THOUGH.

The Wicked Are Very Weary


True-drawn small caps are specially drawn to match the weight of the capital letters in the same face. Notice that the stroke width appears uniform throughout the text.

Small caps arent limited to serif typefaces. Many san-serif include them as well.

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NUMERALS/FIGURES
OLDSTYLE FIGURES ARE A STYLE OF NUMERAL WHICH APPROXIMATE LOWERCASE LETTERFORMS BY HAVING AN X-HEIGHT AND VARYING ASCENDERS AND DESCENDERS.

Oldstyle gures, also known as non-lining gures do not line up on the baseline as regular or lining numerals do. They can be found in various fonts. They are considerably different from the more common LINING (or ALIGNING) gures which are all-cap height and typically monospaced in text faces so that they line up vertically on charts. Oldstyle gures have more of a traditional, classic look and are very useful and quite beautiful when set within text. They are only available for certain typefaces, sometimes as the regular numerals in a font, but more often within a supplementary or expert font. The gures are proportionately spaced, eliminating the white spaces that result from monospaced lining gures, especially around the numeral one.

OLDSTYLE FIGURES BLEND


Old style gures blend in without disturbing the color of the body copy. They also work well in headlines since theyre not as intrusive as lining gures. In fact, many people prefer them overall for most uses except charts tables. Its well worth the extra effort to track down and obtain typefaces with oldstyle gures; the fonts that contain them might well become some of your favorites.

BODY TEXT
If the body text has a signicant amount of numbers, research a font family where they are included. If non-lining numerals are not available, use a slightly smaller point size for the lining numbers. Think of lining numbers as upper case numbers and non-lining numbers as lower case numbers.

Dear John, please call me at 438-9762 at 3:00 to discuss marriage. Or write to me at Route 916, zip code 87505
NOTICE HOW BEAUTIFULLY THESE NUMBERS BLEND IN WITH THE TEXT

SANS SERIF OLD STYLE NUMBERS META CHOLLA SCALA SANS 12 12 12 134 134 134 17 17 17 1023 1023 1023 323 323 323 12.5 12.5 12.5 134.0 134.0 134.0 17.8 17.8 17.8 1023.4 1023.4 1023.4 323.0 323.0 323.0

SANS SERIF OLD STYLE NUMBERS SABON PALATINO WALBAUM 12 134 17 1023 323 12.5 134.0 17.8 1023.4 323.0 12 134 17 1023 323 12.5 134.0 17.8 1023.4 323.0 12 134 17 1023 323 12.5 134.0 17.8 1023.4 323.0

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AS A DESIGNER, IF YOU ARE ONLY ASKED TO MAKE THE TEXT READABLE ON THE PAGE THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS SHOULD BE ASKED... WHO IS TO READ IT? Someone that wants to read it? Someone that has to read it?

HOW WILL IT BE READ?

Quickly. In passing. Focused. Near. Far.

X-HEIGHT
THE X-HEIGHT REFERS TO THE DISTANCE BETWEEN THE BASELINE AND THE MAIN LINE OF THE TYPEFACE.

Readability and legibility are two key elements of printed text that typographer strive to maximize. Readability refers to whether an extended amount of text, such as an article, book, or annual report is easy to read. Legibility refers to whether a short burst of text, such as a headline catalog listing, or stop sign is recognizable. There are several factors that determine whether a text is readable. When deciding what typeface should be used for a job, consideration should be given to the font and its x-height. It is important to understand how a block of text can express a message through its texture/color, therefore suiting a particular design solution. Fonts set in the same size, same leading and column width will produce varying degrees of color. In typography, color can also describe the balance between black and white on the page of text. A typefaces color is determined by stroke width, x-height, character width and serif styles.

X xhg
MRS. EAVES
Zuzana Licko

Xxhg
MELIOR
Hermann Zapf

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and it's glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettis manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettis manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Transitional Serif x-height: small character width: medium color: light

Transitional Serif x-height: medium character width: medium color: average

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X x hg Xx hg
GOUDY
Frederic W. Goudy

ROTIS SERIF
Otl Aicher

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettis manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettis manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Old Style Serif x-height: medium character width: medium color: light

New Transitional Serif x-height: large character width: narrow color: average

X xh g X xh g
MEMPHIS
Rudolf Wolf

GARAMOND
Clause Garamond

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettis manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettis manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Slab Serif x-height: medium character width: medium color: average

Old Style Serif x-height: small character width: medium color: average

47

Xxh g Xxhg
VOLTA T
Walter Baum & Konrad Bauer

ARCHER

Hoefler & Frere-Jones

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettis manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultral, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettis manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Modern Serif x-height: medium character width: medium color: light

Slab Serif x-height: medium character width: medium color: average

X xhg Xxh g
SWIFT
Gerard Unger

BASKERVILLE
John Baskerville

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettis manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettis manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

New Transitional Serif x-height: medium character width: medium color: average

Transitional Serif x-height: small character width: narrow color: average

49

X xh g Xx h g
UNIVERS GOTHAM
Tobias Frere-Jones Adrian Frutiger

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettis manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettis manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Neo-Grotesque San Serif x-height: large character width: wide color: average

Geometric Serif x-height: large character width: wide color: light

X x h g Xxhg
HELVETICA NEUE
Max Miedinger

META
Erik Spiekermann

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettis manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettis manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Neo-Grotesque San Serif x-height: small character width: medium color: average

Humanistic Sans Serif x-height: large character width: medium color: dark

51

X xhg
TRADE GOTHIC
Jackson Burke

Xxhg
INTERSTATE
Tobias Frere-Jones

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettis manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettis manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Grotesque Serif x-height: large character width: narrow color: dark

Humanistic Sans Serif x-height: large character width: narrow color: average

X x h g Xxhg
SYNTAX
Hans Eduard Meirer

AKZIDENZ GROTESK
Gunter Gerhard Lange

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettis manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettis manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Humanistic Sans Serif x-height: large character width: narrow color: dark

Transitional Serif x-height: medium character width: narrow color: average

53

X xhg
SCALA SANS
Martin Majoor

Xxh g
EUROSTILE
Aldo Novarese

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and its motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettis manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and the political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettis manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Humanistic Sans Serif x-height: medium character width: narrow color: light

Geometric Sans Serif x-height: large character width: medium color: light

55

57

COLUMN WIDTH
A COLUMN IS ONE OR MORE VERTICAL BLOCKS OF CONTENT POSITIONED ON A PAGE, SEPARATED BY GUTTERS OR RULES.

Columns are most commonly used to break up large bodies of text that cannot t in a single block of text on a page. Additionally, columns are used to improve page composition and readability. Newspapers very frequently use complex multicolumn layouts to break up stories and longer bodies of texts within a story. Column can also generally refer to the vertical delineations created by a typographic grid system which type and image may be positioned.

SEVERAL FACTORS TO CONSIDER WHEN DETERMINING THE WIDTH OF A COLUMN OF TEXT ARE:

TYPEFACE
The width of the individual glyphs and the overall typeface design affect the word count per line.

POINT SIZE
The size of the type affects how many words t in a line.

WORD LENGTH
You can t a greater number of shorter words than longer ones in a given column width.

THE NASTA TEXTBOOK STANDARD CALLS FOR THE FOLLOWING MINIMAL ALLOWABLE MARGINS: HEAD: 3/8' GUTTER: 5/8' FRONT: 1/2' FOOT: 5/8'

WHICH DO YOU PREFER?


TOO NARROW JUST RIGHT JUST RIGHT

The nal factor to take into account when deciding upon the appropriate line length is the nature of the actual text.

The nal factor to take into account when deciding upon the appropriate line length is the nature of the actual text. For instance, some content, such as medical text might involve many longer words, lending itself to a wider column width to avoid excessive

The nal factor to take into account when deciding upon the appropriate line length is the nature of the actual text. For instance, some content such as medical text might involve many longer words, lending itself to a wider column width to avoid excessive hyphenations. On the other hand, text used for children and younger readers might involve many short words, allowing for a narrow column.

TOO WIDE

The nal factor to take into account when deciding upon the appropriate line length is the nature of the actual text. For instance, some content such as medical text might involve many longer words, lending itself to a wider column width to avoid excessive hyphenations. On the other hand, text used for children and younger readers might involve many short words, allowing for a narrow column.

COLUMNS VARY DEPENDING ON THE AMOUNT OF TEXT YOU HAVE. WHAT WORKS FOR THING MIGHT NOT WORK FOR ANOTHER.

59

"I LOVE THE COMMENT, "YOU MUST LOVE DESIGNING FOR A LIVING." AT THAT POINT, I USUALLY START TO LAUGH OR BREAK INTO UNCONTROLLABLE TEARS." ANDREW LEWIS

63

LEADING
LEADING THE SPACE VERTICALLY BETWEEN LINES OF TEXT THE NAME COMES FROM THE PHYSICAL PIECE OF LEAD THAT USE TO BE USED IN MECHANICAL PRINTING TO SEPERATE THE LINES OF TEXT.

NO!

YES!

NO!

EXTREME
24 PT LEADING

There are things now that can be done

NORMAL
12 PT LEADING

to type, with aid of computers, that were never intended to be possible by the designers of the older typefaces. Therefore one must know the limitations and rules of type before they can properly and effectively break the rules.

NEGATIVE
0 PT LEADING

There are things now that can be done to type, with aid of computers, that were never intended to betypefaces. possible by the designers of the know older Therefore one must the limitations andand rules of type before can properly effectively breakthey the rules.

There are things now that can be done to type, with aid of computers, that were never intended to be possible by the designers of the older typefaces. Therefore one must know the limitations and rules of type before they can properly and effectively break the rules.

65

KERNING
KERNING IS AN ADJUSTMENT OF THE SPACE BETWEEN TWO LETTERS.

The characters of the Latin alphabet emerged over time; they were never designed with mechanical or automated spacing in mind. Thus some letter combinations look awkward without special spacing considerations. Gaps occur, for example, around letters whose forms angle outward or frame an open space (W, Y, V, T). In metal type, a kerned letter extends past the lead slug that supports it, allowing two letters to t more closely together. In digital fonts, the space between letter pairs is controlled by a kerning table created by the type designer, which species spaces between problematic letter combinations. Working in a page layout program, a designer can choose to use metric kerning or optical kerning as well as adjusting the space between letters manually where desired. A well-designed typeface requires little or no additional kerning, especially at text sizes.

METRIC KERNING
Uses the kerning tables that are built into the typeface. When you select metric kerning in your page layout program, you are using the spacing that was intended by the type designer. Metric kerning usually looks good, especially at small sizes. Cheap novelty fonts often have little or no built-in kerning and will need to be optically kerned.

OPTICAL KERNING
Is executed automatically by the page layout program. Rather than using the pairs addressed in the fonts kerning table, optical kerning assesses the shapes of all characters and adjusts the spacing wherever needed. There are ome graphic designers that apply optical kerning to headlines and metric kerning to text. You can make this process efcient and

CONFUSED?
TOO MUCH TYPOGRAPHIC TERMS TO PROCESS? MAYBE THIS WILL HELP:

x-height

X
leading kerning

baseline

type

67

X-HEIGHT
The height of a fonts main body, not including ascenders or descenders.

LEADING
The space vertically between lines of text, name comes from the physical piece of lead that used to be used in mechanical printing process to separate lines of text.

BASELINE
The line accross the bottom of a fonts x-height, discounting descenders.

KERNING
The amount a characters horizontal space encroaches into its neighbour.

69

IF SOMEONE INSISTS THAT JUSTIFIED TEXT IS BETTER THAN LEFT-ALIGNED TEXT... TELL THEM THEY ARE WRONG.

IF SOMEONE INSISTS THAT LEFT- ALIGNED TEXT IS BETTER THAN JUSTIFIED TEXT... TELL THEM THEY ARE WRONG.

IF THEY ARE BOTH WRONG, THEN WHAT'S RIGHT?!

IF TWO WRONGS DON'T MAKE A RIGHT, WHAT DOES THREE LEFTS MAKE?

ALIGNMENTS
WHATS RIGHT, WHATS WRONG

In unjustied text, the text block is set with normal letter and word spacing. Because if the even word spacing the text will have an even texture no large spaces between words. The lines will naturally vary in length. A RAGGED TEXT BLOCK can integrate with the layout and add visual interest to the page. The difculty is making the ragged edge have a pleasing silhouette. When the rst line in the text is longer than the second, it becomes separate from the layout and creates a box-like shape. This destroys one of the advantages of unjustied text. The RAGGED EDGE needs to have a life, but a narrow column can be less active. Another advantage to ragged text is less hyphenation is needed. Therefore, names, dates or words which are normally read together can stay together.

JUSTIFIED TEXT
CHARACTERISTICS

Often considered more formal, less friendly than left-aligned text. Usually allows for more characters per line, packing more into the same amount of space (than the same text set left-aligned). May require extra attention to word and character spacing and hyphenation to avoid unsightly rivers of white space running through the text.May be more familiar to readers in some types of publications, such as books and newspapers. Some people are naturally drawn to the "neatness" of text that lines up perfectly on the left and right.

LEFT-ALIGNED, RAGGED RIGHT


CHARACTERISTICS

Often considered more informal, friendlier than justied text. The ragged right edge adds an element of white space. May require extra attention to hyphenation to keep right margin from being too ragged. Generally type set left-aligned is easier to work with (i.e. requires less time, attention, and tweaking from the designer to make it look good).

RAGGED RIGHT REQUIRES LESS TIME, ATTENTION, AND TWEAKING FROM TO MAKE IT LOOK GOOD!

71

CENTERED
WHEN IN DOUBT, DON'T CENTER IT.

There is nothing inherently wrong with centered text. As with ragged right or fullyjustied text alignment, what works for one design might be totally inappropriate for another layout. There are simply fewer situations where centered text is appropriate. When in doubt, don't center it. As with all layouts, alignment depends on the purpose of the piece, the audience and its expectations, the fonts, the margins and white space, and other elements on the page. The most appropriate choice is the alignment that works for that particular design. There will be well-meaning friends, business associates, clients, and others who will question your choices. Be prepared to explain why you chose the alignment you did and be prepared to change it (and make necessary adjustments to keep it looking good) if the person with nal approval still insists on something different.

NO MATTER WHAT ALIGNMENT YOU USE, REMEMBER TO PAY CLOSE ATTENTION TO HYPHENATION AND WORD/ CHARACTER SPACING AS WELL TO INSURE THAT YOUR TEXT IS AS READABLE AS POSSIBLE.

"WE SPEND A LOT OF EFFORT TRYING TO MAKE THINGS LOOK EFFORTLESS."

ALEXANDER ISLEY

75

HYPHENATION RULES
DON'T RELY ON THE SOFTWARE.

Dont rely on the software to judge where hyphens should be placed. At the end of lines, leave at least two characters behind and take at least three forward. For example, ele-gantly is acceptable, but elegant-ly is not because it takes too little of the word to the next line. Avoid leaving the stub end of a hyphenated word or any word shorter then four letters as the last line of a paragraph. Avoid more then three consecutive hyphenated lines. Avoid hyphenating or breaking proper names and titles. Creating a non-breaking space before and after the name will ensure that the name will not break. Avoid beginning three consecutive lines with the same word. Since software programs deal with line breaks automatically based upon a number of variables, it is possible to have paragraphs with consecutive lines beginning with the same word. When this happens simply adjust the text to avoid/x the problem.

KEEP IN MIND:
HOW THE TEXT IS READ, AVOID WIDOWS AVOID HYPHENATING OR LINE BRAKES OF NAMES LEAVE A LEAST 2 CHARACTERS ON THE LINE AND 3 FOLLOWING AVOID BEGINNING CONSECUTIVE LINES WITH THE SAME WORD AVOID ENDING CONSECUTIVE LINES WITH THE SAME WORD AVOID ENDING LINES WITH THE WORDS: THE, OF, AT, A, BY. NEVER HYPHENATE ANY WORDS IN A HEADLINE AND AVOID HYPHENATION IN A CALLOUT

77

JUSTIFICATION
LET'S NOT GET AWKWARD...

Justify text only if the line is long enough to prevent awkward and inconsistent word spacing. The only time you can safely justify text is if your type is small enough and your line is long enough, as in books where the text goes all the way across the page. If your line is shorter, as in newsletter, or if you don't have many words on the line, than as the type aligns to the margins the words space themselves to accommodate it. It usually looks awkward. You've seen newspaper columns where all text is justied, often with a word stretching all the way across the column, or a little word on either side of the column with a big gap in the middle. Gross. But that's what can happen with justied type. When you do it, the effect might not be as radical as the newspaper column, but if your lines are relatively short, you will inevitably end up with uncomfortable gaps in some lines, while other

OLDSTYLE FIGURES BLEND


Old style gures blend in without disturbing the color of the body copy. They also work well in headlines since theyre not as intrusive as lining gures. In fact, many people prefer them overall for most uses except charts tables. Its well worth the extra effort to track down and obtain typefaces with oldstyle gures; the fonts that contain them might well become some of your favorites.

TRY THIS QUICK TIP!

When checking rivers in justified text, print it out, turn it upside down and squint at it.

RIVERS

In typography, rivers, or rivers of white, are visually unattractive gaps appearing to run down a paragraph of text. They can occur with any spacing, though they are most noticeable with wide word spaces caused by either full text justication or monospaced fonts.

PLEASE TRY NOT TO DROWN SWIMMING IN THAT RIVER.

79

WIDOWS AND ORPHANS

Never leave widows and orphans bereft on the page. Avoid both of these situations. If you have editing privileges, rewrite the copy, or at least add or delete a word or two. Sometimes you can remove spacing from the letters, words, or lines, depending on which program youre working in. Sometimes widening a margin just a hair will do it. But it must be done. Widows and orphans on a page are wrong.

WIDOWS
When a paragraph ends and leaves fewer than seven characters (not words, characters) on the last line, that line is called a widow. Worse than leaving one word at the end of a line is leaving part of a word, the other part being paraphrased on the line above.

FOREVER ALONE.

ORPHAN
When a paragraph ends and leaves fewer than seven characters (not words, characters) on the last line, that line is called a widow. Worse than leaving one word at the end of a line is leaving part of a word, the other part being paraphrased on the line above.

NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND.

GOTHAM
85 | 110 | 250

8/12
QUALITY: POOR

THE SOLUTION CREATES LOTS OF SMALL RIVERS. THE WORD SPACING GETS LARGE AND INCONSISTANT IN PLACES. THESE ERRORS ARE MORE NOTICEABLE IN THE SANS SERIF.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettis manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

SERIFA
85 | 110 | 250

8/12
QUALITY: FAIR

THE SOLUTION CREATES LOTS OF SMALL RIVERS. THE WORD SPACING GETS LARGE AND INCONSISTENT IN PLACES. THESE ERRORS ARE MORE LESS NOTICEABLE THAN IN THE SANS SERIF, BUT NOT PERFECT.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettis manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

81

GOTHAM
80 | 100 | 190

8/12
QUALITY: FAIR

THERE ARE LESS RIVERS IN THIS SITUATION. THE WORD SPACING IS STILL IN CONSISTENT, IN PLACES THEY ARE TOO CLOSE TOGETHER.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettis manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

SERIFA
80 | 100 | 190

8/12
QUALITY: POOR

THE SOLUTION CREATES MORE RIVERS FOR THE SERIF. WORD SPACING IS STILL IN CONSISTENT AND IT BECOMES DIFFICULT TO READ THE SENTENCES IN PLACES.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettis manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

GOTHAM 50 | 60 | 70

8/12
QUALITY: FAIR

THE SOLUTION GETS RID OF THE RIVERS AND INCONSISTENT SPACING BETWEEN WORDS. THE WORDS LOOK A LITTLE TIGHT, BUT READABLE. ONLY ONE COUNT OF STRANGE SPACING, BUT NOT NOTICEABLE UNLESS SOMEONE IS SEARCHING FOR IT.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettis manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

SERIFA
50 | 60 | 70

8/12
QUALITY: GOOD

ERASES ALL RIVERS AND INCONSISTENT SPACING. WORDS ARE A LITTLE TIGHT, BUT IS STILL READABLE.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettis manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

83

GOTHAM
70 | 130 | 140

8/12
QUALITY: FAIR

THIS SOLUTION CREATED THE BEST WORD SPACING THUS FAR. THERE ARE A FEW RIVERS, BUT NOT TOO NOTICEABLE.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettis manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

SERIFA
70 | 130 | 140

8/12
QUALITY: POOR

LOT OF RIVERS. THE WORD SPACING IS VERY INCONSISTENT AND DISTRACTING.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettis manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

GOTHAM
100 | 150 | 190

8/12
QUALITY: FAIR

THE SOLUTION CREATES CONSISTENT WORD SPACING BUT TOO MANY DISTRACTING RIVERS. THE RIVERS ARE LESS NOTICEABLE THAN IN THE SERIFA, SINCE GOTHAN IS MORE OPEN.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettis manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

SERIFA
100 | 150 | 190

8/12
QUALITY: FAIR

THE SOLUTION CREATES CONSISTENT AND READABLE WORD SPACING, BUT OPENS UP TOO MANY RIVERS.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettis manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

85

GOTHAM 10 | 20 | 100

8/12
QUALITY: POOR

THE WORDS ARE TOO CLOSE TOGETHER, MAKING IT TOO HARD TO READ.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettis manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

SERIFA
10 | 20 | 100

8/12
QUALITY: POOR

TOO DIFFICULT TO READ

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived tobethestaticandirrelevantartofthepastandcelebratingchange, originality,andinnovationincultureandsociety.Futurismrejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettis manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

87

THERE IS NO PERFECT RECIPE FOR COMBINATING TYPE. IT IS A MATTER OF TYPOGRAPHIC SENSITIVITY AND ONES EXPERIENCE. EXPERIEMENT WITH DIFFERENT X-HEIGHTS AND WEIGHTS. GREAT COMBINATIONS WILL TAKE YOU BY SUPRISE.

AND SOMETIMES THESE TYPOGRAPHIC COMBINATIONS WILL BURN A HOLE IN YOUR SOUL.

BUT DON'T WORRY! EVEN THE EXPERTS MAKE UGLY TYPE COMBINATIONS.

COMBINING TYPEFACES
USING TWO DIFFERENT SERIF FONTS OR TWO DIFFERENT SANS SERIFS FONTS IN THE SAME COMPOSITION IS NEVER A GOOD IDEA.

When combining serif and sans serif text fonts, one shroud try and match the characteristics of FORM and type COLOR: proportion, x-heights. Although there is no recipe, there is a place to start: keep an eye on the characteristic shapes of the letterform. A well designed page contains no more than TWO different typefaces or four different type variations such as type size and bold or italic style.

TRY THIS QUICK TIP!

Try mixing a sanserif typeface with a serif, they typically have the most appealing type combinations.

WORDS IN LIBERTY
A Prologue to Futurism: Futurism was first announced
on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettis manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

WORDS IN LIBERTY
A Prologue to Futurism: Futurism was first
announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettis manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

aa BB ee GG gg
BEMBO 9/12 AND FRUTIGER 18/12
OLD STYLE + HUMANIST SANS SERIF

aa BB ee GG gg
GOUDY 9/12 AND DIN 18/12
OLD STYLE + GROTESQUE SANS SERIF

THERE IS A NOTICABLE CONTRAST BETWEEN THE TWO TYPEFACES. MAKING THE BOLD STYLE OF THE SANS SERIF FONT MORE PROMINENT.

THE TYPEFACES WORK IN A COHESIVE MANNER DUE TO THEIR CLASSIFICATION AND X-HEIGHT. DIN'S A BOLD FONT THAT CONTRASTS WELL WITH GOUDY'S SIZE.

89

WORDS IN LIBERTY
A Prologue to Futurism: Futurism was first announced
on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettis manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

WORDS IN LIBERTY
A Prologue to Futurism: Futurism was first announced
on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettis manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

aa BB ee GG gg
BASKERVILLE 9/12 AND FUTURA 18/12
TRANSITIONAL + GEOMETRIC SERIF

aa BB ee GG gg
MELIOR 9/12 AND ROTIS SANS 18/12
TRANSITIONAL + HUMANIST SANS SERIF

THERE IS A LARGE DIFFERENCE IN THE HEADING AND BODY CONTENT, THEIR SIMILAR STROKE WIDTH ALLOWS FOR THEM TO WORK TOGETHER NICELY.

THE TYPEFACES WORK IN A COHESIVE MANNER DUE TO THEIR CLASSIFICATION AND X-HEIGHT. DIN'S A BOLD FONT THAT CONTRASTS WELL WITH GOUDY'S SIZE.

WORDS IN LIBERTY
A Prologue to Futurism: Futurism was first
announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettis manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

WORDS IN LIBERTY
A Prologue to Futurism: Futurism was announced on
February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettis manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

aa BB ee GG gg
WALBAUM 9/12 AND INTERSTATE 18/12
MODERN + GEOMETRIC SANS SERIF

aa BB ee GG gg
DIDOT 9/12 AND AKZIDENZ GROTESK 18/12
MODERN + GROTESQUE SANS SERIF

THESE TWO TYPEFACES CONTRAST EACH OTHER IN A BEAUTIFUL WAY. INTERSTATE IS VERY UNIFORM AND MODERN, WHEREAS WALBAUM HAS MORE CONTRAST.

HEIRARCHY IS DEMONSTRATED WITH THIS COMBINATION. THE TITLE SEPARATES ITSELF FROM THE BODY CONTENT IN A CLEAR, BUT COHESIVE WAY.

91

WORDS IN LIBERTY
A Prologue to Futurism: Futurism was first announced
on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettis manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

WORDS IN LIBERTY

A Prologue to Futurism: Futurism was first announced


on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettis manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

aa BB ee GG gg
FUTURA 9/12 AND MRS. EAVES 18/12
GEOMETRIC SERIF + NEW TRANSITIONAL

aa BB ee GG gg
CASLON 9/12 AND HELVETICA 18/12
NEW TRANSITIONAL + GROTESQUE SANS SERIF

NICE CONTRAST IS CREATED WITH THE TALL X-HEIGHT OF FUTURA AND THE SMALL X-HEIGHT OF MRS. EAVES. THEY ALSO SHARE SIMILAR COLORS.

THEY HAVE SIMILAR LETTER FORMATIONS, WHAT HELPS SEPARATES THE TWO AREW THEIR STROKE WEIGHTS. HELVETICA HAS A SMALLER X-HEIGHT.

WORDS IN LIBERTY
A Prologue to Futurism: Futurism was first announced
on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettis manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

WORDS IN LIBERTY
A Prologue to Futurism: Futurism was first
announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettis manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

aa BB ee GG gg
ROCKWELL 9/12 AND FUTURA 18/12
SLAB SERIF + GEOMETRIC SANS SERIF

aa BB ee GG gg
MEMPHIS 9/12 AND GILL SANS 18/12
SLAB SERIF + GROTESQUE SANS SERIF

THE LARGE SANS SERIF IS A NICE CONTRAST TO FUTURA'S MONO-WEIGHT STROKES.

HEIRARCHY IS DEMONSTRATED WITH THIS COMBINATION. THE TITLE SEPARATES ITSELF FROM THE BODY CONTENT IN A CLEAR, BUT COHESIVE WAY.

93

WORDS IN LIBERTY
A Prologue to Futurism: Futurism was first announced
on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettis manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

WORDS IN LIBERTY
A Prologue to Futurism: Futurism was first
announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettis manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

aa BB ee GG gg
BEMBO 9/12 AND FRUTIGER 18/12
OLD STYLE + HUMANIST SANS SERIF

aa BB ee GG gg
GOUDY 9/12 AND DIN 18/12
OLD STYLE + GROTESQUE SANS SERIF

THERE IS A NOTICABLE CONTRAST BETWEEN THE TWO TYPEFACES. MAKING THE BOLD STYLE OF THE SANS SERIF FONT MORE PROMINENT.

THE TYPEFACES WORK IN A COHESIVE MANNER DUE TO THEIR CLASSIFICATION AND X-HEIGHT. DIN'S A BOLD FONT THAT CONTRASTS WELL WITH GOUDY'S SIZE.

"DO THE OBVIOUS, THEN THROW IT OUT."

GLENN MITSUI

97

PARAGRAPH BREAKS
IN TYPOGRAPHY THERE ARE FOUR RULES REGARDING PARAGRAPH BREAKS:

First line at the beginning of an article should be ush left Block paragraphs are ush left and are separated by extra leading not a full return The amount indent is = to the leading Never hit two returns between paragraphs

TRY THIS QUICK TIP!

Using the TSCHICHOLD grid system will allow for consistant page layouts.

FUTURISM WAS FIRST ANNOUNCED ON FEBRUARY 20, 1909, WHEN THE IN STYLE,

Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and gloried contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

BUT IT IS THE MOVEMENTS WHICH SURVIVE, ODDLY, HERE WHERE WE LIVE AND WORK

as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a rst radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the rst great "art" movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become.

WHILE MARINETTI'S OPENING MANIFESTO FOR ITALIAN FUTURISM BRISTLED WITH A

polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, "technical" approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term--still resonant today--was parole in liberta2, by which poetry was to become "an uninterrupted sequence of new images (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena." This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), "Everything of any value is theatrical."

99

Futurism was rst announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and gloried contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

But it is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a rst radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the rst great "art" movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become.

While Marinetti's opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, "technical" approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term--still resonant today--was parole in liberta2, by which poetry was to become "an uninterrupted sequence of new images (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena." This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), "Everything of any value is theatrical."

Futurism was rst announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and gloried contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

But it is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a rst radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the rst great "art" movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become.

While Marinetti's opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, "technical" approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term--still resonant today--was parole in liberta2, by which poetry was to become "an uninterrupted sequence of new images (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena." This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), "Everything of any value is theatrical."

101

Futurism was rst announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and gloried contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

But it is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a rst radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the rst great "art" movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become.

While Marinetti's opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, "technical" approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term--still resonant today--was parole in liberta2, by which poetry was to become "an uninterrupted sequence of new images (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena." This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), "Everything of any value is theatrical."

Futurism was rst announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and gloried contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

But it is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a rst radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the rst great "art" movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become.

While Marinetti's opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, "technical" approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term--still resonant today--was parole in liberta2, by which poetry was to become "an uninterrupted sequence of new images (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena." This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), "Everything of any value is theatrical."

103

Futurism was rst announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and gloried contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

But it is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a rst radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the rst great "art" movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become.

While Marinetti's opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, "technical" approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term--still resonant today--was parole in liberta2, by which poetry was to become "an uninterrupted sequence of new images (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena." This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), "Everything of any value is theatrical."

Futurism was rst announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and gloried contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

But it is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a rst radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the rst great "art" movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become.

While Marinetti's opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, "technical" approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term--still resonant today--was parole in liberta2, by which poetry was to become "an uninterrupted sequence of new images (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena." This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), "Everything of any value is theatrical."

105

Futurism was rst announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and gloried contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

But it is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a rst radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the rst great "art" movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti's opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, "technical" approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term--still resonant today--was parole in liberta2, by which poetry was to become "an uninterrupted sequence of new images (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena." This freedom-of-theworld, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language and was set in motion by many forerunners like Mallarme. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), "Everything of any value is know as theatrical."

+++ Futurism was rst announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and gloried contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. +++ But it is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a rst radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the rst great "art" movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. +++ While Marinetti's opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, "technical" approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term--still resonant today--was parole in liberta2, by which poetry was to become "an uninterrupted sequence of new images (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena." This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), "Everything of any value is theatrical."

107

Futurism was rst announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and gloried contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But it is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a rst radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the rst great "art" movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti's opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, "technical" approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term--still resonant today--was parole in liberta2, by which poetry was to become "an uninterrupted sequence of new images (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena." This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), "Everything of any value is theatrical."

109

HEADERS

SUBHEADS

CROSSHEADS

Headings are often set in all caps or in caps and small caps. The rule once was that the type for chapter headings hsould be larger than the text type, but not so large that itshould dwarf the text. Allow it's an older concept, certain typographic conventions still apply.

Subheads have two roles: to graphically separate sections of text and to identify the relative signicance of the text they introduce. Ususally three levels of subheadings in any work are sufcient, anything beyond this and the reader is being asked to consume too much information at once.

Found between paragraphs, breaking up longers pieces of text

THIS IS A HEADER
THIS IS AN EXAMPLE OF A SUBHEADER

Itio dolo et, volupid ellautemque cus il illor re odiati tendipid quuntia dollestem lam venditatibus volores militatqui ut lab incias esci que laborerrorem alit et pore eos nonsedit ma quam num sam se voluptatinus endionsequi optae volupta volorrum dis dolut ilictate odiassi te si qui dolenda alicate dioreptatiam audam dis rehendae ipsam alibus eri occabo. Itaquas pelianiminum am quam, sam nitatqu amusant iuntior sus molo corum ne doluptat resequa ereperoribus reperiae volupid eumque eatem ne laborrum nemodia volorat ionsequatet alis maio qui doluptatur?
THIS IS A CROSSHEADER quos voloreh enditis dent am, sitates remolenieni od molup-

taque nonsequature laborum qui cuptiore cus, sit, santota dolupti umquid entisquatem quae. Itaecta quissi ipsapeliquis aliandi si ofc tem vellent otaturibus ipid eumquiam lam, ut ut volorum, sam fugit eum aborro ommolorum ut queEruptatu ritatur re rehendiatur, ut lam re voluptiam in rate sum, ipsunt autestio tes venia si toria ipietust odit eata is culpa veriam ium nihit asperibusa quo et, ut latumqui con pe comnima gnimaios excerspis explab il idendus, sus, conseca borrovit, occatur, neceperum a volor sequamus dolo omnisqu iducimu

WORDS IN LIBERTY
A PROLOGUE TO FUTURISM

Futurism was rst announced on February 20, 1909, when the in style, Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and gloried contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

RADICAL MIX OF ART AND LIFE

But it is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a rst radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the rst great "art" movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti's opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, "technical" approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term--still resonant today--was parole in liberta2, by which poetry was to become "an uninterrupted sequence of new images (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena." This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), "Everything of any value is theatrical."

111

WORDS IN LIBERTY

A PROLOGUE TO FUTURISM

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the in style, Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

RADICAL MIX OF ART AND LIFE

But it is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great "art" movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti's opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, "technical" approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term--still resonant today--was parole in liberta2, by which poetry was to become "an uninterrupted sequence of new images (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena." This freedom-ofthe-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), "Everything of any value is theatrical."

WORDS IN LIBERTY
Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. A Prologue to Futurism Radical mix of art and life

But it is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great "art" movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti's opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, "technical" approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term--still resonant today--was parole in liberta2, by which poetry was to become "an uninterrupted sequence of new images (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena." This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), "Everything of any value is theatrical."

113

WORDS IN LIBERTY
A PROLOGUE TO FUTURISM

Futurism was rst announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and gloried contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.
RADICAL MIX OF ART AND LIFE

But it is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a rst radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the rst great "art" movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti's opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, "technical" approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term--still resonant today--was parole in liberta2, by which poetry was to become "an uninterrupted sequence of new images (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena." This freedom-of-theworld, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language and was set in motion by many forerunners like Mallarme. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), "Everything of any value is know as theatrical."

WORDS IN LIBERTY
A PROLOGUE TO FUTURISM Futurism was rst announced on February 20, 1909,

when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and gloried contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.
RADICAL MIX OF ART AND LIFE But it is the movements which survive, oddly, here

where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a rst radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the rst great "art" movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti's opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, "technical" approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term--still resonant today--was parole in liberta2, by which the poetry was to become "an uninterrupted sequence of new images (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena." This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), "Everything of any value is theatrical."

115

WORDS IN LIBERTY

A PROLOGUE TO FUTURISM

Futurism was rst announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and gloried contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

RADICAL MIX OF ART AND LIFE

But it is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a rst radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avantgarde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the rst great "art" movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti's opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, "technical" approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term--still resonant today--was parole in liberta2, by which the poetry was to become "an uninterrupted sequence of new images (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena." This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), "Everything of any value is theatrical."

117

CAPTIONS AND NOTES


GUIDELINES FOR FOOTNOTES AND CAPTIONS

Footnotes and endnotes are necessary components of scholarly and technical writing. Theyre also frequently used by writers of ction, from Herman Melville (Moby Dick) to contemporary novelists. Whether their intent is academic or artistic, footnotes present special typographic challenges. Specically, a footnote is a text element at the bottom of a page of a book or manuscript that provides additional information about a point made in the main text. The footnote might provide deeper background, offer an alternate interpretation or provide a citation for the source of a quote, idea or statistic. Endnotes serve the same purpose but are grouped together at the end of a chapter, article or book, rather than at the bottom of each page. These general guidelines will help you design footnotes and endnotes that are readable, legible and economical in space.

NUMBERS OR SYMBOLS
Footnotes are most often indicated by placing a superscript numeral immediately after the text to be referenced. The same superscript numeral then precedes the footnoted text at the bottom of the page. Numbering footnotes is essential when there are many of them, but if footnotes are few they can be marked with a dagger, asterisk, or other symbol instead. Endnotes should always use numerals to facilitate easy referencing.

SIZE
Footnotes and endnotes are set smaller than body text. The difference in size is usually about two points, but this can vary depending on the size, style and legibility of the main text. Even though theyre smaller, footnotes and endnotes should still remain at a readable size.

WORDS IN LIBERTY
A PROLOGUE TO FUTURISM

Futurism was rst announced on February 20, 1909, when the in style, Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and gloried contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

Philip Meggs, History of Graphic Design, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1988

RADICAL MIX OF ART AND LIFE

But it is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a rst radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the rst great "art" movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti's opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, "technical" approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term--still resonant today--was parole in liberta2, by which poetry was to become "an uninterrupted sequence of new images (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena." This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), "Everything of any value is theatrical."

Parole in liberta = words set free (liberty)

selbst = himself

119

WORDS IN LIBERTY
1. Philip Meggs, History of Graphic Design,Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1988

A PROLOGUE TO FUTURISM

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the in style, Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

RADICAL MIX OF ART AND LIFE

But it is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great "art" movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti's opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, "technical" approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term--still resonant today--was parole in liberta2, by which poetry was to become "an uninterrupted sequence of new images (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena." This freedom-ofthe-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst 3 (circa 1915), "Everything of any value is theatrical."

2.Parole in liberta = words set free (liberty)

3.selbst = himself

WORDS IN LIBERTY
Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.
1.Philip Meggs, History of Graphic Design, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1988

A Prologue to Futurism Radical mix of art and life

2.Parole in liberta = words set free (liberty)

3. Selbst is playing himself

But it is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great "art" movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti's opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, "technical" approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term--still resonant today--was parole in liberta2, by which poetry was to become "an uninterrupted sequence of new images (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena." This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), "Everything of any value is theatrical."

121

1.Philip Meggs, History of Graphic Design, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1988

2.Parole in liberta = words set free (liberty) 3. selbst = himself

WORDS IN LIBERTY
A PROLOGUE TO FUTURISM

Futurism was rst announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and gloried contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.
RADICAL MIX OF ART AND LIFE

But it is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a rst radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the rst great "art" movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti's opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, "technical" approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term--still resonant today--was parole in liberta2, by which poetry was to become "an uninterrupted sequence of new images (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena." This freedom-of-theworld, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language and was set in motion by many forerunners like Mallarme. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), "Everything of any value is know as theatrical."

WORDS IN LIBERTY
A PROLOGUE TO FUTURISM Futurism was rst announced on February 20, 1909,

when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and gloried contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.
RADICAL MIX OF ART AND LIFE But it is the movements which survive, oddly, here

where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a rst radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the rst great "art" movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti's opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, "technical" approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term--still resonant today--was parole in liberta2, by which the poetry was to become "an uninterrupted sequence of new images (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena." This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), "Everything of any value is theatrical."

1. Philip Meggs, History of Graphic Design, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1988 2. parole in liberta = words set free (liberty) 3. selbst = himself

123

WORDS IN LIBERTY
in liberta = words set free (liberty) | selbst = himself Philip Meggs, History of Graphic Design, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1988 | Parole

A PROLOGUE TO FUTURISM

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

RADICAL MIX OF ART AND LIFE

But it is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great "art" movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti's opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, "technical" approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term--still resonant today--was parole in liberta2, by which the poetry was to become "an uninterrupted sequence of new images (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena." This freedomof-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), "Everything of any value is theatrical."

125

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