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3. SEMICONDUCTOR ELECTRONICS

3.3. JUNCTION DIODE

n-type: if the silicon (having 4 valence electrons) is doped with a material having 5 valence

Some terminologies

electrons (arsenic or phosphorous), 1 electron (so called donor) is free to move around. p-type: if the silicon is doped with a material having 3 valence electrons (boron or galium), 1 hole (so called acceptor) is formed due to a missing electron.

PN Junction Diode  - 1

-  - 2 -

EXAMPLE 3.1 Half-Wave Rectifier Circuit Assuming an Ideal Diode  When

circuit. No current flows through the resistor and the output

When

Therefore, there is no voltage drop across the diode and

V i is positive – the diode is reverse biased, and therefore equivalent to an open

V

o

equals

V .

i

V i is negative – the diode is forward biased, and it is equivalent to a short circuit.

V

o

is 0V.

Since only the positive half of the wave remains, this circuit is called a half-wave rectifier. 0.7V is required to forward bias a real diode.

CLASS DISCUSSION ITEM 3.2

Inductive “Kick” - 3 -

 The circuit is to reduce current arcs (mini-lightning bolts) between the switch contacts when the switch is open. The arcs can damage the switch and can create electromagnetic interference (EMI) that can affect surrounding circuits. Inductive kick (sparks) occurs anytime an electrically generated magnetic field collapses. A very high voltage (around 1000V) opposite in polarity to the original applied voltage is generated by the collapsing magnetic field (refer to the voltage-current characteristics of
 inductor: V = L dI ). dt

A good example of this is in an old style automobile ignition system. When the breaker points open, the current flowing to the ignition coil is shut off and the magnetic field built up in the coil collapses. The resulting inductive kick voltage is high enough to jump the gap at the spark plug.

CLASS DISCUSSION ITEM 3.3

Peak Detector When a time-varying signal

maximum positive value of input signal.

V in

is applied

at

the input, the output

 V ( t ) = 1 t ∫ I ( ) d = Q ( t ) C 0 τ τ C

- 4 -

V out

retains

the

Capacity Voltage-Current Characteristics:

.

3.3.1 Zener Diode

This is called voltage-regulator diode, because it is usually used to regulate a voltage.

Whereas a general diode is operated in forward bias region, this zener diode uses “break down” characteristic. The zener diodes have steep breakdown curves with well-defined breakdown voltages, and thus they can maintain a nearly constant voltage over a wide range of currents. The zener should be reverse biased with a voltage in excess of its breakdown or zener voltage,

V

Z

. Simple Voltage Regulator (Note that

V in

> V

Z

and the diode is reverse biased.)

- 5 -

 ( V in − V Z )

The zener current is related to the circuit voltages as

I

Z

=

R

.

1

R

In this above equation,

define a dynamic resistance

V

Z

particular operating point.

is not directly proportional to

R

Z . However, it is useful to

d that is the slope of the zener characteristic curve at a

I

V

Z R

d

. In a circuit design, the zener current must exceed the

nominal zener current

characteristic curve where regulation is poor.

Eliminating

I Zt

, otherwise the zener may operate near the “knee” of the

I

Z in the two above equations yields changes in the regulator output voltage

R

.

EXAMPLE 3.2

Zener Regulation Performance.

circuit shown in the figure 3.7. Determine the regulation performance, and select the value of R to limit the maximum

power dissipation to less than 1 watt. (Sol.) The current through the diode should be less than

at 17mA) is used in the

V in

is between 20 and 30 V.

1N4744A (

V

Z

=15V, 1 W, and its dynamic resistance

R

d = 14

 The value of R min R = ( V in max − V Z ) / I Z max

should be chosen to be at least

= (30 V 15 V)/66.7 mA = 225

.

The closest standard resistance value is 240 .

The current

I

Z

in this example is larger than the nominal zener current, so the operating

point is on the well-regulated region. The resulting output voltage range is

R

14

 ∆ V out = ∆ V Z = d ∆ V = (30 20) V = 0.55V . R d + R in 14 + 240 −

V

0.55 V

In this example, we ignore the current that would be drawn by a load.

- 6 -

The infinitesimal changes in current are related to those in voltages by

I

Z

=

(

V

in

− ∆

V

Z

)

.

I

=

Z

V

out

in terms of fluctuations in the source voltage

V

in

by

V

out

= ∆

V

Z

=

d

V

in

R

d

+ R

I

Z max

=

1 W/15V

=

66.7mA .

out

=

= 3.7 %

V

out

15 V Effects of Load on Voltage Regulator Design.
as long as the zener diode is subject to reverse breakdown, i.e.,
L R
L
(
V
V
)
in
Z
The unregulated source current
is given by
=
.
I in
I in
R
As long as
V
is constant (
> V
R
doesn’t change,
I
will remain
Z
V in
Z
L
L
constant. It means that the diode current will change to absorb changes from the unregulated
source ( I
= I
− I
).
Z
in
L
V
V
)
V Z
in
Z
The zener diode current
I
Z is obtained by
I
=
I
I
= (
.
Z
in
L
As
R
L is increasing, the zener current
I
will increase. If
I
gets too large, the zener
Z
Z
diode will fail.
▼ DESIGN EXAMPLE 3.1
Zener Diode Voltage Regulator Design.
The nominal value of a poorly regulated dc source
is 24V.
V in
We need to regulate 15V dc power by using a 1 W zener diode (see Fig. 3.8).
is
240 Ω .
R L max
What is the proper value of R ?
(Sol.)
(
V
− V
)
V
in
Z
The maximum zener current will be
Z
I
=
.
Z max
 
R R
 
L max
(
V
V
)
V
in
Z
Z
P
=
I
V
=
V
Z
max
Z
max
Z
 
Z
R
R
L
max
- 7 -

V Z

I

V

.

V in

> V . The load current

Z

L is

I

=

Z

R

R

L

The power dissipated by the zener diode is

.

Since we wish to select a 1 W zener, the minimum value of a current-limiting resistor,

 is evaluated by 1W =    24 V -15 V − 15 V    15 V . R min = 69.7 Ω

R min

240

.

The closest standard resistance value is 75 .

R min

Summary of the Zener Diodes Zener diodes are cheap, simple and useful devices when it is required to obtain smaller regulated voltages from a single higher unregulated voltage source. However, it has the following drawbacks. The output voltage cannot be set to a precise value, and regulation against source ripple and changes in load is limited. We must select proper current-limiting resistors for given the power limitations of the diodes.

3.3.2 Voltage Regulators

Instead of using zener diodes, special semiconductor devices with the regulating accuracy around 0.1% are used to regulate a voltage.

Fixed positive (LM78XX) or negative (LM79XX) voltage regulator:

 The last two digits (XX) specify a voltage with standard values: 5(05), 12, or 15V. These regulators can deliver up to 1A current, and are internally protected from overload. The supply voltage should be higher.  - 8 -

The regulated dc voltage can be adjusted by adding two external resistors as shown in Fig.

3.10. The output voltage is given by

V out

=

 

+ R

1

  CLASS DISCUSSION ITEM 3.6

Automobile Charging System

The typical automobile has a 12 V dc electrical system where a lead-acid battery is charged

by a belt-driven ac alternator whose frequency and voltage vary with engine speed. What

type of signal conditioning must be performed between the alternator and the battery and how

can this be done? – Home Work

Rectifier Circuits Fig. A Basic half-wave rectifier circuit.

- 9 -

1.25 1

R

2

 

V

. Fig. B Full-wave rectifier which uses a center-tapped transformer. Fig. C Full-wave rectifier with bridge. Fig. D Full-wave rectifier with filter circuit and voltage regulator.

- 10 -

3.3.3 Optoelectronic Diodes

LED (light-emitting diode)

- Emitting photons, and red, yellow, and green packages.

- voltage drop of 1.5 to 2.5 V when forward biased.

- usually a 330 Ohm resistor is used in series with LED in digital circuits (5V). Photodiode

- It uses the fact that a pn junction is sensitive to light.

- The photodiode is reverse biased, and if photons excite carriers, a very small current proportional to the light intensity will flow.

3.3.4 Analysis of Diode Circuits

Since the diode is a nonlinear device, we cannot apply the linear circuit analysis methods directly.

Approaches

- First, assume current directions for each circuit element.

- Second, replace each diode with an equivalent open circuit if the assumed current is in a reverse bias direction or a short circuit if it is in the forward bias direction.

- Third, apply KVL and KCL to the modified circuit.

- If the sign is opposite to the assumed direction, you must change its direction and reanalyze the circuit. Repeat this procedure with different combinations of current directions until there are no inconsistencies.

- 11 - EXAMPLE 3.3
Analysis of Circuit with More Than One Diode.
• Assumption 1: Applying KVL to the middle loop yields
I
R + I
(2
R
)
=
0 . It means that one
2
3
of the current directions was incorrectly as assumed.
• Assumption
2:
In
the
left
loop,
1 + I
(2
R
)
+ I
(2
R
)
=
0
.
In
the
right
loop,
1
3
− I
(2
R
)
+ I
R −
1
=
0 . From KCL,
− I
− I
= 0 . The result is
I
3 = −
1/(8
R
)
<
0 .
I 1
3
4
3
4
• Assumption 3: From KCL,
− I
= 0 .
In
the
outer loop,
1 + I
(2
R
)
+ I
R −
1
=
0 .
The
I 1
4
1
4
current
= I
=
2 /(3
R
) .
If
we
connect point B to the
ground,
V A =
1 − I
1 (2
R
)
= −
1 / 3 .
I 1
4
Therefore,
V
<V
.
A
B
- 12 - Assumption 4: In the left loop,

1 + I

1

(2

R

)

I

0 . In the right loop,

I 2

R + I

4

R

1 =

0 .

From KCL,

I 1

+ I

2

I

4

= 0 . The results are

I

1

=

3 /(5

R

) ,

I

2

=

1/(5

R

) , and

I

4

=

4 /(5

R

) . If

we connect point B to the ground,

there are no inconsistencies.

V A =

1 I

1 (2

R

)

= −

1/ 5 . Therefore,

V A

< V

B

. Therefore, CLASS DISCUSSION ITEM 3.7

Voltage Limiter.

- Sketch some input and output waveforms that illustrate the circuit’s behavior. - 13 -

 3.4. THE BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTOR 3.4.1 Understanding the Physics of a Bipolar Transistor  Consider only npn BJT (Bipolar Junction Transistor). The base (p-type) and emitter (n-type) make up a pn junction. If the pn junction is forward biased (the base-to-emitter voltage is 0.7

V), the depletion region shrinks and electrons move from the emitter to the base where the

holes exist.

Since the collector is more positive than the base, most of electrons accelerate toward the higher potential collector.

We can think a transistor as a variable resistor between two leads. We can change a large

collector current by controlling a small base current. Therefore, the bipolar transistor is a

is a current amplifier factor and on the

current amplifier given by

order of 100. However, we will use a transistor only as a switch.

I C

= β I

B

, where

β

The relationships of currents and voltages follow:

I E

= I

C

+ I

B

,

V BE

= V

B

V

E

,

- 14 -

V CE

= V

C

V

E 3.4.2 The Common Emitter Transistor Circuit
• The figure 3.16 shows the common emitter characteristics that the collector current
I
C
versus the collector-emitter voltage
for different values of base current
I
.
V CE
B
• The base-to-emitter diode of the transistor will turn on when
V BE
• At this point,
I
C will begin to flow and be proportional to
I
(
= β I
).
I C
B
B
• is further increase,
As
I
will slowly increase to 0.7 V but
I
C will rise exponentially.
B
V BE
• rises, the voltage drop across
As
I
R
C will increase and
V
will drop toward ground.
C
CE
• In a saturation region, the linear relation between
B no longer holds. Generally,
when
= 0.7 V
and
= 0.2 V
, a transistor is saturated.
V BE
V CE
EXAMPLE 3.4
Guaranteeing that a Transistor is in Saturation.
• Specifications of 2N3904
Maximum collector current (continuous) = 200 mA
(sat) = 0.2 V
V CE
= beta = 100
(depending on collector current and many other things)
h FE
• In the circuit below, what minimum input voltage
(Sol.)
is necessary to saturate the transistor?
V in
I
C = (10 − 0.2)V/10 KΩ = 9.8 mA
.
Since the dc current gain
for
I
C = 10 mA
h FE
100,
I
=
I
/100 = 0.098 mA
.
B
C
To ensure this base current,
I
=
0.098 mA
=
(
V
0.7 V)/10 kΩ
.
B
m min
= 1.68 V
is required to saturate the transistor.
V in
min
- 15 -

I and

C

I

3.4.3 The Bipolar Transistor Switch When

When

V in

V in

< 0.7 V

>

B

, the BE junction of the transistor is not forward biased (

+ 0.7 V

I

B

, I

C , and

V CE

I

B and

I

to select the resistances.

V

BE

< 0.7 V

).

I R , the BE junction is forward biased, and the transistor will be

C , since there exist very

small resistances between the base and emitter, and the collector and emitter. Refer to

specifications of

saturated. Two resistors are required to limit the currents,

B

DESIGN EXAMPLE 3.2

LED Switch.

The objective is to turn on or off a LED with a digital device with an output voltage of either 0 V to 5 V and a maximum output current of 5 mA.

LED requires 40 – 50 mA to provide a bright display.

When the digital output is 0V, the LED is OFF.

When the digital output is 5V, the transistor is in a saturation, and the base current and the current through LED are 0.43 mA = (5 V 0.7 V)/10 kand 48 mA = (5 V 0.2 V)/100 . - 16 -

3.4.4 Bipolar Transistor Packages

- TO-92 and TO-226, and TO-220 are the packages for small transistors and power transistors, respectively. SOT-23 is for use on production printed circuit boards. 3.4.5 Darlington Transistor

- Darlington Transistors are made up of two transistors, so the current gain is the product of the two individual transistors, usually 10,000. 3.4.6 The Phototransistor and Opto-Isolator

Opto-Isolator

When = 0 V

V

in

, V

out

= V

s

, and when

V in

= 5 V

,

V

out

= 0 V

.

The two power sources are completely separate by transmitting the signal optically rather than through an electrical connection. It is used to protect inputs or outputs from the other having the possibility to generate much electrical noises. - 17 -

Photo-Interrupt In the circuit,

R

2

is called a pull-up resistor, and usually over 1 k. The exact value is not

important because the current through the resistor is very small.

When the photo-interrupt is at a slot, light will pass through each slot producing 0 V output.

When the plate blocks the light of LED, the output is 5 V because the phototransistor is OFF.

This device is usually used to sense the limits of linear movement. Its outputs are connected to the Enable/Disable circuits.

Actually, a digital encoder has two photo-interrupts, but the size is much smaller.

3.5. FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTORS (FET)

Unlike the bipolar junction transistor, FET controls current through two terminals (called the drain and the source) by a voltage at a third terminal (called gate).

(Cf.) The BJT controls current through the collector and the emitter by a current at the base.

Analog of FET to BJT Drain --- Collector, Source --- Emitter, and Gate --- Base

Additional elements in FET: base (different from the base in BJT) and channel.

- 18 - Theory of operation:

The figure 3.22 shows the cross section of an n-channel MOSFET. When the drain and source are connected to positive and negative voltages, respectively, the source tries to push electrons and the drain attracts will attract electrons to make currents. However, the gap between two n-types in the p-type silicon protects the current flow.

A positive change on the gate attracts electrons in the substrate (called base), forming a conducting region called a channel allowing current to flow from the source to the drain.

Types of FET:

There are totally eight different kinds of FET by gate material type (JFET or MOSFET), by channel doping type (enhancement mode or depletion mode), and by conductor type (p- or n-channel).

The JFET has a pn junction (J) at the gate contact, and the MOSFET has a metal gate insulated from the semiconductor substrate by a very thin layer of silicon oxide (SiO 2 ). MOS stands for metal oxide semiconductor.

Enhancement mode: electrons are attracted to a thin channel adjacent to the gate in the p- type substrate, when a positive voltage is applied to the gate.

Depletion mode: the channel is doped with a thin n-type channel in the p-type substrate and a negative voltage is necessary to reduce the conduction.

For n- and p-channels, the conductions are by electrons and holes, respectively. - 19 -

has an extremely high input impedance at the gate (<10 14 ) making the FET easy to use.

is an adequate device for most digital integrated circuits, small devices, and fast and high-

It

It

current switch.

We don’t need to consider biasing the BE junction, proper base current to saturate the transistor, and picking proper resistors.

It has another functions such as an analog switch to pass or block a small signal: When

V

control

= 5 V

,

V out

= V , and when

in

V control

= 0 V

,

V

out

= 0

. Symbols of FET: G: gate, S: source, D: drain, and B: base or substrate

p-type (arrow out) and n-type (arrow in)

There is a separation between the gate and the source in the MOSFET but not in the JFET. The separation in the MOSFET represents the insulating layer of the metal oxide.

A broken line between source and drain indicates an enhancement mode device in contrast to

a solid line for a depletion mode device.

The gate line is offset toward the source to identify the source.

- 20 -

Behavior of FET:

I

D is proportional to

V GS

, whereas

I

C is proportional to

I

B in a BJT (refer to Fig. 3.16). DESIGN EXAMPLE 3.4

Circuit-to-Switch Power.

Since the gate of MOSFET consumes very small current, a MOSFET can be used as a switch to turn on or off a power circuit through the signal from a digital circuit.

When the transistor is ON, the gate is 0V, and when the transistor is OFF, the gate is 5V. HOME WORK – 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and the automobile charging system (CDI 3.6).

- 21 -