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The Image Business

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a. What impression do you get of the people in the pictures? How important is their image to them? Who do you think has to work hardest to maintain their image? Discussin pairs.

b. To what extent do these things contribute to a person's image? Which ones are easiest to change? Discussin groups.

· hairstyle · clothes · money· intelligence· behaviour· beauty · home · personality · friends· hobbies · accent · car · diet

All the following people are connected with the image business. What does their work involve? What effect do the images they create have on us? Discussin pairs.

actor

architect

artist

beautician

fashion-designer

film-director

illustrator

image-consultant

model

photographer

sculptor

stuntman

a.

What is meant by the following sayings? Do you agree with them? Why/Why not? Discussin pairs.

-

( Appearancescan be deceptive. )

( Beautyis only skin deep.

)

(, Beautyis in the eye of the beholder.

---

-

-The camera ne;r lies.

'--

(A picture

is worth

a thousand

words. )

WListen to someone talking about

an incident.Whichone of the abovesayingsdoesthe story illustrate?

(j) Listen again and find the words

the speaker uses to describe:

the advert

PiersSmythe-Tomkinson

·

his appearance

· his manner

the brochure

the bank's premises

d. Do you think you would ever be

as gullible

Why not? Discussin pairs.

as the speaker? Why/

4 _ Paraphrasethe following quotations. Which do you agree with? Discussin pairs.

'Beauty isn't worth

important is your mind:

thinking

about; what's

GarrisonKeillor (USwriter)

'55% of our influence upon others is based on our image:

LoriJohnson(British businesswoman)

191

-

1

Reading- Part2

a. Youwill readan articleabout BettyJackson,a fashiondesigner.Beforeyou read,discussthe following questionsin pairs.

fi(

What fashiondesignersdo you know of? What sort of clothesdo theydesign?

2 Which of these adjectivesfit your imageof a fashion designer?Canyouaddanymore?

.artistic'I -eccen

:generous

~ ~

:caringI ~orous

!ficI

l juvenile'

attractive

~!d

19famorousrebellio;!s

J:.!estrained

b. Lookat the title of the article.What doesit mean?How might it applyto a fashion designer?Now scanthe text to find out in what waysBettyJacksonis 'somethingof an oddity'.

1

---

.to

-

~

Somethingof an Oddity?

FashiondesignerBettyJacksonon herlife,herworkand theLondonfashionworld.

Fashion in this country is regarded as something of

a juvenile pursuit, dominated by shock tactics and flights of fancy, clothes by and for the very young and very bold. Even older British designers inhabit

a Peter Pan dream world of eternal

pink hair.

1

.

There is no display of deliberate eccentricity:

of restraint.

nothing

Jackson

is a model

She wears

but

her

own

designs

- 'Why

would

I wear

anybody

else's?'

sometimes

-

and,

adding

in

winter,

nothing

but

black,

touches

of white in summer. She

claims she does wear colour, because she sometimes

wears denim, although

I'm not sure that counts.

2

.

But as a regime, 'it works for me. And I don't think fashion is working unless it's in the context of someone living in it! For her, it is imperative that designs 'work': 'When you see someone wearing your clothes, and they've picked them out of all the choice that's out there, and they're wearing them, that's when you've really done it!

3 I Betty Jackson was born in Bacup, Lancashire, in 1949. Her mother 'was on committees, ran the home, looked glamorous'; her father owned a shoe factory. But it was a mild yen for teenage rebellion, rather than a daughterly desire to follow her father into the rag trade, that led her to study fashion.

192

4

Her

father,

clearly

skilled

at

outmanoeuvring

tIk:

wayward

young

Jackson,

said

that

art

college

W'3

fIne, but

insisted

on

Rochdale,

which

was

just

dow::

the

5

road.

After graduating in 1971,Jackson moved to London.

working

house, she met the designer Wendy Dagworthy

professor of fashion at the Royal College of Art) an became a design assistant. A few years later she moved on to the fashion collective Quorum, and iJ:

Ltd was born.

as a fashion

illustrator. 9ne

day, at a friend

(no-'

1981, Betty Jackson

.

6

If Jackson

than most designers, there is one event in her - that see1;Ilsto have shaped this. Aged 21, during a

last year as a student, she had a horrillc car crash. - a result of her injuries she had one leg amputata.

She spent

bed, passing

influenced her decision to begin her ~areer

illustrator

influenced

seems

a great

deal more

down

to er'"

a year

rather

her

at her

parents'

home, confIned

drawing,

wh

as

a great

than

attitude

deal

of time

-

a ,-

a designer. The accident

to the fashion

world. ~

you have a physical disability,fashion is hardly ;;

obvious career because everyone is so gorgeous ;;;::

glantQrous. It would be lovely if everyone was ;f and slender and perfect; she says - but she knc- that they're not.

E

F

 

!

-

~

 

--

 

~

,

.

,

-.

 

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"""

Jackson has, by any measure, really done it. Her ) business has survived more than 20 years in an

industry where few see their 30th birthday before bankruptcy. What's more, Jackson has enjoyed a renewed cult following over the past few years,

attracting a new generation of celebrity clients, such as ex-AllSaint Melanie Blatt, who have brought a new

buzz around the Betty Jackson label.

I

I

I

The early years were 'the most incredibly exciting time. Everyone loved British fashion. We were turning away

orders because we couldn't cope.' After the high came a recession which saw many of Jackson's contemporaries

go under. That Jackson survived has earned her

respect. To stay at the top of British fashion for any length of time is a huge challenge.

enormous

l

I

So it is no surprise that Britain's obsession with tacky celebrity is not to her taste. 'Fashion reporting has become so trite. Fashion has always been involved in

celebrity culture; we've always dressed

musicians, but now it seems to have taken over. And

the quality of celebrity seems to have gone downhill.

film stars and

Which makes

designer but

Betty Jackson, who is a British fashion

also

most definitely a

grown-up,

something of an oddity. She designs a range for Marks

& Spencer, the ultimate grown-up store. Her hair is not fuchsia but snowy white.

'1 didn't really know what I wanted to do. All I knew was that I didn't want to go to university, which was what I was supposed to do. I was vaguelygood at art,

and there was a sit-in at Homsey College of Art at the

time, and

announced I wanted to go to art college.'

I rather fancied the sound of that,

so

I

It's not that she doesn't likecolour - there is plentyof it in her collections- 'it's something to do with wanting to be anonymous. By which I don't mean to suggest I don't like to be in control. I realise I must have an ego the size of a house to do what I do, so let's not pretend otherwise.'

None the less, Jack.son loved art college from the start.

'As soon as I got there I realised I'd fortuitously come to the right place. There were all these exciting, interesting people, and the textiles department had a fantastic library of old Chinese and Mongolian textiles. That's where I started to enjoy messing about with cloth.' After a year's foundation course, she went on to

I

2

Read the article more carefully. Six paragraphs have been removed. Choose from the paragraphs A-G the one which fits each gap (1-6). There is one

extra paragraph you do not need to use.

3

Highlight the parts of the text that helped

you

decide where the missing paragraphs fit, and compare with a partner.

Vocabulary

Practice

 

4

a. Match the highlighted words in the article with the definitions below.

 

· rebellious · cliched· bychance · vital

· regulated system · obtaining an advantage over

·the opposite· desire

 

b. Explainthe words in bold.

Text Analysis

 

5

Explainthe meaning of the following phrases from the article.

1

flightsof fancy(para 1)

2

inhabit a Peter Pan dream world (para 1)

3

confinedto bed (after gap 6)

4

cult following (para A)

5

go under (para B)

6

an ego the size of a house (para F)

Discussion

 

6

Which of these elements do you consider most important when choosing clothes? Why? Discussin

pairs.

 

comfort durabii~y fabric~

fashion- I !abel

price

 

practicality

s!}'le

other

7

Imagine you work as a journalist for a fashion

magazine. You have been asked to interview Betty

Jackson. In pairs, use the information frorv. the text to act out the interview.

8

Workingroups.Imagineyou are fashion

_ designers. Decide on your winter collection for men, women and children. Draw pictures, then

study - fashion and textiles at Birmingham.

---

-

-

-

---

) present your collectionto the class.

193

J

194

Language

Focus

.~

~-

t]'f;

~~i~:~~'-~ .

.

~

~

Clothes

Beauty Tools

1 a. Matchthe clothingto the photographs,then chooseanytwo

peopleand describethem to yourpartner.

-.

I .-

I'

2

Which of the following are most/:, used by women (W),which by mer (M)and which are unisex (U)?Wha their use? Tellyour partner.

1shavingfoam

 

;2

hairtrimmer

3

nailscissors

;4

comb

;

5

stylingmousse

;6

nailfile

 

;

7

blusher

;8

moisturiser

 

;

9

polishremover

;10eyeliner

;

11lipgloss

;12tweezers

 

;

Qdd-one-out

 

3

In pairs, find the odd-one-out

 

in ea::::

group, then brieflyexplain why it

doesn't

belong

in the group.

 
 

1

sideburns- moustache- tattoo - bea,,:

 

Tattoois theodd-one-outbecauseall o. arekindsoffacialhair.

 

2

dinnerjacket- denimshirt - bow LP-- ball gown

3

after-shavelotion- nailpolish- eye shadow- lipstick

 

4

hairdresser-

director-

beauticiar

 

make-upartist

 
 

5

waistcoat- sandals- stilettos- welling:o

6

collar- cuff- sleeve- shoelace

 

7

eyeliner-lip gloss- razor- foundatiO'"

8

stockings- sweater- woollyjumper- blouse

9

necklace- earring'- bracelet- kilt

 

10

cotton- hanger- wool- silk

 
 

Body language

 

4

a.

MatchitemsfromAand Bto

a. stripytank-top,blackjeans b. charcoalsuit,whiteshirt

c. bomberjacket, white shirt d. white blouse,black scarf

e. dark suit, stripy tie f. denim dungarees,cowboy hat

g. stripyred and

white top, dungarees h. leatherjacket,jeans, leatherbelt

This person is wearing

b. Which of the outfits

in the pictures would

you wear for

·a job interview? .a first date? . a wedding? ·a walk in the

park?

· doingchoresaroundthehouse?· goingto schooVcoliege?

inpairs.

c.

Which of the adjectives are positive (P),which are negative (N)

form phrases which describe and which can be either, depending on the context (E)?Decide variouskindsof bodylanguage

outgoing charismatic indecisive irresponsible

sociable

knowledgeable

sophisticated

dependable untrustworthy ill-disciplined

confident

approachable

unassuming

unpretentious

introverted

unpredictable

respectable

aggressive

distant

impish

coarse

stuffy

intellectual

assertive

d. Use the adjectives photographs (1-8).

in Ex. 1c to talk about

the people

A:

Theyoungmanin thedarksuitlooksquiteunassuming.

in the

I

B: Iagree.Healsocomesacrossasindecisive.

.

lick

hold

drum

shrug

wrinkle

purse

clench

raise

shake

twist

I

nod

.

.

your breath

your nose

yournead

your fingers

your lips

your hair

your head

your lips

your fists

your shoulders

youreyebrows

!

5

--~

---

::

in the following sentences with some of the

~rases

from

Ex. 4a in their

correct

form.

Use

:''''E remaining

phrases in sentences

of your own.

:~e

and scratchedher head

-~oughtfully

before she answered the

interviewer's

: ;estion.

e

suspect nervously

and fidgeted in

~ 15chair while he waited

for his solicitor

to arrive.

-"e

director

"1eXperienteo octCT S\.\99~S\~1!,

r,e football fan

~eam scored the winning goal.

in surprisewhen the

\;\~?\o'J tl\~ l~od (ole

angrilyas the opposing

_

.;s mum was talking

on the phone,

she simply

in

assent when

I asked

if I could

borrow

,he car.

:.

In pairs, use the

phrases in

Ex.4a to discusshow

people convey the feelings listed in the box in a non-verbal way, as in the example.

· bored · angry

· disgusted· indecisive · shocked

· nervous

· anxious

-. Howcanyou tellif somebodyyou'retalkingto isbored?

:'

Well,/ canusuallytelltheyareboredif theydrumtheir

fingersor twisttheirhair.

*'

'"

Collocations

- a.

-

Match A to B to make collocations then use them to write sentences.

,

changing

surgery

dress

top

evening

care

sleeveless

code

cosmetic

wear

skin

room

tailored

features

well-defined

suit

She looked

quite

face with its

aristocratic

because of her handsome

.

2

Why don't you try the sweater on? The

is at the back of the boutique.

3

She thought

her nose was far too to reduce its size.

big, so she had

4

Beauticiansagreethat

isvery

important

and recommend

that you use a moisturiser

at

least twice

a day.

5

6

For items like gowns

to

and dinner jackets,

you need to

on the sixthfloor.

go

Although

it was late November, it was still warm

to go out in shortsanda

enough

.

7

Thenew

meansthat all male

employees

have to wear a tie.

S

Crispandcool,the

wastoo hard

for Sarah to resist, even at £600.

b.

Complete the cartoon caption below with an item from Ex. Sa.

~_Films

6

a.

Which of the following kinds of films have you

seen?Whichdo you like/dislike?Tellyour partner.

· roadmovie · costumedrama

· slapstickcomedy · spoof · epic

· romanticcomedy· psychologicalthriller

· murdermystery· film noir · actionadventure

· western · adaptation

) Useful language: likes and Dislikes

·

·

·

I don't

I don't usually go for

mind

but'

I can't

stand

.1 find

tedious/depressing.

much

prefer

Instead, I'd rather watch

them

really predictable/corny/uninteresting!

· I just love a good

·

I->

I find them

Some

more moving!entertaining!enjoyable/powerfuVcharminglinsightfuV

amusinglthought-provoking.

are alright, but generally I prefer

much

/ don'tmindromanticcomedies,but/ muchprefermurder mysteries./findthemmuchmoreenjoyable.

195

,I

Language Focus

.

b. Consulting a dictionary if necessary,say what

the following

people

do.

· screenwriter · director . lighting technician

· editor · costume designer . film critic

· specialeffects engineer · make-up artist

· sound engineer . stuntman . double

Thescreenwriteristhepersonwhowritesthescriptfora film.

c. Complete as much of the following questionnaire as possible about your favourite film, then tell the classabout it.

Title

Kind

of

Director

film

Year

Starring

Reasonsfor choice

:

My favouritefilm is Titanic,a 1997romancestarringKate Winslet

and LeonardoOi Caprio.It is directedby JamesCameron.I like

thisfilmbecause

:) Words often Confused

7 Underlinethe correctword in eachsentence.

Beinghealthycanhavevery(confident/positive/gainful/ progressive)effectson the wayyoulook.

2

Buyingcomputersmeantthat the dozensof employees whosejob hadbeento filedocumentswere(truly/validly/ correctly/effectively)maderedundant

3

Hewaitedin the carwith the engine(turnedout/turned away/turnedover/turnedoff).

4

Visitingthe castlegivesyou a real(sens.e/significance/ meaning/comprehension)of the city'spast

S

Exercisehasmanybeneficialeffectson yourhealth.but it isalsoenjoyablein its (particular/proper/own/individual) right

6

We decidedto (fit/apply/set/position)newwindowsall aroundthe house.

7

A strongdownwardcurrentcausedthe balloonto start (dropping/missing/declining/losing)heightrapidly.

8

Dataconcerningthe factory'semissionof pollutantsis

9

not readily(known/available/suitable/convenient). Justfollowtherules.submitallworkontimeandyou'lihave no problems.It's just (common/general/clear/practical) sense.really.

10

Whenyou'replanningyour exercise.keepin mindyour (balance/grade/level/stage)of fitnessandsetgoalsthat arerealistic.

196

:) Idioms

8 Fillin the gapswith itemsfrom the list, then

explain the idioms in your own words. Are there similar idioms in your language?

· appearances· face · eye · ears · lips · teeth · tongue · ear

Theinsuranceindustryis smackingits ,,- the prospectof more and more peoplewanting := insuretheirpossessions.

2

Despitethe fact that he was in very seriousmore

trouble. he was still concernedwith

keeping l,;p

.

3

Hewantedto saysomething.buthebithis anddecidednono getinvolvedintheargument

4

SteveandI do not alwaysseeeyeto but '=

doourbestto get along.

S

Her colleaguesthought that she had the manager's sotheywouldoftengoto herwith reques::

or complaints.

6

Twoessaysand a presentationdue next week shou:

giveyouplentyto sinkyour

into.

7

Shepretendsto be poor,but the truth is she'sg="

moneycomingout of her

.

8

Whenthe boysawhismotherservingthe vegetables~.~ pulleda(n) in disgust

:)

Fixed Phra~es (phrases with

down)

9 a. Matchthe fixed phraseswith their meanings.

[[]

m

m

m

down-and-out down in the mouth ups and downs down the drain

m down-to-earth

~

hand-me-downs

IZD down

payment

IKJ down-at-heel

.' .

a poor

b

sensible

shabby

c

d wasted

e depressed

f good and bad times

9

h

used clothes

deposit

b. Usefixed phrasesfrom aboveto fill in the ga~ in the sentences.

~

Don't worry about him; he's just a bit

about his forthcoming fortieth birthday.

2

3

4

For a

film

idol.

him incredibly

and modest about his success.

I

find

_ Since his redundancy last year he's been looking rat~

.

Don't wasteyour time buyingany of thoseanti-agir;

creams.It'ssimplymoney

.

-

~

.E

"

11

2

3

4

S

.'

PhrasalVerbs

~

Appendix1

.- 'Jlatchthe verbswith the particlesto form phrasal "erbsand usethem, in the correcttense,to completethe sentencesbelow.

--

-- at

over

'------"

----

 

--

under -

GO

 

---

PIa

-- up(2)

~

Eversincethe priceof cinematickets (increase)I'vestoppedgoingto seefilms.

2 He's got a problem with his self-imageright now

becausehis~usinessrecently

(fail).

3 I heard that that politician has an image-consultant

(select)all hisclothesfor him.

4 It is well known that those who

(bully) peoplesmallerthan themselves arelackingin self-confidence.

5 Really,Martha!Youspenda fortuneon gettingyourhair doneeverymonthandit just cannot (continue).

6 Why don't you come down to my office and we'll (examine)the reasons

-

----

whyyouthink you'rea failure.

7 On your way homecanyou stop at the cleaner'sand (collect)mydinnerjacket?

8

Shethinksshe'sgainedweightandasa resultshebarely (nibble) her food.

~ Communication:ExpressingSurprise

11 a.

Fillin the gaps with the words 9iven to form phrases used to express surprise.

~

 

· shock· serious

· come · quite · aback

I'm rathertaken

byall

.

.

of this.

~

2

Thisissomethingof a

.

3

off it!

4

Thisis

 

astonishing.

 

5

Are you

?

--:--.;;

.-=r.:~:

f

Listening & Speaking

(Listening-Part 2

1 a. Youwill hear an image-consultant giving advice to students looking for jobs. Before you listen,

discuss these

questions

in pairs.

· Thespeakerwill referto 'a grungystudentimage'and

a 'stylishready-for-the-world-of-worklook'?What is the difference?

· How might your imageaffectyour chancesat a job interview?

· Howcanyoumakea goodimpressionwhengoingfor

an interview?

b. Lookat the notes below and suggest what kind of information might be needed to fillthe gaps.

o Now listen to the recording. Forquestions 1-8, complete the sentences.

Importance of image

Thefirst[D

Iof an intervieware

vitalforcreatinga favourableimpression.

Menshouldweara darkgreysuitanda

~

Ishirt.

Womenshouldweara suitthat complementstheir

~

~

I.

Ishoescancreatea bad

impression.

WomeF1 shouldmakesurethat their make-upisnot

~

I.

Menshouldexercisecautionwith @]

It isimportantto maintain~ the interviewer.

It isa goodideato practiseyour

~

Iin advance.

I.

1 with

d. What do you think of the advice given? Discuss

198

in pairs.

,

0

(Listening

2 a. Youwill hear some people talking about speaa effects in films. Before you listen, discuss the following in pairs.

- Part4

· Haveyou seen any films in which specialef,.- playedan importantrole?Whatsortof specialef~- werethey?Howsuccessfulwerethey?

· Thefollowingwordsare usedby the speakers do they mean?How might they be connected specialeffectsin films? · hideous· cumbersome. reluctant

·authentic . implausible

W Now listen to the recording and do the following tasks.

Task1

For questions

who is speaking.

1-5, choose from the list A-H the per5lr

A

a specialeffectsartist

B

a film director

(

an actorin a horrorfilm

D

a costumedesigner

E

a stuntman/woman

F

a make-upartist

G

a comedyactor

H

a cameraman/woman

m

m

m

m

IT]

.

Task2

For questions 6-10, choose from the list A-H tt>:

difficultiesthe speakers have to cope with.

A

fear

B

vanity

(

cost

D

inconsistency

E

time

F

boredom

G

texture

H discomfort

@I]

IT]

@D

IT]

.

c. Wouldyou liketo do any of these jobs? Why~ not? Tellthe class.

.I

'I

c

~

~

.

1

I'"

~~

-

"

'.

--

Speaking- Part3:Discuss,Evaluate& Select

:: The Visual Image

3 Work in pairs. look at these

(~~dents A & B

-~

pictures of people at work. Talkto each

other about the importance of the visual image in these jobs. Then decide which job you think is the most difficult to do well.

\

--

"

t.

~"

Whatis the importance

of the

visual

image in these jobs?

 

Which

job do you think

is the most

difficult

to do well?

"-

----

] Useful language: Evaluating

· It is difficult to judge

· What one person seesas art, another seesas

· If it doesn't look good

·

· Different people have different priorities

everyonehas hislher own style.

people won't like it/try it

It must appeal to the eye

I Useful

language:

Selecting

·

· Some people have a natural talent

· There has to be a personal connection

It is hard to

say

they all have their challenges

"

· I have

to

admit

is the

most

challenging.

· lney

a\\ nave 't'oe\{

dW,ku\\\es

\\o'Ne"e~.

~<)~'me

8I.\;~~J

(Speaking-~art4

~ntsA&B

~

4

Discussthe following questions together.

 

Do you judge peopleJthings on

how they look?

 

2

Have the fashion and art worlds

 

influenced people's perception

of beauty and ability?

 

3

What makes someone/something

 

attractive or appealing?

 

4

Have you ever bought something!

 

eaten something because it

looked good and then been

disappointed by it?

 

5

Is the visual image of someone!

 

something the most important

factor for you?

5

0

Listento two candidates

doing the speaking tasks in Exs. 3 and 4 and compare their performance to that of your classmates.

Assess your classmates

intermsof:

· grammar and vocabulary

· discourse

management

· pronunciation

· interactive communication

:> Everyday English

·Responding to

compliments

6 Inpairs,decidewhat the other

speaker

expressions

has said and use the

below in response.

a You're too kind.

b Do you reallythink so?

c That's niceof you to say.

d Glad youiike it.

e It is, isn't it?

A:

Youlook fabulous in that suit.

B:

You'retoo kind.

Reading- Part1

1

You are going to read three short extracts which are all linked to one theme.

a. Quickly read through the titles of the extracts

and look at the accompanying photographs and say what theme links the three texts.

· supernatural

beings

· faked photographs

·

photography

as art

b. The following phrases appear in the three extracts. Try to guess in which extract each

.phrase will appear. Then read the extracts

quickly

to check your answers.

· a virtual world

· ethereal face

· winged fairies · ghostly spectres

2

Readthe extracts again. For questions 1-6, choose the answer (A, B, C or D) which you think fits best according to the text.

A

William Mumler was a 19th century Boston engraverwho dabbled in the then recent technological advance called

5 photography. In 1861, less

than forty years after the world's first photograph,;

Mumler noticed a strange,~

ethereal face next to his in a

had taken. He

10 self-portrait

he

~

'

discoveredthat an accidental

double exposure caused the

effect,and he figured out how to duplicate it. Mumler began a new career as a spirit

~

~

.':j

.

~

15

medium. Sitters were willing to pay exorbitant fees to have him take their picture,which Mumlerwould doctor with surroundingghostly images.The added faceswere often interpretedas deceasedloved onesor celebrities.

Mumler's trickery inspired a long line of successors.

20

Photographers used similar techniques through the early 20th century to great fanfare. However, things began to crumble when word got out that many of the ghostly spectres in his photos were recognisablyliving Bostontownsfolk.This led him to movehis operationsto

25

New York, but he was brought to trial in 1869 and chargedwith fraud.

200

B The CottingleyFairies

3

In 1917 two innocent-seeming English schoog 16-year-oldElsie Wright and her 10-year-oldCO- Frances Griffiths, launched a deception -:_

somehowmanagedto fool many peopleover

-

5 following years, including the creator of She-'::

Holmes, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. While playing in Cottingley Glen, just behil'c -- Wright home, the girls took what they claimed '='- close-up photographs of winged fairies da[,G~

10

amid the foliage. A certain Edward Gardner gC'

hear about the photos and he proceededto see

::

a

photographer who had the ability to examine"':-

photographsfully. So it was that Harold Sne

came to his notice.Gardnerwas informedthat, '\', '"

15

Snelling doesn't know about faked photographs s-

worth knowing.' Snelling's considered judgemer:

his letter to Edward Gardner of 31 July 1920,~a 'These two negatives are entirely genuine, unfa:a:

photographs of single exposure, open-air we'" 20 show movement in all the fairy figures, and there no trace whatsoeverof studio work involving carc :

paper models, dark backgrounds, painted figu~ etc. In my opinion, they are both straight untoucra:

pictures.'

According to the writer, William Mumler

c

oS re

: ::ze

-:e

:ee

n

~

~

:~er

'~a

ao

'.~

"er

r ">-e

'r

.,.

:erp.

::;am

~n

'"

J

.or1c

L

Dub

oosit

prod

e.,'el)

5

A

set out to create a fake image.

B

accidentally discoveredthe meansof faking images.

(

copiedawell-knowntechniquefor fakingimages.

D

photographedthe spiritsof the dead.

~

2 Mumler's fraud was discovered when

6

A

the photo phantoms turned out to be real people.

B

the people of Boston recognisedthe photos as fake.

(

his photographic equipment was damaged.

D

he moved to New York.

T

 

3 EdwardGardnerwastold that

 

A

HaroldSnellingdidn'tknowa greatdealaboutfakedphotos.

B

HaroldSnellingknewa greatdealaboutfairies.

e

HaroldSnelling'sjudgementwasnot worth having.

-

o

HaroldSnellingwasan experton fakedphotos.

-

-

4 In the writer's opinion

 

A

the fairiesin the photographswerefake.

-

B

the photographswerecreatedin a studio.

e

ElsieandFrancesweretoo innocentto inventsucha hoax.

o

the fairiesin the photographswerereal.

-

c

Seeingis NotAlwaysBelieving

-,5regular viewers of the weird and wonderful on TV, we are

"=- -jzens of a virtual world in which nothing surprises us, very -;Je shocks us and what we see is not always what we :e,'jeve.The line between the real and the fake has become so

-'1 that a little airbrush, a quick run through photoshop or 5

beyond

ecognition. We easily accept the impossible, and to the

entertainment and with our full

is perhaps acceptable. What is

~'T1e subtle

CGI

is

is

for

enough to

blur

that

line

- ::1ent that

our

."',()wledge, the situation

it

10

_~itting

-'en illusion becomes deception. "e practice of altering photographs to revise history and :erpetuate a lie has been around since the invention of the :a.mera and the developments that have taken place have 15 :'11y increased the possibilities of misuse. The advertising

_')8cceptableis when the illusion of reality is presented to an

public without its understanding or consent. This is

orld creates impossibly perfect worlds to sell its products,

It :

Jblic's :

:x>sition.The most advanced technology, however, has yet to 20

Y"oducea fool-proof method of determining the authenticity of

probably the most dangerous abuse is altering the

perception of the truth in the quest for power or

:'Jeryimage.

.

5

What doesthe writer implyabout fake images?

A

It isusuallyeasyto detectthem.

B

We do not carewhethertheyarerealor not.

e

It isnot alwayspossibleto identifythem.

o

We arebecominglessemotional.

6

What does the writer considerto be unethicalabout faking images?

A

The lack of

research into

separating fact

from

fiction.

B

The

way

it

is

used to

deceive people for

political ends.

e

The

inability of

consumers to

buy

products seen on

TV.

o

Theattitudeof the publictowardsbeingmisinformed.

 

Vocabulary Practice

3

a.

Match the highlighted words and phrases in the extracts with their synonyms below.

1 recreatein the sameway

2 greenery

3 whichiscertainto besuccessful

4 experimentedwith

5 who doesn'tknowor realise

something

6 real

7 to makesomethingcontinuefor a longtime

b. Find at least three words in the extracts which have to do with

'cheating'. Checkwith your partner.

4

5

Discussion

Do you think that every photograph of 'ghosts' or 'fairies' is faked? Is it possible that some of them might be real? How can they be explained?

Classcompetition

_ Where can we see examples of computer-generated images?What is your opinion of them? How do they affect the way we seeourselves and the world

around us? Discussin pairs.

~

201

Use of English

202

" I :Iord formation

:ornpletethe table with the correctform of the words.

~

i'!h.:~L.llJ'"@

 

art

1)

2)

sculpt

3)

sculptor/4)

sculpted

photograph

5)

6)

~

7)

paint

8)

9)

10)

colour

11)

/

act

12)

13)

1.

14)

15)

performer

e :;f English- Part3

: ~r questions1-10,usethe words in bold to form wordsthat fit in the numberedspacesin the text.

~

~~m~

P;c.a$$O

Matisseand Picassoaretwo of the twentiethcentury'smost0) influential artists,who gainedmutual1) from eachother'swork.

Their work was 2)

was aboutmorethanjust imitatingwhatthe eye seesin the worldat any

given moment.Their art uses forms

more abstractand personal,such as memory,emotionand experience.

They overtumed4)

the West for five hundredyears.Yet neitherMatissenor Picassoever

abandoned subject matter 5) . No matter how distorted or 6) their work appearsto be, it never

representsobjectswhichare7)

During their

8) , drawing,printmaking,ceramics,glassand theatre design,they drew inspirationfrom artists of the past and from art of differentcultures.The Matisse-Picassoexhibitionis a truly9)

long and prolific careers, which encompassedpainting,

becausethey believedthat art

of 3)

that are

traditionsthat had held sway in

to us.

INFLUENCE

INSPIRE

INNOVATE

PERCEIVE

ART

ENTIRE

CONFUSE

FAMILIAR

SCULPT

MOMENT

oneandeveryone of the workson show is fascinating.But the pointof the exhibitionis not so muchthe individualmasterpiecesas the echoing

andmirroringthatshowthetwoartists'10)

other'sart.

M

witheach

ENGAGE

~.

203

fl' I

;'

"

Useof English- Part2

6_

Forquestions - - 1-15, think of --- the word which - best fits each gap. Useonly one word in each gap. ---

'

([)(o11.00& @)~ 1

 

Dolls

and

plenty

of

toys

were

once

0)

th~

sole requirement

for

a hap;:;

,

)

childhood.

Not

any 1)

 

. These days, style matters even in the playgrouf1d

~ 2)

means

that

an_image

obsession

can

strike

3)

children

are

~

barely

out

of

nappies.

Eavesdrop on

a conversation

at a primary

school

and

it

is jus

5)

4)

likely to revolve around the latest fashions as favourite is the darker side to this preoccupation with appearance

cartoon characters. Bt., that is causing concern

among

some experts.

Research carried

6)

over the past two

years has highlighted

;:.

dangerous body-image trend in children as young as three and four. 7)

how they look that they are prepared to diet and restrict

change their appearance. A degree of weight awareness is evident 10)

8)

dissatisfied are some wit:-

food

ta

~.the age of two upwards, aN:

intake in 9)

,'pJ

Us

11)

the time they start school, many children

have developed definite insecurities about how the"

12)

perceived. Significantly,

the children

who are most concerned

13)

weight are

almost consistently

those 14)

parents are most controlling

about 15)

is eaten a-

home.

--

.

--

--

--

Useof English- Part 7

---

-----

.

.,

7 For questions 1-12, decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best fits each gap.

.,ders-to-be

In a competition for 0)

A models,four thousandgirls betweenthe agesof 16and 24were auditioned

by a 1)

to return for amore 2)

up and a personal interview. A further workshopweek followed, involving make-overs,hair-styling and

more catwalktraining, after which the girls were finally whittled down to five.

of three judges from top model agency Premier Model Management. Twenty-two were asked

vetting process.This involvedcatwalktraining, being3)

without make-

The finalists will now 4)

three months of intensive training. Cameraswill 5)

them

~

around constantly, capturing the daily 6) of castings, shoots and lessons from industry

professionals. Also in 7) for them are exhausting workouts at the gym, plus appointments with hairdressers, nutritionists, beauticians and specialist skin clinics.

Despite its 8)

image, the modelling world is 9)

and the finalists will certainly be

10) through their paces. But though their lives may be all keep fit and carrot juice, the prize

at the end is glittering - a year's modelling 11)

with Premier Model Management, an

overseas photo shoot for the 12) of Cosmopolitan magazine, and the chance to model on the catwalk at London Fashion Week.

1

204

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

aspiring

council

solid

assessed

overcome

pursue

grind

stock

shining

firm

put

promotion

lid

,

---

,

B

B

B

B

B

B

B

B

B

B

B

B

B

hopeful

panel

exact

charged

outlast

take

attempt

store

gorgeous

stiff

shown

contract

jacket

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

wishful

meeting

rigorous

investigated

undergo

hunt

duty

view

glamorous

tough

pushed

treaty

cover

D

D

D

D

D

D

D

D

D

D

D

D

D

expectant

range

stable

noted

uphold

follow

labour

supply

picturesque

sticky

thrown

settlement

sleeve