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2006 International Conference on Power System Technology

Overcurrent Relay

Integrated Protection Scheme for Distribution Systems


based
Z Q Bo, J H He, X Z Dong, B R J Caunce and A Klimek
concept of an overall integrated protection where the protection package would not only oversee individual units of plant but also a section of the network. However, the idea has not been put into practice thus far since the computer hardware/software and the communication technology were not available to support such an idea. Since then, relay technology has enjoyed successful development based on the application of digital techniques for power system protection. The introduction of microprocessors into protection in the 1980's generally followed the conventional approach with the implementation of distributed processing platforms that concentrated on protecting individual units of the system. Limited integrated protection was provided in the form of back-up protection and as such has remained a secondary function.

Abstract-- This paper reports on the development of integrated protection for power system. The background of the development is firstly introduced, in which a centralized protection system (or relay) provides the protection of multiple power plant or a substation. A novel integrated protection scheme for distribution system is described. The scheme is based on overcurrent protection technique, in which specially designed protection relays are installed at each substation of a network. In the proposed scheme, one integrated relay is responsible for the protection of every line sections connected to the substation busbar. The conventional directional overcurrent and new adaptive accelerated protection algorithms are implemented into the relay with multiple overcurrent settings to cover all the protected line sections. The paper includes studies of a typical multi section distribution network to demonstrate the principle of the scheme. Studies show that the new scheme not only offer the new protection features for individual power line, but also provide the characteristics of integrated protection.
Index Terms-Integrated Protection, Centralized Protection, Network Protection.
I. INTRODUCTION

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A century has passed since the application of the first electro-mechanical overcurrent relay in power system protection. The majority of the protection principles currently employed in protection relays were developed within the first 3 decades of the last century, such as overcurrent, directional, distance and differential protection as shown in Fig.l. These relaying principles are based on the measurement of power frequency signal for fault detection. Following the progression of technology, the protection devices have migrated from electro-mechanical to semiconductor, to integrated circuit and to microprocessor technologies. Today, microprocessor based digital and numeric relays are replacing conventional relays in all areas of power system protection. However, many of the same relaying principles of protection are still playing a dominant role.
In the late 1960's, Rockefeller [1] proposed the application of a centralized substation protection system based on a centralized computer system. The concept fits well with the
Z Q Bo, B R J Caunce and A Klimek are with the AREVA T&D Automation, UK. J H He is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, China X Z Dong is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Tsinghua University, China

Adaptive Protection

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DEVELOPMENT OF RELAYING PRINCIPLES


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Fig. 1 History of Relay Developments

In the late 1970's, with the continuous expansion of the power network, the demand for the fast fault clearance to improve system stability encouraged research into non-power system frequency fault detection techniques to increase the speed of the relay response. This led to the development of the so called 'ultra high speed' relays based on travelling wave and superimposed components [2-4], which utilize the fault generated transient for transmission line protection. However, due to the limitations of the digital processing technology at the time, the relays developed based on these protection principles, and did not immediately achieve widespread

application.

1-4244-0111-9/06/$20.00 C2006 IEEE.

Development in the 1980s and 90s provided new means to advance power system protection, specially 'Adaptive Protection'[5-6] and the Artificial Intelligent (Al) based protection techniques[8-11] in the 80's and 90's. As a result, the performance of the protection relays has been improved. However, these have concentrated on the improvement of conventional relaying techniques, and no significant new relaying principles have resulted from the application of the Adaptive and Al techniques.

In recent years, there has been the further development in both microprocessor and transducer technologies. This has enabled fault detection techniques to be considered which II. INTEGRATED PROTECTION SCHEME BASED ON were impractical in the past and encouraged interest in the OVERCURRENT RELAY utilization of fault generated transients for protection. Studies have found that the fault generated high frequency transients The integrated protection scheme is mainly based on the can be detected and quantified and open the possibility for well established overcurrent (OC) protection technique, the developing new protection principles and techniques [12]. basic principle of which is well known and not to be Considerable effort has now been devoted to research on high described here [29]. frequency transient detection. A number of new techniques have been proposed [13-14]. At the same time, the dramatic growth in signal processing power of relay platforms, and the A. Basic Principle of the Protection Scheme availability of suitable communications schemes, has provided A typical distribution network together with the proposed a new opportunity to develop new protection techniques. relay units as shown in Fig.2 is used to demonstrate the Research shows that information obtained from multiple power proposed protection scheme. As shown, the integrated plants and components can be used to derive new protection overcurrent relays (IOR) are installed at each substation principles and schemes, which could have significant busbars, and are interfaced to every CT on the lines connected advantages over the existing protection techniques based on to this busbar. The relay is also interfaced to the busbar VT individual plant or component[15-27]. Recently, a novel for the purpose of directional measurement. The IOR is integrated protection scheme based on fault transient detection equipped with a number of conventional and new protection is proposed[28]. In the scheme, a centralized protection relay functions operating in serial/parallel, which can be classified is installed at a substation and interfaced to every line, through as 3 operating stages. the CTs. The fault generated transient signals are captured by the relay, the polarities and levels of the signals are then The first stage is the directional OC based instant tripping compared, from which the direction of the fault can be stage, each relay is equipped with multiple overcurrent derived. The directional decision is then forwarded to relevant settings to cover all its associated line sections. The relay will substation relays and the integrated network protection and instantly trip the circuit breaker associated with the faulted automation unit, the faulted line section can be isolated by line section for a fault over its predefined OC setting local protection or network protection. threshold. At the same time, the relay will send the direction information to the remote relays if the communication This paper presents a new integrated protection scheme channels are available and to the Integrated Network based on overcurrent protection principle. An integrated Protection (INP) unit. protection relay is installed at a substation and interfaced to every line through the CTs and busbar VT. The relay is also The second stage of protection function will apply if the interfaced to the substation communication network which is relay can not instantly operate based on OC settings. There are communicated with all neighboring stations and a central two protection functions in this stage, the application of protection and control system. In the proposed scheme, the which will depend on whether a communication channel is relay is responsible for the protection of every line sections available between the relays at both ends of the protected line connected to the substation busbar. The overcurrent directional section. The directional comparison technique specially detection and adaptive accelerated protection algorithms are for distribution systems [35] will apply when the designed implemented into the relay with multiple overcurrent settings communication channel for inter-tripping is available, to cover all the protected line sections. otherwise, the accelerated non-communication protection for distribution systems [30-34] will be applied for techniques When a fault occurs on any of the line associated with the accelerated tripping. The details about the techniques are well substation, the relay will firstly determine the faulted direction. in The overcurrent algorithm together with the relevant setting documented the references and are not to be described here. will apply to the faulted line to determine the fault location. In the third stage, the Integrated Network Protection unit The relay will trip instantly when the fault current is over the will received the faulted information, particular the (INP) predefined setting. The relay will communicate with relevant

relay at remote end through the communication network to determine whether to trip or restrain for a fault current is not over the setting. The information can also be sent to the central protection and control unit, an arrangement can be made to enable the central unit to be the decision maker for direct tripping. The paper includes studies of a typical multi section distribution system and the faulted responses with respect to different fault conditions. Studies show that the new scheme not only offer the new protection features for individual power line, but also provide the characteristics of integrated protection.

directional information from all IOR relays within the network. A comparison between the directional information obtained will decide the faulted line section. The INP will send a direct trip commend to the relays associated with the faulted line section based on the information obtained from the IORs within the network [36].
B. Operation of the Protection Scheme When a fault occurs on the system, for example, at Fl on line section Line2 as shown in Fig.2, the IOR relays, such as IORI, IOR2 and IOR3, in the system will detect the fault. In this case, the IORI will not respond immediately to this fault location since it is outside the setting of its instant operation range. The IOR2 will instantly trip if the magnitude of the fault current reaches over its predefined setting for the line section Line2, or delay the tripping if it is not. After the IOR2 trips the faulted line section, the fault is removed for IORI, which will restrain from operation.
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line section and issue direct trip commend to open the circuit breakers at both ends of the faulted line section, if they have not been opened by its associated IORs. In this case, the INP will compare the directional information obtained from IORI, IOR2, IOR3, IOR4 and IOR5, which will clearly pointed out that the faulted line section is Line2, as a result, INP will send the trip commend to both IOR2 and IOR3 if they have not operated yet.
Here, only 'on' and 'off' signals, which represent positive or negative polarity, are required for communication by the scheme. Therefore, it can be well supported by the communication network available.
III. RELAY SYSTEM DESIGN

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The proposed relay is based on a substation communication network, which mainly consists of three major redundant components in the system:
A. Interface Unit (IU) An interface unit (IU), interfaces to power lines through different types of transducers available, such as the conventional and optical CT's and VT's. The analogue and digital signals measured are converted into optical format and sent to the central protection relay through the redundant optical network. The IU also receives control signals from the relay through the network and issues control commend to the switchgear.
B. Communication Network In the proposed protection scheme as shown in Fig.3, the IU and communication units etc. are interfaced with the central protection relay through the Ethernet using one communication standard, such as IEC61850. The network interfaces not only to critical JUs and the relay, but also to a number of other equipment, such as communication gateway, Human machine interface, etc. The network comprises an optical fiber ring with comprehensive monitoring functions, the failures of components can be detected within a few milliseconds and indicated to the operator within a fraction of a second. If a device fails, the normal communication among the other devices can be restored in a few milliseconds after the network has been reconfigurated.

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Fig.2 Integrated Network Protection Scheme

At the same time, IOR2 will send its faulted directional information to the INP. It will also send the directional information to its associated other relays if the communication channels are available. When the communication channel is available between IOR2 and IOR3, the IOR3 will compare the directional information obtained derived locally with that sent over from IOR2 and trip its associated faulted line section Line2.
When the communication channel is not available, the IOR3 will detect a under voltage directional fault and is able to produce an accelerated trip decision [30-35] after the IOR2 instantly trips the line section. In both cases, the fault is removed from both ends of the faulted line section, while for the conventional protection schemes the fault is only removed from source side of the line. As mentioned, all the relays which detect the fault will record the faulted direction and send to the INP Unit, which can easily determine the faulted

The IU, relay, Ethernet and other devices are self-adaptive redundant to improve system real-time ability and data transmission reliability. Running on special monitoring protocols, the relay can further check the condition of the network regularly and provide time synchronization in the network with 1 ms. An optical Ethernet module with an integrated switch is present in each device. The unit is immune to electromagnetic interference because of fully fibre-optical design. The use of standard communication protocol for the network will enable devices from different

manufacturers to be easily interfaced to the system.

changes in system source, fault and various conditions. Once a fault is detected, the relay will send the directional information locally derived over to the remote IOR associated with the faulted line section through Communication Channel I while waiting for the direction information from the remote IOR. The relay will trip once the local direction match the remote one. The basic principle of the directional comparison technique is well known and not to be described here. The Communication channel I is a multi channel communication unit which is responsible for sending and receiving signals from all remote IORs on the associated line sections if the communication links are available. Only 'on' and 'off' signals, which represent inter-trip commend, are required for communication by the scheme.
The "Non-Com Acceleration" (NCA), which means the accelerated operation without the need for communication link, will start action after an instant trip decision fails to operate, in another words, the fault is not within the instant trip zone. There are a number of associated techniques available for the accelerated overcurrent protection depending on the system configurations [30-34], the principles of which are based on the detection of remote circuit breaker operation. The NCA has two new features, firstly in stead of waiting for fixed time delayed trip, the NCA will accelerate trip the faulted line section; secondly the NCA is able to trip from load side of faulted line section for single source supply system, therefore removing the fault from both ends of the faulted line section.

Fig.3 Communication Network

C. Relay Unit

Fig.4 shows the block diagram of the proposed relay unit. This consists of the faulted line selection, Instant trip based on OC setting, Channel inter-tripping, Non-communication accelerated tripping and INP direct tripping unit. It also contains two communication channels.

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The "INP Direct Trip" will send the directional information of a fault to the INP unit and receive direct trip commend from it through Communication Channel II. The INP can easily determine the faulted line section by comparison between the directional information from all the IORs in the network it protects. It is obvious that the INP unit could coordinate with the wide area control and protection system for the purpose of maintaining system stability.
IV. CONCLUSIONS A new integrated protection scheme for the protection of distribution line system as well as distribution network as a whole based on overcurrent protection technique is described in the paper. The scheme, which combines the conventional overcurrent protection technique and the latest developments in distribution system protection, has a number of protection operating stages for instant, accelerated inter-tripping and direct tripping respectively. The scheme offers not only fast protection for individual line section, but also integrated network protection. With the continue advances in measurement, communication and signal processing technologies, the proposed scheme could have a bright future for practical application. Overall improved performance of protection can be expected from the proposed scheme, but for it to become useful in power system application, it is equally important that its practical implementation be readily manageable or user friendly and cost effective. The authors

To Relays
Fig.4 The proposed relay unit

To INP

The "Faulted Line Selection" determines the faulted line associated with the busbar where the IOR is installed. Here the technique used can be the conventional directional element [29] or the new transient based protection technique [36]. Once the faulted line or direction is selected, the "Instant Trip" will pick up the settings associated with the faulted line from the "Multiple OC settings" to instantly trip the line section for a fault over the predefined settings. Those settings are typical settings widely used in overcurrent protection, such as phase and earth fault overcurrent settings.
The "Channel Inter-tripping" is based on the directional comparison technique specially designed for distribution system [35] which is able to adaptively respond to real time

consider that, to achieve these goals, the centralized totally integrated relay proposed offers an attractive way forward.
V. REFERENCES

[1] G D Rockerfeller, "Fault Protection with Digital Computer", IEEE Trans. on PAS, Vol. 88, No.4, April 1969, pp.438-461 [2] M Chamia, and S Liberman, "Ultra High Speed Relay for EHV/UHV Transmission Lines - development, Design and Application", IEEE Trans. PAS-97, 2104-2112, 1978 [3] A T Johns, "New Ultra-high Speed Directional Comparison Technique for the Protection of EHV Transmission Lines", Proc. IEE, 127 (C). 228239, 1980 [4] M Vitins, "A Fundamental Concept for High Speed Relay", IEEE Trans. PAS-100, pp.163-168, 1981 [5] P A Crossely and P G McLaren, "Distance protection based on travelling waves", IEEE Trans. on Power Apparatus and Systems, vol. 102, pp. 2971 -2983, Sept. 1983 [6] S H Horowitz, A G Phadke and J S Thorp, "Adaptive Transmission System Relaying", IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery, Vol.3, No.4 October 1988, pp. 1436-1445 [7] G D Rockerfeller, C L Wagner, J R Linders, K L Hicks and D T Rizy, "Adaptive Transmission System Relaying Concepts for Improved Performance", IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery, Vol.3, No.4 October 1988, pp. 1446-1458 [8] T S Sidhu, H Singh and M S Sachdev, "Design, Implementation and Testing of an Artificial Neural Network Based Fault Direction Discriminator for Protecting Transmission Lines", IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery, Vol.10 No.2, April, 1995 pp.697-706 [9] P Bastard, M Meunier and H Regal, "Neural Network-based algorithm for Power Transformer Differential Relays", IEE Proc-Gener. Transm. Distrib. Vol.142, No.4 pp. 386-392, July, 1995 [10]M Kezunovic, I Rikalo and D Sobajic, "High Speed Fault-detection and Classification with Neural Nets", Electric Power System Research, Vol. 34, No.2, pp.109-116, 1995 [1 l]T Dalstein, T Friedrich, B Kulicke and D Sobajic, "Multi Neural Network Based Fault Area Estimation for High Speed Relay", IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery, Vol.1 1, No.2 April 1996, pp. 740-747 [12]Z Q Bo, R K Aggarwal, A T Johns, H Y Li, Y H Song, "A New Phase Selection Technique Based on Fault Generated High Frequency Noise Using Neural Networks", IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery, Vol.12, No.1 Jan. 1997, pp.106-115 [13]A T Johns, R K Aggarwal and Z Q Bo, "A Novel Non-unit Protection Technique for EHV Transmission Systems Based on Fault-generated Noise, Part 1 - Signal Measurement", IEE Proc-Gener. Transm. Distrib. Vol.141, No.2, pp.133-140, Part 2 - Signal Processing", Vol.141, No.2, pp.141-147, March, 1994 [14]Z Q Bo, "A New Non-communication Protection Technique for Transmission Lines", IEEE Transaction on Power Delivery, Vol.13 No.4, October, 1998, pp. 1073- 1078 [15]A Guzman, M G Gutzmann and P G Mysore, "Integrated Transformer, Feeder and Breaker Protection: An Economic and Reliable Solution for Distribution Substations", SEL publication, 1999 [16]A E Andarwis, et al, "Integrated Protection, Monitoring and Control System", Patent Document, PCT/US03/05590, 25 February 2002 [17]Q X Yang, J F Liu, T Zhang S F Huang and Z L Zhang, "Technical Development and Analysis on Modern Microprocessor Based Protection", Electrical Equipment, Vol.4 No.5 Oct. 2003 [18]H F Wang, B T He, "Transmission Line Aggregate Protection and its Implementation", Power System Technology, No.14, Vol.29, July 2005 [19] J P Wang and D Wong, "Technical Development Trend in Generator Protection", The Fifth International Conference on Power Transmission & Distribution Technology, Beijing, October 2005 [20]J L Suonan, Y Z Ge and H L Tao, "WXB-21 Double Circuit Line Microprocessor Protection - Cross Differential Protection Principle", Electric Automation Equipment, No.2, 1991

[21]Y Z Huang, C G Li, "Research and Application of Microprocessor based Corss Differential Proteciton Device", Tsinghua University Press, No.1, Vol.37, 1997, pp 45-48 [22] S L Chen and Y F Wu, "Application of A Microprocessor Based Cross Differential Protection Scheme for Parallel Transmission Lines", Relay, Vol.27, no.5 1999, pp.33-34. [23] Q P Wang, X Z Dong, Z Q Bo, B R J Caunce, A Apostolov, "Application of Percentage Cross Differential Relay in EHV Double Lines", PowerTech2005, St. Petersburg, Russia, 27-30 June 2005 [24] Z Q Bo, X Z Dong, B R J Caunce and S Richards, "Development of NonCommunication Relays for Transmission and Distribution Systems", DPSP'2004, 8th International Conference on Development in Power System Protection, Amsterdam, 5-8 April 2004, pp.96-99 [25]M Zhang, X Z Dong, Z Q Bo, B R J Caunce, "Evaluation of an Accelerated Overcuffent Protection for Single Circuit Breaker Distribution Feeder", IEEE/PES International Conference on Power Transmission and Distribution, Dalian, China, August 2005 [26]Z Q Bo, G Weller, T Lomas and M A Redfern, "Positional Protection of Transmission System Using Global Positioning System", IEEE Transaction on Power Delivery, Vol. 15, No. 4, pp. 1 163-1168, Oct. 2000 [27] Z Chen, Z Q Bo, B H Zhang, Y Z Ge, N F Chin and D Montjean "GPS Based Positional Protection Technique using Fault Generated Cuffent Transients", International Conference on Electric Engineering, Xi' an, China, 22-26, 2001 [28]Z Q Bo, X Z Dong, B R J Caunce, J H He, D Thomolier, A Klimek, Z Chen, M A Redfern, "Application of Transient Polarity Comparison Technique to Power System Protection", IEEE/PES T&D Asia Pacific Conference and Exhibition, August 14-17, 2005, Dalian, China [29] AREVA T&D Automation, "Network Protection and Automation Guide', 1 st edition, July 2002. [30] Z Q Bo, X Z Dong, J K Liu, S X Shi, B R J Caunce, D Montjean, "NonCommunication Protection of Distribution Feeders with Tapped-offloads" IEEE/CSEE International Conference on Power System Technology, Kunming, China, October 13-17 2002. [31]J K Liu, X Z Dong, Z Q Bo, "Studies of Non-Communication Protection of Distribution Systems with Tapped-off-loads", Journal of Power System Automation, 2003, 27(1): 37-41 [32]J K Liu, X Z Dong, Z Q Bo, "Implementation of A Non-Communication Protection of Distribution System with Tapped-off-loads", Journal of Power System Automation, 2003, 27(23): 41 -44 [33]F Chen, X Z Dong, Z Q Bo, "Fast and Selective Non-Communication Protection of Radial Distribution Systems", Journal of Power System Automation, 2003, 27(23): 45-49 [34]F Chen, X Z Dong, Z Q Bo, B Caunce and S Richards, "NonCommunication Protection for Radial Connected Distribution Systems", DPSP'2004, 8th International Conference on Development in Power System Protection, Amsterdam, 5-8 April 2004, pp.587-590 [35]D D Yuan, X Z Dong, Z Q Bo, B Caunce and A Klimek "A new directional comparison scheme for Distribution line Protection", UPEC2006, 41st University Power Engineering Conference, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, 6-8 September 2006 [36]Z Q Bo, X Z Dong, J H He, B R J Caunce and A Klimek, "Integrated Protection of Distribution Network Using A New Directional Approach", The Fifth International Conference on Power Transmission & Distribution Technology, October 2005, Beijing [37] Chan Tat Wai, Lu Z.C. "A New Scheme for Improved Distribution Protection Employing Numerical Overccurent Relays". Proceedings, Australasia Universities Power Engineering Conference, 26-29 Sept. 1999, Tasmania, Australia. [38] Chan Tat Wai,. C.K.Chan, "Exploring the Internet for On-line Monitoring and Control of Substation Protective Relays", IES M&E Journal, May. 2005. [39]W. Cong, Z. C. Pan, J. G. Zhao, and J. Zhan, "A Wide Area Protection System and Division of Protection IED Associated Area Based on Petri Net", IEEE/PES Transmission and Distribution Conference & Exhibition: Asia and Pacific, Dalian, China, October 2005

[40] Su Yongzhi, Pan Zhencun , Liu Zhiqing, Wang Kui, "Quickaction Feeder Protection Based on Wireless CDMA Communications", IEEE/PES Transmission and Distribution Conference & Exhibition: Asia and Pacific, Dalian, China, October 2005

China. His research interests are Protective Relaying, Fault Location and Application of Wavelet Transform in Power System.
Ben Caunce was employed by GEC Measurements (now AREVA T&D Automation & Information) in 1977 and being appointed as a Project Leader in 1981. He was appointed to the position of Assistant Chief Engineer, Development in 1994. In 2000 he held the position as R&D Manager, Medium Voltage Development for 2 years. In 2002 he was appointed as Certification Director - Protection Products.

VI. BIOGRAPHIES
Zhiqian Bo received his BSc degree from the Northeastern University, China in 1982 and PhD degree from The Queen's University of Belfast, UK in 1988 respectively. Presently, he is with AREVA T&D Automation & Information Business.

Jinghan He received her BSc in 1987, MSc in 1994 in the Department of Automation, Tianjing University, China, respectively. Presently, She is employed as the Associated Professor in Beijing JiaoTong University, China. Her main research interests are Protective Relaying, Fault distance measurement and Location in Power System. Xinzhou Dong received his BSc in 1983, MSc in 1991 and PhD in 1996 in the Department of Electrical Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, China, respectively. He is now employed as a Professor in Tsinghua University,

Andrew Klimek is a licensed Professional Engineer with B.Sc., M.Sc. degrees in Electrical Engineering. He has 35 years international experience in the electric power industry. His experience includes a number of positions ranging from university teaching and consulting, to engineering and business management. Andrew has served as a project manager, marketing manager and general manager and has executed various power systems projects. Cuffently Andrew is the technical Director of the AREVA T&D Automation & Information Business.