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Experiment No.

2 Aim :- Study of characteristics of different temperature transducers [RTD , Thermistor, Thermocouple ]

Apparatus :- Thermometer, RTD, Thermistor, Thermocouple, heater kettle and multimeters . Theory:- Temperature transducers are used extensively in process industries such as chemical, food and pharmaceuticals, where control of temperature during manufacturing is important. Three commonly used temperature transducers are the thermocouple, the resistance temperature detector (RTD) and the thermistor. Thermocouples:- When a temperature differential exists across the length of a metal, a small voltage differential will exist due to the migration of electrons in the metal. By joining two dissimilar metal wires together at one end, a small current will be induced at the junction due to differences in the molecular structure of the metals. This is shown in Figure A, Point (b), the other ends of the metal wires, is held at a reference temperature.

Figure A : Principle of Thermocouple

For dissimilar metals at a given temperature, the density of free electrons are different. This results in an

electron migration at junction (a), causing a small currentto flow from one metal to other. This small induced electric differential, with proper signal conditioning is measured. The electric signal has the property of being linear with the temperature differential between points (a) and (b). In particular, as simplified model is of the form :

where Vout is the induced voltage, is a constant in volts/degrees K and T, TRef are the measured temperature and the reference temperature respectively.

Resistance-temperature Detectors (RTD) :- The RTD temperature sensor is based on a particular property of metals wherein their electrical resistance changes with temperature. In particular, as temperature increases, so does electrical resistance. These thermometers operate on the principle that, electrical resistance changes in pure metal elements, relative to temperature. The traditional sensing element of a resistance thermometer consists of a coil of small diameter wire wound to a precise resistance value. The most common material is platinum, although nickel, copper, and nickel-iron alloys compete with platinum in many applications. Platinum Resistance thermometer consists of a fine platinum wire (platinum coil) wound in a

Construction:- For industrial use, bare metal wires cannot be used for temperature measurement. They must be protected from mechanical hazards such as material decomposition, tearing and other physical damages. The salient features of construction of an industrial RTD are as follows:

The resistance wire is often put in a stainless steel well for protection against mechanical hazards. This is also useful from the point of view of maintenance, since a defective sensor can be replaced by a good one while the plant is in operation. Heat conducting but electrical insulating materials like mica is placed in between the well and the resistance material. The resistance wire should be carefully wound over mica sheet so that no strain is developed due to length expansion of the wire.

Thermistors :-.

Thermistors are thermally sensitive resistors used in a variety of applications, including temperature measurement. A thermistor is a piece of semiconductor made from metal oxides, pressed into a small bead, disk, wafer, or other shape, sintered at high temperatures, and finally coated with epoxy or glass. The resulting device exhibits an electrical resistance that varies with temperature. Unlike a metal, the molecular structure of a semiconductor is such that increasing its temperature reduces its resistance. As the temperature of the material increases, electrons break free of their covalent bonds and conductivity is improved. The response function is as follows :

where Rt and Ro are the resistances of the thermistor at temperatures T and at a reference temperature, respectively. T and To are the thermistor temperature and the reference temperature respectively, in degrees Kelvin, is a property of a material used to make the thermistor. The non-linearity of the thermistor response function makes its use limited only over the most linear range of the device. Manufacturers of thermistors specify the useful range and the percent error

over that range. A main advantage of thermistors for temperature measurement is their extremely high sensitivity. Another advantage of the thermistor is its relatively high resistance.

Types of thermistors:Bead thermistors

Smallest Thermistors are in the form of heads with a diameter of 0.15mm to 1.25mm. This is the most familiar type of Thermistor usually glass coated.

Probe Thermistor

Beads may be sealed in the tips of soild glass rods to form probes. Glass probe have a diameter of about 2.5mm. the probes are used for measuring temperature of liquids.

Disc Thermistor

Discs are made by pressing material under high pressure into cylindrical flat shapes with a diameters ranging from 2.5mm to 25mm. they are mainly used for temperature control.

Washer type Thermistor:

Washer type is usually long cylindrical units. Leads are attached to the ends of the rods. The advantage of this type is, it produce high resistance under moderate power.

Temperature Measurement Comparison Chart

Criteria Temp Range Linearity Sensitivity Cost Thermocouple -267C to 2316C Better Good Best RTD -240C to 649C Best Better Good Thermistor -100C to 500C Good Best Better

Procedure: 1. Connect the Thermocouple supplied to you, at the input terminals. If Copper constantan thermocouple is used copper wire must be connected to positive terminal and constantan wire must be connected to negative terminal. 2. Deep the junction in water container. 3. Hold the thermometer in water container. 4. Switch ON the electric water heater. 5. Note down the temp. on thermometer, temp. of the measuring instrument and note down the Resistances of RTD, thermistor and voltage output at the end terminal of both metal wire using multimeter. 6. Plot the Tempreture vs. output characteristic.

Observation table :
Sr. Thermometer RTD No Temp Thermistor K Thermocouple (mV)


Experiment No. 5 Aim :- Study of pH meter and its calibration.

Apparatus :- pH glass electrode, measuring kit, buffer solutions, paper Theory :Almost all processes containing water have a need for pH measurement. Most living things depend on a proper pH level to sustain life. pH measurement's importance in industry is seen in food processing during the manufacture of fruit jelly. pH sensors, have numerous uses. pH is a unit of measure which describes the degree of acidity or alkalinity (basic) of a solution. It is measured on a scale of 0 to 14.The formal definition of pH is the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion activity. pH = -log[H+] The pH value of a substance is directly related to the ratio of the hydrogen ion and hydroxyl ion concentrations. If the H+ concentration is higher than OH- the material is acidic. If the OH- concentration is higher than H+ the material is basic. 7 is neutral, < 7 is acidic, >7 is basic Buffers are solutions that have constant pH values and the ability to resist changes in pH. They are used to calibrate the pH meter. The pH meter measures the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in an aqueous solution that are responsible of its ACIDITY or ALKALINITY. It's formed, in its simplest and most used version, by the so-called GLASS ELECTRODE, a tube made by a special semi-porous glass containing an HCl /KCL solution with a known and constant concentration (better named as ACTIVITY) of H+ and a silver (Ag) probe covered by AgCl (silver chloride) or HgCL immerged in it, to keep constant the H+ and Cl- activities in this solution. Just few mm inside this glass tube, there's another Ag probe, equally immerged in the solution to be measured for its H+ activity and linked with another .Ag/AgCl glass electrode that is the reference, with a constant electric potential.

pH Glass Electrode:1. A sensing part of electrode, a bulb made from a specific glass 2. Internal electrode, usually silver chloride electrode or calomel electrode 3.Internal solution, usually a pH=7 buffered solution of 0.1 mol/L KCl for pH electrodes or 0.1 mol/L MHCl for phMe electrodes 4. When using the silver chloride electrode, a small amount of AgCl can precipitate inside the glass electrode 5. Reference electrode, usually the same type as 2 6. Reference internal solution, usually 0.1 mol/L KCl 7. Junction with studied solution, usually made from ceramics or capillary with asbestos or quartz fiber. 8. body of electrode, made from non-conductive glass or plastics. The following cell is required for the pH measurements: glass electrodetest solutionbridge solutionref. electrode, where is the electrode-solution interface, and is the liquid junction denoting an interface between the test solution and the salt bridge solution. pH meter is a high impedance voltmeter. Direct pH readings are possible after adjustment of a pH meter.

The relation between the potential measured and the H+ activity (a) is expressed by the NERNST EQUATION, very important in chemistry, where E is the electric potential (electrode/solution): E = 0.059 log [a0(H+) / a1(H)] where a0(H+) is the activity of H+ inside the electrode, constant and =1, while a1(H+) is the unknown activity of the solution to be measured. So, the formula becomes: E = 0.059 [1 / a1(H+)] but, following the definition of pH (pH = log 1 /a(H+) ), this formula is simply E = 0.059 pH then, pH = E / 0.059

Procedure / 3-point calibration:The solution and reading the pH value on the display of the pH-meter connected to the electrode.However, in order for this value to be accurate, you need to use two standard buffers to calibrate the pH-meter readings (3-point calibration):

(1) Switch the pH-meter from standby to pH (2) Rinse the electrode and place it in pH 7 standard buffer and adjust the standardize button until the display reads 7.00 (3) Rinse the electrode and place it into pH 4 standard buffer (if your solution is acidic) or into pH 9 standard buffer (if your solution is basic) (4) Adjust the slope button on the pH meter until the display shows 4.00 or 9.00 (5) Rinse the electrode and place it into your solution and take the reading for different unknown pH solutions Conclusion:-

Experiment No. 3
Aim: Calibration of Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT) for displacement. Apparatus: LVDT Trainer Kit Theory: Displacement and speed are two important parameters whose measurements are
important in many position and speed control schemes. Error free measurements of these two parameters are necessary in order to achieve good control performance. Displacement measurement can be of different types. The displacement may be in the range of few m to few cm. Moreover the measurement may be of contact type or noncontact type. Again displacement to be measured can be linear or angular (rotary). Measurement principles can be classified into two categories: electrical sensing and optical sensing. In electrical sensing, passive electrical sensors are used variation of either inductance or capacitance with displacement is measured. On the other hand the optical method mainly works on the principle of intensity variation of light with distance. Potentiometers are simplest type of displacement sensors. They can be used for linear as well as angular displacement measurement. The major problem with potentiometers is the contact problem resulting out of wear and tear between the moving and the fixed parts. As a result, though simple, application of potentiometers is limited.

Linear Variable Differential transformer (LVDT)

LVDT works on the principle of variation of mutual inductance. It is one of the most popular types of displacement sensor. It has good linearity over a wide range of displacement. Moreover the mass of the moving body is small, and the moving body does not make any contact with the static part, thus minimizing the frictional resistance. Commercial LVDTs are available with full scale displacement range of 0.25mm to 25mm. Due to the low inertia of the core, the LVDT has a good dynamic characteristics and can be used for time varying displacement measurement range. The construction and principle of operation of LVDT can be explained with Fig. (a) and Fig. (b). It works on the principle of variation of the mutual inductance between two coils with displacement. It consists of a primary winding and two identical secondary windings of a transformer, wound over a tubular former, and a ferromagnetic core of annealed nickel-iron alloy moves through the former. The two secondary windings are connected in series opposition, so that the net output voltage is the difference between the two. The primary winding is excited by 1-10V r.m.s. A.C. voltage source, the frequency of excitation may be anywhere in the range of 50 Hz to 50 KHz. The output voltage is zero when the core is at central position (voltage induced in both the secondary windings are same, so the difference is zero), but increasing as the core moves away from the central position, in either direction. Thus, from the measurement of the output voltage only, one cannot predict, the direction of the core movement.

A phase sensitive detector (PSD) is a useful circuit to make the measurement direction sensitive. It is connected at the output of the LVDT and compares the phase of the secondary output with the primary signal to judge the direction of movement. The output of the phase sensitive detector after low pass filtering becomes a d.c voltage for a steady deflection. The output voltage after PSD vs. displacement characteristics is shown in fig (c).

Advantages of LVDT:

* Infinite resolution is present in LVDT * High output * LVDT gives High sensitivity * Very good linearity * Ruggedness * LVDT Provides Less friction

* Low hysteresis * LVDT gives Low power consumption. Disadvantages of LVDT: * Very high displacement is required for generating high voltages. * Shielding is required since it is sensitive to magnetic field. * The performance of the transducer gets affected by vibrations * Its is greatly affected by temperature changes. Applications of LVDT: LVDT is used to measure displacement ranging from fraction millimeter to centimeter. Acting as a secondary transducer, LVDT can be used as a device to measure force, weight and pressure, etc..

Observation Table: Applied Displacement

Indicated Displacement

% Error

Procedure: 1) Switch ON the power supply. 2) Adjust screw gauge to zero scale then start calibration process. 3) In calibration, for zero mm of screw gauge, LVDT o/p is adjusted. 4) 5mm displacement is given to screw gauge and according to that using high mode potentiometer of LVDT is adjust to get 5mm displacement using minimum & maximum knobs. 5) The same procedure is repeated till we get exact 0mm and 5mm with LVDT. 6) Apply 1mm displacement to screw gauge and take readings of LVDT till 5mm. Conclusion: -

Experiment No. 4
Aim: To study pressure transducer using Strain Gauge. Apparatus: Transducer, signal conditioner, power supply, Air pump Theory:- Strain Gauge is a passive transducer that converts a mechanical elongation or
displacement produced due to a force into its corresponding change in resistance R, inductance L, or capacitance C. A strain gauge is basically used to measure the strain in a work piece. If a metal piece is subjected to a tensile stress, the metal length will increase and thus will increase the electrical resistance of the material. Similarly, if the metal is subjected to compressive stress, the length will decrease, but the breadth will increase. This will also change the electrical resistance of the conductor. If both these stresses are limited within its elastic limit (the maximum limit beyond which the body fails to regain its elasticity), the metal conductor can be used to measure the amount of force given to produce the stress, through its change in resistance. Strain Gauge Transducer:- The strain gauges, finds wide applications, are frequently used in mechanical engineering research and development to measure the stresses generated by machinery. Aircraft component testing is one area of application, tiny strain-gauge strips glued to structural members, linkages, and any other critical component of an airframe to measure stress. As a strain gauge transducer/sensor is very accurate in measuring the change in displacement occurred and converting it into its corresponding value of resistance, inductance or capacitance. It must be noted that the metal conductor which is subjected to an unknown force should be of finite length. A fundamental parameter of the strain gage is its sensitivity to strain, expressed quantitatively as the gage factor (GF). Gage factor is defined as the ratio of fractional change in electrical resistance to the fractional change in length (strain):

In an electrical resistance strain gauge, the device consists of a thin wire placed on a flexible paper tissue and is attached to a variety of materials to measure the strain of the material. In application, the strain gauge will be attached to a structural member (diaphragm) with the help of special cement. Resistance Strain Gauges can be used as a secondary element in pressure measurement. They can be joined together with bellows and diaphragms to effectively measure pressure.

Pressure Measurement With Strain Gauge on Diaphragm:The figure below shows an arrangement if strain gauges on to a flat diaphragm. Usually four gauges are mounted as shown and they are connected in a bridge circuit as shown in the figure. Radial and tangential stresses are developed in the diaphragm gauges complicating the measurement of true pressure.

If a strain gauge is attached to a diaphragm (Fig.(a)),it will follow the movement of the diaphragm The gauge position will be in such a manner that the gauge wires are aligned across the direction of the strain to be measured. The wire used for the purpose will have a diameter between 0.009 to 0.0025 centimeters. When a force is applied on the wire, there occurs a strain (consider tensile, within the elastic limit) that increases the length and decreases its area. Thus, the resistance of the wire changes. This change in resistance is proportional to the strain and is measured using a Wheatstone bridge. A simple Wheatstone bridge circuit is shown in the figure below. It can be set in three different ways such as full bridge, half bridge or Quarter Bridge. A full bridge will have all four of its gauges active. The half bridge will have two of its gauges active and thus uses two precise value resistors. The quarter bridge will have only one gauge and the rest of the resistors will be precise in value.

Full-Bridge Circuit

A full bridge circuit is used in applications where complimentary pair of strain gauges is to be bounded to the test specimen. In practice, a half bridge and full bridge circuit has more sensitivity than the quarter bridge circuit. But since, the bonding is difficult. An external supply is given to the bridge as shown in the diagram. Initially, when there is no application of strain, the output measurement will be zero. Thus, the bridge is said to be balanced. With the application of a stress to the device, the bridge will become unbalanced and produces an output voltage that is proportional to the input stress

Experimental Setup Procedures: 1. Check connection made and switch ON the instrument by a switch at the front panel. The display glows to indicate the instrument in ON. 2. Calibrate the instrument till the display reads000. 3. Apply pressure on the sensor using the loading arrangement provided. 4. The instrument reads the pressure coming on the sensor and display through LED. Reading can be tabulated and % error of the instrument, linearity can be calculated. Observation Table: Input pressure(kg/cm)


Indicated value

% Error

Conclusion: graph for actual value Vs Indicated value

Experiment No. 01
Aim: To study step response of First order and Second order system (instrument) Software: MATLAB (SIMULINK) Theory: The order of a system is defined as being the highest power of derivative in the
differential equation, or being the highest power of s in the denominator of the transfer function. A first-order system only has s to the power one in the denominator, while a second-order system has the highest power of s in the denominator being two. With the test signals like step and ramp, mathematical and experimental analyses of control systems can be carried out easily since the signals are very simple functions of time. These typical signals are used for analyzing system characteristics. The time response of a control system consists of two parts: the transient response and the steadystate response. The transient response is defined as the part of the time response which goes from the initial state to the final state and reduces to zero as time becomes very large. The steady-state response is defined as the behaviour of the system as t approaches infinity after the transients have died out. Thus the system response y(t) may be written as:

y(t) = yt(t) + yss(t)

where yt(t) denotes the transient response, and yss(t) denotes the steady-state response. A) Step response of First order

(B) Response of First Order System with Ramp Input

(C) Response of Second Order System with Step Input