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WIRE ROPE

CONTENTS
Section Page
1 - Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 - The Basics: Wire Rope Components, Construction and Classifications . . . . . . . . . . 3 3 - Characteristics of Mining Rope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 4 - Inspecting Wire Rope, Sheaves and Drums . . . . . . . . 15 5 - Receiving and Handling Wire Rope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 6 - Structural Strand Boom Pendants . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 7 - Recommended Practices for Extending Wire Rope Life . . . 27 Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

1 - Introduction
Wire rope is used in a variety of ways to pull, lift or support one or more objects, or to transmit forces or energy from one place to another. It is an essential component in a wide range of applications, from elevators and ski lifts to cable cars, broadcast transmission towers, cranes and conveyor systems, as well as in mining shovels and draglines. Understanding the principles that govern wire rope performance in surface mining equipment is indispensable to achieving peak performance practices and avoiding the cost of premature wire rope replacements. This document is designed to provide basic information about the design and construction of wire rope, and its proper care and use on shovels and draglines. It is intended to help mine management, maintenance personnel and equipment operators maximize the life and performance of wire rope. For further information on training, wire rope selection and after-sale support, please contact your P&H MinePro Services representative.

Page 1

2 - The Basics:
Wire Rope Components, Construction and Classifications
Components
Standard wire rope is a flexible line made of wires twisted or braided together to provide tensile strength. Wire rope consists of three basic components: a central core that serves as the ropes foundation and support system; individual wires; and multi-wire strands wrapped around the central core (Figure 1). These components can be combined in literally hundreds of arrangements, yielding different characteristics for different applications.

Strands Wire rope strands may be laid in any of


a wide variety of geometric patterns. Strands form the basis of wire rope construction and classification covered later in this section. CORE WIRE CENTER WIRE

Cores As the foundation of a wire rope, the core


must be able to support the normal bending and compressive loads imposed on the ropes strands. Wire rope cores may consist of a fiber core (FC), an independent wire rope core (IWRC), or a wire strand core (WSC). A fiber core may be made of natural fibers such as manila or sisal, or of synthetic filaments, such as polypropylene or glass fibers. An independent wire rope core or a wire strand core is most often made of steel. Fiber core ropes offer considerably more bendability than steel but they are seldom used in todays surface mining equipment. STRAND

Wires The individual wires in a wire rope may


be of uniform diameters but are more often a combination of different diameter sizes arranged in specific geometric patterns. By a wide margin, most of the wire used in wire rope today is manufactured from high carbon steel, although other materials are also used, including iron, stainless steel and bronze. WIRE ROPE

Figure 1 Wire rope is made from three basic components: the core, individual wires and strands.

Page 3

PEAK PERFORMANCE PRACTICES WIRE ROPE

Grades and Finishes


As the most common material used in wire rope manufacture, high carbon steel is available in several grades, as designated by the plow steel strength curve. This curve originated in England long ago to differentiate the quality of steel used in the manufacture of plows, and it has been used ever since. In increasing levels of performance, the most common grades are: mild plow steel (MP); improved plow (IP); extra improved plow (EIP or XIP); and extra extra improved plow (EEIP or XXIP). For comparison purposes, extra extra improved plow (EEIP) provides approximately 10% greater nominal strength than extra improved plow (EIP), and about 25% more than improved plow (IP). It should be noted that in applications involving high cycle bending, higher wire strength does not necessarily mean longer fatigue life. The most common finish for steel wire is bright or uncoated. Steel wire may also be galvanized, or zinc coated, to protect against corrosion. Drawn galvanized wire offers the same strength as bright wire, but wire which is galvanized at finished A size provides approximately 10% less strength. Although most wire rope is uncoated, both internal and external lubrication are essential to B allow wire rope to bend and flex.

All types of lay are similar in that all wires are wound to form a helix, or spiral, around the strands central wire, as are the strands around the ropes core. However, the types of lay differ in that they can be laid in regular or lang configurations. Note that the wires in regular lay ropes appear to line up parallel to the axis of the rope, as shown in Figure 2 A and B. In lang lay ropes, the wires appear to form an angle with the ropes axis, Figure 2 C and D. Distinct manufacturing techniques are used to produce these differences. In addition, regular lay and lang lay ropes can be wound to the right, similar to the threading in a right hand bolt (Figure 2 A and C) or to the left (Figure 2 B and D). Thus, the various types of lay are: Right Regular Lay (RRL), Left Regular Lay (LRL), Right Lang Lay (RLL) and Left Lang Lay (LLL). Right regular lay is used in the widest range of applications. Right lang lay and, to a lesser extent, left lang lay ropes are used in many equipment applications. Left lang lay ropes are typically used

Construction: Types of Lay


In addition to its component parts, wire rope is identified by its construction. The differences can be seen in the ways in which the wires are laid to form strands, and in the way the strands are laid about the ropes core. Page 4

Figure 2 A comparison of typical wire rope lays: A. Right Regular Lay; B. Left Regular Lay; C. Right Lang Lay; D. Left Lang Lay.

2 - The Basics: Wire Rope Components, Construction and Classification

WEAR AREA REGULAR

SUPPORTING INNER WIRE

WEAR AREA

LANG

Figure 3 Lang lay construction provides a greater wear area than regular lay, increasing its fatigue resistance. in special applications such as plain-faced or smooth drums. Users often alternate between left lay and right lay to minimize wear to the drum. ing of the outer wires, and greater torsional flexure. Overall, lang lay exhibits 15 to 20% superiority over regular lay when bending. Lang lay is used in applications where it is subject to repeated bending and the ends are fixed.

Advantages of lang lay Regular lay is more


stable and more resistant to crushing than lang lay. Regular lay is also more common, especially in smaller diameter ropes, but lang lay offers certain advantages, including superior fatigue resistance and abrasion resistance. There are a few provisions worth noting, however. For example, in Figure 3 note how the axis of the wire relates to the axis of the rope in regular lay and lang lay strands. When regular lay rope is bent, as when passing over a drum or sheave, the same amount of bend is imposed on the crowns of the outer wires. This increases the pressure and wear on the rope. The worn crown combined with the shorter exposed length allows the wire to spring away from the rope axis, resulting in reduced fatigue resistance. Another reason for lang lays superior fatigue resistance is that its outer wires provide about 30% more exposed area than regular lay. Comparing the valley-to-valley distances of the individual wires in the two examples in Figure 4, the regular ropes distance is 7/8 in. (22.2 mm) versus 1-1/8 in. (28.6 mm) for the lang lay. Because the individual strand wires are less in line with the axis of the rope, there is less axial bend-

b a

Figure 4 The wear patterns in regular lay (above left) and lang lay (above right) are distinct. Page 5

PEAK PERFORMANCE PRACTICES WIRE ROPE

Critical disadvantages of lang lay Lang


lay rope has two critical limitations. First, if either end of the rope is not fixed, it will rotate severely when subjected to a load. Second, it does not withstand the crushing forces against a drum or sheave as well as regular lay. Therefore, lang lay rope must always be properly secured at both ends, and it should never be used over small diameter drums or sheaves under extreme loads. It also follows that lang lay does not respond well to inferior drum winding conditions.

Single Layer

Filler Wire

Figure 6 Some of the common classifications of wire rope are shown

Lay as a unit of measure


In addition to helping define a ropes construction, rope lay is also used as a unit of measure. One rope lay is the length of one complete spiral of a strand about the ropes core. Measuring a ropes lay length is an important part of rope inspection and is covered in Section 4.

Preformed vs. non-preformed wire


Preforming wire, i.e., forming individual wires and strands to the helix shape during manufacturing, makes the wires and strands lay at rest in the rope. Preforming wire also improves fatigue resistance. Wire rope used in mining shovels and draglines is preformed. Non-preformed wire will broom when cut, unless the end is first secured with wire seizing (Figure 5).

Figure 5 To prevent strands and individual wires from unraveling or brooming, seizing is applied to wire rope before cutting. Page 6

2 - The Basics: Wire Rope Components, Construction and Classification

Seale

Warrington

Warrington Seale

Multiple Operation

above. Each classification is based on the geometric arrangement of wires and strands.

Wire Rope Classifications


Wire ropes are classified according to three basic criteria: the number of strands in the rope; the number and arrangement or pattern of wires in each strand; and a word or letters to describe the geometric arrangement of the strands. Some arrangements are filler wire (FW), Seale (S) and Warrington (W).

Combined Patterns, e.g., Warrington Seale (WS): two or more of the above patterns
combined in a single operation. In the example above, an inner layer of Warrington is combined with an outer layer of Seale. Another type of combined pattern is Seale Warrington Seale (SWS).

Multiple Operation, or 2-Op: strands


requiring two separate manufacturing operations in which one of the above patterns is covered with an outer layer of uniform-diameter wires. The second operation is required to provide the outer layer a different direction or length of lay to meet particular performance requirements.

Single Layer: the most basic rope pattern, consisting of uniform-diameter wires wrapped around a single center wire of the same diameter. The example shown (Figure 6) is a 7-wire strand.

Filler Wire (FW): two layers of same-sized


wires wrapped around a center wire in which the inner layer has half as many wires as the outer layer. Small filler wires equal in number to the inner layer wires help position and support the two layers.

Construction vs. Classification


In addition to its class, a wire rope is also identified by its construction. For example, a 6x7 rope designates a rope with six strands with each strand having seven wires. Other designations include 6x19, 6x37, 6x61, 7x19, 7x37, 8x7, 8x19, 19x7, etc. However, these are nominal designations which may or may not reflect the ropes actual construction. Each designation includes multiple types of construction. The 6x19 class, for example, includes 6-strand ropes with 16 through 26 wires per strand; the 6x37 class includes 6-strand constructions with 27 through 49 wires per strand.

Seale (S): two layers of wires, equal in number,


around a center wire. The large outer wires rest in the valleys of the inner layer of wires.

Warrington (W): two layers of same-sized


wires in the inner layer, and two alternating diameter sizes in the outer layer. The larger outer wires rest in the valleys of the inner wires, and the smaller outer wires rest on the crowns of the inner layer of wires.

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PEAK PERFORMANCE PRACTICES WIRE ROPE

Wire Rope Selection Guide


Compacted 6 Strand Compacted 8 Strand Compacted 6 Strand Plastic Impregnated Compacted 8 Strand Plastic Impregnated Galvanized Boom Support Strand 6x55/6x61 SWS

6x49 SWS

6x26 WS

6x41 WS

6x25 FW

8x19

Draglines Boom Hoist Line Drag Line Hoist Line Boom Pendants Shovels Boom Hoist Crowd & Retract Hoist Rope Trip Rope Boom Pendants

500 ft 3/4" 6x21 FW pref RLL IP IWRC The above description defines a 500 foot length of rope, 3/4 inch (19 mm) in diameter, with six strands, 21 wires per strand, filler wire, preformed, right lang lay, improved plow steel, and an independent wire rope core. Most wire ropes used for drum applications on shovel and dragline applications are constructed of six, seven or eight strands.

To avoid confusion, it is best to order wire rope by its actual construction, not just its classification. A full description of a wire ropes construction typically includes the following: length diameter preformed or non-preformed direction and type of lay finish grade type of core. Certain assumptions may be made if one or more of these specifications is omitted. If the direction and type of lay are omitted, it is assumed to be right regular lay (RRL). If the finish is not shown, it is assumed to be uncoated or bright. For example:

Page 8

8x37

2 - The Basics: Wire Rope Components, Construction and Classification

Why Wire Rope Must Be Free to Move


Wire rope is often referred to as a complex machine made of many moving parts, and for good reason. A rope of 6x37 construction has approximately 222 wires: six strands, each with 37 wires, plus the core. Note that the actual count may vary by specification and manufacturer. All these components must be able to slide and move, both individually and in concert with adjacent strands and wires. To understand why and how a ropes wires and strands move, consider what happens as a 1 in. (25.4 mm) rope passes over a 30 in. (762 mm) sheave. As shown in Figure 7, the rope is subjected simultaneously to the opposing forces of tension and compression. As a result, the inside length of the rope retracts while the outside length expands. Using the mathematical formula for a circles circumference (where C is the circumference and D is diameter) the outside of the bend is about 3-1/8 in. (79.4 mm) longer than the inside bend (Figure

TENSION
MPRESSIO O N C

Figure 7 A wire rope passing over a sheave or drum is subjected simultaneously to the opposing forces of tension and compression. 8). Note that we divide the circumference by 2 because the rope is in contact with only half the circumference of the sheave. 32"

p = 3.14

C=pxD 2

Outside circumference = 3.14 x 32 = 100.48 = 50.24 (1276.1 mm) 2 Inside Circumference = 3.14 x 30 = 94.20 = 47.10 (1196.3 mm) 2 Difference = 50.24 - 47.10 = 3.14 or about 3-1/8 (79.4 mm)
1"

30"

Figure 8 The difference between the inside and outside bends of the wire rope is about 3-1/8 in.(79.4 mm). Page 9

PEAK PERFORMANCE PRACTICES WIRE ROPE

To allow the rope to adjust to this kind of bending and flexing, the clearances between its components are precision engineered to tolerances measured in 10,000ths of an inch (0.0025 mm). This kind of metal-on-metal sliding contact also helps explain why proper lubrication is essential to wire rope performance.

reducing its fatigue resistance, and causing the rope to wear prematurely. Fatigue life of drum ropes is a function of both bending stress over the drum and pulsating axial stress from the loading. Using larger ropes than specified will hurt bending stress but help axial stress. Slightly larger ropes have been applied successfully when within the limitations of the groove size and spacing. It is important to remember that, for any given rope diameter, changing to a smaller sheave diameter reduces its service life when bending is the determining factor. Conversely, using the same rope on a larger sheave increases its service life (Figure 9). Larger diameter sheaves also have higher rotational inertias and thus could accelerate external wire wear and breakage such as a fairlead application where sheave overspinning is a factor.

The D/d Ratio


The relative sizes of a sheaves diameter, D, and a ropes diameter, d, is one of the factors that determines the ropes fatigue resistance and service life. In the previous example, the sheaves diameter is 30 in. (762 mm) and the rope's diameter is 1 in. (25.4 mm), producing a D/d ratio of 30 to 1. As the D/d ratio decreases, the bend is drawn tighter and tighter, increasing the tension on the rope,
100 90

RELATIVE ROPE SERVICE LIFE

80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60

Figure 9 A rope working with a D/d ratio of 26 has a relative service life of 17. If the same rope is used on a sheave that increases the D/d ratio to 35, the ropes relative service life increases from 17 to 32, a gain of 88 percent.

D/d RATIO
Page 10

3 - Characteristics of Mining Rope

With so many varieties of wire rope available, sorting out the specifics required for a particular application can be a challenge. Of the characteristics listed in this section, two of the most important for shovel and dragline operations are abrasion resistance and fatigue resistance (Figure 10).

Fatigue Resistance
A ropes fatigue resistance is its ability to endure repeated bending over a period of time. The ropes key points of vulnerability are where it passes over sheaves and drums, points of restriction such as the ropes end attachments, and areas subject to load changes. The greatest load changes occur at the ropes pickup points, the parts in contact with the sheaves

Abrasion Resistance
A ropes abrasion resistance is its ability to withstand wear and metal loss due to sliding contact with other materials, including metal sheaves and rollers, drums, and rock. The chief causes of metal loss are rope running through sheaves that are too small, an improper fleet angle, and pulling a drag rope through the roll at the edge of a pit. Generally speaking, larger diameter wires offer greater abrasion resistance because they have more surface to wear away than smaller wires. In addition to its metal being worn away, wire rope can be distorted or peened. Peening occurs when the ropes exterior surface is flattened by striking against a hard object. Metal loss and peening often occur simultaneously. Metal loss reduces a ropes strength and can cause individual wires to break. The distortion caused by peening limits the normal sliding action and adjustment of wires during normal operation, resulting in reduced fatigue life. Peening also causes the metal in the wire to harden, making the wires more brittle and less flexible.

Figure 10 Wire rope is a complex machine made of many moving parts which are subject to abrasion and fatigue. Page 11

PEAK PERFORMANCE PRACTICES WIRE ROPE

and drums when the initial shock load of each lift is applied. Vibration on ropes is often of a bending nature, and the stress is maximized where the vibration is dampened, i.e. at the pick-up and termination points. This bending causes rubbing between the inner and outer strands. When vibratory bending failures occur, it is very common for the wire breaks to be in the inner wires. Vibration sends energy in the form of shock waves through the rope and that energy must be absorbed at some point. Wherever the waves are dampened is where the energys impact will be concentrated, including the end attachments and the tangent where the rope contacts the sheave or drum, i.e. the pick-up points. As a rule, the greater the number of outside wires in a strand, the greater its fatigue resistance will be. This is due to the fact that smaller wires have

a greater ability to bend, and more wires usually means smaller wires. From the above, it should be clear that as a ropes abrasion resistance increases its fatigue resistance decreases, and vice versa. Since most applications require a balance of these characteristics, the industry has developed a rope selection aid called the X Chart (Figure 11).

High Performance Wire Rope


To help offset the inverse relationship between abrasion resistance and fatigue resistance, and provide the best of both attributes, most manufacturers offer high performance ropes.

Compacted Strand One type of high performance rope is compacted strand. Each strand is drawn through a die to compact and create a

NUMBER OF OUTSIDE WIRES PER STRAND

6 9 10 10 12
TO AT E ST

6x7
LE G RE SI O N AB RA AS T RE SI AN ST CE TO BE ND IN

6x19 S 6x21 FW 6x26 WS 6x25 FW 6x31 WS

12
ST AN

G TI FA

CE

UE G

14
RE

6x36 WS

SI

G RE

16
AS T

6x41 SFW 6x46 SFW

E AT ST

18

Figure 11 The X Chart demonstrates the inverse relationship between abrasion resistance and bending fatigue resistance. As abrasion resistance increases, fatigue resistance decreases, and vice versa. Page 12

LE

3 - Characteristics of Mining Rope

smooth flat surface all around the strands (Figure 12) prior to laying them around the core. This process increases the metallic surface of the rope and provides a flattened outer wire surface, enhancing breaking strength, fatigue resistance, abrasion resistance and crushing resistance. Virtually all ropes used on shovels are compacted, as are some dragline ropes.

lubrication from escaping, helps keep foreign material out, can help prevent corrosion, and makes the rope cleaner to handle. Various constructions of wire rope are available with a plastic coating which may be applied to the ropes exterior or just the gap between the IWRC and outer strands. Plastic filled or coated wire rope helps keep the grooving in sheaves and drums polished and in good condition. It prevents corrugation because there is full contact with the groove.

Strength
FLATTENED STRAND A third consideration in selecting wire rope for shovels and draglines is its strength. In addition to the plow steel strength curve, several other measures of strength are applied to wire rope.

Nominal strength refers to the manufacturers


published catalog strength. This figure is calculated according to standard industry procedures. Since a ropes strength decreases with use over time, nominal strength applies only to new, unused rope.

SWAGED Figure 12 Compacting the outer strands of a wire rope increases its surface area, improving resistance to bending fatigue, abrasion and crushing.

Minimum acceptance strength is rated 21/2% below the nominal strength to allow for variables that might affect a ropes breaking strength during testing. A minimum acceptance strength for a nominal breaking strength of 100,000 pounds would require an actual breaking load by test to destruction of at least 97,500 pounds.

Swaging is another compacting technique in which hammers are used to compact the strands, resulting in a very dense cross section. Die forming is a more controlled process than swaging and results in greater product uniformity.

Breaking strength measures the amount of


tensile load required to pull apart a piece of rope. It is important to distinguish between dynamic and static breaking strength, however. Most minimum breaking strengths listed in catalogs are obtained under quasi-static or slow loading speed test conditions, but most rope failures happen as a result of dynamic loads, i.e. when the rope is moving rapidly.

Plastic-Filled IWRC Rope and PlasticCoated Rope Plastic-filled wire rope is rope
whose internal spaces are filled with a matrix of plastic. Plastic filling improves bending, abrasion and fatigue life by reducing internal contact between wires and strands, thus reducing internal and external wear. The plastic filling helps support and separate the ropes outer strands. It keeps the

Page 13

PEAK PERFORMANCE PRACTICES WIRE ROPE

Reserve strength is the combined strength of


all the wires in a rope except those in the outside layer of the strands.

Crushing Resistance
A fourth consideration for shovels and draglines is a wire ropes crushing resistance, i.e., its ability to maintain its round shape when one layer of rope is spooled on top of another. In shovel and dragline applications, only the boom hoist ropes may be spooled in this way; all others are spooled in a single layer.

Page 14

4 - Inspecting Wire Rope, Sheaves and Drums


Regular inspection is an essential part of any wire rope peak performance program. Catching a problem in its early stages of development allows you to adjust operating practices and prevent potentially dangerous breaks while the rope is under load. Inspecting a rope, especially for the first time, begins with good preparation, as outlined in the steps below. same location. On a six-strand rope, for example, youll measure all three diameters, i.e. the distance between the outsides of strands 1 and 4, 2 and 5, and 3 and 6, as shown in Figure 14. On an eight-strand rope you may want to measure all four diameters.

1. Gather your inspection tools and supplies. For a complete inspection of the rope,
sheaves, drums and end attachments, youll need (Figure 13): an inspection log a caliper a tape measure sheave and drum groove gauges chalk cleaning cloths carbon paper and clean white paper a pen and pencil leather gloves

2. Identify the rope. Before you can know


what to look for in your inspection, you have to know something about the rope. Begin by identifying its diameter and construction. Note that all measurements of a ropes diameter must be performed at the widest point, as shown in Figure 14.

2a. Measure the rope diameter. To get an


accurate dimension, measure three times at the

Figure 13 The essential tools for inspection of ropes, sheaves, drums and attachments. Page 15

PEAK PERFORMANCE PRACTICES WIRE ROPE

Repeat these measurements at several locations on the rope, especially at the pick-up points, in areas of heavy wear, and in areas close to the end attachments. Record them in the inspection log.

Note that manufacturers do not always supply test certificates, and those who do usually do so only by special request.

3. Verify the ropes breaking strength.


Again, this can be done by checking the manufacturers test certification. Remember, there is a difference between static breaking strength and dynamic breaking strength and, in most cases, the test certification will be based on a quasi-static test. If youre not sure, check with your supplier.

2b. Compare your measurements with the ropes catalog or nominal diameter.
Keep in mind that all manufacturers make their ropes with diameters larger than their nominal listings. This is to allow for the initial pull down of the diameter when new, unused rope is placed under load for the first time and the wires seat in. Note that there is no industry standard for the difference between nominal and manufactured diameter sizes. For specifics, check with the individual manufacturer. A change in diameter can be a warning sign of potential or actual failure, so it must be measured during every inspection. A new ropes initial measurement should be taken after it has had a chance to seat in. The initial measurement is then used as a reference for future comparisons. A gradual decrease in diameter is to be expected over time, but a sudden decrease, especially a large one, may be a sign of a broken core.

4. Review the retirement criteria and verify the design factor. The design factor is
a ratio of a ropes nominal or catalog strength to the rated load of the application intended. Multiplying this rated load by the design factor provides the minimum catalog strength of the rope required for the application. Rated Load x Design Factor = Minimum Catalog Strength Most ropes designed for surface mining applications employ a design factor of 5.0. Using this design factor, a rated load for the application of 80 tons (81.3 tonnes), requires a rope with a minimum catalog strength of 400 tons (406 tonnes), calculated as 80 x 5 (81.3 x 5). Always consult the manufacturer when a rope of a different catalog strength is intended to be used.

2c. Identify the ropes construction. This


is done by making a physical count of the ropes strands and wires per strand. The rope manufacturers test certificate should simplify the task. Just be sure the rope matches what is on the certificate.
ACTUAL DIAMETER

5. Review the ropes inspection history.


This can be a big time and money saver, but only if the records are accurate and up to date. The inspection history can provide valuable clues as to

6 5 4

2 3
CORRECT INCORRECT

Figure 14 The correct way to measure a ropes diameter is across the widest point, from crown to crown of opposite strands, not from valley to valley. Page 16

4 - Inspecting Wire Rope, Sheaves and Drums

the cause and remedy of rope problems. If the inspection log indicates rope removal due to localized damage in a particular area, inspect that area first.

Some variables include: number of hours in service type of application (how the rope is used) the loads applied to it, and their frequency frequency of lubrication, or no lubrication effect of corrosive environment A shorter working life of rope and strand will result from lack of maintenance. The remaining strength and safety of a wire rope or strand in continued use is determined by both careful inspection for signs of deterioration, and the judgement of an authorized, qualified person.
Note: Discard criteria will vary based on the application; for example, hoist ropes versus drag ropes.

Inspection Methods
There are many different methods and procedures used to inspect wire rope used on mining equipment. These can and do vary from mine to mine, the type of equipment at the mine, the functional application of the wire rope and the specific safety standards and requirements enacted at the particular mine site. Thus the responsibility for defining and implementing inspection procedures rests with the management of each individual mine, the specifics of which cannot be addressed here.

Rope Retirement Criteria


Using a rope beyond its useful life is a dangerous practice that can put peoples lives in jeopardy. Any cost savings gained by delaying rope replacement can be lost quickly if the rope breaks during operation and causes bodily injury or damage to the machine. Always replace wire rope according to the equipment manufacturers or wire rope manufacturers specifications for the application. Follow the specifications for length, diameter, class of construction, breaking force, and type of rope attachments or terminations. Maintaining 2-1/2 to 3 wraps of rope on the drum for all authorized working conditions determines the shortest length.
Note: Physical dimensions of the outer geometry of rope attachments can vary from one manufacturer to another. Do not order ropes with attachments from suppliers other than the original equipment manufacturer without first verifying it will fit into the physical opening and permit the normal range of movement after installation.

Use the following basic criteria when evaluating the condition (strength and safety) of wire rope and strand. If any doubt exists about the remaining useful life of a wire rope or strand it should be removed from service!

Running Rope Retirement Criteria


Six randomly distributed broken wires in one lay length, or three broken wires in one strand in one lay. Six wires broken at the drag rope socket (in this case, the rope could be shortened and re-socketed).

ONE ROPE LAY Figure 15 The length of one rope lay is the distance required for a single wire to make one complete helical convolution about the ropes core. Page 17

No precise rules can be given for determination of the exact time for replacement of wire rope and strand since many variable factors are involved.

PEAK PERFORMANCE PRACTICES WIRE ROPE

Wire Rope Inspection Checklist


Problem
Rope broken square-off One or more strands broken Undue corrosion Protruding rope core Ropes damaged in transit to location

Probable Cause
Overload or localized wear. If overload is sudden, it will cause a square-off break. Overloading, kinking, damage or localized wear weakening one or more strands. Lack of proper lubrication. Exposure to salt or alkaline water. Idle periods. Shock loading. Rolling the reel over an obstruction or dropping from the truck onto any hard surface results in rope distortion or damage. Use of chains for lashing or use of a lever against the rope. Result of improper handling, installation or operating abuse. Kinks or bends in rope due to improper handling during installation or service. Repetitive contact point causing severe localized wear. Excessive fleet angle or lack of attention when rope is installed. Worn grooves, worn flanges, lack of a level wind system. Damage due to scraping of rope over sharp surface or because of improperly fitted clamps or clips. Ropes operated over damaged sheaves or drums or improperly aligned equipment. Drum groove too deep for fleet angle of rope. Severe bending. Possibly due to excessive vibration, or due to poor operating conditions. Allowing rope to drag or rub over any small radius bend. Overloading or poor spooling.

Ropes show kinks, dog legs, or other types of distortion Ropes show excessive wear in spots Ropes damaged by irregular or improper winding on drums Unequal pressure and distortion of wires and rope Side wear on rope

Fatigue breaks in wire Spiraling or curling Ropes show excessive flattening or crushing

Page 18

4 - Inspecting Wire Rope, Sheaves and Drums

Note: The number of wire breaks that cannot be accepted varies with rope usage and construction. For general applications, this six-andthree criteria is satisfactory. Common practice by mine operators for draglines is to use this criteria for hoist ropes only.

Strand Pendant Retirement Criteria


Visible or sounding breaks in 25% of the outer wires or 10% of the total, whichever is less; or 10% loss of strength based on size and load capacity of each broken wire. Significant rust staining at the socket termination, indicating internal corrosion and possible wire breaks. Significant reduction in diameter at the socket, indicating internal core breakage. Excess catenary, indicating internal wire breaks and loss of load carrying ability.

One outer wire broken at the contact point with the core of the rope which has worked its way out of the rope structure and protrudes or loops out from the rope structure. Wear of one-third the original diameter of outside individual wires from abrasion. Kinking, crushing, cutting, birdcaging, unstranding or any other damage resulting in distortion of the rope structure. Evidence of any heat damage from any cause including an electric arc. Protruding core (from an opening between strands). Valley breaks - when two or more wire fractures are found. Severe corrosion particularly in the vicinity of end attachments. Reductions from nominal rope diameter of more than 10% of a new rope after installation, or an observable increase in rope lay length.

Inspecting Sheaves and Drums


Use the appropriately sized groove gauges to check sheaves for wear, keeping in mind that gauges designed for field use are based on differ-

Rope Pendant Retirement Criteria


More than two broken wires in one lay in sections beyond end connections or more than one broken wire at an end connection. Loose or damaged strands.

Standing Rope Retirement Criteria


More than two broken wires in one lay in sections beyond end connections or more than one broken wire at an end connection. Loose or damaged strands Note: Where possible, ropes should be rotated out of sheave contact areas for inspection.

Figure 16 A sheave groove gauge should make 150 contact with the groove, as in Example A. Example B is too tight, and example C is too loose. Page 19

PEAK PERFORMANCE PRACTICES WIRE ROPE

ent groove dimensions than those used by manufacturers for new components. Field gauges are made to the ropes nominal or catalog diameter plus a minimum acceptable fractional oversize value based on the ropes diameter and construction. This allows the gauges to be used to establish the minimum condition for worn grooves (Figure 16). When the gauge perfectly fits the groove, the groove is at the minimum allowable contour. Any narrower fit means the groove is not recommended for further use. In addition to the groove contour, a full inspection includes the grooves depth, width and smoothness. Corrugations or imprinting caused by the ropes texture (Figure 17) can seriously damage the rope and is cause for replacing the sheave. Corrugation is more likely with bright rope than with plastic coated rope; plastic-coated rope may even help smooth the groove. Also examine sheaves for damaged or chipped flanges, cracks in the hubs or spokes, out-ofroundness, waviness, alignment with other sheaves, and for wear or damage to bearings and shafts. The main functional drums on shovels and draglines use grooved barrels with a single layer of rope. For drum inspections, check the drums general operating characteristics. Adequate tension must be maintained on the rope so that it winds properly. Be sure the rope follows the groove and that the wraps are tight and consistent. If any looseness or irregular winding is observed, check the rope for kinks. Pay particular attention for any scuffing as it leaves the drum groove. Measure the grooves for proper contour, as in the sheave inspection procedure above. Also check that adjacent grooves have enough clearance between them that one wrap of rope does not scrub the next wrap. Drums that become corrugated need to be corrected or replaced. Figure 17 A corrugated sheave can cause serious damage to a wire rope.

Page 20

5 - Receiving and Handling Wire Rope

Receiving and handling of wire rope calls for special caution. Improper unloading, unreeling, winding, and storage can cause permanent damage, making a rope useless even before its been put into service. Upon receipt of a shipment, the rope should be carefully inspected to see that it matches the shipments paper work, including description tags, purchase orders, invoices, etc.

ing device or similar mechanism to avoid slack in the rope which can lead to kinking. If rope is to be transferred from one reel to another, or from a reel to a drum, care must be taken to avoid causing a reverse bend in the rope. A reverse bend is induced when unreeling from the top of the pay-off reel to the bottom of the take-up reel, or vice versa. This will cause the rope to rotate more under load and, more importantly, it will cause uneven loading of the strands and wires, thus greatly reducing its life. The correct way to transfer the rope is from the top of one reel to the top of the other, or from bottom to bottom (Figure 18).

Unreeling and Winding


Before a rope is unreeled, the reel must be mounted on a shaft supported by jacks or a roller payoff so the reel can turn. As the rope is unreeled, tension must be maintained on the rope with a brak-

REEL DRUM

REEL

DRUM

CORRECT
REEL REEL DRUM

INCORRECT
DRUM

Figure 18 Transferring a wire rope from the top of one reel to the bottom of another reel or drum can create a reverse bend. The correct method is to make such transfers from top to top or bottom to bottom. Page 21

PEAK PERFORMANCE PRACTICES WIRE ROPE

When working with shorter cut length coils of rope, the coil should be wound and unwound by standing it and rolling it like a tire. It should never be laid flat and the free end pulled out. Laying the coil flat makes it extremely susceptible to kinking and reverse bends (Figure 19).

INCORRECT

Storing Wire Rope


Wire rope should be stored under a roof and/or covered by a tarp. If this is not possible, liberally coat the outer layers with lubricant. Keep rope away from heated air and moisture. Reels should be stored and moved in an upright (on edge) position and not on the painted side. Used rope should be lubricated, if possible, and stored on reels the same as new.

CORRECT

End Preparations and Terminations


Ropes are normally shipped with their ends seized to prevent the strands and wires from unraveling. In some applications, seized ropes can be installed with no further preparation required. Where tight openings or tight bend radii are involved with drums or sockets, however, special end preparations, or beckets, may be required. For example, beckets are used when another rope or tugger line is used to pull the new rope into place. Four basic types of preparations are shown in Figure 20. Wire rope should never be shortened, lengthened or terminated with the use of a knot. A single knot in a wire rope can reduce its strength by 50 percent. Figure 19 A coil of rope should never be laid flat and uncoiled. Uncoiling in this way can easily create kinks or reverse bends.

Ferrule Becket Hoist Ropes


Most of the wire rope consumed on excavators is used as drum ropes (hoist, drag, etc.) and most drum ropes on shovels (95%) use ferrule becket fittings for end preparations. Adhere to the following principles when working with ferrule beckets.

1. Pull-off strength The ferrule should be


swaged onto the rope so as to develop at least 3035% of the rope's breaking strength. Any less and the ferrule can pull off. Pull-off strength is a function of swaging force and ferrule length.

Page 22

5 - Receiving and Handling Wire Rope

2. Ferrule size, length Although ferrule diameters are fairly universal for a given rope size, length is not. It's best to know and specify the ferrule size and length. Shovels typically use shorter ferrules due to space limitations. Longer ferrules may not fit in the sockets properly.

PAD EYE

LINK BECKET

TAPERED & WELDED END

TAPERED END WITH LOOP

3. Dead wraps To

Figure 20 End preparations, or beckets, are used when another rope is needed to pull the operating rope into place. Four basic types of beckets are shown. rule becket fittings be replaced in sets. It is also critical that the lengths of the two hoist ropes in a replacement set be kept within the tight tolerance specified (Figure 21).

prevent overloading the ferrules, the system depends on the friction provided by the dead wraps on the drum. As such, ropes should be purchased that provide 1.5-2.0 dead wraps for shovels and 2.5-3.0 dead wraps for walking draglines on the drum when the most possible rope is reeled out. This is easy to check by visual observation.

Wedge Sockets
Wedge sockets should be used only with standard 6 to 8 strand wire rope. For rope larger than 9/16 in. (14.3 mm) in diameter, use the next larger size socket. For example, a 9/16 in. rope requires a 5/8 in. (15.9 mm) wedge socket.

4. Rope length In most applications where ferrule beckets are used, it is difficult to equalize the rope lengths. Unequal lengths, however, will produce significantly unequal loading and shorter rope life. It is critical that hoist ropes that use fer-

MATCHED SET TOLERANCE 0.50"

WIRE PULLING LOOP

FERRULE BECKET

Figure 21 For matched sets of hoist ropes with ferrule becket end fittings, the rope lengths must be kept within the tolerance specified (typically, 0.50"). Page 23

PEAK PERFORMANCE PRACTICES WIRE ROPE

Align the live end of the rope with the center line of the socket pin. Secure the dead end with properly sized U-bolt or fist grip clips (Figure 23). Never attach the dead end of the rope to the live rope.

TAIL LENGTH

Poured Spelter Sockets


Spelter sockets make highly efficient end terminations, particularly for large diameter ropes and boom pendants. The socket is attached to the rope by inserting the broomed out end of the rope or structural strand into the cone-shaped socket and pouring molten zinc into the socket and letting it cool (Figure 24). However, due to the rigidity of the attachment, the ability of the rope or strand to bend or adjust at the fitting is extremely limited. Thus, high stress caused by vibration is created at the point where the wires enter the socket. This calls for frequent inspection for broken wires or strands at this point. Be sure to check the socket manufacturers policy regarding resocketing.

CORRECT

INCORRECT

Figure 22 A wedge socket is easy to use but it is critical that the rope is attached correctly. Never attach the dead end of the rope to the live rope. If a rope clamp is used it should not be tightened until after the wedge is seated in the socket.

The tail length (Figure 22) should be at least 6 rope diameters but never less than 6 in. (152 mm). For example, for a 2 in. (51 mm) rope: Tail Length = 2x6 = 12 in. (304.8 mm).
Note: Always remove the end preparation before seating the wedge in the socket. This allows the strand and wires to slide relative to each other as they conform to the tight radius of the wedge.

U-BOLT CLIP

FIST GRIP CLIP


Figure 24 Molten zinc is commonly used to secure wire rope to a spelter socket. Some manufacturers use specially formulated resin instead.

Figure 23 Wire rope clips are available in two basic styles: U-bolt and fist grip. Both provide the same efficiency. Page 24

6 - Structural Strand Boom Pendants

Boom and mast support pendants are normally made of galvanized structural strand with non-preformed wires. The outer layers of these wires are laid in alternating directions, i.e. left lay and right lay, for torque-balanced construction. This is called cross-laid strand (Figure 25). In some strand constructions the innermost wires may be laid in a parallel arrangement called parallel contact core. It offers more contact area between adjacent wires to handle the higher internal strand pressures toward the strand center (Figure 26). End terminations are usually poured spelter sockets. Structural strand is prestretched to minimize additional stretching during operation. To ensure that each assembly is measured to the same length, it is measured before prestretching and again after prestretching, under load. However, because used strand may sustain some additional stretch, it will tend to be slightly longer than new, unused strand. Pairing a new pendant with a used one may cause the new pendant to carry a larger load, making it likely to fail before the used pendant. As a result, boom and mast pendants should always be replaced in full sets, unless a true equalizing link arrangement is used. Because of the high stresses placed on the strand where it enters the socket, fatigue breaks are most likely to occur at that point. Be sure to inspect this area carefully on a regular basis and lubricate every three months through the lube fittings provided.

CORE

Figure 25 Cross-laid strand construction helps balance torque forces in structural strand.

CORE

Figure 26 Parallel contact core construction increases the contact between the core and adjacent wires to handle the higher internal strand pressures toward the strand center.

Page 25

7 - Recommended Practices for Extending Wire Rope Life

Assuming there is no damage to the rope in shipping, handling and storage, a wire ropes service life is affected from the time it is installed. Improper installation or securing of its end terminations can reduce its life. Be sure to follow the proper procedures and use properly sized sheaves.

stretch and the wires and strands to seat in and adjust to normal operating conditions.

Break in new wire rope Any time a new


wire rope is installed, it needs to be broken in properly. Start the equipment and allow the rope to run through an operating cycle at slow speed with no load. Carefully observe all the working parts of the system, including sheaves, drums and rollers, to see that the rope runs smoothly and without obstruction. If any problem is encountered, correct it before proceeding any further. Repeat this process several times, gradually increasing the load and speed. This allows the rope to

Inspect twin sheaves for uneven wear On shovels and some draglines, both grooves of twin sheaves should be the same depth. If one groove is deeper than the other, rope performance and service life will decrease and sheave wear will increase. Check the equipment manufacturers tolerances for groove wear and repair or replace the sheave as needed. Keep martensite in check Martensite is a
hard-to-see wire surface condition that leads to broken wires. It is formed by the very localized high heat of friction on the crowns of wire rope followed by rapid cooling of the wires beneath them. The formation of martensite can be prevented by using properly sized sheaves, limiting sheave overspinning and avoiding digging techniques that

Figure 27 Wire rope suppliers carefully wrap rope on reels to insure damage-free rope shipments. Page 27

PEAK PERFORMANCE PRACTICES WIRE ROPE

produce high friction contact situations or excessive rope oscillations. Also avoid rope contact with hard objects such as rock, especially when operating at high line speeds.

Adjusting the digging angle can also reduce the load on wire rope. Loading increases with the digging angle and crowd distance (Figure 28). At a digging angle of 15 it takes 1.035 times as much power, or 3.5% more, to lift a given load as it does directly below the boom point. At an angle of 45 it takes 41.4% more power. And at an angle of 60 it takes twice as much power. Digging as low under the boom point as possible helps to reduce rope stress and extend the useful life of wire rope.

Keep wire ropes properly lubricated


This allows the wires and strands to adjust to changing loads and prevents corrosion. Lubricate the ropes as needed with each inspection. Where sheave overspinning occurs it is a good practice to lubricate the sheave groove with an open gear type of lubricant to dampen the relative motion and prevent Martensite formation in the rope wires. Also lubricate pendant sockets every three months. Some larger diameter pendant sockets have a lube fitting in the zinc/resin. These fittings should also be lubricated at no more than threemonth intervals. For shovels equipped with ropeoperated crowd and retract functions, refer to the manufacturers instructions for maintenance and replacement procedures and safety precautions.

Dig Angle Affects Power Requirements


Dig Angle 0 15 30 45 60
*As a percentage of load

Power Required to Lift Load* 100% 103.5% 115.4% 141.4% 200%

Shovels
The leading cause of rope failures on shovels is drum dampening, i.e. the shock created in slack rope when sudden loading occurs. Depending on the style of bail and equalizer, letting the bail 60 go slack and then taking it up too rapidly can cause excessive 45 vibration in the rope. This is especially true on bailless dip15 30 4100A pers. Vibration can be minimized by starting the digging 0 cycle slowly and loading the rope gradually while C L ROTATION increasing the tension on the rope. Figure 28 The load on the hoist rope increases with the digging angle. At a dig angle of 15, it takes 3.5% more power to lift a load as it does directly beneath the boom point. At 60, twice as much power is required. Page 28

7 - Recommended Practices for Extending Wire Rope Life

Figure 29 As the bucket is drawn closer to the dragline, the power required to lift the same load increases.

Draglines
As with shovels, the most efficient digging range is directly beneath the boom point (Figure 29). Casting the bucket beyond this point increases the stress and load on the rope. As the bucket is pulled closer to the dragline, digging efficiency decreases and the load on the ropes increases, including the dump rope(s). Most of the wear on dragline ropes occurs in the areas that run through the fairleads, about onethird to one-half the full length of the rope. Reversing the drum and bucket ends of the rope places worn areas of the rope in areas less vulnerable to further wear, and vice versa. Some additional wear on drag ropes occurs at the base of the wedge socket. Resocketing the rope when there are six broken wires at the drag socket, or at approximately every 1/5 of its service life,

until the rope becomes too short to use will maximize its useful life. A heavy application of "sticky" lubricant such as open gear lubricant in the grooves of the vertical fairleads can help the rope start and stop the sheaves and limit the formation of martensite in the wires. Used hoist ropes can be salvaged for reuse as drag ropes by cutting to length sections of used rope that pass inspection, if the ropes are the same diameter. Likewise, suitable sections of old hoist and drag ropes can be used as dump ropes if they are the right size. Similarly, dragline rope life can be extended by reversing them end for end when the ropes reach approximately 40 to 50 percent of their expected service life.

Page 29

Glossary of Common Terms


BENDABILITY The ability of a rope to bend in an arc. BOOM PENDANT A non-operating wire rope or structural strand secured with end terminations to provide structural support for the boom. BRIGHT ROPE Rope that is made from uncoated wires. BROOM The spreading out of a rope's strands and individual wires at the rope's end. CATENARY A curve formed by a strand or wire rope when supported horizontally between two fixed points, e.g., the main spans on a suspension bridge. COMPACTED STRAND A type of high performance wire rope whose exterior strands are purposely flattened to increase the ropes exposed surface; compacting enhances both fatigue resistance and crushing resistance. CORE The central part of a rope that serves as the ropes foundation. CORRUGATION A wrinkling or shaping into a series of ridges or furrows. CRUSHING RESISTANCE A ropes ability to retain its round shape when outside forces act on it, especially when multiple wraps or layers of rope are wound on a reel or drum. DESIGN FACTOR The ratio of a ropes nominal or catalog strength to its anticipated maximum load in operation. DOG-LEG A permanent bend or kink in a wire rope caused by mishandling or improper operation. DRUM A cylindrical grooved or smooth barrel on which wire rope is spooled for storage or operation. END PREPARATION A treatment of the end of a wire rope to prepare it for being pulled by another rope into a tight opening as in a drum. END TERMINATION The treatment at the end of a rope designed to be the permanent end termination that connects the rope to the load. FATIGUE RESISTANCE A ropes ability to withstand repeated bending under stress, as when passing over a sheave; a relatively large number of wires in a ropes design improves its bendability. FILLER WIRE Small wires used in a strand as spacers between an inner and outer layer of larger wires. FLEET ANGLE That angle between the rope's position at the extreme end wrap on a drum, and a line drawn perpendicular to the axis of the drum through the center of the nearest fixed sheave. See DRUM and SHEAVE. INDEPENDENT WIRE ROPE CORE (IWRC) A complete wire rope in its own right used as the core of a larger wire rope. INTERNALLY LUBRICATED Wire rope or strand that has all its components coated with lubricant. LANG LAY A method of wire rope construction in which the crowns of the wires in a strand appear to be at an angle to the ropes axis. LAY The pattern in which a strands wires are helically wrapped around the central wire and the strands are wrapped around the ropes central core.

Page 31

PEAK PERFORMANCE PRACTICES WIRE ROPE

LAY LENGTH The distance measured parallel to the ropes axis in which a single wire makes one complete helical convolution about the core; also called pitch. PEENING A flattening on the outer surface of a wire rope due to the rope contacting a solid object. PITCH An alternate term for lay length. REGULAR LAY A method of wire rope construction in which the crowns of the wires in a strand appear parallel to the ropes axis. RESERVE STRENGTH The percentage of a ropes nominal strength remaining with the ropes outer layer of wires removed. SEALE A strand construction in which two layers of wires, equal in number, are wrapped around the center wire; the large outer wires rest in the valleys of the inner layer of wires. SEIZING A method of preparing the ends of a rope for installation; soft wire or strand is bound around the ends the rope to prevent it from flattening, distorting or unraveling; also called whipping. SHEAVE A grooved pulley for use with wire rope. STRAND A grouping of wires laid in a helical pattern about a central wire; groups of strands are laid about the ropes core. STRETCH The lengthening of a rope under load. SWAGE A method that employs hammers to compact wire rope strands and fittings. WARRINGTON A strand construction in which one of the layers, usually the outer layer, is made up of alternating large and small wires. WIRE STRAND CORE (WSC) A wire strand used as the foundation of a wire rope.

Page 32

Index
Abrasion resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Boom Pendants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 Breaking strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13,16 Broken wires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17-19 Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-14 Classifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-8 Compacted strand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12-13 Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-8 Cores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Corrugation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 Cross-laid strand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 Crushing resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 D/d ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Dead wraps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 Design factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 Draglines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 End preparations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 Extending wire rope life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27-29 Extra extra improved plow (EEIP or XXIP) . . . . . . . .4 Extra improved plow (EIP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Fatigue resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-12 Ferrule becket . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22-23 Fiber core (FC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Filler wire (FW) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-7 Finishes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Fist grip clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 Flattened strand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Grades . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Improved plow (IP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Independent wire rope core (IWRC) . . . . . . . . . . .3,13 Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15-20 sheaves and drums . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19-20 Inspection checklist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 Lay lang . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-6 left lang lay (LLL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 left regular lay (LRL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 regular . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-5 right lang lay (RLL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 right regular lay (RRL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Lay length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 Link Becket . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 Lubrication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 Martensite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15-16 Metal loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Mild plow steel (MP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Minimum acceptance strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Minimum catalog strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 Multiple operation (2-Op) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Nominal strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Non-preformed wire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Pad Eye . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 Parallel contact core . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 Peening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Preformed wire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Plastic coated rope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Pull-off strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 Reserve strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 Retirement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16-17,19 Seale (S) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Selection guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Service life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Sheave groove gauge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19-20 Shovels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 Single layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-7 Spelter Sockets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 Storing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 Strands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Structural strand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 Swaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Tapered and Welded End . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 Terminations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 U-Bolt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 Unreeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 Warrington (W) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Warrington Seale (WS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Wedge Sockets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23-24 Winding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 Wire strand core . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Wires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 X chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12

Page 33

Suggestions, Ideas?
It is our hope you have found this handbook informative and helpful, but we recognize that every mine has its own methods of operation and unique set of equipment requirements, and that no single handbook can answer everyones needs. If you have any suggestions regarding how we can improve this book, we would be pleased to consider them for inclusion in a future edition. Please e-mail your comments and suggestions to P&H MinePro Services at ph-min@minepro.com, or call us at (414) 671-4400 and ask for Marketing Communications.

P&H gratefully acknowledges the Wire Rope Technical Board and its Wire Rope Users Manual, Third Edition for permission to reproduce source material for this publication. We also thank Bridon American Corp. and Wire Rope Industries, Ltd. for their kind assistance.

Serving All Your Wire Rope Needs

In addition to a full complement of wire rope from the industrys leading manufacturers, P&H offers comprehensive wire rope services, including:
Wire rope recommendations based on applications analysis Wire rope installation Wire rope handling and maintenance training Sheave and drum re-grooving/replacement Wire rope inspection and failure analysis P&H TripRite dipper trip control system
For further information, contact your local P&H MinePro Services representative or call 1-888-MINEPRO. Outside the U.S. and Canada, phone (414) 671-4400 or fax (414) 671-7785. Visit us on the internet at www.minepro.com.

Note: All designs, specifications and components of equipment described above are subject to change at manufacturer's sole discretion at any time without advance notice. Data published herein is informational in nature and shall not be construed to warrant suitability of product for any particular purpose as performance may vary with conditions encountered. The only warranty applicable is our standard written warranty for this product. P&H Mining Equipment, P. O. Box 310, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201. XS-1525-1 3FP-704