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Deep South Center for Occupational Health & Safety

Deep South Center for Occupational Health & Safety Occupational Ergonomics: Assessing Ergonomic Hazards in the

Occupational Ergonomics: Assessing Ergonomic Hazards in the Workplace

Jerry Davis, PhD, CPE Brian Carnahan, PhD

Ergo Program Manager
Ergo Program
Manager
Ergo Program Manager Training Tool
Ergo Program Manager Training Tool

Training

Tool

Introduction to Ergonomics Ergo ~ meaning work Nomos ~ meaning laws
Introduction to Ergonomics
Ergo ~ meaning work
Nomos ~ meaning laws

It is the study of people at work.

Introduction to Ergonomics Ergonomics Involves: Work Force Design Engineers Industrial Engineers Safety Professionals
Introduction to Ergonomics
Ergonomics Involves:
Work Force
Design Engineers
Industrial Engineers
Safety Professionals
Industrial Hygienists
Nurses and Physicians
Training Managers
Human Resource
Managers

DefinitionErgonomics is a multidisciplinary activity that assembles information on people’s capacities and applies that

Ergonomics is a multidisciplinary activity that assembles information on people’s capacities and applies that information in designing jobs, products, workplaces, and equipment.

on people’s capacities and applies that information in designing jobs, products, workplaces, and equipment.
Th e Goal of Er gonomics FIT THE TASK TO THE PERSON

The Goal of Ergonomics

FIT THE TASK TO THE PERSON

Th e Goal of Er gonomics FIT THE TASK TO THE PERSON

Compare the twoCompare the two Current Emphases Workplace Design Cumulative Trauma Disorder (CTD) Prevention Manual Material

Compare the two
Compare the two

Compare the twoCompare the two Current Emphases Workplace Design Cumulative Trauma Disorder (CTD) Prevention Manual Material

Compare the two
Compare the two
Current Emphases Workplace Design Cumulative Trauma Disorder (CTD) Prevention Manual Material Handling (MMH)

Current Emphases

Workplace Design Cumulative Trauma Disorder (CTD) Prevention Manual Material Handling (MMH) Legislation & Regulation

Logical Approach

Logical Approach

Logical Approach

What is a Musculoskeletal Disorder (MSD)?

What is a Musculoskeletal Disorder (MSD)? Have you ever heard about any of these? Historic Occupational

Have you ever heard about any of these?

Historic Occupational Disorders

Bricklayers’ Shoulder Carpenters’ Elbow Stitchers’ Wrist Telegraphists’ Cramp Cotton Twisters’ Hand

Epidemiology: Principles and Methods

What is a Musculoskeletal Disorder (MSD)?

What is a Musculoskeletal Disorder (MSD)? Do these disorders still exist? Ye s ! They are

Do these disorders still exist?

Ye s !

They are part of a broad category of injuries and disorders called Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs). An MSD is an injury or disorder of the muscles, nerves, tendons, joints, cartilage, or spinal discs.* Also known as Cumulative Trauma Disorders (CTD’s).

* S ource:U.S.D eptofLabor

What is a CTD? Cumulative: Develop gradually over a period of time (not acute) Trauma:
What is a CTD?
Cumulative: Develop gradually over a period of time
(not acute)
Trauma: Bodily injury from mechanical stress
Disorders: Physical ailments or abnormal conditions
of time (not acute) Trauma: Bodily injury from mechanical stress Disorders: Physical ailments or abnormal conditions
of time (not acute) Trauma: Bodily injury from mechanical stress Disorders: Physical ailments or abnormal conditions

Recent Statisticsstress Disorders: Physical ailments or abnormal conditions Recent MSD Statistics* MSD’s cost employers $40-60

Recent Statistics
Recent MSD Statistics* MSD’s cost employers $40-60 billion annually $75,000 - $115,000 in total cost

Recent MSD Statistics*

MSD’s cost employers $40-60 billion annually

$75,000 - $115,000 in total cost per case

Many ergonomic fixes can be implemented for less than $150.

* OSHA estimates

Recent Statistics Pe rce nt M usculoske le tal Injurie s in Industry Total Injuries:
Recent Statistics
Pe rce nt M usculoske le tal Injurie s in Industry
Total Injuries: 1,537,567
Other Events
522,528 (34% )
Musculoskeletal
1,015,039
Disorders
(66% )

Source: BLS 2001

Recent Statistics Gender (T otal Lost Time Injuries: 1,537,567) 516,842 (33.86% ) Females Males 1,009,499
Recent Statistics
Gender (T otal Lost Time Injuries: 1,537,567)
516,842
(33.86% )
Females
Males
1,009,499

(66.13% )

Source: BLS 2001

Recent MSD Statistics M ales vs Females (Distribution of M SD's) T otal M SD's:
Recent MSD Statistics
M ales vs Females (Distribution of M SD's)
T otal M SD's: 522,528
194,910
(37.30% )
Females
Males
324,935
(62.18% )

Source: BLS 2001

Recent Statistics Age All Injuries MSD's (% of all Injuries) Percentage of Total MSD's Under
Recent Statistics
Age
All Injuries
MSD's (% of all Injuries)
Percentage of Total MSD's
Under 25
217,102
62,272 (29%)
12%
25-34
389,065
134,370 (35%)
26%
35-44
438,445
161,670 (37%)
31%
45-54
315,794
112,923 (36%)
22%
55-64
135,690
43,146 (32%)
8%
65 and over
24,541
5,016 (20%)
1%
TOTAL
1,520,637
522,528 (34%)
100%
Source: BLS 2001
Recent MSD Statistics

Recent MSD Statistics

 

Breakdown by occupation:

Operators, fabricators, laborers Service Technical, Sales and Admin.

41%

18%

17%

Precision Production, craft, repair Managers & Professionals …

16%

6%

Farming, fishing, forestry

2%

Recent MSD Statistics

Recent MSD Statistics

 

Breakdown by industry:

Services Manufacturing Retail trade Transportation, public utilities Construction Wholesale trade Agriculture, forestry, fishing Finance, insurance, real estate Mining

26%

23%

16%

13%

9%

8%

2%

2%

1%

Recent MSD Statistics Breakdown by days away from work: 1 day … 12% 2 days

Recent MSD Statistics

Breakdown by days away from work:

1 day

12%

2 days

11%

3–5 days

20%

6–10 days

13%

11–20 days

13%

21–30 days

7%

31 days or more

24%

Ergonomics and OSHA General Duty Clause – Section 5 of OSHAct Employers must … "furnish

Ergonomics and OSHA

General Duty Clause – Section 5 of OSHAct Employers must …

"furnish to each of his employees employment and a place of employment which are free from recognized hazards”

OSHA can cite for ergonomics hazards if …

Employees are exposed to hazards

Hazard was causing or is likely to cause serious harm

The hazard is recognizable

A feasible means of control exists

Source: BLS

OSHA citation: A case Hudson Foods, Noel, MO facility Total fine levied: $840,000 WHY? >300

OSHA citation: A case

Hudson Foods, Noel, MO facility Total fine levied: $840,000 WHY? >300 cases for Cumulative Trauma Disorders (CTD) among workers. Steady growth of CTDs from 1994-96 No of surgeries: 20 12 violations, involved 23 different tasks at facility

Benefits of Ergonomics Increased efficiency Lower turnover and absenteeism Increased productivity Lower insurance
Benefits of Ergonomics
Increased efficiency
Lower turnover and
absenteeism
Increased productivity
Lower insurance premiums
Reduced worker fatigue &
overexertion
Increased worker
satisfaction
Easier for workers to do their
job well
Success with Ergonomics Company: Hasbro Games Venue: Longmeadow, Mass. Product: Games and Toys Successful in

Success with Ergonomics

Company: Hasbro Games Venue: Longmeadow, Mass. Product: Games and Toys Successful in reducing sprains and strains among workers by 85% 20 hrs/year training for every employee

Source: CTD News, Jan’04

Success with Ergonomics Company: Honda of America Venue: Marysville, Ohio Product: Vehicle Manufacturing Scrap

Success with Ergonomics

Company: Honda of America Venue: Marysville, Ohio Product: Vehicle Manufacturing Scrap metal- considered as ergonomic issue $500,000 annual savings due to injury avoidance

Source: CTD News, Sept’03

Questions & Comments

Questions & Comments