Sei sulla pagina 1di 90

Automation

Industrial Electrical Engineering and

Boiler Control

CODEN:LUTEDX/(TEIE-5278)/1-89(2011)

Improving Efficiency of Boiler Systems

8 )/1- 89 ( 201 1 ) Improving Efficiency of Boiler Systems Hjalti Kristinsson Sofie L
8 )/1- 89 ( 201 1 ) Improving Efficiency of Boiler Systems Hjalti Kristinsson Sofie L

Hjalti Kristinsson Sofie Lang

Division of Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation Faculty of Engineering, Lund University

Boiler Control – improving efficiency of boiler systems

Hjalti Kristinsson Sofie Lang

Lund University, Faculty of Engineering Division of Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation

AB Regin

December 2010

Abstract

This master thesis is written at the division of Industrial Electrical Engi- neering and Automation (IEA) Lund University, Faculty of Engineering, in cooperation with AB Regin in Landskrona.

AB Regin wishes to determine whether their existing controller platforms can be used to implement a control system for boilers. The control system should be flexible in terms of boiler size, boiler fuel and boiler type.

The main aspects associated with the combustion process are reviewed, and different types of fuel commonly used in boilers are investigated and com- pared. The most common boiler designs are described, and definitions used in boiler context are explained.

To establish what techniques have been developed to improve boiler effi- ciency an empirical study is performed. The different techniques are dis- cussed in detail, involving both control systems and design changes. Finally the measurement instruments involved in these improvement techniques are described.

Case studies are performed to find out which techniques are used in practice to improve efficiency of boiler systems. To get a good idea of common tech- niques, the cases include establishments that use different fuels, and range from small scale to large scale.

An effort is made to implement a boiler controller on the EXOcompact plat- form from AB Regin. A control algorithm is outlined and implemented for a fictional system. The system is then simulated using a demo kit from Regin. Some tests are performed to verify that the function of the control system is acceptable, and the results are discussed.

Finally the overall thesis is discussed, and issues that should be addressed in future development are listed and explained.

Preface

The work on this thesis was done in AB Regin’s product development center in Landskrona, under supervision from the division of Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation (IEA) at Lund University, Faculty of Engi- neering. All responsibility for the report has been divided equally by both authors, and all chapters are a result of cooperative writing. The work on the report was started in May 2010, and while working on the report we have received support from a number of people. The following people de- serve special thanks:

Jonas Möller, our supervisor at AB Regin. During the time we spent on the report Jonas was always ready to help. Without such great help our work would not have gone as smoothly. We would also like to thank the staff at AB Regin in general for their warm welcome, and for supplying us with an office to work in.

Johan Billberg and Staffan Salö for their help regarding the Sysav power plant. Due to the thorough explanation of the system provided by Johan, we gained a very good overview of the operational principles of such a plant.

Martin Båfält for meeting with us and explaining the operation of Öre- sundsverket power plant.

Staffan Branting and Håkan Nilsson for providing information on the boilers at Nosabyskolan in Kristianstad municipality.

Roger Assarsson for explaining the operation of the biofueled boiler system in Staffanstorp.

Gunnar Lindstedt, our supervisor at IEA, for his feedback and help.

Finally we would like to thank our families and friends for their support.

Hjalti Kristinsson and Sofie Lang Lund, December 2010

Contents

1 Introduction

 

1

1.1 Background

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

1

1.2 Objectives .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

1

1.3 Outline

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

2

2 Technical Background

 

3

2.1 Combustion

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

3

2.1.1 Stoichiometric Combustion

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

4

2.1.2 Complete Combustion

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

4

2.1.3 Incomplete Combustion

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

4

2.1.4 Excess Air .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

5

2.1.5 Combustion Gases .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

2.2 Fuels .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

5

5

2.2.1 Solid Fuel

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

5

2.2.2 Liquid Fuel

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

6

2.2.3 Gaseous Fuels .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

7

2.2.4 Energy Content

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

7

2.3 Emissions

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

8

2.3.1 Nitrogen Oxides

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

10

2.3.2 Sulfur Dioxide

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

11

2.3.3 Particulate Matter

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

11

2.3.4 Carbon Monoxide .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

12

2.4 Boiler Types

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

12

2.4.1 Firetube Boiler

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

13

2.4.2 Watertube Boiler

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

13

2.4.3 Condensing versus non-Condensing

 

14

2.5 Fuel Feed Systems

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

15

2.5.1 Stokers

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

16

2.5.2 Pulverizers

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

18

2.5.3 Fluidized Bed .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

19

2.6 Boiler Efficiency

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

19

2.6.1 Losses in Boiler Systems

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

20

2.6.2 Efficiency Definitions .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

21

CONTENTS

iii

2.6.3

Measuring Efficiency

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

21

3 Empirical Studies

23

3.1 Combustion Control

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

23

3.1.1 Control Schemes

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

23

3.1.2 Load Control

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

25

Air Control

3.1.3 .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

27

3.1.4 Fuel Control

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

32

3.2 Solid Fuel Control Techniques

 

33

3.2.1 Monitoring Fuel Moisture Content

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

33

3.2.2 Flame Front Positioning

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

35

3.3 Other Ways of Improving Efficiency

 

36

3.3.1 Waste Heat Recovery

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

37

3.3.2 Blowdown Control

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

39

3.4 Measurement Technology

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

40

3.4.1 Fuel Monitoring .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

40

3.4.2 Combustion Monitoring

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

41

3.4.3 Flue Gas Monitoring

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

43

4 Case Studies

46

Sysav

4.1 .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

46

4.1.1 The Installation .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

47

4.1.2 The Control System

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

49

4.2 Öresundsverket

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

51

4.2.1 The Installation .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

52

4.2.2 The Control System

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

53

4.3 Nosabyskolan

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

54

4.3.1 The Installation .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

54

4.3.2 The Control System

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

55

4.4 Staffanstorp Värmeverk

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

56

4.4.1 The Installation .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

57

4.4.2 The Control System

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

57

5 Implementation

58

5.1 Methodology

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

58

5.2 The Boiler System

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

59

5.2.1 System Description .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

59

5.2.2 Control Parameters .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

61

5.2.3 Alarms

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

61

5.3 Practical Implementation

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

62

5.3.1

Control Platform

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

62

5.3.2

Simulation Environment

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

63

5.3.3

Controller Loops

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

63

Testing

5.4 .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

67

iv

CONTENTS

5.5

Results

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

67

6 Discussion

 

69

6.1 Conclusions

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

69

6.2 Future Development

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

70

Bibliography

 

73

List of Figures

2.1

A two-pass firetube boiler

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

13

2.2

A watertube boiler

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

14

2.3

The effect of inlet water temperature on efficiency .

.

.

.

.

.

.

15

2.4

Cross-section of an underfeed stoker

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

17

2.5

Cross-section of an overfeed massfeed stoker

 

17

2.6

Cross-section of an overfeed spreader stoker

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

18

3.1

Cross-limiting of air and fuel signals

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

25

3.2

Combustion bed

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

29

3.3

Hypothetical CO-O 2 characteristics curve

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

30

3.4

Illustration of the flame fronts and the glow front

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

35

3.5

Combined radiation and convection recuperator

 

37

3.6

Boiler economizer

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

38

3.7

Image analysis of flame front position

 

43

4.1

The Sysav waste-to-energy plant

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

47

4.2

Illustration of Boiler 4 at Sysav

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

48

4.3

Principle of grate movement

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

50

4.4

The principal operation of the Öresundsverket power plant

 

53

4.5

Illustration of EcoTec boiler

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

55

5.1

A cross-section of the simulated boiler system

 

60

5.2

The EXOcompact controller .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

62

5.3