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Atlas of Human Anatomy

The bones of the skull seen from the front.


Translated by: Ronald A. Bergman, PhD and Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS
Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed


A) Frontal bone.
B) Parietal Bone.
C) Sphenoid bone, greater wing.
D) Temporal bone.
E) Zygomatic bone (origin of mm.zygomaticus major and minor).
F) Maxilla.
G) Nasal bones.
H) Mandible.
a) Coronal suture.
b) Frontal suture.
c) Squamus suture.
d) Frontal eminence.
e) Superciliary ridge (covered by m. corrugator supercilii).
f) Glabella.
g) Zygomatic process.
h) Supraorbital margin.
i) Supraorbital notch (or foramen) (for the passage of the supraorbital artery,
vein and nerve).
k) Frontal bone, nasal process.
l) Nasal Spine.
m) Nasal process of the maxilla (origin of mm frontalis, orbicularis
palpebrum, and levator labii superioris alaeque nasi, and zygomaticomaxillary
suture and medial palpebral ligament).
n) Zygomatic process of the maxilla.
o) Alveolar process of the maxilla (origin of mm. compressor, depressor nasi,
buccinator,and incisivi labii superioris and inferioris).
p) Infraorbital foramen (exit of infraorbital canal carrying the infraorbital
artery, vein, and nerve).
q) Maxillary depression (origin of m. levator anguli oris).
r) Anterior nasal spine (origin of m. orbicularis oris).
s) Nasal pyriform aperature.
t) Infraorbital margin (covered by the m. orbicularis palpebrum and origin of
m. levator labii superioris proprius).
u) Fossa of the lacrimal sac.
v) Alveolar yokes.
w) Maxillary process of the zygomatic bone (origin of m. zygomaticus
minor).
x) Frontal of the zygomatic bone.
y) Temporal process of the zygomatic bone.
z) Zygomaticofacial foramen. (transmits the zygomaticofacial nerve).
o)Mentum (chin), external mental spine.
|) Mental foramen (exit for the mental artery, vein, and nerve).
) Mandibular angle (beginning of mm masseter and medial pterygoid).
o) Mandibular ramus.
c) Mastoid process.
,)Optic foramen (for the optic nerve and ophthalmic artery).
q) Superior orbital fissure. (between the greater and lesser wings of the
sphenoid bone) (passage for the ophthalmic vein, nn. oculomotor, trochlear,
ophthalmic, and abducens nerves).
u) Inferior orbital fissure (between the greater wing of the sphenoid and
maxillary bone) (passage for ophthalmic vein, infraorbital nerve, artery, and
vein, and cutaneous nerve of the cheek).
i) Zygomaticoorbital foramen (transmits zygomaticofacial and
zygomaticotemporal brs. to the temporal fossa).











Atlas of Human Anatomy
The bones of the skull, lateral view.
Translated by: Ronald A. Bergman, PhD and Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS
Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed


A) Frontal bone.
B) Parietal bone.
C) Temporal bone.
D) Sphenoid bone, greater wing.
E) Zygomatic bone.
F) Maxilla.
G) Nasal bone.
H) Mandible.
a) Frontal eminence (ossification center).
b) Superciliary arch (covered by m. corrugator supercilii).
d) Glabella (the frontal sinus behind).
e) Supraorbital margin (covered by the external stratum of m. orbicularis
palpebrarum).
f) Superorbital fissure (in some skulls, a foramen) (passage for supraorbital
artery, vein, and nerve).
g) Zygomatic process.
h) Temporal line.
i) Semicircular line (the boundry of the planum semicircular from which m.
temporalis originates).
k) Coronal suture.
l) Parietal eminence.
m) Temporal bone, squamous part (origin of m temporalis).
n) Temporal bone, mastoid part.
o) Temporal bone, mastoid process.
p) Mastoid notch or groove.
q) External auditory meatus.
r) Zygomatic arch (zygomatic process of the temporal bone) (origin of
mm.masseter and attrahens auriculae and temporozygomatic suture).
s) Zygomatic bone, temporal process.
t) Zygomatic bone, frontal process (frontozygomatic suture).
u) Zygomatic bone, maxillary process.
v) Zygomaticoorbital foramen (passage for zygomaticofacial nerve of the
cheek).
w) Maxilla bone, zygomatic process.
x) Maxillary depression (origin of the m. levator anguli oris).
y) Infraorbital foramen.
z) Maxillary tuberosity.
1. Frontal process or superior maxillary nasal bone.
2. Alveolar process of the maxillary bone, with the alveolar eminences.
3. Pterygoid process, lateral ala (wing).
4. Body of mandible.
5. Spine or external mental protuberance.
6. Mental foramen (exit of inferior alveolar canal, passage for mental
artery, vein and nerve).
7. Lateral oblique line (attachment site for buccinator muscle).
8. Alveolar margin with alveolar ridge.
9. Mandibular angle.
10. Coronoid process of the mandible.
11. Mandibular Condylar process.
12. Mandibular notch.
13. Pyriform aperture.
14. Anterior nasal spine.
15. Fossa for the lacrymal sac.
16. Squamous suture.
17. Mastoid suture.
18. Transverse suture.





Atlas of Human Anatomy
The inner wall of the bones of the orbit, and the
pterygopalatine fossa and their surroundings.
Translated by: Ronald A. Bergman, PhD and Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS
Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed


A. Frontal bone.
B. Nasal bone
C. Maxillary bone.
D. Palatine bone (perpendicular part; pterygopalatine fossa).
E. Ethmoidal bone (lamina papyracea).
F. Lacrymal bone.
G. Sphenoid bone.
a) Fossa for lacrymal sac.
b) Infraorbital foramen.
c) Ethmoidal foramen.
e) Maxillary sinus (antrum of Highmore).
f) Pterygoid process.
g) Pterygopalatine canal.
h) Pterygopalatine foramen.
i) Orbital process, palatine bone.
k) Sphenoid process, palatine bone.
l) Orbital part of the frontal bone.
m) Anterior clinoid process.
n) Sella turcica.
o) Optic foramen.
p) Posterior clinoid process.
q) Carotid canal.
r) Lingula.
s) Pterygoid canal (Vidian canal).
t) Styloid process.






Atlas of Human Anatomy
The external wall of the (left) nasal bones with their
muscles.
Translated by: Ronald A. Bergman, PhD and Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS
Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed


A) Frontal bone, frontal part.
B) Sphenoid bone, body.
C) Pterygoid process of the sphenoid bone.
D) Palatine bone, perpendicular part.
E) Palatine bone, horizontal part.
F) Maxillary bone, palatine process.
G) Inferior concha, inferior turbinate bone.
H) Nasal lamina, ethmoid labyrinth.
I) Frontal process (nasalis of the maxillary bone).
K) Nasal bone.
a) Frontal sinus.
b) Ethmoidal sinus.
c) Sphenoidal sinus.
d) Superior concha, highest turbinate bone.
e) Middle concha, middle turbinate bone.
f) Pterygopalatine foramen, in the perpendicular part of the palatine bone.
g) Pterygoid process, medial wing.
h) Pterygoid process, lateral wing.
i) Lacrymal canal, exit.
k) Incisive canal (for the passage of the nasopalatine artey, vein, and nerve).
l) Sulcus for the external nasal branch of the anterior ethmoid nerve.










Atlas of Human Anatomy
The ethmoid bone, by its upper outer surface.
Translated by: Ronald A. Bergman, PhD and Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS
Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed


A) Lamina cribrosa (horizontalis).
B) Ethmoidal, labryinth.
C) Lamina perpendicularis.
a) Crista galli.
b) Winged processes.
c) Foramina cribrosa.
d) Lamina papyracea.
Atlas of Human Anatomy
The ethmoid bone, from its interior surface.
Translated by: Ronald A. Bergman, PhD and Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS
Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed


A) Labyrinthus ethmoidalis (consists of sinus ethmoidales, lamina papyracea,
and lamina nasalis with the middle and superior conchae).
B) Lamina perpendicularis.
C) Lamina cribrosis.
a) Uncinate process.
b) Middle concha, middle turbinate of nasal bone.
c) Superior concha, upper turbinate of nasal bone.
Atlas of Human Anatomy
The left palatine bone, from its media surface.
Translated by: Ronald A. Bergman, PhD and Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS
Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed


A) Perpendicular part (palatine bone).
B) Horizontal part.
a) Nasal crest.
b) Posterior nasal spine.
c) Inferior turbinate crest.
d) Superior turbinate crest.
e) Orbital process.
f) Sphenoidal process.
g) Pterygopalatine foramen.
h) Nasal process.
i) Pyramidal process.































Atlas of Human Anatomy
The hyoid bone, from the front.
Translated by: Ronald A. Bergman, PhD and Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS
Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed


a) Corpus (body) (transverse line ofor m. mylohyoideus, depression,|for
mm. geniohyoid. Support for mm. digastricus, mylo-, genio-, stylo-, sterno-,
thyreo-, and omohyoideus, hyoglossus and thyreoideus).
b) Greater horn.
c) Lesser horn (origin of mm. chondroglossus and chondropharyngeus,
ligament stylohyoideus).
e) Head of the greater horn (for ligamentum hyothyreoideum).