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Performance Review of Thermal Power Stations 2006-07 Section-13

PAGE NO 13. 1

SECTION-13

STATION HEAT RATE OF COAL/LIGNITE BASED

THERMAL POWER STATIONS

HEAT RATE OF COAL/LIGNITE BASED THERMAL POWER STATIONS INDEX 13.1 The heat rate of a conventional

INDEX

13.1 The heat rate of a conventional fossil-fueled power plant is a measure of how efficiently it converts the chemical energy contained in the fuel into electrical energy. This conversion is accomplished in four major steps. First, the chemical energy in the fuel is converted into thermal energy, then the thermal energy is converted into kinetic energy, then the kinetic energy is converted in mechanical energy, and finally the mechanical energy is converted to electrical energy. In each of these sub-processes, some energy is lost to the environment. Some of the fuel is not burnt completely, some of the thermal energy is lost out of the stack and rejected to the cooling water, some of the kinetic and mechanical energy produces heat instead of electricity, and lastly some of the electricity that is produced is used by these sub-processes. The heat rate of a power plant is the amount of chemical energy that must be supplied to produce one unit of electrical energy. If a power plant converted 100% of the chemical energy in the fuel into electricity, the plant would have a heat rate of 860 kcal/kWh. Alternatively, the required input divided by the actual output, is the reciprocal of the efficiency. Chemical energy is usually measured in kilocalories (kcal) (or sometimes kilojoules, kJ) and electrical energy is usually measured in kilowatt-hours (kWh), the unit of heat rate is normally kcal/kWh (or kJ/kWh).

The Station Heat Rate (SHR) is an important index for assessing the efficiency of a thermal power station. It should be the endeavor of any station to operate the unit as near their design Heat Rate as possible. Station heat rate improvement also helps in reducing pollution from Thermal Power Stations.

Key points for improving Heat Rate:-

Heat rate improvements are possible at any plant, and at many plants the improvement can easily be in the range of 1-2 percentage points.

Heat rate improvement programme could be started, concentrating on one or two areas, (i.e. condenser performance and/or burner balancing) or by concentrating on one or two activities (i.e. monitoring primary process indicators, testing, etc.)

Heat rate improvement must have the full support of the plant management.

Performance Review of Thermal Power Stations 2006-07 Section-13

PAGE NO 13. 2

Improvements do not “just happen”, there must be a concerted effort made just to maintain current status, and even more effort expended to make improvements. Each plant should have a detailed plan listing specific activities that are to be carried out to make improvements, and the plant must be reviewed periodically to ensure that the plan is being carried out.

Heat rate improvement is a continuing process. It must become part of the normal work activities, it must be considered along with, and at par with, reliability, safety, environmental concern, etc., when operating the unit, scheduling maintenance, and all other routine activities. The responsibility of heat rate improvement cannot be assigned to one individual or organization but requires the active involvement of the all plant staff.

A performa has been devised in CEA to monitor various parameters of efficiency of Thermal Power Stations in the country. Data related to Station Heat Rate parameters was received from 56 Thermal Power Stations during 2006-07, which have been compiled, analyzed and compared with their design SHR. The analysis of station heat rate so carried out has been highlighted in the Annexure 13.1. The analysis of station heat rate parameters has been carried out in different categories such as: range of SHR deviation (0-5%), (5-10%), (10-20%) and more than 20%. The stations under 0-10% variation category are considered as good performing stations and stations having greater than 10% variation are considered as poorly operating ones. All the stations analysed are using coal as primary fuel and oil as secondary fuel for flame stabilization/starting purposes except Neyveli, Kutch and Surat Lignite which are lignite based Thermal Power Stations. The analysis has been carried out on the Station basis.

The following assumptions have been made for the analysis of station Heat Rate:

a) Analysis of only those power stations has been carried out where data of at least 9 months operation was available.

b) Design Station Heat Rate has been evaluated based on design data of turbine heat rate and boiler efficiency as submitted by TPSs and compared with their Operating Station Heat Rate.

Performance Review of Thermal Power Stations 2006-07 Section-13

PAGE NO 13. 3

taken from TPS authorities / SEBs / Generating Companies/ Utilities on monthly basis.

d) Weighted average of Coal Gross Calorific Value (GCV) and Oil GCV has been computed yearly for calculating heat rate for the year.

THIS ANALYSIS IS BASED ON THE PERFORMANCE DATA AS AVAILAIBLE TO CEA. THE STATIONS WHICH ARE NOT FIGURING AVAILIBLE IN THIS LIST HAVE EITHER NOT SUBMITTED DATA OR SUBMITTED INCOMPLETE DATA.

13.2

METHODS:

There are two methods for heat rate evaluation of Thermal Power Stations, i.e., Indirect Method and Direct Method.

13.2.1

INDIRECT METHOD:

Indirect method of Heat Rate Measurement is an instantaneous method which is used for short duration and not possible throughout the year. It is a very complex method and basically a loss based method of measurement of Heat Rate. This method is generally adopted during the Energy Audit Studies.

13.2.2

DIRECT METHOD:

Direct Method of Heat Rate Assessment is suitable for long duration in which averaging gives almost actual Heat Rate because Coal consumption measurement is fairly accurate if taken over a month/Year. Therefore, this method is employed at almost all stations as per the standard practice.

The methodology adopted by CEA for assessment of station heat rate is based on Direct Method and the same is given in brief as follows:

Step 1

All design data such as Turbine Heat Rate, Boiler Efficiency and basic history of Thermal Power Station has been collected from Station authorities and Unit Heat Rate (UHR) is evaluated with respect to unit capacities at 100% PLF.

Step 2

Monthly operating data such as gross generation, total coal consumption, coal average G.C.V, Specific Oil Consumption and Oil GCV have been

Performance Review of Thermal Power Stations 2006-07 Section-13

PAGE NO 13. 4

collected from Thermal Power Station authorities based on which Operating Station Heat Rate for each month is calculated. Further, weighted Sp. Coal Consumption, weighted Sp. Oil Consumption, weighted GCV of coal and weighted GCV of oil are computed yearly for calculating yearly SHR.

Step3

Operating SHR thus calculated is then compared with respect to design Station Heat Rate and percentage deviation is found to give an idea of performance of the station as a whole as per Step 2.

13.3 SALIENT FEATURES OF THE GROSS STATION HEAT RATE DATA ANALYSIS:

The Operating Heat Rate of Thermal Power Stations during 2006-07, their deviation from the design values and their improvement / deterioration over the preceding year 2005-06 is given in the Annexure 13.1. The main highlights of the outcomes for the year 2006-07 and a comparative analysis with respect to the preceding year are given below:

(a) ALL INDIA STATION HEAT RATE

Year

No. of

Capacity

Weighted

Weighted

%

%

Stations

( MW)

Average

average

Operating

improvement

analyzed

Design SHR

Operating

SHR

(+) /

(kcal/kWh)

SHR

Deviation

deterioration

(kcal/kWh)

with

(-) in

respect

Operating

to Design

SHR

Station Heat

Rate over

preceding

year

2005-06

57

35480

2398

2747

14.57

(-) 1.47

(wrt 2004-05)

2006-07

56

38611

2398

2861

19.31

(-) 3.35

The above analysis indicates that there has been an overall deterioration of 3.35% in operating SHR during the year 2006-07 over the preceding year.

Performance Review of Thermal Power Stations 2006-07 Section-13

PAGE NO 13. 5

(b) REGION WISE STATION HEAT RATE

Region

Year

Weighted

Weighted

% Operating SHR Deviation with respect to Design SHR (kcal/kWh)

Average

average

Design SHR

Operating SHR

(kcal/kWh)

(kcal/kWh)

Northern

2005-2006

2418

2793

15.51

2006-2007

2418

2938

21.49

Western

2005-2006

2360

2737

16.02

2006-2007

2369*

2833

19.61

Southern

2005-2006

2404

2667

10.06

2006-2007

2400*

2679

11.62

Eastern

2005-2006

2413

3072

18.58

2006-2007

2429*

3109

28.00

* No. of Stations considered for 2005-06 and 2006-07 are different

The above analysis indicates there was no improvement in Operating SHR of any region during the year 2006-07 over the preceding year 2005-06. Further, the Southern Region achieved the lowest Operating SHR of 2679 kcal/kWh among all other regions during 2006-07 and all four regions registered deterioration in their Operating SHR.

(c)

The number of power stations, whose Operating SHR deviation w.r.t. design heat rate falls in the range of 0-5%, 5-10%, 10-20% & more than 20% are given in the following table for the year 2006-07.

 

S. N.

Particulars

2006-07

 

1.

Total Stations analyzed

56

2.

No. of Stations in the range of SHR deviation (0-5%)

6

3.

No. of stations in the range of SHR deviation (5-10%)

10

4.

No. of stations in the range of SHR deviation (10-20%)

15

5.

No. of stations with SHR deviation of more than 20%

25

(d)

Thermal Power Stations at Dahanu, Trombay, Ib Valley, Vijayawada and Rayal Seema have been assessed as the best stations for the year 2006-07 with SHR deviations of 2.05%, 2.83%, 3.06%, 3.33%, 3.60% respectively with respect to their Design SHR.

(e)

In all about 25 stations out of analyzed 56 stations during 2006-07 which are operating at very poor SHR with variation exceeding need closer monitoring. There is a need to have an Energy Efficiency Monitoring Cell at all stations for improving their efficiency through regular vigilance on energy/heat lost from various equipment / processes.

Performance Review of Thermal Power Stations 2006-07 Section-13

PAGE NO 13. 6

ANNEXEURE-13.1

ANALYSIS OF OPERATING STATION HEAT RATE OF THERMAL POWER STATIONS DURING 2006-07

Sl.

Name of Station

Installed

Design Heat

2005-06

 

2006-07

No.

Capacity

Rate

Operating

Operating

% Deviation

% improvement (+) / deterioration (-) in Operating Heat Rate over the preceding year

(MW)

(kcal/kWh)

Heat Rate

Heat Rate

with respect

(Kcal/kWh)

(Kcal/kWh)

to Design

Heat Rate

 

NORTHERN REGION

 

1

I.P.

247.5

2623.0

3774.0

3870.1

47.55

(-)2.55

2

RAJGHAT

135.0

2580.3

3560.0

3208.7

24.35

9.87

3

PANIPAT

1360.0

2322.2

2934.0

2778.5

19.65

5.30

4

FARIDABAD

165.0

2810.5

4212.0

4264.2

51.73

(-)1.24

5

BHATINDA

440.0

2510.2

2908.0

3127.9

24.61

(-)7.56

6

LEHRA MOHABAT

420.0

2237.9

2407.0

2439.5

9.01

(-)1.35

7

ROPAR

1260.0

2277.4

2541.0

2702.4

18.66

(-)6.35

8

KOTA

1045.0

2418.4

2620.0

2578.6

6.63

1.58

9

SURATGARH

1250.0

2260.1

2490.0

2469.0

9.24

0.84

10

OBRA

1550.0

2700.9

3073.0

3345.0

23.85

(-)8.85

11

PANKI

210.0

2381.5

3186.0

3519.1

47.77

(-)10.45

12

PARICHHA

640.0

2376.3

4298.0

3503.0

47.41

18.50

 

NORTHERN REGION

8722.5

2418.2

2793.0

2937.9

21.49

(-)5.2

 

WESTERN REGION

 

13

BHUSAWAL

482.5

2406.0

2635.0

2669.9

10.97

(-)1.33

Performance Review of Thermal Power Stations 2006-07 Section-13

PAGE NO 13. 7

Sl.

Name of Station

Installed

Design Heat

2005-06

 

2006-07

No.

Capacity

Rate

Operating

Operating

% Deviation

% improvement (+) / deterioration (-) in Operating Heat Rate over the preceding year

(MW)

(kcal/kWh)

Heat Rate

Heat Rate

with respect

(Kcal/kWh)

(Kcal/kWh)

to Design

Heat Rate

14

CHANDARPUR

2340.0

2277.9

2611.0

2600.0

14.14

0.42

15

DAHANU

500.0

2226.0

2298.0

2271.7

2.05

1.15

16

KHAPERKHEDA

840.0

2254.5

2600.0

2602.7

15.45

(-)0.10

17

KORADI

1100.0

2402.1

2981.0

3023.0

25.85

(-)1.41

18

NASIK

910.0

2347.8

2651.0

2703.5

15.15

(-)1.98

19

PARAS

62.5

2686.1

3198.0

3260.4

21.38

(-)1.95

20

PARLI

690.0

2424.3

2665.0

2699.2

11.34

(-)1.28

21

TROMBAY

500.0

2413.8

2387.0

2482.1

2.83

(-)3.98

22

GANDHI NAGAR

870.0

2336.0

2568.0

3034.4

72.16

(-)18.16

23

KUTCH LIGNITE

215.0

2872.7

3368.0

3128.5

8.90

7.11

24

SIKKA

240.0

2388.7

2926.0

3084.0

29.11

(-)5.40

25

SURAT LIGNITE

250.0

2399.0

2742.0

2554.0

6.46

6.86

26

TORRENT

400.0

2502.4

NA $

3035.6

21.31

NA $

27

UKAI

850.0

2360.5

2746.0

2798.5

18.56

(-)1.91

28

AMAR KANTAK

290.0

2930.7

3918.0

3901.8

33.14

0.41

29

SATPURA II

1142.5

2437.4

3288.0

3324.2

36.38

(-)1.10

30

BIRSINGHPUR

840.0

2292.9

2829.0

3063.3

33.60

(-)8.28

31

KORBA (EAST)

240.0

2368.6

2946.0

2656.4

12.15

9.83

32

KORBA (WEST)

840.0

2312.4

2653.0

2780.2

20.23

(-)4.79

 

WESTERN REGION

13602.5

2369.1

2737.0

2833.8

19.61

(-)3.5

Performance Review of Thermal Power Stations 2006-07 Section-13

PAGE NO 13. 8

Sl.

Name of Station

Installed

Design Heat

2005-06

 

2006-07

No.

Capacity

Rate

Operating

Operating

% Deviation

% improvement (+) / deterioration (-) in Operating Heat Rate over the preceding year

(MW)

(kcal/kWh)

Heat Rate

Heat Rate

with respect

(Kcal/kWh)

(Kcal/kWh)

to Design

Heat Rate

 

SOUTHERN REGION

 

33

KOTHAGUNDEM

720.0

2460.9

2660.0

2717.7

10.43

(-)2.17

34

K'GUDEM(New),

500.0

2234.1

2312.0

2365.9

5.90

(-)2.33

35

RAYALSEEMA

420.0

2250.2

2327.0

2331.3

3.60

(-)0.18

36

VIJAYWADA

1260.0

2301.4

2402.0

2378.0

3.33

1.00

37

ENNORE

450.0

2506.9

3309.0

3250.4

29.66

1.77

38

METTUR

840.0

2386.0

2537.0

2522.8

5.73

0.56

39

NEYVELI-Expansion

420.0

2434.4

2770.0

2742.9

12.67

0.98

40

NEYVELI

600.0

2739.3

3992.0

3912.1

42.81

2.00

41

NEYVELI -II

1470.0

2589.6

2878.0

2891.7

11.67

(-)0.48

42

NORTH CHENNAI

630.0

2348.1

2440.0

2454.4

4.53

(-)0.59

43

TUTICORIN

1050.0

2343.9

2502.0

2494.2

6.41

0.31

44

RAICHUR

1470.0

2288.0

NA $

2585.3

12.99

NA $

45

TORANGALLU

260.0

2219.6

2382.0

2388.0

7.59

(-)0.25

 

SOUTHERN REGION

10090.0

2400.4

2667.0

2679.2

11.62

(-)0.5

 

EASTERN REGION

 

46

JOJOBERA

427.5

2338.0

2562.0

2575.0

13.05

(-)0.51

47

IB Valley

420.0

2350.4

NA $

2422.4

3.06

NA $

48

BAKRESWAR

630.0

2250.3

NA $

3057.3

35.86

NA $

49

BANDEL

530.0

2509.6

3005.0

3278.1

30.62

(-)9.09

Performance Review of Thermal Power Stations 2006-07 Section-13

PAGE NO 13. 9

Sl.

Name of Station

Installed

Design Heat

2005-06

 

2006-07

No.

Capacity

Rate

Operating

Operating

% Deviation

% improvement (+) / deterioration (-) in Operating Heat Rate over the preceding year

(MW)

(kcal/kWh)

Heat Rate

Heat Rate

with respect

(Kcal/kWh)

(Kcal/kWh)

to Design

Heat Rate

50

BUDGE BUDGE

500.0

2314.1

2460.0

2468.4

6.67

(-)0.34

51

DPL

390.0

2699.4

3320.0

3590.8

33.02

(-)8.16

52

KOLAGHAT

1260.0

2643.8

NA $

3126.7

18.27

NA $

53

SANTALDIH

480.0

2298.1

3418.0

3639.1

58.36

(-)6.47

54

BOKARO 'B'

427.5

2338.0

3363.0

3493.3

49.41

(-)3.88

55

CHANDRAPURA

781.0

2349.2

3292.0

3265.1

38.99

0.82

56

DURGAPUR (DVC)

350.0

2395.6

NA $

3191.9

33.24

NA $

 

EASTERN REGION

6196.0

2429.2

3071.9

3109.0

28.00

(-)1.20

 

ALL INDIA

38611.0

2398.0

2768.4

2861.1

19.31

(-)3.35

N.A. $ data not available in the year 2005-06