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ISHRAE INSTITUTE OF EXCELLENCE ISHRAE INDIAN SOCIETY OF HEATING REFRIGERATINGANDAIR- CONDITIONING ENGINEERS HEAT LOAD

ISHRAE INSTITUTE OF EXCELLENCE

ISHRAE

INDIAN SOCIETY OF HEATING

REFRIGERATINGANDAIR-

CONDITIONING ENGINEERS

HEAT LOAD ESTIMATIONS

ISHRAE INSTITUTE OF EXCELLENCE

# 76, I FLOOR, KASTURI COMPLEX, MISSION ROAD, BANGALORE – 560 027, PHONE: 080-22245523, 41495045 WEB SITE: www.iiebangalore.org

MESSAGE FROM THE CHAIRMAN

ISHRAE INSTITUTE OF EXCELLENCE (IIE) was conceived after an intense deliberation and pondering over the pros and cons of different seminars and workshops conducted by ISHRAE and ASHRAE for the HVAC&R and allied subjects in order to provide a beneficial learning Institute of Excellence. The aspirants are those who are eager to enhance their professional competency in pace with & up to date with worldwide technological advancement.

The HVAC & R industry is facing acute shortage of Skilled Manpower at all levels, Further there has been no adequate technical Training and Refresher courses for such Team of Engineers. Keeping this in mind, IIE, Bangalore has been instrumental in organising Refresher Courses for the Working Engineers. The course has been designed in such a way that the programs are conducted in the evenings and during week ends. IIE Bangalore could refresh more than 500 Engineers so far.

It is the wish of IIE Bangalore that such dissemination of Knowledge should not stop at Bangalore and should spread to all places. As such IIE has consolidated the lecture notes and has prepared a Power point presentation of such lectures so that all IIE Centers in the country can take the benefit. The notes and the power point presentation will come in handy for the IIE Centres and the Faculties so that the courses can be conducted with ease.

The Refresher course notes by and large are compiled from the Seminars and Workshops conducted by ISHRAE Bangalore Chapter over the years.

Further IIE Bangalore has taken a positive step to work with the Industry and Institutions. IIE in association with ISHRAE Bangalore Chapter and ASHRAE South India Chapter is planning to facilitate the industry to draw Manpower from Engineering Colleges, Polytechnics, ITIs and Cream of Science Graduate and train them in such a way that they can be used directly by the industry. This is at a time when the industry is facing shortage of manpower as well as shortage of time in training such manpower.

I take this opportunity to thank the Trustees of ISHRAE Foundation Trust, Core Management Committee members, Faculties and the ISHRAE Head Quarters for their support in the great work of Dissemination of Knowledge.

As Knowledge is Power, please make use of these Refresher course Notes and reap the best of the benefits.

Wish you all the Best!

D. NIRMAL RAM. CHAIRMAN, IIE, IFT Bangalore

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

IIE acknowledges with thanks the following eminent personalities whose lectures are used to compile this refresher course materials.

D. NIRMAL RAM, G.V. RAO, LESLIE D’SOUZA, MAHESH KUMAR, U. V. ACHAR, K. V. PRADEEP, RAKESH SAHAY AND MANY OTHERS

Bibilography :

ISHRAE Hand Book ASHRAE Hand Books Carrier System Design Manual

Ishrae Institute of Excellence, Chennai

Heat Load Estimations

HEAT LOAD ESTIMATION

Undoubtedly one of the primary reasons for failures in air-conditioning plants is due to improper estimation of the heat load and failure to take into account various factors which affect it. The load estimation is based on the actual instantaneous peak load. It is not possible to measure this actual instantaneous peak load but only can be estimated. Before estimating this load a complete survey of the building, if the building exists, or the plans, incase of a new building, has to be done. An accurate survey of the various parameters will result in a realistic load estimation.

The following data need to be collected:

1. Orientation of the building and latitude.

2. Application.

3. Dimensions of the building.

4. Height up to ceiling.

5. Height up to false ceiling

6. Is the roof exposed?

7. Depth of the beam and projections of the column

8. Size and number of windows.

9. Whether windows are shaded?

10. Material of construction of walls, ceiling/roof.

11. Outside dry and wet bulb temperatures (all seasons)

12. Inside design dry bulb temperature and relative humidity.

13. No. of persons.

14. Are they smoking? Type of activity

15. Lighting load and type of lights.

16. Machinery loads with diversity

17. Other additional loads.

18. Duration of operation

19. Space to locate various equipments

20. Ventilation required

21. Details of exhaust, if any.

22. Level of cleanliness to be maintained

23. Availability of soft water and electricity

24. Other relevant information

LOAD COMPONENTS:

1. SOLAR GAIN

a. Through Wall

b. Through Roof

c. Through Glass

2. TRANSMISSION GAIN

a. Through Wall

b. Through Ceiling

c. Through Floor

d. Through Glass

3. ROOM INTERNAL LOAD

a. People

b. Lighting

c. Equipment

d. Infiltration

e. System gain

f. Miscellaneous Sources

4. OUTDOOR LOAD

a. Fresh Air System Gain

HEAT LOAD CONCEPTS

A good designer has to calculate the cooling load at

optimum design conditions. The load so calculated should not be too high or too less. The space heat gain

is a resultant effect of sensible and latent heat.The

sensible heat is the phenomenon of temperature,

whereas the latent heat is the stored heat in the form

of moisture or metabolism rate.

The other heat load components can be classified into:-

a) Loads originated from heat sources outside or external to the conditioned space.

b) Loads within the conditioned space.

c) Load occurring from heat gains or losses with

moving cool fluids to and from the conditioned

space.

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Ishrae Institute of Excellence, Chennai

Heat Load Estimations

NOTE:

Air-conditioning load estimations are based on quantity

of air required to produce the design conditions. As such in high altitudes where air conditioning is required, when the density decreases, more quantity of air is required to satisfy the given sensible load. The weight

of the air to meet the latent load decreases owing to

the higher wet bulb temperature and relative humidity,

the wet bulb temperature decreases as the altitude increases corresponding to the sea level.

Load estimations are based on either normal design conditions or maximum design conditions. In normal design conditions, the outdoor design conditions are the simultaneously occurring dry bulb and wet bulb temperature and humidity which are permitted to exceed a few times a year for shorter periods. This is generally recommended for comfort and normal industrial applications and it is occasionally permissible to exceed the inside design conditions.

In cases where inside temperature swings on the higher side is not tolerable then the design should be based on the maximum outside design conditions. The maximum design dry and wet bulb temperatures are simultaneous peaks and not individual peaks that are considered for the load estimation. A constant temperature is required for many industrial applications instead of a temperature level.

The actual cooling load will generally be below the peak total instantaneous heat gain, thus requiring

a smaller equipment to perform a specific job. If

the equipment is allowed to run at a few degrees higher than design requirement during peak periods, a smaller capacity plant will meet the requirement. A smaller system running for longer duration at full load will result

in saving in power and is more efficient than a bigger

system running at part load conditions for a shorter

duration.

Reasons for the difference in the actual heat gain and the total instantaneous peak heat gain is due to storage effect, diversity and stratification. If the cooling capacity supplied to the space matches with the cooling load, the temperature in the space remains constant. On the contrary, if the cooling capacity supplied to the space is more than the cooling load then lower temperatures are maintained. Precooling a space below the design conditions increases the storage of heat at the time of peak load. Precooling is useful in reducing the cooling load in applications such as churches, theaters and auditoriums.

Diversity of cooling load results from the probable non occurrence of part of the cooling load such as lighting,

people and equipment load. The size of the diversity factor has to be based on the accurate judgment of the user or his engineer.

Heat may be stratified in rooms with high ceiling and where the air is exhausted through the ceiling or the return air is taken above the false ceiling.

OUTDOOR DESIGN CONDITIONS

While calculating the heat load the outside conditions play a vital role in estimating the heat load.

In America ASHRAE data are regarded as the industry standard. In India ISHRAE has started working on the project on establishing and compiling authentic weather data for various places in India.

The ambient air properties and solar intensities changes with different elevation, latitude and longitude. While selecting the refrigeration capacity of the plant for year round air conditioning the cooling load for summer and monsoon weather whichever is higher is selected.

In general for Indian climatic conditions 4PM is the average time for solar heat gain and average daily range of temperature (Maximum DB – Minimum DB in a day) vary from 15 to 20 degree F (Local conditions are to be referred).

INSIDE DESIGN CONDITIONS:

The human body considers itself comfortable when it can maintain an average body temperature between 97 degree F and 100 degree F. It becomes the task of air-conditioning to maintain the environment around the body within this comfort zone of conditions.

In general 75 degree F DB and 50% RH is considered the design conditions for human comfort. However, these conditions may vary depending upon the environmental requirement and applications.

SOLAR HEAT GAIN

The primary weather related variable influencing the sensible cooling load for a building is solar radiation. The effect of solar radiation is more pronounced on exposed surfaces.

Room sensible heat is calculated as under.

The heat transfer rate q is given by equation.

q=UA (T1-T2)

Where q= Heat transfer rate in Btu per hour.

U= Coefficient of overall heat transfer between the adjacent and the conditioned space in Btu/h sqft- deg.F.

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Heat Load Estimations

A=Area of the separating section in sqft.

T1=Average air temperature in adjacent space deg. F

T2= Air temperature in conditioned space deg. F

U=1/R where R=Addition of thermal resistance of all the surfaces coming in between the conditioned space and adjacent space. (Refer tables for Thermal Resistance R of various building and insulating materials).

SOLAR HEAT GAIN THROUGH GLASS

The heat from the sun is partly scattered, partly reflected and partly absorbed by the atmosphere. The scattered radiation is called as diffused radiation. The solar heat which directly comes through the atmosphere is termed as direct radiation. It enters the air-conditioned space through glass windows and is absorbed by the objects and air in the conditioned area. Ordinary glass absorbs a smaller percentage of the solar heat say round 6% and reflects or transmits the remaining. The amount of reflection is dependent on the angle of incidence which is the angle between the perpendicular to the glass surface and the sun rays.

More heat is reflected and less heat is transmitted inside the conditioned area if the angle of incidence is more. The total solar heat gain in the conditioned area is the heat transmitted together with around 40% of the heat absorbed by the glass windows.

Depending on the latitudes, for each month in a year and for different exposures and on different timings there are tables for the solar heat gain. This solar heat gain in Btu /hr/sqft. area is multiplied with the area of the glass and the factor depending on the shade. For ordinary glass the factor is 1.0 whereas for inside Venetian blinds of light color the factor is 0.56.

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Ishrae Institute of Excellence, Chennai

Heat Load Estimations

SOLAR AND TRANSMISSION HEAT GAIN THROUGH EXPOSED WALLS:

Heat flows from higher level to the lower whenever there exists a temperature difference. The rate at which the heat flows inside varies with the resistance imposed by that material. The solar heat gain on the exposed wall does not become an instantaneous room load. The heat is absorbed by the external wall and is conducted slowly into the inner layers of the wall and only the convected and radiated heat from the inner surface of the wall is the room load. Due to this unsteady state of heat flow it is a general practice to consider an equivalent temperature difference. The equivalent temperature difference is the temperature difference that results in total heat flow through the structure as caused by the variable solar radiation and outdoor temperature.

The reciprocal of the total resistance offered by the wall is called the transmission coefficient U. It is the rate at which the heat is transferred through the wall and is expressed in BTU/hr/Sq.ft/deg.F temp. diff. The equivalent temperature difference for different thickness of walls with different exposures and timings are available in the tables enclosed. These equivalent temperature differences are worked out with an outside temperature of 95 deg. F and an inside temperature of 80 deg.F. As such corrections to equivalent temperatures are to be made for different conditions. Unlike the heat gain tables for glass which constitutes only the solar gain and not the transmission gain, this equivalent temperature considers the solar heat as well as the transmission heat gain due to the difference in temperature between outside and inside conditions. In addition to the resistance offered by the various components in the wall, we have to take into account

the film coefficient, when working out the transmission co-efficient. It is the resistance offered by the film of air which clings to the surface of the wall. The resistance is more when the air is still and is less when there is wind velocity.

Whenever a false ceiling is provided in a room having an exposed roof, the space enclosed between the false ceiling and the roof is called as attic space. If this attic space is not properly ventilated the space temperature may exceed the outside temperature. The space temperature can be worked out considering that the rate of heat flow from outside into the attic space is equal to the rate of flow of heat from the attic space into the room.

TRANSMISSION GAIN THROUGH GLASS & PARTITIONS

There will be heat transmission through the glass apart from the solar gain due to the difference in temperature between the conditioned and non- conditioned space. Similarly partitions/ceiling/floor will also have heat transmission. They are worked out by considering the area, temperature difference and the factor.

INTERNAL LOADS

PEOPLE

Heat is generated within a human body by metabolism. The metabolic rate depends on the nature of activity. The enclosed table will give the sensible and latent load due to personnel depending on the type of activity and the inside temperature. Before the heat load estimation, the exact number of persons inside the conditioned area has to be ascertained properly for an accurate estimation.

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Ishrae Institute of Excellence, Chennai

Heat Load Estimations

LIGHTS

Lights produce sensible heat and are dissipated by radiation and convection. About 80% of the input is radiated and around 10% is convected for an incandescent lamp. For a fluorescent lamp 25% of the input is radiated 50% is convected. For a fluorescent lamp, approximately 25% more heat is generated than the input and this is due to the ballast. It is preferred to get the exact number of lights and its wattage and type. It is also a common practice to give this load in watts/sq.ft depending on the application. The wattage is multiplied by 3.413 to arrive at the heat dissipated in BTU/hr.

ELECTRIC MOTORS

Electric motors generate sensible heat which is dissipated inside the conditioned area depending on the location of the prime mover and the driven equipment. The heat dissipated by the motor is input multiplied by the motor inefficiency. The rest of the heat is dissipated by the driven machinery. When a motor is overloaded or partially loaded the heat generated will not obey the above law. As such in case of heavy machinery load it is advisable to measure the input and not to depend on the rated horse power of the motors. When the motor rating is in KW it is multiplied by 3413 and when the rating is in HP it is multiplied by 2545 to obtain the heat dissipation in BTU/hr. Suitable diversity has to be applied to the connected electrical load depending on the actual running of the motor at a particular period of time.

Other internal loads that may constitute the room load may be gas burners, electric/steam heaters and water fountains, hot water/steam pipes and tanks.

SYSTEM HEAT GAIN

System heat gain constitutes heat added or lost by the system components such as ducting, piping, water pumps and the blower. Over and above some safety factor is considered to account for the errors in the survey or in the estimate. Leakage in the supply duct will add to the room sensible and latent heat. Supply ducts running in non conditioned area will gain heat and as such becomes the room sensible load. Return ducts for the above reasons will add to the outdoor load.

INFILTRATION AND VENTILATION

Infiltration is not a feature for air-conditioning jobs which is so for refrigeration. This is for the simple

reason that for air-conditioning, outdoor air is introduced which develops a positive pressure inside the conditioned area and only exfiltration does occur. However infiltration may occur if wind velocity outside is higher. Infiltration is also a predominant feature for high rise buildings due to stack effect. Infiltration of air and by pass of air through the cooling coil becomes a room load.

Outdoor air is introduced into the conditioned area so as to dilute the odours given off by the people, smoking and other fumes and contaminations generated inside the room. The quantity of fresh air depends upon the volume of the room or the number of people and the activity. Ventilation standards for different applications are shown in the enclosed tabulations. For comfort applications during the peak load when it is permitted the outdoor air quantity may be reduced resulting in smaller equipment. However during periods other than the peak load the required maximum fresh air has to be introduced into the room which will do the flushing. However in any case the air quantity during peak load should not be lesser than 50% of the required air quantity. Indoor air quality (IAQ) is now talked loudly by all. Minimum requirement of fresh air for applications having lesser occupancy is one air change per hour.

Solar gain through walls, glass, roof and transmission gain through partition walls, ceiling, floors, internal loads such as people, light, equipment and infiltration of fresh air(due to by pass in the cooling coil) constitute Room Sensible Heat (RSH). When the system gain is added to this, this becomes Effective Room Sensible Heat (ERSH).

Heat gain through infiltration, people and other sources which adds moisture in the room constitute Room Latent Heat (RLH). When system gain is added it becomes Effective Room Latent Heat (ERLH). The summation of room sensible / effective room sensible and room latent / effective room latent heat is called as Room Total Heat (RTH)/Effective Room Total Heat (ERTH). When outdoor sensible and latent heat is added it becomes Grand Total Heat (GTH) based on which the air-conditioning system is designed.

The effective room sensible heat over the effective room total heat is called as effective room sensible heat factor. With this factor and the inside design conditions, Apparatus Dew Point (ADP) is calculated. Dew point is the temperature at which condensation occurs when the air is cooled and the effective surface temperature of the coil should match with the dew point to meet the design parameters. Temperature rise is the difference in temperature between the room

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Ishrae Institute of Excellence, Chennai

Heat Load Estimations

and the apparatus dew point multiplied by the factor (1-bypass factor). Effective room sensible heat over 1.08 and the temperature rise gives the dehumidified air quantity which has to be pumped into the room to offset the room load and to meet the design conditions.

In high latent load applications the dehumidified air quantity will work out to be low. In such cases some air has to be bypassed across the cooling coil to reduce the temperature of air entering the room which

AIR QUANTITY EQUATIONS

cfm da =

cfm da =

ERSH

1.08 x ( 1 -BF)(t rm - t adp )

ERLH

.68 x ( 1 -BF)(W rm - W adp )

cfm da =

ERTH

h adp )

cfm da =

TSH

1.08 (t edb -t ldb )

cfm da =

cfm da =

TLH

.68 x (W ea - W la )

GTH

4.45 (h ea - h la )

cfm sa =

RSH

1.08 x (t rm -t sa )

cfm sa =

RLH

.68 x (W rm - W sa )

cfm sa =

RTH

4.45 x (h rm - h sa )

cfm ba = cfm sa - cfm da

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

Note: cfm da will be less than cfm sa only when air is physically bypassed around the conditioning apparatus.

cfm sa = cfm oa + cfm ra

(11)

otherwise will cause a cold blast on the occupants. The dehumidified air quantity and the bypassed air is the total air quantity on which the equipment is selected. Similarly for applications such as clean rooms minimum required air changes are required to be met. During such occasions also more air will be bypassed across the cooling coil.

DERIVATION OF AIR CONSTANTS

1.08 = 0.244 x

60

13.5

where .244= specific heat of moist air at 70 F db and 50% rh, Btu/(deg F) (lb dry air)

60 = min/hr

13.5= specific volume of moist air at

70 F db and 50% rh

where 60

13.5

7000

= min/hr

13.5 = specific volume of moist air at

70 F db and 50% rh

1076 = average heat removal required to

condense one pound of water vapor from the room air 7000 = grains per pound

4.45 =

where 60

60

13.5

= min/hr

13.5= specific volume of moist air at

70 F db and 50% rh

* RSHS, RLHS and GTHS are supplementary loads due to duct heat gain, duct leakage loss, fan and pump horsepower gains, etc. To simplify the various examples, these supplementary loads have not been used in the calculations. However, in actual practice, these supplementary loads should be used where appropriate.

‡ When no air is to be physically bypassed around the conditioning apparatus, cfmda = cfmsa.

** When tm, Wm and hm are equal to the entering conditions at the cooling apparatus, they may be substituted for tedb, Wea and hea respectively.

4.45 x ( 1 -BF)(h rm -

0.68 =

60

x

1076

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Ishrae Institute of Excellence, Chennai

Heat Load Estimations

Cooling & Dehumidifying Heat Load Estimate

Estimated by : Date : Checked by : Page No. : of Job Name Estimated
Estimated by :
Date :
Checked by
:
Page No. :
of
Job Name
Estimated for
Local Time
Address
Peak Load LOCAL TIME
SUN TIME
Space Used for
CONDITIONS
DB
WB
%RH
DP
Gr/Lb
Size
X
=
Sq.Ft.X
=
Cu.Ft.
Outside
Item
Area or
Sun Gain or
Temp. Diff.
Factor
Btu/Hour
Quantity
Room
SOLAR GAIN GLASS
Glass
Sq Ft X
X
Difference
XXX
XXX
XX
Glass
Sq Ft X
X
Selected Room Conditions
DB
WB
% R H
Glass
Sq Ft X
X
VENTILATION
Glass
Sq Ft X
X
People X
Cfm/Person=
Sky light
Sq Ft X
X
INFILTRATION
Sq. Ft.X
Cfm/sq. ft =
SOLAR & TRANS. GAIN - WALLS & ROOF
Cfm Ventilation *
Wall
Sq Ft X
X
Wall
Sq Ft X
X
SWINGING/
REVOLVING DOORS - PEOPLE X
CFM/PERSON =
Wall
Sq Ft X
X
Open doors
X
CFM/DOOR =
Wall
Sq Ft X
X
Exhaust Fan
Wall
Sq Ft X
X
Crack
Feet X
Cfm/Ft =
Roof Sun
Sq Ft X
X
CFM OUTSIDE AIR THRU APPARATUS *
Roof Shaded Sq Ft X
X
SENSIBLE HEAT FACTOR & APPARATUS DEWPOINT
TRANS GAIN EXCEPT WALLS & ROOF
All Glass
Sq Ft X
X
(A)
Eff. room Sens. Heat
(ESHF)
=
Partition
Sq Ft X
X
(C)
Eff. room total Heat
Sens Heat Factor
Ceilling
Sq Ft X
X
Indicated ADP
° F Selected ADP
° F
Floor
Sq Ft X
X
(1-BF) X
(Room Temp-ADP) =
Dehumidified rise ° F
INFILTRATION AND OUTSIDE AIR
Infiltration
Cfm X
X 1.08
Room Sensible heat
=
Dehumidified CFM
Outside Air
Cfm X
° F X
BF X 1.08
1.08 X Dehumidified rise
INTERNAL HEAT
NOTES
People
People
X
Power
H.P./KW
X
LIghts
Watts
X 3.4
Appliances, Etc
X 3.4
X
ROOM SENSIBLE HEAT
Supply
Supply
Fan
Safety
Duct
Duct
H.P.% Factor
Heat Gain%
Leak Loss%
EFFECTIVE ROOM SENSIBLE HEAT (A)
ROOM LATENT HEAT
Infiltration
Cfm X
gr/lb X
0.68
Outside-Air
Cfm X
gr/lb X
BF X 0.68
People
People X
Steam
lb/hr X 1080
Appliances, Etc
Vapor Tran.
Room Latent Heat SubTotal
SUPPLY DUCT
% + SAFETY FACTOR %
LEAKAGE LOSS
EFFECTIVE ROOM LATENT HEAT (B)
EFFECTIVE ROOM TOTAL HEAT (C)=(A+B)
OUTSIDE AIR HEAT
Sensible:
Cfm X
Latent:
Cfm X
° F X
gr/lb X
(1-BF) X 1.08
(1-BF) X 0.68
Grand Total Heat Sub-Total
(D) = (C+Outside Air Heat)
Return
Return
Pump
Duct
Duct
H.P.%
%
Heat Gain%
Leak Loss
GRAND TOTAL HEAT (GTH)
(E)
= (D+Losses)
Tons = E/12,000

7

DISCLAIMER

Ishare Foundation Trust, Bangalore and IIE Bangalore confirm that the materials are compiled from various lectures, seminars, workshops conducted by various ISHRAE members, faculties of repute from ISRHAE Bangalore Chapter. This is not a book but a collection of course materials to refresh and train the freshers and others belonging to the HVAC & R and allied fraternity.