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Science 7 Module

Cell Structure and Function

Smiling Grass Cell


Philippine Normal University Taft Ave., Manila College of Education Department of field Study and Student Teaching Certificate of Teaching Program (CTP)

AbouttheCover
(Photonotmine,creditstotheowner)

A cross section of the leaf of marram grass Ammophila arenaria, a species ofdune grass thats primarily responsible for trapping windblown sand and building the dune systems around our coast. Marram grass survivesbyrolling up its leavesduring long periods of drought, minimizing water loss. This cross section of a partially rolled leaf has been stained with fluorescent dyes to light updifferent cell types within the leaf, with the outside surface of the leaf at the bottom of the picture (smooth,curvedsurface)andtheinnerconvolutedsurfaceatthetop.
(http://beyondthehumaneye.blogspot.com/2009/06/dunebuilder.html)

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Science7 Module CellStructureandFunction


by JohnDanielP.Gumban

to Dr.LenardA.Tabaranza

October2013

Module Cell Structure and Function


What this module is about
This module will help you gain knowledge about cell: the basic unit of all living matter. It is the unit of structure and function of which allplantsandanimalsare composed. The cell is the smallest unitin the living organism that is capable of integrating the essential life processes. The cell is the key to biology because it is at this level that life truly springs. As you read this, you will learn more about the activities of thecell, the structures and thematerialoflifethatfillsthem.Lateron,youwilldiscoverwhatalivingmatterismadeof. Thismodulehasthefollowinglessons: Lesson1CellTheory Lesson2Cell:TheBasisofLife Lesson3CellTypes

What are you expected to learn

Aftergoingthismodule,youareexpectedto: Identifythedifferentpartsofthecell Differentiateplantcellsfromanimalcell Differentiateunicellularorganismsfrommulticellularorganisms Differentiateprokaryoticfromeukaryoticcells Appreciatecellasahighlyorganizedstructure.

How to learn from this module


Iknowyouwanttostarttolearnaboutcells.Soyoumustfollowthesesteps andinstructionstobeabletoachievetheobjectivesofthismodule. Readandfollowtheinstructionscarefully. Answerthepretestbeforeyoustartthelesson. Takenoteandrecordpointforclarification. Trytoachieveatleast75%levelofproficiencyinthetests. Workdiligentlyandhonestly. Answertheprotest.

What to do before (Pretest)


To startoff, youhavetoanswerthepretestforyoutomeasurehowmuch youknowaboutthetopic.Youcanstartnow. There are 20 questions. Each question has ONLY ONE CORRECT ANSWER. Choose the one you believe to be best. Each question is worth 2 points.Readeachquestionfullyandcarefully.Takeyourtime.GOODLUCK! 1. A cell is observed tocontain a nucleus,mitochondriaandchloroplasts.Fromthis informationyoucanconcludethatthecellis: a. aplantcell c.abacteriacell b. ananimalcell d.aprokaryoticcell 2. A cell that lacks a nucleus and membrane bound organelles is knownas a (an) ______________cell. a. plant c.eukaryote b. animal d.prokaryote 3. A cell with relatively few energy needs will probably have a relatively small numberof________________. a. ribosomes c.mitochondria b. lysosomes d.chromosomes 4. Digestiveenzymesorhydrolyticenzymesaretermsassociatedwith_________. a. ribosomes c.golgiapparatus b. lysosomes d.smoothendoplasmicreticulum 5. Inwhichofthefollowingitemswouldyouexpecttofindcells? a. strawberry c.silverdollar b. eyeglasses d.plasticflower 6. Organismswhosecellsdonothaveanucleusarecalled_______________. a. plants c.eukaryotes b. organelles d.prokaryotes 7. Plantcellsoftenhaveaboxlikeshapebecauseofthe________________. a. nucleus c.cytoplasm b. cellwall d.cellmembrane 8. The site of ATP production and the site of photosynthesis are the _______________and_________________. a. ribosomesandvacuoles c.mitochondriaandchloroplast b. chloroplastsandlysosome d.Golgicomplexandchloroplast

9. Whatistheoutermostboundaryofananimalcell? a. thecellwall c.thecellmembrane b. thecytoplasm d.thenuclearenvelope 10. Whatsiteregulateswhatgoesinandoutofthecell? a. cellwall c.cellmembrane b. vacuole d.nuclearmembrane 11. What type of cell has these characteristics: contains DNA but no nucleus, containsflagella,ribosomes,cytoplasm,andacellmembrane. a. plant c.animal b. fungi d.bacteria 12. Whereisthesiteofproteinsynthesis? a. nucleus b. lysosome 13. Whichisthebrainofthecell? a. nucleus b. chloroplast c.ribosome d.mitochondria c.golgibodies d.mitochondria

14. Whichofthefollowingformsoflifeisnoteukaryotic? a. abacteriacell c.aplantcelllikegumamela b. protistsuchasamoeba d.ahumancellsuchasRedBloodCell 15. Whichofthefollowingisfoundinthenucleus? a. vacuoles c.mitochondria b. chloroplasts d.chromosomes c. 16. Whichofthefollowingisnottrueofchloroplasts? a. Theysynthesizesugar c.Theyareonlyfoundinplants. b. Theycontainpigments d.Theyappeargreenbecauseofchlorophyll 17. Whichofthefollowingorganellestransportsmaterialsinsidethecell? a. lysosome c.mitochondria b. chloroplast d.endoplasmicreticulum 18. Whichofthefollowingstatementsisalwaystrue? a. Allcellshaveacellwall. c.Allcellscontainchloroplast. b. Allcellscontainnucleus. d.Allcellshavecellmembrane. 19. Whichofthefollowingstructuresarecommontobotheukaryoticandprokaryoticcells? a. nucleus c.bothbandc b. ribosomes d.cellmembrane 20. Whichorganellehasnomembrane? a. vacuole b. lysosome c.ribosome d.chloroplast

Lesson1.CellTheory The celltheory,or celldoctrine,statesthatallorganismsare composedof similar units of organization, calledcells. The conceptwasformallyarticulatedin 1839 by Schleiden and Schwann and has remainedasthefoundationofmodern biology. The idea predates other great paradigms of biology including Darwins theory of evolution (1859), Mendels laws of inheritance (1865), and the establishmentofcomparativebiochemistry(1940).

FactFile
The average human being is composed of around 100 Trillion individual cells. It would take as many as 50 cells to cover the area of a dot on theletteri.

FirstCellsSeeninCork I took a good clear pieceof Cork and with a Penknife sharpend as keen asarazor cut off an exceeding thin piece of it, and placing it on a balck objectPlateandcastingthe light on it with a deep planoconvex Glass, I could exceedingly plainly perceive it to be all perforated and porous these pores, or cells, were not very deep, but consisted of a great many little Boxes, separated out of one continued long pore by certainDiaphragms Nor is this kindoftexturepeculiartoCorkonlyforuponexaminationwithmyMicroscope,Ihavefound that the pith ofan Elder, or almost any other Tree, theinner pulorpithoftheCanyhollowstalks of several other Vegetables: as of Fennel, Carrets, Daucus, Burdocks, Teasels, Fearn&c. havesomuchkindofSchematisme,asIhavelatelyshownthatofCork. RobertHooke(firstreportontheexistenceofcell,1665)fromMicrophagia WhiletheinventionofthetelescopemadetheCosmos accessibletohumanobservation,themicroscopeopenedupsmaller worlds,showingwhatlivingformswerecomposedof.Thecellwas firstdiscoveredandnamedbyRobertHookein1665.Heremarked thatitlookedstrangelysimilartocellulaorsmallroomswhichmonks inhabited,thusderivingthename.HoweverwhatHookeactuallysaw wasthedeadcellwallsofplantcells(cork)asitappearedunderthe microscope.Hookesdescriptionofthesecellswaspublishedin Micrographia.ThecellwallsobservedbyHookegavenoindicationof thenucleusandotherorganellesfoundinmostlivingcells.
Figure1.1Thecells observedbyHookinthe honeycombstructureof acorktissue

Using handcrafted microscopes, Anton van Leeuwenhoek was the first person to observe and describe single celled organisms, which he originally referred to as animalcules (which we now refer toasmicroorganisms).Hewasalsothefirsttorecordandobservemuscle fibres,bacteria,spermatozoaandbloodflowincapillaries(smallbloodvessels).

FactFile
In 1681, Anton van Leeuwenhoek examined his own stool samples during times of diarrhea. In his runny stool, he found little animals. Leeuwenhoek described Giardia being a slow moving animal, but able to make quick motions with their paws. Today, we know this is a helicalmotionthatiscausedbyflagella.

FormulationofCellTheory In 1838, Theodor Schwann and MatthiasSchleidenwereenjoyingafterdinnercoffeeand talking about their studieson cells. It has been suggestedthatwhen Schwann heard Schleiden describe plantcellswithnuclei,hewasstruckbythesimilarityoftheseplantcellstocellshehad observed in animaltissues. The twoscientists went immediatelyto Schwannslabtolookathis slides. Schwann published hisbook on animal and plantcells(Schwann 1839) the next year, a treatise devoid of acknowledgments of anyone elses contribution, including that of Schleiden (1838). These discoveries of Schleiden and Schwann introduced the cell theory. This theory statesthat: 1. Alllivingthingsaremadeupofoneormorecells. 2. Thecellisthefundamental,structuralandfunctionalunitofalllivingorganisms. In1855,thirdstatementonthecelltheorywasaddedbyRudolfVirchow.Itstatesthat: 3. Alllivingcellscomefrompreexistingcells,bydivision. This ability of cells to divide and form new cells is the reason for the reproduction and growthofallorganisms. ThemodernprinciplesoftheCellTheoryincludethefollowing: 1. Alllivingthingsaremadeupofoneormorecells. 2. Thecellisthefundamental,structuralandfunctionalunitofalllivingorganisms. 3. Alllivingcellscomefrompreexistingcells,bydivision. 4. Theactivityofanorganismisthetotalactivityoftheindependentcellsoftheorganism. 5. Allenergyflowoflifeoccurswithinthecell. 6. The cells contain hereditary information and is passed from one to another during cell division. 7. Thechemicalcompositionofcellarebasicallythesameinorganismsofsimilarspecies.

Table1.1LandmarksintheStudyofCellBiology 1595 1626 1655 1674 1833 1840 1856 1858 HansandZachariasJansencreditedwith1stcompoundmicroscope. FrancescoRedipostulatedthatlivingthingsdonotarisefromspontaneousgeneration. RobertHookedescribedcellsincork. AntonVanLeeuwenhoekdiscoveredprotozoa.Hesawbacteriasome9yearslater. RobertBrowndescribedthecellnucleusincellsoftheorchid. AlbrechtvonRoellikerrealizedthatspermcellsandeggcellarealsocells. NathanaelPringsheimobservedhowaspermcellpenetratedaneggcell. RudolfVirchow(physician,pathologistandanthropologist)expoundshisfamous conclusion:omniscellulaecellula,thatiscellsdeveloponlyfromexistingcells (cellscomefrompreexistingcells) AlbertvonKllikerdescribedmitochondria. JohannesFriedrichMiescherisolatedDNAforthefirsttime. WaltherFlemmingdescribedchromosomebehaviorduringmitosis. Germcellarehaploid,chromosometheoryofheredity. Golgidescribedthegolgiapparatus. TheodorSvedbergdevelopedthefirstanalyticalultracentrifuge. PeterBehrensuseddifferentialcentrifugationtoseparatenucleifromcytoplasm. Siemensproducedthefirstcommercialtransmissionelectronmicroscope, AlbertCoonsusedfluorescentlabeledantibodiestodetectcellularantigens. GeorgeOttoGeyandcoworkersestablishedacontinuoushumancellline. FrancisCrick,MauriceWilkinsandJamesWatsonproposedstructureofDNA doublehelix. HarryEaglesystematicallydefinedthenutritionalneedsofanimalcellsinculture. MatthewMeselson,FranklinStahlandJeromeVinograddevelopeddensitygradient centrifugationincesiumchloridesolutionsforseparatingnucleicacids. RGHamintroducedadefinedserumfreemedium.CambridgeInstrumentsproduced thefirstcommercialscanningelectronmicroscope.

1857 1869 1879 1833 1898 1926 1938 1939 1941 1952 1953 1955 1957 1965

1976 1981 1987 1998 2000 2001 2002 2004 2006

RizzinoSatoandcolleaguespublishpapersshowingthatdifferentcelllinesrequire differentmixturesofhormonesandgrowthfactorsinserumfreemedia. Transgenicmiceandfruitfliesareproduced.Mouseembryonicstemcellline established. Firstknockoutmousecreated. Miceareclonedfromsomaticcells. HumangenomeDNAsequencedraft. Cellcycleregulation(cyclins). Mousegenomesequenced. Ratgenomesequenced. AndrewFireandCraigMellodescribedmethodofRNAinterference(RNAi)with singlestrandedRNA.

Prior to 1931 when the first electron microscope was developed, magnification of microscopes was limited to about 2000 times. The small cell structuresdidnotshowupwellor remained invisible. The electron microscope not only showed more detail ofpreviously known parts of the cell but alsorevealed new parts. Cells and cell structures can nowbe examinedat magnificationsofupto500000timesandmore. FactFile
The shapeand appearance of a celldependson what jobit does. Cells consist of jellylike cytoplasm, surrounded by a membrane. Nutrients pass through this membrane and substances produced by the cell leave.

What you will do


Activity1.1 TheStreetSweepers Theairwebreatheisfilledwithdust,smoke,andevensmallbacteria. Howcomeallthesematerialsdonotaccumulateinthelungsandclogtheir passageways?

What you will do


SelfTest1.1

Answerthefollowingquestionsbriefly. 1. WhatcontributionsdidvanLeeuwenhoek,Hook,Schleiden,Schwann,andVirchowmake tothedevelopmentofthecelltheory?

2. Whatroledidtheinventionofthemicroscopeplayinthedevelopmentofthecelltheory?

Lesson2.Cell:TheBasisofLife

Have you tried checkleaves and observe its surface? Have you tried to examthewings of insects? Have you ever observed the skin of the onion?Such curiosity led early scientist to examine living things in the hope of getting a better view of their structure. Little by little, they discovered that all living things are made of cells. Cell is the fundamental, structural and functional unit of all living organisms such as the birds you watch, thecork trees and soonare madeoflivingcells.

Figure2.1Alllivingorganismsarecomposedofoneormorecells.
http://www.deshow.net/animal/binganimalwallpaper846.html

FactFile
Cellsneedfood,oxygenandawateryenvironmentinordertosurvive. Foodandwateraresuppliedbythebloodandotherbodyfluids,which alsocarryawaywastes.Bloodalsocontainsallofthefoodsubstances andchemicalsneededbythecell.

THESTRUCTUREOFTHECELL Cellshavethreemajorparts: 1. Nucleusservesasthecontrolcenterofthecell 2. Cytoplasmisthematerialbetweenthenucleusandtheouterboundarywhere organellesarefound 3. CellMembraneservesastheouterboundaryofthecellandorganellesthe passageofmaterialstoandfromthecell.

CellMembrane Thecellmembraneisathinsemipermeable membranethatsurroundsthecytoplasmofacell, enclosingitscontents.Itsfunctionistoprotectthe integrityoftheinteriorofthecellbyallowingcertain substancesintothecell,whilekeepingothersubstances out.Italsoservesasabaseofattachmentforthe cytoskeletoninsomeorganismsandthecellwallin others.Thusthecellmembranealsoservestohelp supportthecellandhelpmaintainitsshape. Figure2.2 CellMembrane FindOut Breakachickeneggintoadish,andlookattheyolk.Howlargedoyouthinkisit? Estimate its width. Then use ametricrulertomeasurethewidthofyour chicken yolkcell.Withahandlens,observetheyolkclosely.Othercellsthatcanbeseen easilyarelargefisheggs.

Feedback: Most cellsare too small tobe seen without the help of a microscope. Luckily, there areafewcellsthatcanbeseenwithyournakedeyes.

FactFile
Thelargestcellinhumanbodyistheeggcellorovum,whichmaybe fertilizedbyaspermcellandgrowintoababy.

CytoplasmStructures Thecytoplasmconsistsofallofthecontentsoutsideofthenucleusandenclosedwithin thecellmembraneofacell.Thisincludesmitochondria,endoplasmicreticulum,ribosome,golgi bodies,lysosomes,andvacuole.

Mitochondria are commonly called the power houses of the cell. They trap the energythatresults when food is broken down.Just as a power plantsuppliesenergy to a business, mitochondriaprovide energy for the cell. Some types of cells are more active than others, thatswhytheycanhavemoremitochondria.

Figure2.3 Mitochondria

AnalyzeThis Whymightamusclecellhavemoremitochondriathanothercells?

Feedback: Musclecellsare always undergoing some type of movement. Muscles arealso the onesexposedtostrenuousactivitieslikedoingsomehouseholdchores,running,walking,etc. Endoplasmic reticulum are network of canals extends from the nucleus to the cell membrane and takesup quite a lot of space in some cells. It movesmaterialfromoneplaceto another place inside the cell. There are two regions of the endoplasmic reticulum that differ in both structure and function. One region is called RoughEndoplasmicReticulum because it has ribosomes attached to the cytoplasmic side of the membrane. The other region is called Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum because it lacks attached ribosomes. Typically, the smooth endoplasmic reticulum is a tubule network and the rough endoplasmic reticulum isaseriesofflattenedsacs. Figure2.4 EndoplasmicReticulum

Ribosomes are thetiny dots yousee on the edges of some of the endoplasmic reticulum. Some cells may contain millions of ribosomes.Ribosomesarecellorganelles that consist of RNA and proteins. They are responsible for assembling the proteins of the cell. Dependingontheproteinproduction level of a particular cell, ribosomes may numberinthemillions.

Figure2.5 Ribosome FactFile


Cells contain thousands of ribosomes. Ribosomes are organelles that produce amino acids and proteins in the cells. They dothis byreading RNA (ribonucleic acid), which is a process called translation. Every second,ribosomescanadd3+aminoacidstoanewprotein.

In a manufacturing business, products are made, packaged, and moved to loading centers to be carried away. Structures called golgi bodies are responsible for manufacturing, warehousing, and shipping certain cellular products, particularly those from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Dependingonthetype ofcell,therecan be just a few complexes or there can be hundreds. Cells that specialize in secreting various substances typically have a high number of Golgi bodies. are the packaging and releasingstructures ofthecell.Whensomethingisreleased,itisgivenoffbythecell.

Figure2.6 GolgiBodies ApplyingaConcept An animal cell contains about 10 to 20 golgi bodies, while a plant cell contains several hundreds.Whydoyouthinkthereissuchadifference inthenumberofthese structuresineachcelltype? Feedback:Thefactthatplantsproducesomanymaterials(food,oils,resins,etc.),theywillbein needofmoregolgibodiestostorethesaidmaterials.

Do you know that cells also produce wastes? In the cytoplasm, structures called lysosomes. Lysosomesaremembranoussacsofenzymes.Theyaremadebytheendoplasmic reticulum and Golgi bodies. Lysosomes contain various hydrolytic enzymes that are capable of digesting nucleic acid, polysaccharides, fats, andproteins.Theyareactivein recycling the cell's organic material and in the intracellular digestion of macromolecules. In addition, in many organisms, lysosomes are involved in programmed cell death. On the other hand, lysosomes contain chemicals that digest wastes and wornout/damaged cell parts. When a cell dies, chemicals in the lysosomes act to quickly breakdown the cell. In a healthy cell, the membrane around the lysosome keeps it from breakingdownthecellitself.Plantcellsdonothavelysosomes. Figure2.7 Lysosome

FactFile
There are two ways that a cell can die: necrosis and apoptosis. Necrosis occurs when a cell is damaged by an external force, suchas poison, a bodily injury, an infection or getting cut off from the blood supply. Apoptosis, it's when a cell commits suicide. It's sometimes referred to as programmed cell death, and indeed, the process of apoptosisfollowsacontrolled,predictableroutine.

Many businesses have warehouses for storing products until they are sold. Vacuoles are storageareasincells.A membranebound vesicle found inthecytoplasmofacell whose function includes intracellularsecretion,excretion, storage, anddigestion.Itcanbefoundinanimalandplant cells,anditcanbeespeciallyconspicuousinplantcells.

Figure2.8 Vacuole

AnalyzeThis Inplantcells,vacuolesarebig.Inanimalcells,vacuolesaresmall.Whydoyou thinkso?

Feedback: Plants are said to be the producers of food in the environment. They may produce sugar,oil,nectar,etc.Theyareinneedofbiggervacuolestostoresuchmaterials. TheNucleus The nucleus is a membrane bound structure and act as the control center of the cell. The nucleus contains the cell's hereditary information and controls the cell's growth and reproduction. The nucleus is bounded by a double membrane called the nuclear envelope (nuclear membrane). This membrane separates the contents of the nucleus from the cytoplasm.The envelopehelpstomaintaintheshapeofthenucleusandassistsinregulatingthe flowofmoleculesintoandoutofthenucleusthroughnuclearpores.Thenucleuscontainscoded instructions for all of the cells activities. These coded instructions are stored on special structure called the chromosomes. When a cell is "resting" i.e. not dividing, the chromosomes are organized into long entangled structures called chromatin and not into individual chromosomes as we typically think of them. The nucleus also contains the nucleolus which helps to synthesize ribosomes. The nucleolus contains nucleolar organizers which are parts of chromosomes with the genes forribosome synthesis on them. Copious amounts of RNA and proteins can be found in the nucleolus as well. The nucleus controls the synthesis of proteins inthecytoplasmthroughtheuseof messenger RNA. Messenger RNA is produced in the nucleolus ofthecellandtravelstothecytoplasmthrough theporesofthenuclearenvelope. Figure2.9 PartsofNucleus FactFile
A typical DNA molecule is so long and thin that if it were the thickness of spaghetti, it wouldbe5miles(8km)long.

Figure2.10 AnimalCell You have just looked at the inner workings of an animal cell. Imagine nowthat you are taking a microscopic tour through the green plant cell on the side. You will find that some structures in this cell are quite different from the structures in an animal cell. Take note of them. The outer covering of the plantcell isnotsoft and thin. Instead, it is surrounded by a rigid/toughstructurecalledthe cell wall that supportsandprotects the plant cell. Once you pass through the cell wall, you see the same structures you saw in the animal cell. The dark green bodies you see around you are chloroplasts. Substances inside the chloroplast help a green plant cell trap the suns energy and then producefood. Figure2.11 PlantCell

Imagine you could take atripintoatinybacterial cell.Bacteriaandbluebacteriaarequite different from other cells.They have fewer structures than plant or animal cells. However, they carry out all of thelife processes that other cells carry out. You can see that abacteriumhasa cell wall, a cell membrane, and cytoplasm. The chromosome material (nucleoid), whichdirects thecellsactivities,floatsfreelythroughthecytoplasm.Theotherstructuresarelacking.

Figure2.12 BacterialCell

FactFile
Bacteria are tiny, singlecelled organisms. They can measure as little as 0.001 mm across and they can only be seen under a microscope. There aremanydifferentsortsofbacteria,andmostofthemareharmless.

What you will do


Activity2.1

Challenge Makeyourownmodelofacellathome.Prepareasmallpackageofgulamanandpouritinto dish. Put common foods in the gelatin to represent cell structures. You could use lettuce or shredded carrots forendoplasmicreticulumandraisinsformitochondria.Becreative!Unmold yourcell.Andserveittoyourfamilyforsaladordessert.

What you will do


Selftest2.1 Let us see how well you can make a summary of what you know about the cell. Below is a table that lists the names of the cell structure(s). Now, compare animal, plantandbacterialcellsbyputtinga(/)ifthestructureispresent andan(x)ifthestructureisabsentundereachcolumn. Structures 1.Cellwall 2.Cellmembrane 3.Cytoplasm 4.Mitochondria 5.Ribosomes 6.EndoplasmicReticulum 7.Golgibodies 8.Lysosomes 9.Vacuoles 10.Chloroplasts 11.Nucleus 12.Chromosomes AnimalCell PlantCell BacterialCell

What you will do


SelfTest2.2

ATaleofaTail Mr. Gumbans' class studied the parts of plant and animal cells. The class captured tiny tadpoles in a local stream. Mr. Gumban showed the students how to care for the tadpoles in the classroom. Gradually, as theanimals grew,the bodies were changingin shape. Back and front legs grew out. The mouth expanded from a small hole to a large opening capable ofswallowinglargeinsects.Inaddition,thetails started to disappear.Mr.Gumbantoldthewholeclassthattherewould be a bonus questionabout the tadpoles in the testonanimals. For a study clue, she told them toreview their notes on cells. What do changes in the body parts of the tadpoles have to do withcells? Figure2.13 Tadpole Thinkcritically:

Answerthebonusquestion: Whatcellpartmakesthetadpoletailsdisappear?How?

Lesson3.CellTypes

PROKARYOTESANDEUKARYOTES Not all organellesdescribedin the previous section are present in all cells. Cells canbe grouped into twolarge categories: prokaryotes (cell without a truenucleus)andeukaryotes(cell withatruenucleus). Prokaryotes Prokaryotes are singlecelled organisms that are theearliestandmostprimitiveformsof life on earth. As organized in the Three Domain System, prokaryotes include bacteria and archaeans. Prokaryotes are able to live and thrive in various types of environments including extreme habitats such as hydrothermal vents, hot springs, swamps, wetlands, and theguts of animals. FactFile
The first recordedobservationwere ofthebacteria foundinthedental plaque of two oldmen whonevercleanedtheirteeth.

ProkaryoticCellStructure Prokaryotic cells are notas complex as eukaryotic cells.Theyhave notruenucleusastheDNA is not contained within a membrane or separated from the rest of the cell, but is coiled up in a region of the cytoplasm called the nucleoid. Prokaryotes do not have membranebound organelles like mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. They do not possess lysosomes, vacuoles, and Golgi bodies. Their ribosomes are small. Chlorophyll, when present, is not containedinchloroplasts.

Figure3.1ExamplesofProkaryotes.Fromlefttoright:lactobacillus,E.coliandsalmonella.

Eukaryotes Eukaryotes include animals, plants, fungi and protists. Typically, eukaryotic cells are more complex and much larger than prokaryotic cells. On average, prokaryotic cells are about 10 timessmallerindiameterthaneukaryoticcells.Eukaryoteshave welldefinednuclearmembrane and distinct nucleolus. Membranebound organelles are found in eukaryotes, such as Golgi bodiesandmitochondria. PlantandAnimalCells The second cell grouping is Plants versus Animal cells. Both of these cell types are eukaryotes. This means they have a lot oforganellesincommon.Oneorganelletheydonthave in common is chloroplasts, whichonlyplantshave.Anotherorganelledifferenceisthevacuoles. In animal cells the vacuoles are small and plenty. In the plant cells, there is a large central vacuole that occupies over 50% of the plant cells volume. This vacuole is filledwith water and nutrients under pressure. The pressure helps maintain the plant cells rigid shape. The rigid shape results in plant cellslookingrectangularascomparedtotheroundlikeanimalcells.While both cell typeshavecellmembranes,theplantcellsrigidityisfurthermaintainedbyanadditional cellwalloutsidethemembrane.

Figure3.2EukaryoticOrganisms FactFile
DNA strands look like a twisted ladder. Sections of DNA are called genes. All the instructions for growing a new human being are coded intotheDNAmolecule.

Table3.1ComparisonofprokaryoticandEukaryoticCells. CellStructure Cellmembrane Nuclearmembrane Membraneboundorganelles Ribosomes Chlorophyll Mitochondria Chromosomes ProkaryoticCell present absent absent small EukaryoticCell present present present large

when presentarenotfoundin foundinchloroplasts chloroplasts absent singleloopofcircularDNA present multipledoublehelix

FactFile
Chromosomes are tiny threadsthat are presentinallcellsapart from red blood cells. They contain all the information for an entire person to develop. There are46 chromosomesin each cell. They come in 22pairs, plusanotherspecialpairthatdeterminethepersonssex.

What you will do


SelfTest3.1 Answerthefollowingquestions:

1. Chloroplastsarefoundinwhichtypeofcell? 2. Whatdoyoucallthebroadgroupofcellsthatlackmembraneboundedorganelles? 3. Whattypeofcell(prokaryoteoreukaryote)hasDNAthatfloatsfreelyinthecell? 4. Mushroomisaunicellularorganism.(Trueorfalse) 5. Humanisamulticellularorganism.(Trueorfalse)

Lets Summarize

1. Cells are amazing, variable,beautiful, and functionally superb.Aconcept ofgenius,they workaloneoringroupswithequalease. 2. Cells are the basic units of life. All living things are made up of one or more cells. Organisms that exist as single cells are called unicellular and organisms that are made upofgroupsofcellsworkingtogetherarecalledmulticellular. 3. Because all living things are made up of cells, and because we desire to understand ourselves and the other living things around us it makessensetolearnsomethingabout cells. 4. All living things aredividedintotwomajorgroupsdependingonhowtheircellsaresetup. ThesetwogroupsaretheProkaryotesandtheEukaryotes. 5. The basic structure of plant and animal cell is almost the same except for certain differences.Thebasicstructureofacelliscomposedofthefollowingcomponents. a. CellMembrane b. Cytoplasm c. Nucleus However in plants, a rigid "Cell wall" is present outside the cell membrane or plasmamembrane. 6. Cell Theory: All living thingsare composed of cells. Cells arethebasicunitsofstructure andfunctioninlivingthings.Allcellscomefrompreexistingcells Whew! At last! You have finished studying the module. But,beforeyoucompletelyexitfromthis module,letusfindouthowmuchyoulearnedfromthismaterial.

Post-Test
MultipleChoice. Choosetheletterofthebestanswer.Writethe chosenletteron aseparatesheetofpaper. 1. A cell is observed to contain a nucleus, mitochondria and chloroplasts. From this informationyoucanconcludethatthecellis: a. aplantcell c.abacterialcell b. aanimalcell d.aprokaryoticcell

2. A cell that lacks a nucleus and membrane bound organelles is known as a(an) ______________cell. a. plant c.eukaryote b. animal d.prokaryote 3. Acellwithrelativelyfewenergyneedswillprobablyhavearelativelysmallnumberof a. ribosomes c.mitochondria b. lysosomes d.chromosomes 4. Digestiveenzymesorhydrolyticenzymesaretermsassociatedwith a. ribosomes c.golgiapparatus b. lysosomes d.smoothendoplasmicreticulum 5. Inwhichofthefollowingitemswouldyouexpecttofindcells? a. strawberry c.silverdollar b. eyeglasses d.plasticflower 6. Organismswhosecellsdonothaveanucleusarecalled a. plants c.eukaryotes b. organelles d.prokaryotes 7. Plantcellsoftenhaveaboxlikeshapebecauseofthe a. nucleus c.cytoplasms b. cellwall d.cellmembrane 8. The site of ATP production and thesiteofphotosynthesisarethe_______________and _________________. a. ribosomesandvacuoles c.mitochondriaandchloroplasts b. chloroplastsandlysosomes d.Golgicomplexandchloroplast 9. Whatistheoutermostboundaryofananimalcell? a. thecellwall c.thenuclearmembrane b. thecytoplasm d.thenuclearenvelope

10. Whatsiteregulateswhatgoesinandoutofthecell? a. cellwall c.cellmembrane b. vacuole d.nuclearmembrane 11. What type of cell has these characteristics: contains DNA but no nucleus, contains flagella,ribosomes,cytoplasm,andacellmembrane. a. plant c.animal b. fungi d.bacteria 12. Whereisthesiteofproteinsynthesis? a. nucleus b. lysosomes 13. Whichisthebrainofthecell? a. nucleus b. chlorop[lats c.ribosome d.mitochondria

c.golgibodies d.mitochondria

14. WhichofthefollowingformsoflifeisNOTeukaryotic? a. abacterialcell c.aplantcelllikegumamela b. protistsuchasamoeba d.ahumancellsuchasredbloodcell 15. Whichofthefollowingisfoundinthenucleus? a. vacuole c.mitochondria b. chloroplasts d.chromosomes 16. WhichofthefollowingisNOTtrueofchloroplasts? a. Theysynthesizesugar b. Theycontainpigments c. Theyareonlyfoundinplanta d. Theyappeargreenbecauseofchlorophyll 17. Whichofthefollowingorganellestransportsmaterialsinsidethecell a. lysosome c.mitochondria b. chloroplasts d.endoplasmicreticulum 18. Whichofthefollowingstatementsisalwaystrue? a. Allcellshaveacellwall c.Allcellscontainchloroplast. b. Allcellscontainnucleus. d.Allcellshaveacellmembrane. 19. Whichofthefollowingstructuresarecommontobotheukaryoticandprokaryoticcells? a. nucleus c.bothbandc b. ribosomes d.cellmembrane 20. Whichorganellehasnomembrane? a. vacuole b. lysosome c.ribosome d.chloroplast

Key to Answers

Pretest 1. c 2. d 3. d 4. c 5. a LESSON1 Activity1.1

6.d 7.b 8.a 9.b 10.c

11.d 12.a 13.d 14.b 15.c

16.c 17.a 18.d 19.c 20.c

TheStreetSweepers Lining the passageways are special cells that release a mixture of water, carbohydrates, and salts, called mucus. The particles of dust and dirt that are inhaled are trapped in this sticky mucus. Underneath this layerof mucus is another group of specialized cells that have cilia. As the cilia move, they createa sweeping action. This action keeps the most vitalpassagewaysin thebodycleanandopenforbusiness. SelfTest1.1 1. Leeuwenhoek:discoveredprotozoa Hooke:describedcellsincork Schleiden&Schwann:proposedcelltheory Virchow:concludedthatcellscomefrompreexistingcells 2. The microscope openedup the world of the verysmalltobiologists.Itenabledscientists todiscoverthatalllivingthingsaremadeupofcells. LESSON2 SelfTest2.1

Structures 1.Cellwall 2.Cellmembrane 3.Cytoplasm 4.Mitochondria

AnimalCell X / / /

PlantCell / / / /

BacterialCell / / / x

5.Ribosomes 6.EndoplasmicReticulum 7.Golgibodies 8.Lysosomes 9.Vacuoles 10.Chloroplasts 11.Nucleus 12.Chromosomes

/ / / / / x / /

/ / / x / / / /

/ x x x x x x /

SelfTest2.2 The body parts of the tadpoles change in response to the activity of the cells which is cell division. When cells divide, their number increases. Growth results when cells increase in number. The tails of the tadpole disappear due to the lysosomal activity. The lysosome, if you willrecall, containspowerfulchemicalswhichareusedtodigestorbreakdownmaterials LESSON3 Activity3.1 Feedback: Onecelled organisms may have fewer or different structures from plant or animal cells. However, they carry out all of the life processes (reproduction, digestion, excretion, respiration,etc.)thatothercellscarryout. SelfTest3.1 1.plant 2.prokaryote 3.prokaryote 4.false 5.true PostTest 1. c 2. d 3. d 4. b 5. c 6.b 7.a 8.c 9.c 10.d 11.b 12.a 13.d 14.b 15.a 16.c 17.a 18.d 19.c 20.c

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