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Office National dtudes et de Recherches Arospatiales - BP 72 - 92322 Chtillon CEDEX

PHD POSITION TITLE : Conceptual multidisciplinary aircraft design using aerostructural adjoint-based method
Hosting laboratory : Branch : Fluid Mechanics & Energetics (MFE) Dpartments : Applied Aerodynamics Department (DAAP) Team : DAAP-ACI (Civil Aircraft) Place : ONERA Meudon Co-advising: Airbus France, Future Project Office and Multi Disciplinary departments Person of contact (ONERA) : Grald Carrier Phone : +33 (0)1-46-73-42-12, email : gerald.carrier@onera.fr PHD Advisor: Pr. V.V. Toropov, University of Leeds, UK.

Abstract :
The design of modern transport aircraft requires nowadays an intensive use of different numerical simulation tools from different disciplines. These numerical simulation tools are, already today, embedded into automated design processes which speed up the design through optimization techniques. Aerodynamic shape design and structural sizing, for example, use such optimization at disciplinary level. However, optimizing the whole aircraft system requires a MultiDisciplinary (MD) design process for the overall aircraft performances (Range, take-off weight, DOC,...) by taking into account the various interactions between disciplines. However, MD process still relies on too simplified tools for combining the different disciplines, whereas it is essential to achieve a global optimization and not over-optimize one individual discipline to the detriment of the overall aircraft performance. Among the different disciplines involved in the aircraft design, aerodynamics and structures are of prime importance, since both the cruise drag and the structural weight have a direct impact on the overall aircraft performance (refer to BreguetLeduc range equation). These two disciplines are furthermore strongly coupled through aeroelastic deformation. Indeed, optimizing the wing only from the aerodynamic drag point of view, typically yield a very thin wing requiring a heavy wing structure to sustain the limit sizing loads suppressing consequently the aerodynamic gains. Similarly, optimizing the weight of the wing may result in a drag rise. Numerical shape optimization using CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) is today applicable to more and more complex geometries and flow physics. Specific optimization methods and tools have been developed in this field involving the resolution of the three-dimensional Euler or Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. Among the aerodynamic optimization methods, gradient based which use directly the sensitivities of the aerodynamic functions (such as drag and lift) with respect to the shape parameters have proved to be very efficient, especially if the sensitivities are calculated analytically by the adjoint approach. Significant
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efforts have therefore been devoted to the development of the adjoint equations resolution method. With the intent to develop real MD design capabilities benefiting from the efficiency of best disciplinary design methods, ONERA has been working to extend the aerodynamic adjoint method for aerostructural wing design. Through two previous PhD thesis, an aeroelastic and an aero-structural extension of the adjoint method was successfully developed for the evaluation of the sensitivity of aerodynamic functions, such as lift and drag, with respect to any shape parameter and taking into account the aeroelastic deformations [1] [2]. Moreover, the aerostructural adjoint method of ONERA provides of the sensitivities of both aerodynamic functions (lift, drag, ) but also structural characteristics (beam deformations, stresses) with respect to both wing aerodynamic shape and internal structural parameters. Therefore, this new aero-structural adjoint technique enables a real integrated aero-structural design optimization where both aerodynamic performance and structural weight can be optimized together to maximize the overall aircraft performance, by means of simultaneous modification of the wing aerodynamic shape and its associated internal structure parameters. This possibility can be used in preliminary design stages to allow a wide exploration of the design space with fast and simple models. In ONERA aero-structural adjoint method, this is achieved by a simple beam model for the wing structure associated with a light aerodynamic model based on the resolution of Euler equations on relatively coarse grids. The present PhD thesis will explore different ways by which the aero-structural adjoint can be used in the context of multi-disciplinary aircraft design optimization. The novel concept of forward-swept wing aircraft will be the guideline for this work, starting from an aero/weight optimization and progressively increasing the complexity by including other physical constrains having an important impact on the design. For example, it is considered to resort to a vortex lattice panel code for the simulation of low-speed load cases (Landing and take off configurations). References: 1. Sensitivity Analysis of a Strongly Coupled Aero-Structural System Using the Discrete Direct and Adjoint Methods, Meryem Marcelet, Jacques Peter et Grald Carrier, Published at the European Journal of Computational Mechanics, issue 8-2008. 2. Aero-Structural Optimization with the Adjoint Method, Ghazlane I., Carrier C., Dumont A., Marcelet M., Eurogen 2011, September 14-16, 2011, Capua, Italy Partnership : Framework of the International Training Network AMEDEO (see http://ec.europa.eu/euraxess/index.cfm/jobs/jobDetails/33837085 for more information). Direct partnership with Leeds University and all other partners of this project. In direct collaboration with Airbus. Condition of application: The position is open to applicants of all nationalities. At the time of recruitment, the researcher must not have resided or carried out his/her main activity (work, studies, etc) in the country of the beneficiary for more than 12 months in the 3 years immediately prior to his/her recruitment under the project. Compulsory national service and/or short stays such as holidays are not taken into account.

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CANDIDATE PROFILE Education: B.Sc., M.Sc. or equivalent in Aerospace Engineering Excellent academic transcripts Clearly defined Statement of Purpose for Ph.D. research thesis Excellent level of spoken and written English (Basic knowledge in French will be appreciated) High level of motivation. Knowledge and interest for aerodynamics and structural design, numerical simulations and optimization.

DRH/ECFE/octobre2007