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A Quarter Century of "Culture's Consequences": A Review of Empirical Research Incorporating Hofstede's

A Quarter Century of "Culture's Consequences": A Review of Empirical Research Incorporating Hofstede's Cultural Values Framework Author(s): Bradley L. Kirkman, Kevin B. Lowe, Cristina B. Gibson Source: Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 37, No. 3 (May, 2006), pp. 285-320 Published by: Palgrave Macmillan Journals

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PERSPECTIVE

A

a

quarter

review

of

Hofstede's

Journal of InternationalBusinessStudies (2006)37, 285-320

? 2006 Academy of InternationalBusiness All rights reserved0047-2506 $30.00

www.jibs.net

century

of

Culture's

Consequences:

empirical

research

incorporating

cultural

values

framework

Bradley L. Kirkman', KevinB. Lowe2 and CristinaB. Gibson3

'Department of Management,Mays

School, TexasA&M University,CollegeStation, TX,USA;2Department of Business

Administration,Joseph M. Bryan Schoolof

Businessand

Carolinaat Greensboro,Greensboro, North

Carolina,USA;3GraduateSchoolof

Management,University of California,Irvine, California, USA

Business

Economics,University of North

Correspondence:

Bradley L Kirkman, Department of Management, Mays Business School, Texas A&M University, 4221 TAMU, College

Station, TX 77843-4221, Tel: + 1 979 845 8813;

Fax: + 1 979 845 9641; E-mail:brad.kirkman@tamu.edu

USA.

Received:

Revised:

Accepted:

Online publication

22 August 2002 8 May 2005 17 May 2005

date: 4 May 2006

Abstract

SinceGeertHofstede'sCulture's Consequences: InternationalDifferencesin Work- RelatedValues (Sage, 1980) was published, researchershave utilizedHofstede's culturalvaluesframeworkin a wide variety of empirical studies.We review180 studies published in 40 businessand psychologyjournals andtwo international

annual volumes between 1980

empirically verifiableabout Hofstede'sculturalvalues framework.We discuss limitationsin the Hofstede-inspired researchand make recommendationsfor researcherswho use Hofstede'sframeworkin the future. Journal of InternationalBusinessStudies (2006) 37, 285-320.

doi: I 0. I 057/palgrave.jibs.8400202

and June 2002

to

consolidate what is

Keywords:Hofstede; cultural values; cross-cultural management

Introduction

Research using a variety of frameworks has shown that national

cultural values are related to workplace behaviors, attitudes and

other organizational outcomes (e.g., Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck,

Hall, 1976; Hofstede, 1980a; Trompenaars, 1993; Schwartz,

1961;

the most influential of

cultural classifications is that of Geert Hofstede. Over two decades

have passed since the International Differences in

inspiring thousands of empirical

sive review of the

this gap, we summarize and synthesize empirical research pub-

lished between

Work-RelatedValues (Hofstede, 1980a),

1994; Ronen and Shenkar, 1985). Perhaps

publication

impact

of

Culture's Consequences:

studies; however, a comprehen-

applied We focus on Hofstede's

evidence that it has had far

of Hofstede'sframeworkis lacking.' To fill

2002 that has

January 1980 and June

to organizations.

Hofstede's framework

framework rather than others, given

greater impact (Sivakumar and Nakata, 2001). For example, the

Citations Index indicates that Hofstede's work is

Social Science

more widely cited than others (cited 1,800 times through 1999;

Hofstede, 2001).

framework, credits Hofstede

importance

purpose

an in-depth discussion

of Hofstede's original study, a critique (e.g., Schwartz, 1994; Smith and Bond, 1999; McSweeney, 2002; Smith, 2002), or a replication

inform future research, ratherthan

is both to summarize existing research and to direct and

Trompenaars (1993,

the

iii), who has a competing

'for opening management's eyes to the

of

[cross-cultural management]

provide

subject'. Our

A quarter century of Culture'sConsequences
286

(e.g., Punnett and Withane (1990); Shackleton and

All,

aspects discussed in recent reviews and

example, most researchers focused

exclusively on

individualism-collectivism (IND-COL) at the indi-

vidual level of

and Gibson, 1998;

Consequently, their implications and conclusions

are based

recently

since his

on a much narrower band of Hofstede-

inspired research.

reviewed hundreds of studies

1990; Merritt,2000; Spector et al., 2001a).

on

of

We focus

Hofstede's work not

meta-analyses. For

analysis (e.g., Triandis, 1995; Earley

Oyserman

et

al.,

2002).

Hofstede

(2001)

published

opposition to

applying the framework

'ignores

level, Hofstede

original book appeared in 1980. However, consis-

tent with his

every-

thing

2002, 123), thus

conclusions

between stu-

previous reviews. Therefore our conclusions and implica-

tions should add value

our

purpose of analysis and

for all

five cultural value dimensions in Hofstede's frame-

work. As we shall show,

hensive review, much of the

in some

cases redundant, and researchers are unable to

benefit from the cumulative

accruesfrom an integrated First, we provide a brief cultural value dimensions

that

research has remained fragmented and

Hofstede-inspired

to the individual

but the

,

culture level comparisons' (Smith,

missing

an opportunity to draw Indeed, an analysis of

overlap

across levels.

references reveals

very

dies we reviewed and those contained in

little

beyond previous reviews, as

was to review studies at different levels

direction of effects to comprehen-

the

sively integrate and synthesize

findings

without such a compre-

knowledge quality research.

overview of Hofstede's

body of

and

how

articles.

accomplishments

major domain

of

were

they derived, and then we discuss our typology and the

Next, we

review findings,

challenges

rationale for

and

our

typology. Finally, we provide direction for future

Hofstede-inspired research.

including/excluding

research

within

each

An overview

of Hofstede's

cultural

value

dimensions

Hofstede (1980a, 25) defined culture as 'the collec- tive programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one human group from another'. His framework was developed using data from over

116,000

morale surveys from over 88,000

employ-

ees from 72 countries

(reduced to 40 countries

that

had more than 50 responses each) in 20 languages

at IBM between 1967 and 1969 and again between 1971 and 1973. He later expanded the database with 10 additional countries and three regions (i.e.,

Journal of International Business Studies

Bradley LKirkmanet al

Arabcountries and Eastand West Africa).Based on

a country level factor analysis, he classified the original 40 countries along four dimensions. The

firstis IND-COL,with IND defined as 'a loosely knit

social framework in which people are supposed to

take care of themselves and of their immediate families only', while COL 'is characterized by a tight social frameworkin which people distinguish between ingroups and outgroups, they expect their ingroup to look after them, and in exchange for that they feel they owe absolute loyalty to it'(Hof- stede, 1980b, 45). The second dimension is power distance (PD), defined as 'the extent to which a society accepts the fact that power in institutions and organizations is distributed unequally' (1980b, 45). Third,uncertainty avoidance (UA)is defined as 'the extent to which a society feels threatened by uncertain and ambiguous situations and tries to avoid these situations by providing greater career stability, establishing more formal rules, not toler- ating deviant ideas and behaviors, and believing in absolute truths and the attainment of expertise' (1980b, 45). The fourth dimension is masculinity

(MAS)-femininity (FEM),with MASdefined as 'the extent to which the dominant values in society are

"masculine" - that is, assertiveness, the

acquisition

of money and things, and not caring for others,

the

FEMdefined as the opposite of MAS.Michael Harris Bond (Chinese Culture Connection, 1987) and later Hofstede and Bond (1988) developed a fifth

dimension,

short-term

refers to future-oriented values such as persistence

and thrift, whereas short-term orientation refers

quality of life, or people'

(1980b, 46) and

Confucian dynamism (or long-term vs

orientation).

Long-term

orientation

to past- and present-oriented values such as respect

for tradition and fulfilling social obligations. Hofstede's (1980a) work has been criticized for:

reducing culture to an overly simplistic four or five dimension conceptualization; limiting the sample

to a single multinational

corporation; failing to

capture the malleability of culture over time; and ignoring within-country cultural heterogeneity

(Sivakumar and Nakata, 2001). In spite of criticism, researchers have favored this five-dimension framework because of its clarity, parsimony, and resonance with managers. Yet, even given the proliferation of studies incorporating the frame- work, there have been few attempts to summarize the empirical findings it has generated. Thus, a

pressing and practical need in the literature at this

time

ways to improve

of

is a comprehensive

review and discussion

the use of Hofstede's framework.

A quarter

century

of

Culture's Consequences

Criteria used to select

review

of the five

management and

articles

and organize

the

We

cultural values published in top-tier

journals

(Extejt and Smith, 1990; Gomez-Mejia and Balkin, 1992; Johnson and Podsakoff, 1994; Tahai and

Meyer,

national

We excluded areas such as

because of the traditional delineation of these fields

(in business schools and most

and the need to

siveness. We conducted article title, abstract, and

methodology

to June 2002. We first conducted

searches (e.g., ABI-Inform, Ebsco Host Academic

Full-Text Elite) when full text was available; other-

wise, each

then

searches within journals using

stede's

We included

assessedthe cultural values

secondary data. Primary data include research that assessed values

other

research that used Hofstede's

for

(Kogut and

studies that used

values to individuals

examine empirical research that assessed

applied

psychology

any

1999) and in journals specializing in inter-

management

and

psychology (see Table 1).

marketing

or finance

place

academic journals)

comprehen-

limits on our

section searches from January 1980

computer-assisted

journal was physically searched. We

computer-assisted

keyword

variations on Hof-

conducted

terms (e.g., COL,collectivists, collectivistic).

direct

articles

only

if the authors empirically

using

either

primary

or

through surveys, experiments, or

methods.

Secondary data

include

create cultural

country

distance

scores to,

measures

example,

Singh, 1988). We also included a few

country scores to assign cultural

(e.g.,

Bochner and Hesketh,

A detailed analysis of the

method

quality

1994; Palich et al., 1995).

appears in

our discussion. We mention these limitations

here

to warn readersabout the variance in the

methodologies

Previous

the

discussed

different

and

(Earley and Gibson, 1998; Oyserman et al., 2002).

Thus, comparing means directly across studies may

cultural values

variety of

studies

reviews of the IND-COL literature have

review.

of

shortcomings of this particular

used

in

that used

difficulty

a wide

methods

to

the

of

studies we

comparing

measures

operationalize

be

methodology for each of the studies, but readers

should note that authors took different degrees

of care to control for methodological concerns such as response bias or halo effects. Thus, as we note throughout, caution should be exercised in inter- preting the findings.2

of

problematic.

Space

prohibits

a

critique

To

organize

the

review,

we

used

a

two-tier

classification

the role of cultural values in the relationships

scheme. The first tier pertained to

Bradley LKirkmanet a!l

287

Table

articlesfound

1

Journals searched, with corresponding number of

Journal name

Academy of Management Journal

AdministrativeScience Quarterly Advancesin Global Leadership Advancesin InternationalComparativeManagement AnnualReviewof Psychology

British Journal of Britishjournalof

Social Psychology

European Journal of Social Psychology Group and OrganizationManagement

HumanRelations 2

1

1

2

0

0

1

1

7

22

Number

Psychology

International Journal of Commerceand Management

International Journal of ComparativeSociology

International Journal of

International Journal of InterculturalRelations

International Journal of OrganizationalAnalysis

International Journal of InternationalStudiesof

Conflict Management

Psychology Management and Organization

Journalof AppliedBehavioralScience

Journalof AppliedPsychology

Journalof

Journalof Cross-Cultural Psychology

Journalof

Journalof InternationalBusinessStudies

Journalof International Management Journalof Management Journalof ManagementStudies

Journalof

Journalof Personality

Journalof Personality and Social Psychology

Journalof Researchin Personality Journalof WorldBusiness LeadershipQuarterly Management InternationalReview Management Science MultinationalBusinessReview

Applied Social Psychology

Experimental Social Psychology

Organizational Behavior

OrganizationScience Organizational Behaviorand HumanDecisionProcesses Personnel Psychology

Psychological Bulletin

Psychological Review

Small Group Research StrategicManagement Journal

2

0

1

5

2

2

1

1

7

3

16

1

41

5

9

0

6

0

11

1

1

1

6

1

2

0

4

2

0

0

1

11

Total

180

investigated.

main associations between values and outcomes, as well as cultural values as moderators.Main effect studies have been labeled 'Type I' and moderator studies 'Type II' (Lytle et al., 1995). Our second classification was by level of analysis, whether

individual, group/organizational, or country. In

Research on

culture has examined

Journal of International Business Studies

288

A quarter century of Culture'sConsequences

LKirkmanet a

Bradley

spite of Hofstede's (1980a, 2001) argument against

using

country level studies, we found that a majority of

researchers had

individual or group/organization levels. All of these

levels are valid, depending on

and on whether there is

than between groups (Sivakumar and Nakata,

2001). Thus, we argue that excluding

would create an incomplete picture of Hofstede's

impact.

different levels of analysis do

equivalent findings or replication

(Leung and Bond,

sort the studies into the proper

level of analysis, we scrutinized each study's theory

and method section to determine the level at which

the study was conceptualized and analyzed, respec-

tively. The level was not

studies

classified as individual, group/organizational, or

level studies, data

must have been collected and

individual level of analysis and tied to

level outcomes. For

had to be aggregated to the group or organiza-

tional

outcomes. For country level studies, either indivi-

dual level data had to

level outcomes or pre-existing

linked to country

country

country level scores) had to be used. Table2 depicts

our

corresponding

six

cells. To ease interpretation, we further organize

findings by topic using

from

reader comparisons of Table3 shows the

level of analysis on

facilitate

topics at respective levels,

his

dimensions

for purposes

them

other

at

than

the

adapted

for use

the research question

more commonality within,

these studies

of the same data at

In addition, analyses

not necessarily lead to of dimensions

1993,

1989; Hofstede et al.,

2001). To accurately

at which

as

the data were collected

For example,

always

informative.

using

individual level survey data could be

analyzed

at the

individual

country level. For individual

group/organizational, the data

group/organizational

level

and linked to

be aggregatedby country and

level measures (such as Hofstede's, 1980a

classification with

the

subject matter headings

To

psychology.

on the vertical axis and the

the horizontal. Also, Supple-

A and B contain

2 x 3

number of articles reviewed within each of the

business

mentary

article

and

topics

detailed

Appendices summaries on culture as main and mod-

erator effects,

respectively,

for all

our review.3

180

articles

in

Research

value

We first review culture as a main effect (i.e., Type I

studies) at the individual level of analysis,

at the group/organization

culture as

levels. We

then review findings

a moderator (i.e., Type II studies) at

of analysis. When a study included multiple levels

incorporating

Hofstede's

cultural

dimensions

and then

and country

that incorporate

these levels

in the

or type of

appropriate section and note cross-listings.

effect, we discuss each finding

Type I studies of culture at the individual level

of

Our review uncovered two basic types of Type I

individual level study:

cultural. In both types of study, researchers typi-

cally

cultural values and various outcomes; however,

in cross-cultural studies two or more countries are

normally

dies all individuals emanate from the same country.

Researchers have shown that there is plenty

of within-country variation on

(Hofstede, 1980a; Au, 1999). Clearly, 'people vary

PD

beliefs, traditionality)

basis and on a within-country

2005:

studies may

cultural, we

assessing

of under-

variation.

Cultural values were associated with outcomes in

domains,

conflict manage-

ment;

ment (HRM);leadership;organizational citizenship behavior (OCB); work-relatedattitudes; negotiation

decision-making; human resource manage-

including: change management;

management

country

because

not be viewed as technically cross-

still include those studies empirically

on

analysis

cross-cultural and mono-

between individuals'

examine relationships

included, whereas in mono-cultural stu-

cultural values

psychological

dimensions

(e.g.,

both on a between-country

Thus,

even

basis' (Brockner, mono-cultural

though

pivotal

355).

cultural values in only a single

of the theoretical importance

cultural

standing within country

and

applied psychology

behavior; reward allocation; and individual beha- vior relating to group processes and personality.

Change management (4)3

Collectivists in the US showed more positive group attitudes toward a new technology and had better

Table 2

Classificationscheme used for literaturereviewand numberof articlesincluded

Individuallevel

Group/organization level

Cultureas a

main effect

64

6

Cultureas a

moderator

23

5

Total

87

11

Country level

Total

78

148

4

32

82

180

Note:Ifa study was listedin morethanone section, it wascounted only once inthe sectioninwhichitfirst appeared.

Journal of International Business Studies

A quarter century of Culture's Consequences

Bradley LKirkmanet al

Table 3

Research subject matter by level of analysis Individual

Change management

James(1993)main,Geletkanycz

(1997)main, Anakwe et al.

(1999)main,

Eby et al. (2000)main

Group/organization

Conflict management

Leung (1987)main, Leung

(1 988)main, Cocroft and Oeztzel (1998)main

Ting-Toomey (1994)main Gabrielidis et al. (1997)main

Elron (1997)main,

Decision-making

Human resource

management

Leadership

OCB

Ali (1993)main, Nooteboom et al. Mitchell et al.

Steensma

(2000a)main

(2000)main,

(1997)main,

et al.

Ozawa et al. (1996)main, Cable and

judge

(1994)main, Ramamoorthy

and Carroll (1998)main,

(1986)main,

Earley

Earley et al. (1999)main

Casimir and Keats (1996)main,

Pillaiand Meindl (1998)main,

Helgstrand and Stuhlmacher (1999)main, Jung and Avolio

(1999)mod,

Drasgow

Chan and

(2001)main

Moorman

Van Dyne et al. (2000)main

and Blakely (1995)man,

Pillai and Meindl (1998)main

Work-relatedattitudes Bochner and Hesketh (1994)main,

Palich et al. (1995)mod,

(1999)main, Chiu (1999)main,

Clugston

Bennett

et al. (2000)main, Feldman

and Bolino (2000)main, Lee et al.

(2000a)main,

Lee et al. (2000b)mod,

Martella and Maass (2000)mod,

Schaubroecket al. (2000)mod,

Vandenberghe

Harpaz et al. (2002)main,

Thomas and

Au (2002)main' mod

et al. (2001)mod,

Negotiation Arunachalam et al. (1998)main, Tinsley and Pillutla (1998)man, Brett and Okumura (1998)man, Pearson and Stephan (1998)main Morris et al. (1998)main, Gelfand and Realo (1999)mod, Probst et al. (1999)main, Ng and Van Dyne (2001)mod, Tinsley (2001)main Tinsley and Brett (2001)main,

Wade-Benzoni

et al. (2002)main

Country

289

Smith et al. (1998)main

Newman

Roth and O'Donnell

and Nollen

(1996)main

(1996)main,

Schulerand Rogovsky (1998)main,

Ryan et al. (1999)main

Shenkar and Zeira (1992)main

Offermanand Hellmann

(1997)main, House et al. (1999)main

Schneider and DeMeyer

(1991)main,

Weber et al.

(1996)main, Peterson

et al.

(1995)main,

Van de Vliert and Van

Yperen (1996)main,

Smith (1997)main,

Peterson and

Robie et al.

(1998)mod,

Gong

et al. (2001)main,

Spector et al. (2001 b)main, Spector

et al. (2002)mod

journal of InternationalBusinessStudies

290

Table 3

Continued

Reward allocation

Behavior relating to

group processes and

personality

Entrepreneurship

Social networks

Entry modes

"Aquarter

century

of Culture's Consequences

Bradley LKirkmanet al

Individual

Group/organization

Mann et al. (1985)ma"', Leung and

Iwawaki (1988)main,

(1991)main,

Hui et al.

Tower et al. (1997)main

Chen et al. (1997)main, C.C. Chen

et al. (1998a, b)main, McLean-Parks

et al. (1999)main,

(2000)main

Gomez

et al.

Triandis et al. (1988)main, Earley

(1989)mod,

(1989)main,

Huiand Villareal

Earley (1993)mod,

Chatman

Chatman et al. (1998)mod,

Cox et al. (1991)main

and Barsade (1995)mod,

Oyserman (1993)main, Wagner Erez and Somech

(1995)mod, Yamaguchi et al.

(1995)main, Eby and Dobbins (1997)main, Kwan et al.

(1997)main, Wojciszke (1997)main,

Chen et al. (1998a, b)mod, Lam et al. (2002a)mod

Oyserman et al. (1998)main, Grimm et al. (1999)main, Tafarodi et al. (1999)main, Thomas

Kirkman and Shapiro

Satterwhite et al.

(1996)mod

(1997)main

Eby and Dobbins

Earley (1999)mod Gibson (1999)mod Kirkman and Shapiro (2001 b)main

(1999)main,

(2000)main,

Carpenter and Radhakrishnan

(2000)main,

(2000)main, Gibson and Zellmer- Bruhn (2001)main, Kirkman and Shapiro (2001 a)main

Morriset al. (1993)main,

Morris et al. (1994)main

Journal of International Business Studies

Country

Krug and Nigh (1998)main

Oyserman et al. (2002)main

Thomas and Mueller (2000)main

Zaheer and Zaheer

Manev and Stevenson(1997)main, (2001)main

Kogut and Singh (1988)main

Erramilli (1991)main, Kim and

Hwang

(1992)main, Shane (1994)main

Erramilli (1996)main

Padmanabhanand Cho

(1996)main, Pan (1996)main

Pan and Tse (1996)main

Anand and Delios (1997)main Erramilliet al. (1997)main

Barkemaand Vermeulen

(1998)main, Hennart and Larimo (1998)main, Pan and Tse

(2000)main, Arora and Fosfuri (2000)main, Brouthers and

Brouthers(2000)main, Brouthers

and Brouthers (2001)main, Chang and Rosenzweig (2001)main

(1992)main, Shane

Harzing (2002)main,

Erramilliet al.

(2002)mod,

Nachum

Pan (2002)main,

(2003)main

A

quarter

century

of Culture's Consequences

Bradley LKirkmanet al

291

Table 3

Continued

Foreign direct

investment

Joint venture

characteristics

and

performance

Alliance formation

Innovation and

research and

development

Societal outcomes

(e.g.,

accounting

wealth,

national

systems,

number of intellectual property violations

Motivation

Organizational

justice

Individual

Dickson and Weaver (1997)mod

Erez and Earley (1987)mod, Dorfman and Howell (1988)mod, Earley (1994)mod, Eylon and Au (1999)mod, Lam et al. (2002a)mod

Lind et al. (1997)mod, Au et al.

(2002)mod,

Brockner et al.

(2000)mod,

Brockner et al.

(2001)mod,

Lam et al. (2002b)mod

Group/organization

main, main effect study; mod, moderating effect study.

Country

Benito and Gripsrud(1992)main,

Li and Guisinger (1992)main Loree and Guisinger (1995)main, Kallunki et al. (2001)main, Thomas

and Grosse (2001)main,Habiband

Zurawicki (2002)main

Liand Guisinger(1991)main, Datta

and Puia (1995)main,

Barkema et al.

(1996)main, Barkema et al. Barkema and

(1997)main,

Vermeulen

(1997)main

Gomez-Mejia and Palich

(1997)main, Park and Ungson

(1997)main, Morosini et al.

(1998)main,

(1999)main,

Glaister and Buckley Luo and Peng

(1999)main, Merchant and Schendel (2000)main, Hakanson and Nobel (2001)main, Luo

(2001 a)main, Luo(2001 b)man,

Luo and Park (2001)main, Luo et al.

(2001)mod,

Reuer (2001)main

Luo (2002)mann, Pothukuchi

(2002)main

et al.

Kashlak et al. (1998)main Steensma et al. (2000b)mainmod

Shane (1995)main, Shane et al.

(1995)main, Jones and Teegen (2001)main, Richards and De Carolis

(2003)main

Frankeet al. (1991)main, Dienerand

Diener (1995)mainmod,

Diener et al.

(1995)main, Diener et al. (2000)mod

Salterand Niswander (1995)main Riahi-Belkaoui (1998)main, Husted

(1999)main, Ronkainen and Guerrero-Cusumano (2001)main

retention when

tained a group-relevance theme (the same was true

for individualists when the

a strong self-relevance theme) (James, 1993). COL

was negatively related to receptivity to distance

a technology

presentation con-

contained

presentation

(Anakwe et al., 1999), and

learning technology

was positively

zation's readiness to change

(Eby

(1980a) country scores to assign cultural values to

related to perceptions of an organi-

to team-based selling US. Using Hofstede's

et al., 2000)

in

the

journal of InternationalBusinessStudies

SAquarter century of Culture'sConsequences
292

managers in

found that managers were more likely to believe

that the future their

(1997)

20

countries,

Geletkanycz

chief executive officer (CEO) of

company should have the same expertise as

the current CEO, and that the company's future corporate strategy should be the same as the

existing corporate strategy (i.e., essentially demon-

strating acceptance

were high on IND, and low on UA, PD, and long-

term orientation.

of the status quo) when they

Conflict management (4)

Hong Kong (HK) subjects (who were significantly

higher

more than US

non-student subjects

subjects' proce-

dure preferences were related to the extent to

which the procedure was perceived as favorable to

animosity reduction, Leung (1988) found

that HK

and

the

in

COL)preferredbargaining and mediation

subjects

in

a scenario-based experi-

ment with undergraduate and

(Leung, 1987). In both countries,

disputants, fair,capable

of

allowing process control.

subjects were more likely

higher likelihood of

(who scored significantly

COL; see our discussion IND-COL as

section

unipolar or bipolar

than

stranger

than were US subjects; and COLwas associated with

suing when the dispute was

between strangers (but not friends). US students

lower on both IND and

for debate on at the individual

level) used more antisocial, self-attribution, hint,

Japanese sub-

strategies

and self-presentation strategies

jects, who used more indirect face

(Cocroft and Ting-Toomey, 1994). Finally, student

subjects)

showed more concern for others' outcomes in

conflict resolution than US students (Gabrielidis

specifically,

et al., 1997). More

accommodation and than those in the US.

to sue a

Mexican

subjects (who were significantly higher on

COLand IND and lower on FEMthan US

Mexican scores on

were higher

collaboration

Decision-making(4)

IND was

pative, and

positively related to consultative,

partici-

autocratic decision-making styles and

to attitudes toward risk in Saudi Arabian managers (Ali, 1993). Nooteboom et al. (1997) found that UA was negatively related to the probability of a potential loss by transaction partners, but unrelated to the size of loss among 97 firm-supplier alliances in the Netherlands. Mitchell et al. (2000), using Hofstede's (1980a) country scores at the individual

level and assessing business professionals' cognitive

scripts,

related to 'ability' scripts (i.e., given

found

that

IND

and

PD were

positively

resources, the

Journal of International Business Studies

BradleyL Kirkmanet al

person is able to carry out a goal); IND was positively related to 'willingness' scripts (i.e., given resources, the person will want to carry out a goal); and the relationship between 'arrangements'scripts (i.e., access to required materials) and starting a new business was stronger for individualists than for collectivists in the US, Mexico, China, Japan,

and

from seven

Indonesia, Mexico, Norway, and Sweden) viewed cooperative strategies with other firms as more acceptable when they were lower in IND and MAS, but higher in UA (Steensma et al., 2000a). Those higher, ratherthan lower, in IND and UA preferred contractual safeguardsmore, and perceived partner commonality was positively linked to UA.

HRM (5)

Chile. Using

country scores, entrepreneurs

countries (Australia, Finland, Greece,

US undergraduates, who were significantly higher on IND than Japanese (using Singelis et al.'s (1995) self-construal measure), perceived a change to an affirmative action program less favorably and fair than Japanese subjects (Ozawa et al., 1996). COL was negatively related to preferences for individual- based pay in the US (Cable and Judge, 1994) and to the use of selection tests, formal appraisalpractices, and desire for promotions based on merit, and positively related to preference for equality-based rewardsand employment security among US busi- ness undergraduates (Ramamoorthy and Carroll, 1998). Both COL and PD interacted with feedback type such that US subjects' performance increased as a result of both positive and negative feedback, but in England (where COL and IND were sig- nificantly higher), only positive feedback resulted in performance increases (Earley,1986). In a second sample, the importance of feedback received and trust in supervisor partially mediated the main effects of praise, criticism, and culture on perfor- mance. In a sample of managers completing a managerial simulation in the US, Czech Republic and PRC (US subjects were significantly higher on IND than either Czech or PRC subjects who did not

differ), Earley et al. (1999) found that individual feedback played a role for both individualists and collectivists, whereas group feedback was critical only for collectivists.

Leadership (4)

In

managers, Casimir and Keats (1996) assessed pre-

ferences for leadership styles from among four choices (i.e., created by crossing the extent to

a

sample

of

Anglo-

and

Chinese-Australian

A quarter century of Culture's Consequences

or low on both concern for and maintenance of group

which a leader is high group performance

relations).

expressed

group

IND-COL. In high-stress work environments, both

cultures maintained

concern leaders; however, in

ments, Chinese respondents preferred a leader who

showed

for group relations equally to

leaders high on both types of concern. In a second

low-stress environ-

preference for high-

Both

cultures preferred leaders who

performance and significantly on

high concern for both

relations, and did not differ

concern

their

study, COL was positively

charismatic leadership,

tively related to supervisory ratings

performance, job satisfaction,

leader,

units of a US firm (Pillai and Meindl, 1998).

Helgstrand and Stuhlmacher (1999) found that

high school and undergradu-

ate students rated leaders who were feminine and

individualistic as most effective (Danes were lower

horizontal (H) and vertical

represents a

see members of an ingroup as

self, and

the group,

see members of an ingroup as similarto the self, and

value equality; VIND represents

but

expects inequality; and HIND represents

to

mous and the individual is seen as equal to others),

Chan and

recruits and

and the

values and various

lead (MTL).They found that HIND was negatively related to noncalculative MTL (i.e., people lead

are not calculative about the costs

of

normative

relative to the benefits) and social-

(V) aspects

group,

tendency to view the self as an aspect

related to the level of

in turn was

posi-

of work unit

which

satisfaction with the

and leader effectiveness in over 100 work

both Danish and US

on PD). Finally, using

of IND and COL (i.e., VCOL

accept

of the

different from the

inequality; HCOL represents the

as an aspect

of

the extent to which

is

autonomous

the extent

is autono-

tendency to view the self

an individual's self-concept

which

an individual's self-concept

Drasgow

(2001)

junior college

explore

US to

surveyed military

students in Singapore

links between cultural

dimensions of motivation to

only when they

leading

lead because they feel

a sense of responsibility or duty); and VIND was

MTL (i.e., people

positively

some

normative

culative

related

to

affective

identity

MTL (i.e.,

to

lead

others)

and

social-

related to noncal-

people

just like

MTL, and negatively MTL.

OCB (2)

In a sample of US financial services employees, COL

(assessed

using

the

values,

norms,

dimensions

of