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# Section 4.

5 Applied Optimization

227

60. (a) If v cr! r# c cr\$ , then vw 2cr! r c 3cr# cr a2r! c 3rb and vww 2cr! c 6cr 2c ar! c 3rb . The solution of
vw 0 is r 0 or 2r , but 0 is not in the domain. Also, vw 0 for r  2r and vw  0 for r 2r at r 2r
3
3
3
3
!

there is a maximum.
(b) The graph confirms the findings in (a).

x b1
x

## 61. If x 0, then (x c 1)# 0 x# b 1 2x

a bx cx
aa b x b

#"c #

b (d c x) ab b (d c x) b
b b (d c x)

#
#" #

#
#

c ab b (d c x) b b (d c x)
ab b (d c x) b

c ab b (d c x) b

a
aa b x b

cb
 0 g(x) is a decreasing function of x
ab b (d c x) b
dt
Since c" , c# 0, the derivative dx is an increasing function of x (from part (a)) minus a decreasing
dt
d
function of x (from part (b)): dx c" f(x) c c" g(x) dxt c" f w (x) c c" gw (x) 0 since f w (x)
dt
gw (x)  0 dx is an increasing function of x.

#\$ #

"

#\$ #

(c)

gw (x)

dcx
b b (d c x)

(b) g(x)

#"c #

#
#
# #
#" #

#\$ #
#
#

c x aa b x b
aa b x b

aa b x b

16.
#

f w (x)

#\$ #

x
a b x

## 62. (a) f(x)

then

b
b
b
b
a a 1 b b 1 c c 1 d d "

0 and

"

63. At x c, the tangents to the curves are parallel. Justification: The vertical distance between the curves is
D(x) f(x) c g(x), so Dw (x) f w (x) c gw (x). The maximum value of D will occur at a point c where Dw 0. At
such a point, f w (c) c gw (c) 0, or f w (c) gw (c).
64. (a) f(x) 3 b 4 cos x b cos 2x is a periodic function with period 21
(b) No, f(x) 3 b 4 cos x b cos 2x 3 b 4 cos x b a2 cos# x c 1b 2 a1 b 2 cos x b cos# xb 2(1 b cos x)# 0
f(x) is never negative.
65. (a) If y cot x c 2 csc x where 0  x  1, then yw (csc x) 2 cot x c csc x. Solving yw 0 cos x
x 1 . For 0  x 
4

1
4

## we have yw 0, and yw  0 when

1
4

 x  1. Therefore, at x

value of y c1.
(b)

## Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Addison-Wesley.

1
4

"
2

there is a maximum

228

1
#

## , then yw sec# x c 3 csc# x. Solving yw 0 tan x 3

x 1 , but c 1 is not in the domain. Also, yww 2 sec# x tan x b 6 csc# x cot x 0 for all 0  x 
3
3
Therefore at x 1 there is a minimum value of y 23.

1
2

(b)

## The graph confirms the findings in (a).

#
#
67. (a) The square of the distance is Daxb x c \$ b x b ! x# c #x b * , so Dw axb #x c # and the critical
#
%

point occurs at x ". Since Dw axb  ! for x  " and Dw axb ! for x ", the critical point corresponds to the
minimum distance. The minimum distance is Da"b

&
# .

(b)

The minimum distance is from the point \$ ! to the point a" "b on the graph of y x, and this occurs at the
#

value x " where Daxb, the distance squared, has its minimum value.
68. (a) Calculus Method:

The square of the distance from the point " \$ to x "' c x# is given by
#

## Daxb ax c "b# b "' c x# c \$ x# c #x b " b "' c x# c #%) c \$x# b \$ c #x b #! c #%) c \$x# .

#
%) c \$x

"
#

ac'xb c # b

'x
%) c \$x

Then Dw axb c # c

## \$'x# %a%) c \$x# b *x# %) c \$x# "#x# %) x #. We discard x c# as an extraneous solution,

leaving x #. Since Dw axb  ! for c%  x  # and Dw axb ! for #  x  %, the critical point corresponds to the
minimum distance. The minimum distance is Da#b #.
Geometry Method:
The semicircle is centered at the origin and has radius %. The distance from the origin to " \$ is
#

"# b \$ #. The shortest distance from the point to the semicircle is the distance along the radius
containing the point " \$. That distance is % c # #.

## Section 4.6 Newton's Method

229

(b)

The minimum distance is from the point " \$ to the point # #\$ on the graph of y "' c x# , and this
occurs at the value x # where Daxb, the distance squared, has its minimum value.
46 NEWTON'S METHOD

"
c3b

"
90

3. y x% b x c 3 yw 4x\$ b 1 xn
6
5

1296
6
625 b 5 c 3
864
b1
125

c2 x# c2 c

6
5

## 1296 b 750 c 1875

4320 b 625

16 c 2 c 3
c32 b 1

c2 b

4. y 2x c x# b 1 yw 2 c 2x xn
c1 c 4 b "
"
c#
#b1
20 c 25 b 4
5
29
# c 1"# 12
c1 #

x# c " c
#
c

5. y x% c 2 yw 4x\$ xn

2500c113
2000

6. From Exercise 5, xn
c5c
4

625c512
c2000

xn c

c5b
4

1c1c1
c# b 1

c2

"
1#

xn b3xn b1
3xn b3

; x! 0 x" 0 c

"
3

c"
3

6
5

xn c

171
4945

; x! 1 x " 1 c

5763
4945

1 b1 c 3
4 b1

6
5

1.16542; x! c1 x" c1 c

"c1c3
c4 b 1

2xn c xn b 1
2 c 2xn

; x! 0 x" 0 c

0c0b"
#c0

c"
#

4c4b"
#c4

5
#

x#

5
4

x#

5
#

625
256 c2
125
16

5 c 25 b 1
4
#c5

xn c 2
4xn ; x!

1 x" 1 c

"c2
4

5
4

5
4

625c512
2000

1.1935

2387
#000

xn c 2
4xn

113
2000

## 7. f(x! ) 0 and f w (x! ) ! xn

; x! c 1 x" c 1 c

"c2
c4

c1 c

"
4

c 5 x# c 5 c
4
4

625
256 c2
c 125
16

c1.1935

113
2000

.61905; x! c1 x" 1 c

c 51 c1.64516
31

11
31

xn c

5
4

2
3

2.41667

5
#

"

13
21

xn bxn c3
4xn b1

xn c

xn c

f axn b
f axn b
w

x#

29
c 90 c0.32222

"

"
#1

xn c

c1b1
b3

#
"

2
3

1b1c1
#b1

c1.66667

5
3

2. y x\$ b 3x b 1 yw 3x# b 3 xn
x# c " c
3

4 b6 c 9
12b9

4c2c"
c4 b 1

2
3

x# c2 c

x#

b 2 c1
3
4
3 b1

4
9

; x! 1 x " 1 c

xn b x n c 1
# xn b 1

2
3

x#

xn c

1. y x# b x c 1 yw 2x b 1 xn

## the approximations in Newton's method will be the root of f(x) 0.

8. It does matter. If you start too far away from x
x! c0.5, for instance, leads to x c

1
#

1
#

, the calculated values may approach some other root. Starting with

1
#

h c h 2h ch;

f(ch)
f (ch)

ch b h 2h h.

## 10. f(x) x"\$ f w (x) " xc#\$ xn

3

"c

ch c

xn c

\$#c "
\$"

ch c

f(x )
f (x )
!

if x! ch  0 x" x! c

f(h)
f (h)

"

hc

hc

f(x )
f (x )
!

9. If x! h 0 x" x! c

230

xn
3 xn

## c2xn ; x! 1 x" c2, x# 4, x\$ c8, and

x% 16 and so forth. Since kxn k 2lxn 1 l we may conclude
that n _ kxn k _.
c

## 11. i) is equivalent to solving x\$ c \$x c " !.

ii) is equivalent to solving x\$ c \$x c " !.
iii) is equivalent to solving x\$ c \$x c " !.
iv) is equivalent to solving x\$ c \$x c " !.
All four equations are equivalent.

xn c

xn c

xn c 1 c 0.5 sin xn
1 c 0.5 cos xn

sec axn b
#

## ; if x! 1.5, then x" 1.49870

; x! 1 x" 1.2920445

## x# 1.155327774 x16 x17 1.165561185

xn c 2xn c xn c 2xn b 2
4xn c 6xn c 2xn c 2
\$

xn c

## if x! 0.5, then x% 0.630115396; if x! 2.5, then x% 2.57327196

15. (a) The graph of f(x) sin 3x c 0.99 b x# in the window
c2 x 2, c2 y 3 suggests three roots.
However, when you zoom in on the x-axis near x 1.2,
you can see that the graph lies above the axis there.
There are only two roots, one near x c1, the other
near x 0.4.
(b) f(x) sin 3x c 0.99 b x# f w (x) 3 cos 3x b 2x
1

xn c

## sin (3xn ) c 0.99bxn

3 cos (3xn ) b 2xn

xn

c1.0261731615301

## Section 4.6 Newton's Method

16. (a) Yes, three times as indicted by the graphs
(b) f(x) cos 3x c x f w (x)
c3 sin 3x c 1 xn 1
cos a3xn b c xn
c3 sin a3xn b c 1

xn c

; at

approximately c0.979367,
c0.887726, and 0.39004 we have
cos 3x x
2xn c 4xn b1
8xn c 8xn
%

xn c

## ; if x! c2, then x' c1.30656296; if

x! c0.5, then x\$ c0.5411961; the roots are approximately 0.5411961 and 1.30656296 because f(x) is
an even function.

approximate 1 to be 3.14159.

xn c

tan axn b
sec axn b
#

1

xn

xn c

csin axn b c 2

x" .45063

1

xn

xn c

xn b cos axn b
1 c sin axn b

x" c.73944

x3 b x2 c
1

xn

1
x

xn c

1
x

## 0 The x-coordinate is the root of faxb x3 b x2 c

1
x n b x n c xn
3x2 b 2xn b 12
n
x
3

is the solution of x2 ax b 1b
1
x

f w axb 3x2 b 2x b

1
x2 .

1
x

Let x0 1

## 22. The x-coordinate of the point of intersection of y x and y 3 c x2 is the solution of x 3 c x2

1
x c 3 b x2 0 The x-coordinate is the root of faxb x c 3 b x2 f w axb 2x b 2x. Let x0 1
1

xn c

xn c 3 b x2
n
1
2

xn

xn

b 2xn

231

232

## Chapter 4 Applications of Derivatives

23. If f(x) x\$ b 2x c 4, then f(1) c1  0 and f(2) 8 0 by the Intermediate Value Theorem the equation
xn c

xn b 2xn c 4
3xn b 2
\$

## Then x! 1 x" 1.2 x# 1.17975 x\$ 1.179509 x% 1.1795090 the root is approximately

1.17951.
24. We wish to solve 8x% c 14x\$ c 9x# b 11x c 1 0. Let f(x) 8x% c 14x\$ c 9x# b 11x c 1, then
8xn c 14xn c 9xn b 11xn c 1
3#xn c 42xn c 18xn b 11
\$

xn c

c0.976823589
0.100363332
0.642746671
1.983713587
xi c

faxi b
f axi b
w

xi c

xi c x i
.
%xi c #
\$

x!
c1.0
0.1
0.6
2.0

## procedure in problem 13 in this section.

(a) For x! c# or x! c!), xi c" as i gets large.
(b) For x! c!& or x! !#&, xi ! as i gets large.
(c) For x! !) or x! #, xi " as i gets large.
(d) (If your calculator has a CAS, put it in exact mode, otherwise approximate the radicals with a decimal value.)
For x! c
x!

21
7

c 721

or x! c

or x!

c 721

21
7 ,

as i increases.

## 26. (a) The distance can be represented by

#
D(x) (x c 2)# b x# b " , where x 0. The
#

## distance D(x) is minimized when

#
f(x) (x c 2)# b x# b " is minimized. If
#

#
f(x) (x c 2)# b x# b " , then
#

c2x
ax b 1 b

c1

xn

2xn

c#

xn c

axn c 1b
40 axn c 1b

!%

c xn 9

n 1

c"

*\$

c # b #
c

xn c

c x ax# b 1b
b#
"

xn

"
x b1

## f w (x) 4 ax\$ b x c 1b and f ww (x) 4 a3x# b 1b 0.

Now f w (x) 0 x\$ b x c 1 0 x ax# b 1b 1
x x"1.
b

39xn b "
40

## . With x! 2, our computer

gave x)( x)) x)* x#!! 1.11051, coming within 0.11051 of the root x 1.
28. Since s r ) 3 r ) ) 3 . Bisect the angle ) to obtain a right tringle with hypotenuse r and opposite side
r
of length 1. Then sin
3
farb sin 2r c

1
r

)
2

1
r

sin

3
r
2

1
r

3
sin 2r

1
r

sin

3
2r

3
3
f w arb c 2r2 cos 2r b r12 ; r0 1 rn b 1 rn c

3
1.00282

1
r

3
sin 2rn c r1
n
3
3
c 2 cos 2rn b
2rn

1
r2
n

r1 1.00280

2.9916

## Section 4.7 Antiderivatives

4.7 ANTIDERIVATIVES
1. (a) x#

(b)

x
3

(c)

x
3

c x# b x

2. (a) 3x#

(b)

x
8

(c)

x
8

c 3x# b 8x

3. (a) xc\$

(b) c x3

4. (a) cxc#

(b) c x4 b

(c) c x3 b x# b 3x
\$c

#c

(c)

x
#

\$c
x
3

x
2

cx

#c

5. (a)

c"
x

(b)

c5
x

(c) 2x b

6. (a)

"
x

(b)

c"
4x

(c)

x
4

(c)

2
3

x\$ b 2x

(c)

3
4

x%\$ b 3 x#\$
#

"
#x

5
x

7. (a) x\$

(b) x

8. (a) x%\$

(b)

9. (a) x#\$

(b) x"\$

(c) xc"\$

(b) xc"#

(c) xc\$#

(b) c3 cos x

(c)

## (b) sin 1#x

2
(c) 1 sin 1#x b 1 sin x

(b) 2 tan x
3

(c) c 2 tan 3x
3
#

(b) cot 3x
#

(b)

"
5

csc (5x)

## 16. (a) sec x

(b)

4
3

sec (3x)

(c)

'

a2x\$ c 5x b 7b dx

23.

'

"
"
"
x c x# c 3 dx ' xc# c x# c 3 dx

24.

'

" c
5

"c

x
c1

"
b 2x dx ' 5 c 2xc\$ b 2x dx

"
5

x
3

'

t# b 4t\$ dt

22.

x% c 5 x# b 7x b C
#
\$

2
x

"
#

sec 1#x

20.

bC

'

"
a1 c x# c 3x& b dx x c " x\$ c # x' b C
3

"
"
c 3 xbCc x c

x c 2x b
c#
#c

21.

t
4

2x
#

t
3t# b # dt t\$ b

2
1

b cos (3x)

bC

x
5

x
3

b t% b C

t
6

"
x

'

ccos (1x)
1

18.

bxbC

19.

x
#

' (x b 1) dx

x#\$

17.

"
#

x
3

bC

b x# b C

233

27.

'

## x b \$ x dx ' x"# b x"\$ dx

28.

'

29.

'

8y c

x#\$ b C
x

"
7

bC

c4
x

bC

3
x\$# b 4 x%\$ b C

x3 b 2 x b C

"
3

x\$# b 4x"# b C

c 2 y 3 b C 4y# c 8 y\$% b C
3
4

%"c

%"

## dy ' " c yc&% dy

7

8y
#

%&

dy ' 8y c 2yc"% dy

"
#

x
c4

%\$

2
y

#

" c
7

2
x

2
3

#\$

'

bC

4
3

30.

x
#

' xc&% dx

26.

#
"

3
#

#"

bC

#\$

2
3

\$%

\$#

y c yc 1 b C
4

y
7

bC

4
y

%"

' xc"\$ dx

"
%"c

25.

234

31.

'

32.

'

33.

'

ttbt
t

34.

'

4 b t
t

35.

36.

## ' c5 sin t dt 5 cos t b C

37.

)
)
' 7 sin 3 d) c21 cos 3 b C

38.

5

39.

40.

3
3

41.

'

42.

'

43.

44.

'

45.

#

46.

47.

'

1 b cos 4t
#

dt ' " b
#

"
#

cos 4t dt

"
#

t b " sin 4t b C
#
4

t
2

sin 4t
8

bC

48.

'

1 c cos 6t
#

dt ' " c
#

"
#

cos 6t dt

"
#

t c " sin 6t b C
#
6

t
2

sin 6t
12

bC

49.

50.

51.

b x b C c " c
x
c#
#c

"c

## dt ' tc"# b tc\$# dt

2
x

"
#x

bC
bC

b tc b C 2t c

2
t

t
dt ' 4tc\$ b tc&# dt 4 c# b tc 3 b C c t2 c

2
3t

#\$c

#c

\$
#"

"
acsc# x c csc x cot xb dx c # cot x b

"
#

bC

#\$

d) c " csc ) b C
#

bC

#\$

#"
t

#
"
#"

#
"
#"c

x
c1

c 2 x 1 b C x# b
c
"c

dt ' t4 b

csc ) cot )
#

"
2

dt ' t t b

2x
#

2
5

sec ) tan ) d)

2
5

sec ) b C

csc x b C

52.

53.

54.

'

csc )
csc ) c sin )

55.

d
dx

c
(7x28 2) b C

56.

d
dx

c (3 xb 5)
3

57.

d
dx

5

58.

d
dx

3
3
3
3

59.

d
dx

b

d) '

"
cos )

(7x c 2)\$
#c

(3)

(3x b 5)c#

"c

d
dx

x sin x b C
#

(b) Wrong:

d
dx

d
dx

x
xb1 b C

"
(x b 1)

sec ) b C
3

3 sec )
3
#

(c) Right:

d
d)
d
d)

(b) Right:

cos x x sin x

x
#

d
d)

## 62. (a) Wrong:

(c) Right:

x
#

cos x x sin x b

(x b 1)(") c x(1)
(x b 1)

2x
#

d
dx

sin x b

60.

"
(x b 1)

## " tan# ) b C " (2 tan )) sec# ) tan ) sec# )

#
#
" sec# ) b C " (2 sec )) sec ) tan ) tan ) sec# )
#
#

d
dx

(2x b 1) b C
3

(b) Wrong:

d
dx

## a(2x b 1)\$ b Cb 6(2x b 1)#

ax# b x b Cb

(b) Wrong:

d
dx

ax# b xb

65. Right:

66. Wrong:

d
dx

"
#

ax# b x b Cb

b C
\$

"
#

ax# b xb

"
3 2x b 1 b C9

d x b 3 3
dx x c 2

d
dx

"#

"#

sinx2
x

b C 3 x b 3
xc2
b C

d
dx

c"#

c"#

(2x b 1)

(2x b 1)

2x b 1
2 x b x b C

2x b 1
2 x b x

"
3 (2x b 1)\$# b C

2 ax c 2b1 c ax b 3b1
ax c 2 b

x2

d
dx

(c) Right:

d
dx

(c) Right:

3(2x b 1) (2)
3

3
6

2x b 1

## (2x b 1)"# (2) 2x b 1

x 3
3 ax b 2b2 ax c52b2
c
a c b

x2

2x b 1

c15ax b 3b2
ax c 2 b 4

x cosx2 c sinx2
x2

## 67. Graph (b), because

dy
dx

2B y x# b C. Then y(1) 4 C 3.

dy
dx

#

3
#

5)
b C c c (3x b 3
"
5

4(7x c 2) (7)
28

"
1csin )

) c sin
sin )

235

236

69.

dy
dx

70.

dy
dx

10 c x y 10x c

71.

dy
dx

"
or y c x b

x
#

"
#

x
#

## b C; at x 2 and y 1 we have 1 c2c" b

x
#

c1

bC Cc"
#

"
#

x
#

b C C c1 y 10x c
2
#

72.

y cxc" b

b x xc# b x y cxc" b

0
#

"
x

x
#

dy
dx

## 9x# c 4x b 5 y 3x\$ c 2x# b 5x b C; at x c1 and y 0 we have 0 3(c1)\$ c 2(c1)# b 5(c1) b C

dy
dx

\$xc#\$ y

C 10 y 3x\$ c 2x# b 5x b 10
\$x

\$
"

y 9x"\$ b %
"
# x

"
#

\$"

73.

74.

dy
dx

75.

ds
dt

76.

ds
dt

## cos t b sin t s sin t c cos t b C; at t 1 and s 1 we have 1 sin 1 c cos 1 b C C 0

s sin t c cos t
77.

dr
d)

c1 sin 1) r cos (1)) b C; at r 0 and ) 0 we have 0 cos (10) b C C c" r cos (1)) c 1

78.

dr
d)

cos 1) r

79.

dv
dt

80.

dv
dt

"
#

"
1

sec t tan t v

"
#

## sec t b C; at v 1 and t 0 we have 1

1
#

v 4t# c cot t c 7 c 1#

d y
dx
#

81.

2 c 6x

2x c 3x# b C" ; at

dy
dx
#

"
1

dy
dx

## sin (10) b C C " r

"
#

sec (0) b C C

"
#

"
1

sin (1)) b 1
"
#

sec t b

"
#

we have c7 4 1 c cot 1 b C C c7 c 1#
#
#

## 2x c 3x b 4 y x# c x\$ b 4x b C# ; at y 1 and x 0 we have 1 0# c 0\$ b 4(0) b C# C# 1

dy
dx

y x# c x\$ b 4x b 1
d y
dx
#

82.

dy
dx

C" ; at

dy
dx

## 2 and x 0 we have C" 2

dy
dx

2 y 2x b C# ; at y 0 and x 0 we

have 0 2(0) b C# C# 0 y 2x
d r
dt

d s
dt

2
t

83.

2tc\$

dr
dt

ctc# b C" ; at

dr
dt

dr
dt

ctc# b 2

## r tc" b 2t b C# ; at r 1 and t 1 we have 1 1c" b 2(1) b C# C# c2 r tc" b 2t c 2 or

r " b 2t c 2
t
b C" ; at

s 4 and t 4 we have 4

ds
dt

4
16
\$

3t
16

3 and t 4 we have 3

b C# C# 0 s

3(4)
16

b C" C" 0

ds
dt

3t
16

t
16
\$

ds
dt

3t
8

t
16
\$

84.

b C# ; at

## Section 4.7 Antiderivatives

#

3x c 8x b C# ; at

## 0 and x 0 we have 0 3(0)# c 8(0) b C# C# 0

d )
dt
#

C" ; at

d )
dt

d )
d)
dt c2 dt
"
d)
#
dt c2t c # ) ct
) c t# c " t b 2
#

c2 and t 0 we have

## have c " c2(0) b C# C# c "

#
#
2 c0# c " (0) b C\$ C\$ 2
#

d )
dt

d y
dx 6x c 8
dy
#
dx 3x c 8x
\$
#

86.

dy
dx

## c8 and x 0 we have c8 6(0) b C" C" c8

d y
dx
#

dy
dx

6x b C" ; at

d y
dx
#

d y
dx

85.

237

c " and t 0 we
#
"
2 and t 0 we have
c # t b C\$ ; at )
c2t b C# ; at

d)
dt

87. y% csin t b cos t ywww cos t b sin t b C" ; at ywww 7 and t 0 we have 7 cos (0) b sin (0) b C" C" 6
ywww cos t b sin t b 6 yww sin t c cos t b 6t b C# ; at yww c1 and t 0 we have
c1 sin (0) c cos (0) b 6(0) b C# C# 0 yww sin t c cos t b 6t yw ccos t c sin t b 3t# b C\$ ; at
yw c1 and t 0 we have c1 ccos (0) c sin (0) b 3(0)# b C\$ C\$ 0 yw ccos t c sin t b 3t#
y csin t b cos t b t\$ b C% ; at y 0 and t 0 we have 0 csin (0) b cos (0) b 0\$ b C% C% c1
y csin t b cos t b t\$ c 1
88. y% ccos x b 8 sin (2x) ywww csin x c 4 cos (2x) b C" ; at ywww 0 and x 0 we have
0 csin (0) c % cos (2(0)) b C" C" 4 ywww csin x c 4 cos (2x) b 4 yww cos x c 2 sin (2x) b 4x b C# ;
at yww 1 and x 0 we have 1 cos (0) c 2 sin (2(0)) b 4(0) b C# C# 0 yww cos x c 2 sin (2x) b 4x
yw sin x b cos (2x) b 2x# b C\$ ; at yw 1 and x 0 we have 1 sin (0) b cos (2(0)) b 2(0)# b C\$ C\$ 0
yw sin x b cos (2x) b 2x# y ccos x b " sin (2x) b 2 x\$ b C% ; at y 3 and x 0 we have
#
3
3 ccos (0) b

"
#

## sin (2(0)) b 2 (0)\$ b C% C% 4 y ccos x b

3

"
#

sin (2x) b 2 x\$ b 4
3

## 89. m yw 3x 3x"# y 2x\$# b C; at (* 4) we have 4 2(9)\$# b C C c50 y 2x\$# c 50

90. Yes. If F(x) and G(x) both solve the initial value problem on an interval I then they both have the same first derivative.
Therefore, by Corollary 2 of the Mean Value Theorem there is a constant C such that F(x) G(x) b C for all x. In
particular, F(x! ) G(x! ) b C, so C F(x! ) c G(x! ) 0. Hence F(x) G(x) for all x.
4
4
1 c 3 x"\$ y ' 1 c 3 x"\$ dx x c x%\$ b C; at (1 0.5) on the curve we have 0.5 1 c 1%\$ b C

C 0.5 y x c x%\$ b
dy
dx

x c 1 y ' (x c 1) dx

y
93.

dy
dx

x
#

92.

"
#

cxc

x
#

dy
dx

## c x b C; at (c1 1) on the curve we have 1

(c")
#

91.

c (c1) b C C c "
#

"
#

sin x c cos x y ' (sin x c cos x) dx ccos x c sin x b C; at (c1 c1) on the curve we have

## c" ccos (c1) c sin (c1) b C C c2 y ccos x c sin x c 2

94.

dy
dx

"
# x

b 1 sin 1x

"
#

"
xc"# b 1 sin 1x y ' # xc"# b sin 1x dx x"# c cos 1x b C; at (1 #) on the

95. (a)

ds
dt

## 9.8t c 3 s 4.9t# c 3t b C; (i) at s 5 and t 0 we have C 5 s 4.9t# c 3t b 5;

displacement s(3) c s(1) ((4.9)(9) c 9 b 5) c (4.9 c 3 b 5) 33.2 units; (ii) at s c2 and t 0 we have
C c2 s 4.9t# c 3t c 2; displacement s(3) c s(1) ((4.9)(9) c 9 c 2) c (4.9 c 3 c 2) 33.2 units;
(iii) at s s! and t 0 we have C s! s 4.9t# c 3t b s! ; displacement s(3) c s(1)
((4.9)(9) c 9 b s! ) c (4.9 c 3 b s! ) 33.2 units

238

## Chapter 4 Applications of Derivatives

(b) True. Given an antiderivative f(t) of the velocity function, we know that the body's position function is
s f(t) b C for some constant C. Therefore, the displacement from t a to t b is (f(b) b C) c (f(a) b C)
f(b) c f(a). Thus we can find the displacement from any antiderivative f as the numerical difference
f(b) c f(a) without knowing the exact values of C and s.
96. a(t) vw (t) 20 v(t) 20t b C; at (0 0) we have C 0 v(t) 20t. When t 60, then v(60) 20(60) 1200

b 88 88 242 c (88) b
k
2k

' ck dt ckt b C; at

ckt b 44 s c

s c kt b 44t. Then
#
#

c 968 b
k

1936
k

45

kt
#

ds
dt

kt
#

ckt b 88

b 88t

ds
dt

(88)
k

242

k 16

(88)
2k

#
#

ds
dt

ck

d s
dt

ck 88
k
#

ds
dt

88
k
#

98.

0 0 ckt b 88 t

Step 3: 242

## 88 and t 0 we have C" 88

ds
dt

ds
dt

s
Step 2:

ck t#

ckt b C" ; at

ds
dt

and s 44 c
k

ds
44
dt 0 ckt b 44 0 t k
968
968
ft
k 45 k 45 21.5 sec2 .

ds
dt

k 44
k
#

ck

d s
dt
#

97. Step 1:

m
sec .

b 44 44 45
k

## (1) 4 4 10(1)\$# c 6(1)"# b C C 0

v 10t\$# c 6t"#

(b) s ' v dt ' 10t\$# c 6t"# dt 4t&# c 4t\$# b C; s(1) 0 0 4(1)&# c 4(1)\$# b C C 0
s 4t&# c 4t\$#
d s
dt
#

100.

c5.2

ds
dt

c5.2t b C" ; at

ds
dt

## 0 and t 0 we have C" 0

ds
dt

c5.2t s c2.6t# b C# ; at s 4

4
and t 0 we have C# 4 s c2.6t# b 4. Then s 0 0 c2.6t# b 4 t 2.6 1.24 sec, since t 0

when t 0 s!

a(0)
#

ds
dt

v! when t 0 C v!

at
#

## 102. The appropriate initial value problem is: Differential Equation:

s s! when t 0. Thus,

ds
dt

ds
dt

'

"
#

## Thus s c gt# b v! t b s!.

ds
dt

at b v! s

at
#

b v! t b C" ; s s!

b v! t b s!
d s
dt
#

' a dt at b C;

ds
dt

d s
dt

101.

## cg dt cgt b C" ; ds (0) v! v! (cg)(0) b

dt
"
acgt b v! b dt c # gt# b v! t b C# ; s(0) s! c "
#

ds
dt

v! and

C" C" v!
(g)(0)# b v! (0) b C# C# s!

## 103 c 106 Example CAS commands:

Maple:
with(student):
f := x -> cos(x)^2 + sin(x);
ic := [x=Pi,y=1];
F := unapply( int( f(x), x ) + C, x );
eq := eval( y=F(x), ic );
solnC := solve( eq, {C} );
Y := unapply( eval( F(x), solnC ), x );
DEplot( diff(y(x),x) = f(x), y(x), x=0..2*Pi, [[y(Pi)=1]],
color=black, linecolor=black, stepsize=0.05, title="Section 4.7 #103" );

239

## Mathematica: (functions and values may vary)

The following commands use the definite integral and the Fundamental Theorem of calculus to construct the solution
of the initial value problems for exercises 103 - 105.
Clear[x, y, yprime]
yprime[x_] = Cos[x]2 b Sin[x];
initxvalue = 1; inityvalue = 1;
y[x_] = Integrate[yprime[t], {t, initxvalue, x}] b inityvalue
If the solution satisfies the differential equation and initial condition, the following yield True
yprime[x]==D[y[x], x] //Simplify
y[initxvalue]==inityvalue
Since exercise 106 is a second order differential equation, two integrations will be required.
Clear[x, y, yprime]
y2prime[x_] = 3 Exp[x/2] b 1;
initxval = 0; inityval = 4; inityprimeval = c1;
yprime[x_] = Integrate[y2prime[t],{t, initxval, x}] b inityprimeval
y[x_] = Integrate[yprime[t], {t, initxval, x}] b inityval
Verify that y[x] solves the differential equation and initial condition and plot the solution (red) and its derivative (blue).
y2prime[x]==D[y[x], {x, 2}]//Simplify
y[initxval]==inityval
yprime[initxval]==inityprimeval
Plot[{y[x], yprime[x]}, {x, initxval c 3, initxval b 3}, PlotStyle {RGBColor[1,0,0], RGBColor[0,0,1]}]
CHAPTER 4 PRACTICE EXERCISES
1. No, since f(x) x\$ b 2x b tan x f w (x) 3x# b 2 b sec# x 0 f(x) is always increasing on its domain
#

## g(x) is always decreasing on its domain

2
sin x

"
c sin x (cos x b 2)  0
#

cos
2. No, since g(x) csc x b 2 cot x gw (x) ccsc x cot x c 2 csc# x c sin x c
x

## 3. No absolute minimum because x lim (7 b x)(11 c 3x)"\$ c_. Next f w (x)

_
(11 c 3x) c (7 b x)
(11 c 3x)

4(1 c x)
(11 c 3x)

\$#

\$#

x 1 and x

11
3

## Since f w 0 if x  1 and f w  0 if x 1, f(1) 16 is the absolute maximum.

#

c#a\$x c "bax c \$b
ax c 1 b

"
; f w (3) 0 c '% (*a b 'b b a) ! &a b \$b !.

## ). Solving both equations yields a 6 and b c10. Now,

so that f ccc ccc bbb bbb ccc. Thus f w changes sign at x \$ from
c1
1
3
1/3
positive to negative so there is a local maximum at x \$ which has a value f(3) 1.
#

f (x)

## We require also that f(3)

a ax c 1b c 2x(ax b b)
caaxx b 2bx b ab
ax c 1 b
a c 1b
3abb
1. Thus " 8 3a b b
w
#

f w (x)

ax b b
x c1

4. f(x)

5. Yes, because at each point of [! " except x 0, the function's value is a local minimum value as well as a
local maximum value. At x 0 the function's value, 0, is not a local minimum value because each open
interval around x 0 on the x-axis contains points to the left of 0 where f equals c1.
6. (a) The first derivative of the function f(x) x\$ is zero at x 0 even though f has no local extreme value at x 0.
(b) Theorem 2 says only that if f is differentiable and f has a local extreme at x c then f w (c) 0. It does not
assert the (false) reverse implication f w (c) 0 f has a local extreme at x c.

240

## Chapter 4 Applications of Derivatives

7. No, because the interval 0  x  1 fails to be closed. The Extreme Value Theorem says that if the function is continuous
throughout a finite closed interval a x b then the existence of absolute extrema is guaranteed on that interval.
8. The absolute maximum is kc1k 1 and the absolute minimum is k0k 0. This is not inconsistent with the Extreme Value
Theorem for continuous functions, which says a continuous function on a closed interval attains its extreme values on that
interval. The theorem says nothing about the behavior of a continuous function on an interval which is half open and half
closed, such as c" ", so there is nothing to contradict.
9. (a) There appear to be local minima at x c1.75
and 1.8. Points of inflection are indicated at
approximately x 0 and x 1.

(b) f w (x) x( c 3x& c 5x% b 15x# x# ax# c 3b ax\$ c 5b. The pattern yw ccc bbb bbb ccc bbb
3
!
5
\$
c \$
3
indicates a local maximum at x 5 and local minima at x 3 .
(c)

## 10. (a) The graph does not indicate any local

extremum. Points of inflection are indicated at
approximately x c \$ and x 1.
%

10
x
\$

## (b) f w (x) x( c 2x% c 5 b

xc\$ ax\$ c 2b ax( c 5b . The pattern f w ccc )( bbb ccc bbb indicates
7
3
!
5
2

3
7
a local maximum at x 5 and a local minimum at x 2.

(c)

## Chapter 4 Practice Exercises

241

11. (a) g(t) sin# t c 3t gw (t) 2 sin t cos t c 3 sin (2t) c 3 gw  0 g(t) is always falling and hence must
decrease on every interval in its domain.
(b) One, since sin# t c 3t c 5 0 and sin# t c 3t 5 have the same solutions: f(t) sin# t c 3t c 5 has the same
derivative as g(t) in part (a) and is always decreasing with f(c3) 0 and f(0)  0. The Intermediate Value Theorem
guarantees the continuous function f has a root in [c\$ 0].
12. (a) y tan )

dy
d)

sec# ) 0 y tan ) is always rising on its domain y tan ) increases on every interval

in its domain
(b) The interval < 1 1 is not in the tangent's domain because tan ) is undefined at )
4

1
#

## increase on this interval.

13. (a) f(x) x% b 2x# c 2 f w (x) 4x\$ b 4x. Since f(0) c2  0, f(1) 1 0 and f w (x) 0 for 0 x 1, we
may conclude from the Intermediate Value Theorem that f(x) has exactly one solution when 0 x 1.

#

x
xb1
\$

yw

"
(x b 1)
w

14. (a) y

x
xb1

x
xb1

## is increasing in every interval in its domain.

(b) y x b 2x y 3x b 2 0 for all x the graph of y x b 2x is always increasing and can never have a
local maximum or minimum
15. Let V(t) represent the volume of the water in the reservoir at time t, in minutes, let V(0) a! be the initial amount and
V(1440) a! b (1400)(43,560)(7.48) gallons be the amount of water contained in the reservoir after the rain, where
24 hr 1440 min. Assume that V(t) is continuous on [! 1440] and differentiable on (! 1440). The Mean Value Theorem

a b (1400)(43,560)(7.48) c a
1440
!

V(1440) c V(0)
1440 c 0

## says that for some t! in (! 1440) we have Vw (t! )

456,160,320 gal
1440 min

316,778 gal/min. Therefore at t! the reservoir's volume was increasing at a rate in excess of 225,000 gal/min.
16. Yes, all differentiable functions g(x) having 3 as a derivative differ by only a constant. Consequently, the
d
difference 3x c g(x) is a constant K because gw (x) 3 dx (3x). Thus g(x) 3x b K, the same form as F(x).
x
c1
x
c1
x b 1 1 b x b 1 x b 1 differs from x b 1
(x b 1) c x(1)
d x
d
"
(x b 1) dx xc"1 .
dx x b 1
(x b 1)
b

17. No,

2x
ax b 1 b

## by the constant 1. Both functions have the same derivative

f(x) c g(x) C for some constant C the graphs differ by a vertical shift.

"
#

occurs at x #.

## 20. (a) The function is increasing on the intervals c\$ c# and " #.

(b) The function is decreasing on the intervals c# ! and ! ".
(c) The local maximum values occur only at x c#, and at x #; local minimum values occur at x c\$ and at x "
provided f is continuous at x !.
21. (a) t 0, 6, 12

(b) t 3, 9

(c) 6  t  12

(d) 0  t  6, 12  t  14

22. (a) t 4

(b) at no time

(c) 0  t  4

(d) 4  t  8

242

23.

24.

25.

26.

27.

28.

29.

30.

31.

32.

## Chapter 4 Practice Exercises

243

33. (a) yw 16 c x# yw ccc bbb ccc the curve is rising on (c% %), falling on (c_ c4) and (% _)
c%
%
a local maximum at x 4 and a local minimum at x c4; yww c2x yww bbb ccc the curve
!
is concave up on (c_ !), concave down on (! _) a point of inflection at x 0
(b)

34. (a) yw x# c x c 6 (x c \$)(x b 2) yw bbb ccc bbb the curve is rising on (c_ c2) and (\$ _),
c#
\$
falling on (c# \$) local maximum at x c2 and a local minimum at x 3; yww 2x c 1
yww ccc bbb concave up on " _ , concave down on c_ " a point of inflection at x "
#
#
#
"#
(b)

35. (a) yw 6x(x b 1)(x c 2) 6x\$ c 6x# c 12x yw ccc bbb ccc bbb the graph is rising on (c" !)
c"
!
#
and (# _), falling on (c_ c1) and (! #) a local maximum at x 0, local minima at x c1 and
x 2; yww 18x# c 12x c 12 6 a3x# c 2x c 2b 6 x c
yww bbb
on

ccc

"c(
\$
1 c 7 1 b 7
3 3

"b(
\$

1 c 7
3 x

1 b 7
3
7

## bbb the curve is concave up on c_ 1 c3

points of inflection at x

and 1 b3

_ , concave down

1 7
3

(b)

3
3
36. (a) yw x# (6 c 4x) 6x# c 4x\$ yw bbb bbb ccc the curve is rising on c_ # , falling on # _
!
\$#
3
ww
#
a local maximum at x # ; y 12x c 12x 12x(" c x) yww ccc bbb ccc concave up on
!
"
(! "), concave down on (c_ !) and (" _) points of inflection at x 0 and x 1
(b)

244

## Chapter 4 Applications of Derivatives

37. (a) yw x% c 2x# x# ax# c 2b yw bbb ccc ccc bbb the curve is rising on c_ c2 and
!
#
c #
2 _ , falling on c2 2 a local maximum at x c2 and a local minimum at x 2 ;
yww 4x\$ c 4x 4x(x c 1)(x b 1) yww ccc bbb ccc bbb concave up on (c" 0) and (" _),
c"
!
"
concave down on (c_ c1) and (0 1) points of inflection at x 0 and x 1
(b)

38. (a) yw 4x# c x% x# a4 c x# b yw ccc bbb bbb ccc the curve is rising on (c2 0) and (0 2),
c#
!
#
falling on (c_ c2) and (# _) a local maximum at x 2, a local minimum at x c2; yww 8x c 4x\$
4x a2 c x# b yww bbb ccc bbb ccc concave up on c_ c2 and 0 2 , concave
!
#
c #
down on c2 0 and 2 _ points of inflection at x 0 and x 2
(b)

39. The values of the first derivative indicate that the curve is rising on (! _) and falling on (c_ 0). The slope of the curve
approaches c_ as x !c , and approaches _ as x 0b and x 1. The curve should therefore have a cusp and
local minimum at x 0, and a vertical tangent at x 1.

## Chapter 4 Practice Exercises

40. The values of the first derivative indicate that the curve is rising on ! " and (" _), and falling on (c_ !)
#
and " " . The derivative changes from positive to negative at x " , indicating a local maximum there. The
#
#
slope of the curve approaches c_ as x 0c and x 1c , and approaches _ as x 0b and as x 1b ,
indicating cusps and local minima at both x 0 and x 1.

41. The values of the first derivative indicate that the curve is always rising. The slope of the curve approaches _
as x 0 and as x 1, indicating vertical tangents at both x 0 and x 1.

33

42. The graph of the first derivative indicates that the curve is rising on ! 17 c
16
on (c_ !) and
x

17 b 33
16

17 c 33 17 b 33
16
16

a local maximum at x

17 c 33
16

33

and 17 b
16

_ , falling

, a local minimum at

245

xb1
xc3

45. y

x b1
x

xb

47. y

x b2
#x

49. y

x c4
x c3

1c

48. y

x# c

50. y

x
x c4

1b

"
x c3

x c1
x

"
x

x cxb1
x

2x
xb5

x
#

"
x

44. y

46. y

4
xc3

1b

2c

10
xb5

xc1b

"
x

"
x

4
x c4
#

43. y

246

#
\$
#
#

f w (x)

"
#

#

36 c x b x
#x 36 c x

## Chapter 4 Practice Exercises

(b) Maximize g(x) x b 36 c x x"# b (36 c x)"# where 0 x 36
gw (x)

"
#

#

36 c x c x
#x 36 c x

## g(18) 218 62 and g(36) 6 the numbers are 18 and 18

52. (a) Maximize f(x) x (20 c x) 20x"# c x\$# where 0 x 20 f w (x) 10xc"# c 3 x"#
#

20 c 3x
# x

0 x 0 and x

4020
3 3

20
3

20
3

3
3

and

40
3

20 c x

"
#

"
#

53. A(x)

79
4

and

79
4 .
"
4 .

79
4

220 c x c 1
#20 c x

4

## Aw (x) 3(3 b x)(3 c x) and Aw w (x) c6x.

The critical points are c3 and 3, but c3 is not in the
domain. Since Aw w (3) c18  0 and A 27 0,
the maximum occurs at x 3 the largest area is
A(3) 54 sq units.
54. The volume is V x# h 32 h 32 . The
x
surface area is S(x) x# b 4x 32 x# b 128 ,
x
x
#

2(x c 4) ax b 4x b 16b
x
#

where x 0 Sw (x)

## the critical points are 0 and 4, but 0 is not in the

domain. Now Sw w (4) 2 b 256 0 at x 4 there
4
\$

## is a minimum. The dimensions 4 ft by 4 ft by 2 ft

minimize the surface area.
#

#
12ch
4

r#

## . The volume of the cylinder is

V 1r h 1 12 c h h
4
#

1
4

0 h 23 . Then Vw (h)

a12h c h\$ b , where
31
4

20
3

(2 b h)(2 c h)

## the critical points are c2 and 2, but c2 is not in

the domain. At h 2 there is a maximum since
Vw w (2) c31  0. The dimensions of the largest
cylinder are radius 2 and height 2.
56. From the diagram we have x radius and
y height 12 c 2x and V(x) " 1x# (12 c 2x), where
3

## 0 x 6 Vw (x) 21x(4 c x) and Vw w (4) c81. The

critical points are 0 and 4; V(0) V(6) 0 x 4
gives the maximum. Thus the values of r 4 and
h 4 yield the largest volume for the smaller cone.

81
4

0
and g(20) 20,

247

248

## Chapter 4 Applications of Derivatives

57. The profit P 2px b py 2px b p 405c 10x , where p is the profit on grade B tires and 0 x 4. Thus
cx
2p
(5 c x)

Pw (x)

ax# c 10x b 20b the critical points are 5 c 5, 5, and 5 b 5 , but only 5 c 5 is in

## the domain. Now Pw (x) 0 for 0  x  5 c 5 and Pw (x)  0 for 5 c 5  x  4 at x 5 c 5 there

is a local maximum. Also P(0) 8p, P 5 c 5 4p 5 c 5 11p, and P(4) 8p at x 5 c 5 there
is an absolute maximum. The maximum occurs when x 5 c 5 and y 2 5 c 5 , the units are
hundreds of tires, i.e., x 276 tires and y 553 tires.
58. (a) The distance between the particles is lfatbl where fatb ccos t b cost b 1 . Then, f w atb sin t c sint b 1 .
%
%
Solving f w atb ! graphically, we obtain t ""(), t %\$#!, and so on.

## Alternatively, f w atb ! may be solved analytically as follows. f w atb sint b 1 c 1 c sint b 1 b 1

)
)
)
)
sint b 1 cos 1 c cost b 1 sin 1 c sint b 1 cos 1 b cost b 1 sin 1 c#sin 1 cost b 1
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
so the critical points occur when cost b 1 !, or t
)

\$1
)

1
b k1. At each of these values, fatb cos \$)

!('& units, so the maximum distance between the particles is !('& units.
(b) Solving cos t cos t b 1 graphically, we obtain t #(%*, t &)*!, and so on.
%

## Alternatively, this problem can be solved analytically as follows.

cos t cos t b 1
%
cost b 1 c 1 cost b 1 b 1
)
)
)
)
cost b 1 cos 1 b sint b 1 sin 1 cost b 1 cos 1 c sint b 1 sin 1
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
#sin t b 1 sin 1 !
)
)
sin t b 1 !
)
t
The particles collide when t

(1
)

(1
)

b k1

## #(%*. (plus multiples of 1 if they keep going.)

59. The dimensions will be x in. by "! c #x in. by "' c #x in., so Vaxb xa"! c #xba"' c #xb %x\$ c &#x# b "'!x for
!  x  &. Then Vw axb "#x# c "!%x b "'! %ax c #ba\$x c #!b , so the critical point in the correct domain is x #.
This critical point corresponds to the maximum possible volume because Vw axb ! for !  x  # and Vw axb  ! for
2  x  &. The box of largest volume has a height of 2 in. and a base measuring 6 in. by 12 in., and its volume is 144 in.\$

## Chapter 4 Practice Exercises

Graphical support:

## 60. The length of the ladder is d" b d# 8 sec ) b 6 csc ). We

wish to maximize I()) 8 sec ) b 6 csc ) Iw ())
8 sec ) tan ) c 6 csc ) cot ). Then Iw ()) 0
8 sin\$ ) c 6 cos\$ ) 0 tan )

3
6
#

3
3
3
d" 4 4 b 36 and d# 36 4 b 36

## the length of the ladder is about

3
3
3
4 b 36 4 b 36 4 b 36

\$#

"*( ft.

61. g(x) 3x c x\$ b 4 g(2) 2 0 and g(3) c14  0 g(x) 0 in the interval [# 3] by the Intermediate
3xn c xn b 4
3c3xn
\$

xn c

## ; x! 2 x" 2.22 x# 2.196215, and

62. g(x) x% c x\$ c 75 g(3) c21  0 and g(4) 117 0 g(x) 0 in the interval [\$ %] by the Intermediate
xn c xn c 75
4xn c 3xn
%

xn c

## Value Theorem. Then gw (x) 4x\$ c 3x# xn

; x! 3 x" 3.259259

## x# 3.229050, and so forth to x& 3.22857729.

63.

' ax\$ b 5x c 7b dx

64.

' 8t\$ c t# b t dt 8t
4

65.

## ' 3t b t4 dt ' 3t"# b 4tc# dt 3t

66.

"
"
"
' #t c t3 dt ' # tc"# c 3tc% dt # t

t
#

b C 2t% c

#\$

t
6

b
"c

t
6

c 7x b C

4t
c1

5x
#

x
4

t
#

bC

b C 2t\$# c

4
t

bC

\$c

3t
(c3)

b C t b

"
t

9c

bC

#"
#
"

67. Let u r b 5 du dr
du
u
#

'

' uc# du

"c

dr
' ar b 5 b

"
b C cuc" b C c ar b 5b b C

du
u

## 6' uc\$ du 6 u b C c3uc# b C c

c#

u
c1

68. Let u r c 2 du dr
dr
r c 2

6'

6'

#c

6 dr
r c 2

'

rc2

bC

249

## Chapter 4 Applications of Derivatives

3
3))# b 1 d) ' u # du

70. Let u 7 b )2 du 2) d)
"
u

"
# du

"
#

x\$ a 1 b x % b

c"%

du ) d)

"
' uc"# du # u 9 b C u"# b C 7 b )2 b C

'

"
#

#

#
"

d) '

7 b) 2

3
#

#"

')

du ) d)

"
4

du x\$ dx

## dx ' uc"% " du

4

"
4

"
"
"
' uc"% du 4 u 3 9 b C 3 u\$% b C 3 a1 b x% b\$% b C
4
%\$

'

"
#

69. Let u )# b 1 du 2) d)

#\$

250

72. Let u 2 c x du c dx c du dx

&)

## ' (2 c x)\$& dx ' u\$& (c du) c ' u\$& du c u

8
5

73. Let u

'

s
sec# 10

"
10

du

s
10

5
5
b C c 8 u)& b C c 8 (2 c x))& b C

ds 10 du ds

## ds ' asec# ub (10 du) 10 ' sec# u du 10 tan u b C 10 tan

74. Let u 1s du 1 ds

"
1

s
10

bC

du ds

"
"
"
"
' csc# 1s ds ' acsc# ub 1 du 1 ' csc# u du c 1 cot u b C c 1 cot 1s b C

75. Let u 2 ) du 2 d)

## ' csc 2) cot 2) d) '

'

sec

)
3

tan

77. Let u

)
3

"
3

"
(csc u cot u) 2 du

"
2

"
(ccsc u) b C c 2 csc 2) b C

d) 3 du d)

du

x
4

"
4

)
3

bC

dx 4 du dx

## dx ' asin# ub (4 du) ' 4 1 c cos 2u du 2' (1 c cos 2u) du 2 u c

#
x
2u c sin 2u b C 2 x c sin 2 x b C # c sin x b C
4
4
#
x
4

79. y '

x
#

"
#

#

x b"
x

## dx ' a1 b xc# b dx x c xc" b C x c

C c1 y x c

"
x

81.

dr
dt

' 15t b

3
t

bC

"
3

"
x

"
#

bC

x
#

b C; y c1 when x 1 1 c

1
1

b C c1

sin 2u
#

sin x b C

c1

#
80. y ' x b " dx ' x# b 2 b
x

y 1 when x 1

sin 2u
#

dx 2 du dx

b2c

1
1

"
x

cos#

du

"
bC1 Cc3 y

x
3

'

x
#

x
3

78. Let u

sin#

'

du

du d)

b 2x c xc" b C

b 2x c

dr
dt

dr
dt

"
x

x
3

)
3

76. Let u

"
2

b 2x c

"
x

b C;

"
3

8 when t 1

## Chapter 4 Additional and Advanced Exercises

4t&# b 4t\$# c 8t b C; r 0 when t 1 4(1)&# b 4(1)\$# c 8(1) b C" 0 C" 0. Therefore,
r 4t&# b 4t\$# c 8t
#

dr
dt

d r
dt csin t
dr
dt cos t c
#

d r
dt

82.

## r ' (cos t c 1) dt sin t c t b C# ; r c1 when t 0 0 c 0 b C# c1 C# c1. Therefore,

r sin t c t c 1
1. If M and m are the maximum and minimum values, respectively, then m f(x) M for all x I. If m M
then f is constant on I.
3x b 6, c2 x  0
has an absolute minimum value of 0 at x c2 and an absolute
9 c x# , 0 x 2
maximum value of 9 at x 0, but it is discontinuous at x 0.

## 2. No, the function f(x)

3. On an open interval the extreme values of a continuous function (if any) must occur at an interior critical
point. On a half-open interval the extreme values of a continuous function may be at a critical point or at the
closed endpoint. Extreme values occur only where f w 0, f w does not exist, or at the endpoints of the interval.
Thus the extreme points will not be at the ends of an open interval.
4. The pattern f w bbb cccc cccc bbbb bbb indicates a local maximum at x 1 and a local
"
#
\$
%
minimum at x 3.
5. (a) If yw 6(x b 1)(x c 2)# , then yw  0 for x  c1 and yw 0 for x c1. The sign pattern is
f w ccc bbb bbb f has a local minimum at x c1. Also yww 6(x c 2)# b 12(x b 1)(x c 2)
c"
#
6(x c 2)(3x) yw w 0 for x  0 or x 2, while yww  0 for 0  x  2. Therefore f has points of inflection
at x 0 and x 2. There is no local maximum.
(b) If yw 6x(x b 1)(x c 2), then yw  0 for x  c1 and 0  x  2; yw 0 for c"  x  0 and x 2. The sign
sign pattern is yw ccc bbb ccc bbb . Therefore f has a local maximum at x 0 and
c"
!
#
7

1 c 7
\$

x

1 b 7
\$

x c 1 b\$

, so yww  0 for

f(6) c f(0)
6c0

1 7
\$

## most that f can increase is 12.

7. If f is continuous on [a c) and f w (x) 0 on [a c), then by the Mean Value Theorem for all x [a c) we have
0 f(c) c f(x) 0 f(x) f(c). Also if f is continuous on (c b] and f w (x) 0 on (c b], then for

all x (c b] we have

f(x) c f(c)
xcc

0 f(x) c f(c) 0 f(x) f(c). Therefore f(x) f(c) for all x [a b].

#
#

kf(b) c f(a)k

"
#

c
1bc

c f(a)
f(b) c a
b

c
1bc
#

f(b) c f(a)
bca

"
#

x
1bx

f(c) c f(x)
ccx

"
#

kb c ak .

251

252

## Chapter 4 Applications of Derivatives

9. No. Corollary 1 requires that f w (x) 0 for all x in some interval I, not f w (x) 0 at a single point in I.
10. (a) h(x) f(x)g(x) hw (x) f w (x)g(x) b f(x)gw (x) which changes signs at x a since f w (x), gw (x) 0 when
x  a, f w (x), gw (x)  0 when x a and f(x), g(x) 0 for all x. Therefore h(x) does have a local maximum at x a.
(b) No, let f(x) g(x) x\$ which have points of inflection at x 0, but h(x) x' has no point of inflection
(it has a local minimum at x 0).
c" b a
bccb#

xb"

"

dy
dx

3x# b 2kx b 3 0 x

w

c2k 4k c 36
6
#

12.

! and if c 0,

"
#

## " b 0 and c ". For if b ", then

cx
1 c x

1b x

lim

2
x

x _

_. Thus a 1, b 0, and c 1.

## x has only one value when 4k# c 36 0 k# 9 or k 3.

(2) 1 c x# a1 c x# b
#

1b x
lim
2
x _ xbcb x

1b x
lim
2
x _ bx b c b x
1b x
then lim
2
x _ bx b x

lim
x _ bx b cx b #

"

f(x)

"

lim

x _

lim
_
"

"#

0 and 1 are

## critical points. Also A a 1b 0 so A(0) 1 is the

maximum. When x 0 the ?ABC is isosceles since
AC BC 2 .

f ww (c) for %

h
w

ww

f ww (c) 

#

3
#

## kf ww (c)k 0 there exists a \$ 0 such that 0  khk  \$

f (c b h)
 f ww (c) b " kf ww (c)k . If f ww (c)  0, then
#
h
f (c b h)
" ww
 # f (c)  0; likewise if f ww (c) 0, then 0  "
h
#
w

## f ww (c) c " kf ww (c)k 

#

"
#

"
#

f (c b h)
h

"
#

c f ww (c) 

kf ww (c)k

kf ww (c)k cf ww (c)
f ww (c) 
w

f (c b h)
h

h0

f (c b h) c f (c)
h

14. lim

3
#

f ww (c).

## (a) If f (c)  0, then c\$  h  0 f (c b h) 0 and 0  h  \$ f (c b h)  0. Therefore, f(c) is a local

maximum.
(b) If f ww (c) 0, then c\$  h  0 f w (c b h)  0 and 0  h  \$ f w (c b h) 0. Therefore, f(c) is a local
minimum.
15. The time it would take the water to hit the ground from height y is 2y , where g is the acceleration of gravity. The
g
product of time and exit velocity (rate) yields the distance the water travels:
D(y) 2y 64(h c y) 8 2 ahy c y# b
g
g

"#

, 0 y h Dw (y) c4 2 ahy c y# b
g
# "#

2
are critical points. Now D(0) 0, D h 8 g h h c h
#
#
#
h
#

give

bba
h

(h c 2y) 0,

tan " b
a
1 c h tan "
a
h

h tan " b a
h c a tan "

bba
h ;

tan (" b ))

1 c tan " tan )

## . Solving for tan " gives tan "

; and tan )

bh
h b a(b b a)

a
h

. These equations

or

ah c a(b b a)b tan " bh. Differentiating both sides with respect to h gives
d"
dh

b. Then

d"
dh

0 2h tan " b 2h h

bh
b a(b b a)

## 2bh bh b ab(b b a) h a(b b a) h a(a b b) .

#

h
#

and h

2
4h g and D(h) 0 the best place to drill

the hole is at y

c"#

253

## 17. The surface area of the cylinder is S 21r# b 21rh. From

r
c
c
the diagram we have R H H h h RH R rH and
S(r) 21r(r b h) 21r r b H c r H
R
21 1 c H r# b 21Hr, where 0 r R.
R

## Case 1: H  R S(r) is a quadratic equation containing

the origin and concave upward S(r) is maximum at
r R.
Case 2: H R S(r) is a linear equation containing the
origin with a positive slope S(r) is maximum at
r R.
Case 3: H R S(r) is a quadratic equation containing the origin and concave downward. Then
dS
H
dS
H
RH

## dr 41 1 c R r b 21H and dr 0 41 1 c R r b 21H 0 r 2(H c R) . For simplification

we let r

RH
2(H c R)

RH
(a) If R  H  2R, then 0 H c 2R H 2(H c R) r*= 2(H c R) R. Therefore, the maximum occurs at the

2R
2R

## (b) If H 2R, then r

R S(r) is maximum at r R.

## (c) If H 2R, then 2R b H  2H H  2(H c R)

S(r) is a maximum at r r

RH
2(H c R)

H
2(H c R)

1

RH
2(H c R)

 R r  R. Therefore,

Conclusion: If H (0 2R], then the maximum surface area is at r R. If H (2R _), then the maximum is at
RH
r r 2(H c R) .
f w (x) m c

"
x

"
x

and f w w (x)

2
x

18. f(x) mx c 1 b

## 0 when x 0. Then f w (x) 0 x

"
If f m 0, then m c 1 b m 2m c 1 0 m

"
4

"
m

yields a minimum.

## . Thus the smallest acceptable value for m is

"
4

19. (a) The profit function is Paxb ac c exbx c aa b bxb cex# b ac c bbx c a. Pw axb c#ex b c c b !
c
c
x c#eb . Pww axb c#e  ! if e ! so that the profit function is maximized at x c #e b .
(b) The price therefore that corresponds to a production level yeilding a maximum profit is
x c

b
e

c
c c e c #e b

c bb
#

dollars.
#

#
c

c
c
(c) The weekly profit at this production level is Paxb ce c #e b b ac c bb c #e b c a

ac c b b
%e

c a.

(d) The tax increases cost to the new profit function is Faxb ac c exbx c aa b bx b txb cex b ac c b c tbx c a.
Now Fw axb c#ex b c c b c t ! when x t b b c c c c#b c t . Since Fww axb c#e  ! if e !, F is maximized
c#e
e
b
when x c c#b c t units per week. Thus the price per unit is p c c e c c#b c t c b # b t dollars. Thus, such a tax
e
e
increases the cost per unit by

cbbbt
#

"
x

cbb
#

t
#

20. (a)

c\$!

"
x

"
\$ x \$.

xn c\$

So xnb" xn c

xn

a
xq

qc" b
q

a
xq

!
"c

!
"c

!
"c

## we have xq a and x"

!

a
xq

"
q so that x" is a weighted average of x!

"
q

a
xq

q

x! q c " b
q

"c

!
"c
!
!

a
xq

xq aq c "b b a
qxq

!
"c

!
"c

## In the case where x!

qc"
q

with weights m!

qxq c xq b a
qxq

"c

a
q

xq c a
qxq

x! c

and

fax b
f ax b

"c

21. x" x! c

"
qc" b q
q

a
xq

#
xn b xn c \$x# #xn c \$xn xn a# c \$xn b.
n

"
xn b xn c \$x#
n

"c

c"
xn .

n

faxn b
f ax n b .

"

## (b) By Newton's method, xnb" xn c

#
"c

254

22. We have that ax c hb# b ay c hb# r# and so #ax c hb b #ay c hb dy ! and # b # dy b #ay c hb d y ! hold.
dx
dx
dx
#

dy
x b y dx
dy 9
" b dx

## !. Dividing by 2 results in " b

dy
dx

b yd y c
dx
#

equation yields # b # dy b #y d y c #
dx
dx

#

dy
x b y dx
dy .
" b dx

## Thus #x b #y dy #h b #h dy , by the former. Solving for h, we obtain h

dx
dx

dy
x b y dx
dy 9
" b dx

!.

23. (a) aatb sww atb ck ak !b sw atb ckt b C" , where sw a!b )) C" )) sw atb ckt b )). So
b ))t b C# where sa!b ! C# ! so satb
)) )) c #!!k
.
k

## b ))t "!!. Solving for t we obtain t

#

))
#!!
#

so that k

b )) ! or ck )) c

)) c #!!k

k
#

)) c #!!k

ck )) b

ckt
#

## b )) !. In either case we obtain ))# c #!!k !

\$)(# ft/sec# .

(b) The initial condition that sw a!b %% ft/sec implies that sw atb ckt b %% and satb
w

b

%% %%
k

%%
#k

ck %% #
#
k

*')
k

*') #!!
))
#

s %%
k

%%
k .

ckt
#

ckt
#

ckt
#

satb

## #& feet. Thus halving the initial velocity quarters

stopping distance.
24. haxb f # axb b g# axb hw axb #faxbf w axb b #gaxbgw axb #<faxbf w axb b gaxbgw axb #<faxbgaxb b gaxbacfaxbb
# ! !. Thus haxb c, a constant. Since ha!b &, haxb & for all x in the domain of h. Thus ha"!b &.
" everywhere, when x !, y !, and

d y
dx
#

dy
dx

! everywhere.

%\$

a%bb
\$

## b Ct b k and sa!b ! we have that satb

b Ca\$Cb"\$ b a\$Cb"\$ C c

. Thus v! sw a!b

a%bb
\$

%\$

<ca\$Cb
12

% \$"

t a\$Cb"\$ . So

ct
12

## \$%
.
\$ b

\$C
"#

ct
12

ct
\$

## b Ct and also sw at b ! so that

C
b a\$Cb"\$ \$% b \$"\$ C%\$

28. (a) sww atb t"# c tc"# vatb sw atb # t\$# c #t"# b k where va!b k
\$
(b) satb

% &#
"& t

%
c % t\$# b % t b k# where sa!b k# c "& . Thus satb
\$
\$

%
# \$#
c #t"#
\$ vatb \$ t
% &#
%
c % t\$# b % t c "& .
"& t
\$
\$

%b
\$

b %
\$

29. The graph of faxb ax# b bx b c with a ! is a parabola opening upwards. Thus faxb ! for all x if faxb ! for at most
#

## c#b a#bb c %ac

.
#a
#

one real value of x. The solutions to faxb ! are, by the quadratic equation

Thus we require

a#bb c %ac ! b c ac !.

## Chapter 4 Additional and Advanced Exercises

30. (a) Clearly faxb aa" x b b" b# b b aan x b bn b# ! for all x. Expanding we see
#
#
#
faxb aa# x# b #a" b" x b b" b b b aan x# b #an bn x b bn b
"
#
#
# #
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aa" b a# b b an bx b #aa" b" b a# b# b b an bn bx b ab" b b# b b bn b !.

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Thus aa" b" b a# b# b b an bn b# c aa# b a# b b an bab" b b# b b bn b ! by Exercise 29.
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Thus aa" b" b a# b# b b an bn b# aa# b a# b b an bab" b b# b b bn b.
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(b) Referring to Exercise 29: It is clear that faxb ! for some real x b# c %ac !, by quadratic formula.
Now notice that this implies that

## faxb aa" x b b" b# b b aan x b bn b#

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aa# b a# b b an bx# b #aa" b" b a# b# b b an bn bx b ab" b b# b b bn b !
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aa" b" b a# b# b b an bn b# c aa# b a# b b an bab" b b# b b bn b !
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aa" b" b a# b# b b an bn b# aa# b a# b b an bab" b b# b b bn b
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But now faxb ! ai x b bi ! for all i " # n ai x cbi ! for all i " # n.

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NOTES