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Egypt is located in Africa, limits to the north with the Mediterranean Sea, to the south with Sudan, to the east with the Red Sea and to the west with Libya.


The old kingdom (About 2700 BC 2200 BC) Government Pharaohs organize a strong centralized state. Egyptians believed the pharaoh was a god. Pharaoh had absolute power owning and ruling all the land in the kingdom. Vizier Chief Minister supervises the business of government. The Egyptian built the majestic pyramids, these are tombs for eternity.

The Middle Kingdom (about 2050 BC 1800 BC) Turbulen period Corruption and rebellion Egyptian armies occupied part of Nubia (the gold rich land to the south) The Hyksos foreign invader occupied the Delta region. Egyptians mastered new military technology. Hyksos were impressed by Egyptian civilization; they adopted Egyptian customs, beliefs and names. After 100 years new Egyptian leaders arose. They drove out the Hyksos and set up the New Kingdom.

The New Kingdom (about 1550 BC 1100 BC) Powerful and ambitious pharaohs created a large empire. Egyptian Empire reached the Euphrates River. One monarch of the new Kingdom HATSHEPSUT was a woman who exercised all the rights of a pharaoh. The most powerful pharaoh was Ramses II. After RamsesII, Egyptian power slowly declined.


Chief gods and goddesses. Sun god Amon Re The Pharaoh only the pharaoh could conduct certain ceremonies for the sun god. Osiris and Isis human emotions (love, jelousy, and fear of death). Belief in an Afterlife mummification (preservation of the death) privilege to the rulers and nobles.


The earliest Indian civilization is cloaked in mystery. It emerged in the Indus River valley, in present day Pakistan, about 2500 B.C. This civilization flourished for about 1000 years, then vanished without a trace. There are no names of kings or queens, no literature, no accounts of famous victories. The two main cities of the valley civilization Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro, were large, the most striking feature of these cities is that they were so carefully planned. Each city was laid out in a grid pattern; the houses had modern plumbing systems, with bath, drains, and water chutes that led into sewer beneath the streets. From such evidence, archeologists have concluded that the Indus Valley cities had a well-organized government. These experts must also have developed skills in mathematics and surveying to lay out the cities so precisely.

RELIGIOUS BELIEFS From clues such as statues, archeologists have speculated about the religious beliefs: They were polytheistic A mother goddess the source of creation Worshiped sacred animals including the bull. Veneration special regard for cattle.


China was the most isolated of the civilizations. Lon distances and physical barriers separated it from Egypt and India. This isolation contributed to the Chinese belief that China was the center of the Earth and the sole source of civilization.

CHINA UNDER THE SHANG Shang Chinese people that gained control of a corner of northern China. During the Shang period, Chinese civilization first took shape. Shang kings led other warrior in battle. They helped to lead large army against invaders. The noblewomen had considerable status during the Shang period. Religious Beliefs They prayed to many gods and nature spirits. Shan Di and a mother goddess (they brought plants and animal to the Earth). The king the link between the people and Shang Di. Only the ancestors could talk to the gods.


Zhou people that overthrow the Shang. They justify the rebellion by promoting the idea of the Mandate of Heaven. Feudalism system of government local lords governed their own lands. During the Zhou period Chinas economy grew. Toward the end of the Zhou era, China was increasing in area and population.