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Slide 1

Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements
Portland, Blended,
and Other Hydraulic
Cements

Review of Cement

Slide 2

Primary Components of Raw Materials Necessary for Portland Cement Manufacture

Calcium

Silica

Alumina

Iron

Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements
Portland, Blended,
and Other Hydraulic
Cements

•Materials used in the manufacture of portland cement must contain appropriate proportions of calcium, silica, alumina, and iron components

Slide 3

Calcium

Iron

flue dust Aragonite Clay Calcite Iron ore Cement-kiln dust Mill scale Cement rock Chalk Clay
flue dust
Aragonite
Clay
Calcite
Iron ore
Cement-kiln
dust
Mill scale
Cement rock
Chalk
Clay
Shale
Fuller’s earth
Limestone
Marble
Marl
Seashells
Shale
Portland, Blended,
Slag
and Other Hydraulic
Cements

Ore washings

Pyrite cinders

Silica

Alumina

Sulfate

Alkali waste

Blast-furnace

Calcium silicate

Cement rock

Clay

Fly ash

Fuller’s earth

Limestone

Loess

Marl

Ore washings

Quartzite

Rice-hull ash

Sand

Sandstone

Shale

Slag

Traprock

Aluminum-ore

refuse

Bauxite

Cement rock

Clay

Copper slag

Fly ash

Fuller’s earth

Granodiorite

Limestone

Loess

Ore washings

Shale

Slag

Staurolite

Anhydrite

Calcium

sulfate

Gypsum

Table 2-1. Sources of Raw Materials Used in Manufacture of Portland Cement Sulfate, often in the form of gypsum, is added during the grinding of the clinker to regulate the setting time of the cement and to improve shrinkage and strength development properties.

Slide 4

Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements
Portland, Blended,
and Other Hydraulic
Cements

Quarry

4 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements Quarry Fig. 2-6. Limestone, a primary raw material providing
4 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements Quarry Fig. 2-6. Limestone, a primary raw material providing

Fig. 2-6. Limestone, a primary raw material providing calcium in making cement, is quarried near the cement plant. (59894) Fig. 2-7. Quarry rock is trucked to the primary crusher. (59893)

Slide 5

Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements
Portland, Blended,
and Other Hydraulic
Cements

Fig. 2-8. Rotary kiln (furnace) for manufacturing portland cement clinker. Inset view inside the kiln. (58927, 25139)

Slide 6

Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements
Portland, Blended,
and Other Hydraulic
Cements

Clinker

Gypsum

Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements Clinker Gypsum Fig. 2-9. Portland cement clinker is formed by burning
Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements Clinker Gypsum Fig. 2-9. Portland cement clinker is formed by burning

Fig. 2-9. Portland cement clinker is formed by burning calcium and siliceous raw materials in a kiln. This particular clinker is about 20 mm (3¼4 in.) in diameter. (60504) Fig. 2-11. Gypsum, a source of sulfate, is interground with portland clinker to form portland cement. It helps control setting, drying shrinkage properties, and strength development.

(60505)

Slide 7

Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements (3)
Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements
Portland, Blended,
and Other Hydraulic
Cements

(3)

Fig. 2-10. Process of clinker production from raw feed to the final product (Hills 2000).

Slide 8

Types of Portland Cement

ASTM C 150 (AASHTO M 85)

I

Normal

IA

Normal, air-entraining

II

Moderate sulfate resistance

IIA

Moderate sulfate resistance, air- entraining

III

High early strength

IIIA

High early strength, air-entraining

IV

Low heat of hydration

V

High sulfate resistance

Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements
Portland, Blended,
and Other Hydraulic
Cements

Slide 9

Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements
Portland, Blended,
and Other Hydraulic
Cements

Performance of Concretes Made with Different Cements in Sulfate Soil

Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements Performance of Concretes Made with Different Cements in Sulfate Soil

Fig. 2-13. (top) Performance of concretes made with different cements in sulfate soil. Type II and Type V cements have lower C3A contents that improve sulfate resistance.

Slide 10

Performance of Concretes Made with Different W/C-Ratios in Sulfate Soil

Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements
Portland, Blended,
and Other Hydraulic
Cements
Performance of Concretes Made with Different W/C-Ratios in Sulfate Soil Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements

Improved sulfate resistance results from low water to cementitious materials ratios as demonstrated over time for concrete beams exposed to sulfate soils in a wetting and drying environment. Shown are average values for concretes containing a wide range of cementitious materials, including cement Types I, II, V, blended cements, pozzolans, and slags

Slide 11

Type II & Type V Sulfate Resistant Cements Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements
Type II & Type V
Sulfate Resistant
Cements
Portland, Blended,
and Other Hydraulic
Cements

Fig. 2-14. Moderate sulfate resistant cements and high sulfate resistant cements improve the sulfate resistance of concrete elements, such as (left to right) slabs on ground, pipe, and concrete posts exposed to high-sulfate soils. (68985, 52114, 68986)

Slide 12

Outdoor Sulfate Test

Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements
Portland, Blended,
and Other Hydraulic
Cements

Type V Cement

0.65

W/C-ratio =

Test Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements Type V Cement 0.65 W/C-ratio = Type V Cement

Type V Cement

W/C-ratio = 0.39

Test Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements Type V Cement 0.65 W/C-ratio = Type V Cement

Fig. 2-15. Specimens used in the outdoor sulfate test plot in Sacramento, California, are 150 x 150 x 760-mm (6 x 6 x 30-in.) beams. A comparison of ratings is illustrated: (top) a rating of 5 for 12-year old concretes made with Type V cement and a water-to-cement ratio of 0.65; and (bottom) a rating of 2 for 16-year old concretes made with Type V cement and a water-to-cement ratio of 0.39 (Stark 2002). (68840, 68841)

Slide 13

Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements
Portland, Blended,
and Other Hydraulic
Cements

Moderate and Low Heat Cements

Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements Moderate and Low Heat Cements

Fig. 2-16. Moderate heat and low heat cements minimize heat generation in massive elements or structures such as (left) very thick bridge supports, and (right) dams. Hoover dam, shown here, used a Type IV cement to control temperature rise. (65258, 68983)

Slide 14

Slide 14 Type III High Early Strength Cements Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements Fig. 2-17.
Slide 14 Type III High Early Strength Cements Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements Fig. 2-17.

Type III

High Early

Strength

Cements

Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements
Portland, Blended,
and Other Hydraulic
Cements
Cements Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements Fig. 2-17. High early strength cements are used where

Fig. 2-17. High early strength cements are used where early concrete strength is needed, such as in (left to right) cold weather concreting, fast track paving to minimize traffic congestion, and rapid form removal for precast concrete. (65728, 59950, 68668)

Slide 15

Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements
Portland, Blended,
and Other Hydraulic
Cements

White Portland Cement

Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements White Portland Cement Fig. 2-18. White portland cement is used in

Fig. 2-18. White portland cement is used in white or light-colored architectural concrete, ranging from (left to right) terrazzo for floors shown here with white cement and green granite aggregate (68923), to decorative and structural precast and cast-in-place elements (68981), to building exteriors. The far right photograph shows a white precast concrete building housing the ASTM Headquarters in West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania. Photo courtesy of ASTM.

Slide 16

Blended Hydraulic Cement ASTM C 595

General —

a

hydraulic cement consisting

of

two or more inorganic

constituents, which contribute

to the strength gaining

properties of cement.

Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements
Portland, Blended,
and Other Hydraulic
Cements

Slide 17

Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements
Portland, Blended,
and Other Hydraulic
Cements

Blended Cements

Clinker

Gypsum

Portland cement

Fly ash

Slag

Silica Fume

Calcined Clay

 Fly ash  Slag  Silica Fume  Calcined Clay Fig. 2-19. Blended cements (ASTM

Fig. 2-19. Blended cements (ASTM C 595, AASHTO M 240, and ASTM C 1157) use a combination of portland cement or clinker and gypsum blended or interground with pozzolans, slag, or fly ash. ASTM C 1157 allows the use and optimization of all these materials, simultaneously if necessary, to make a cement with optimal properties. Shown is blended cement (center) surrounded by (right and clockwise) clinker, gypsum, portland cement, fly ash, slag, silica fume, and calcined clay. (68988)

Slide 18

Blended Hydraulic Cements

ASTM C 595 (AASHTO M 240)

Type IS

Portland blast-furnace

Type IP

slag cement Portland-pozzolan

Type P

cement Portland-pozzolan

Type I(PM)

cement Pozzolan-modified

Type S

portland cement Slag cement

Type I(SM)

Slag-modified portland cement

Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements
Portland, Blended,
and Other Hydraulic
Cements

Slide 19

Hydraulic Cements ASTM C 1157

First performance specification for hydraulic cements

Cements meet physical performance test requirements rather than prescriptive restrictions on ingredients or cement chemistry as in other cement specifications.

Provides for six types

Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements
Portland, Blended,
and Other Hydraulic
Cements
chemistry as in other cement specifications.  Provides for six types Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic

Slide 20

Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements
Portland, Blended,
and Other Hydraulic
Cements

Hydraulic Cement

ASTM C 1157

Type GU

General use

Type HE

High early strength

Type MS

Moderate sulfate

Type HS

resistance High sulfate resistance

Type MH

Moderate heat of

Type LH

hydration Low heat of hydration

Slide 21

Cement Applications Resistance to Moderate Moderate High Low heat High alkali-silica Cement General heat of
Cement Applications
Resistance
to
Moderate
Moderate
High
Low heat
High
alkali-silica
Cement
General
heat of
early
of
sulfate
sulfate
reactivity
specification
purpose
hydration
strength
hydration
resistance
resistance
(ASR)
II
ASTM C 150
portland
cements
(moderate
Low alkali
I
III
IV
II
V
heat
option
option)
IS
IS(MS)
ASTM C 595
blended
hydraulic
cements
IS(MH)
IP
IP(MS)
Low
IP(MH)
I(PM)
P(LH)
P(MS)
reactivity
I(PM)(MH)
I(SM)
I(PM)(MS)
option
I(SM)(MH)
S, P
I(SM)(MS)
Portland, Blended,
ASTM C 1157
and Other Hydraulic
hydraulic
GU
MH
HE
LH
MS
HS
Option R
Cements
cements

Table 2-3. Applications for Commonly Used Cements Check the local availability of specific cements as all cements are not available everywhere. The option for low reactivity with ASR susceptible aggregates can be applied to any cement type in the columns to the left. For ASTM C 1157 cements, the nomenclature of hydraulic cement, portland cement, air- entraining portland cement, modified portland cement, or blended hydraulic cement is used with the type designation.

Slide 22

Special cements Type Application White portland cements, ASTM C 150 I, II, III, V White
Special cements
Type
Application
White portland cements,
ASTM C 150
I, II, III, V
White or colored concrete, masonry,
mortar, grout, plaster, and stucco
White masonry cements,
ASTM C 91
M, S, N
White mortar between masonry
units
Masonry cements,
ASTM C 91
M, S, N
Mortar between masonry units,
plaster, and stucco
Mortar cements,
ASTM C 1329
M, S, N
Mortar between masonry units
Plastic cements,
ASTM C 1328
M, S
Plaster and stucco
Expansive cements,
ASTM C 845
E-1(K), E-1(M), E-1(S)
Shrinkage compensating concrete
Oil-well cements, API-10
A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H
Grouting wells
Water-repellent cements
Portland, Blended,
and Other Hydraulic
Tile grout, paint, and stucco finish
coats
Regulated-set cements
Early strength and repair
Cements

Table 2-4. Applications for Special Cements Portland cement Types I, II, and III and blended cement Types IS, IP, and I(PM) are also used in making mortar. Portland cement Types I, II, and III and blended cement Types IP, I(SM) and I(PM) are also used in making plaster.

Slide 23

Special cements Type Application Cements with functional additions, ASTM C 595, ASTM C 1157 General
Special cements
Type
Application
Cements with functional
additions,
ASTM C 595, ASTM C 1157
General concrete construction
needing special characteristics such
as; water-reducing, retarding, air
entraining, set control, and
accelerating properties
Finely ground (ultrafine)
cement
Geotechnical grouting
Calcium aluminate cement
Repair, chemical resistance and high
temperature exposures
Magnesium phosphate
Repair and chemical resistance
cement
Geopolymer cement
General construction, repair, waste
stabilization
Ettringite cements
Waste stabilization
Sulfur cements
Repair and chemical resistance
Portland, Blended,
Rapid hardening hydraulic
and Other Hydraulic
VH, MR, GC
cement
Cements
General paving where very rapid
(about 4 hours) strength development
is required

Table 2-4. Applications for Special Cements

Slide 24

Portland Cement Compound Hydration Reactions (Oxide Notation)

2 (3CaO•SiO 2 ) + = Tricalcium silicate 11 H 2 O Water 3CaO•2SiO 2
2
(3CaO•SiO 2 )
+
=
Tricalcium silicate
11 H 2 O
Water
3CaO•2SiO 2 •8H 2 O
Calcium silicate
hydrate (C-S-H)
+
3 (CaO•H 2 O)
Calcium hydroxide
2
(2CaO•SiO 2 )
+
9 H 2 O
Water
=
3CaO•2SiO 2 •8H 2 O
Calcium silicate
hydrate (C-S-H)
+
Dicalcium silicate
CaO•H 2 O
Calcium hydroxide
3CaO•Al 2 O 3
Tricalcium
aluminate
+
3 (CaO•SO 3 •2H 2 O)
Gypsum
+
26 H 2 O
Water
=
6CaO•Al 2 O 3 •3SO 3 •32H 2 O
Ettringite
2
(3CaO•Al 2 O 3 )
+
+
Tricalcium
6CaO•Al 2 O 3 •3SO 3 •32H 2 O
Ettringite
4 H 2 O
Water
=
aluminate
3 (4CaO•Al 2 O 3 •SO 3 •12H 2 O)
Calcium
monosulfoaluminate
3CaO•Al 2 O 3
Tricalcium
aluminate
+
CaO•H 2 O
Calcium hydroxide
+
12 H 2 O
Water
=
4CaO•Al 2 O 3 •13H 2 O
Tetracalcium aluminate
hydrate
Portland, Blended,
4CaO• Al
•Fe
+
10 H 2 O
+
=
O 3
O 3
2
2
and Other Hydraulic
Tetracalcium
Water
aluminoferrite
Cements
2 (CaO•H 2 O)
Calcium
hydroxide
6CaO•Al 2 O 3 •Fe 2 O 3 •12H 2 O
Calcium aluminoferrite
hydrate

Table 2-5. Portland Cement Compound Hydration Reactions (Oxide Notation) Note: This table illustrates only primary transformations and not several minor transformations. The composition of calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) is not stoichiometric (Tennis and Jennings 2000).

Slide 25

Average Chemical composition, % Type of portland SiO 2 Al 2 O 3 Fe 2
Average Chemical composition, %
Type of
portland
SiO 2
Al 2 O 3
Fe 2 O 3
CaO
MgO
SO 3
cement
Na 2 O eq
I
20.5
5.4
2.6
63.9
2.1
3.0
0.61
II
21.2
4.6
3.5
63.8
2.1
2.7
0.51
III
20.6
4.9
2.8
63.4
2.2
3.5
0.56
IV
22.2
4.6
5.0
62.5
1.9
2.2
0.36
V
21.9
3.9
4.2
63.8
2.2
2.3
0.48
Portland, Blended,
and Other Hydraulic
22.7
4.1
0.3
66.7
0.9
2.7
0.18
Cements White

Table 2-6. Chemical Composition Cements*

Slide 26

Average potential compound composition, % Type of Blaine portland fineness cement C C C C
Average potential compound composition, %
Type of
Blaine
portland
fineness
cement
C
C
C
C
4 AF
3 S
2 S
3 A
m
2 /kg
I 54
18
10
8
369
II 55
19
6
11
377
III 55
17
9
8
548
IV 42
32
4
15
340
V
54
22
4
13
373
Portland, Blended,
and Other White Hydraulic
Cements
63
18
10
1
482

Table 2-6. Compound Composition and Fineness of Cements

Slide 27

Heat of Hydration at 7 Days Type I Type II Type II Type III Type
Heat of Hydration at 7 Days
Type I
Type II
Type II
Type III
Type IV
Type V
cement
cement
Moderate
cement
cement
cement
heat cement
% of
100
99
75 106
67 89
Type I
Portland, Blended,
and Other Hydraulic
Cements

Table 2-8. ASTM C 186 Heat of Hydration for Selected Portland Cements from the 1990s, kJ/kg

Slide 28

Bulk Density

Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements
Portland, Blended,
and Other Hydraulic
Cements
830 kg/m 3 (52 lb/ft 3 ) and 1650 kg/m 3 (103 lb/ft 3 ).
830 kg/m 3 (52 lb/ft 3 )
and
1650 kg/m 3 (103 lb/ft 3 ).
Bulk density of cement varies between
Bulk density of cement
varies between

Fig. 2-48. Both 500-mL beakers contain 500 grams of dry powdered cement. On the left, cement was simply poured into the beaker. On the right, cement was slightly vibrated—imitating consolidation during transport or packing while stored in a silo. The 20% difference in bulk volume demonstrates the need to measure cement by mass instead of volume for batching concrete. (68970)

Slide 29

Slide 29 Transporting Cement Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements Fig. 2-52. Portland cements are shipped
Slide 29 Transporting Cement Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements Fig. 2-52. Portland cements are shipped

Transporting

Cement

Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements
Portland, Blended,
and Other Hydraulic
Cements

Fig. 2-52. Portland cements are shipped from the plant silos to the user in bulk by (left to right) rail, truck, or water. (59899, 59355, 59891)