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SSCHigherSecondaryExam (PreparationBooklet)

Introduction ................................................................................................................................ 4 General Intelligence.................................................................................................................... 6 Analogy ................................................................................................................................... 6 Classification ........................................................................................................................... 6 Series....................................................................................................................................... 6 CodingDecoding..................................................................................................................... 7 Sequence................................................................................................................................. 7 Direction Test.......................................................................................................................... 7 Puzzles..................................................................................................................................... 8 MathematicalPuzzles ............................................................................................................. 9 Syllogism ............................................................................................................................... 10 NonVerbal............................................................................................................................ 11 Quantitative Aptitude ............................................................................................................... 14 HCF&LCM ............................................................................................................................ 14 Ratio&Proportion................................................................................................................ 15 Percentage ............................................................................................................................ 16 Average ................................................................................................................................. 17 Surdsand Indices .................................................................................................................. 18 Profit &Loss .......................................................................................................................... 18 Interest Calculation............................................................................................................... 19 Time,Speed &Distance ........................................................................................................ 22 Time &Work ......................................................................................................................... 23 ElementaryAlgebra .............................................................................................................. 24 Geometry .............................................................................................................................. 26

Mensuration.......................................................................................................................... 28 Trigonometry ........................................................................................................................ 30 Data Interpretation ............................................................................................................... 32 EnglishLanguage....................................................................................................................... 35 Synonyms .............................................................................................................................. 35 Antonyms .............................................................................................................................. 35 Idiomsand phrases ............................................................................................................... 36 OneWord Substitution ......................................................................................................... 36 Spelling Test .......................................................................................................................... 38 Incorrect Sentences .............................................................................................................. 38 SentenceReconstruction ...................................................................................................... 39 Spotting theError ................................................................................................................. 39 ClozeTest .............................................................................................................................. 40

INTRODUCTION
SSCCombined HigherSecondaryLevel(10+2)Examination 2012willbeconducted byStaff Selection Commission (SSC) forthe recruitment to theposts of DataEntryOperatorsand Lower Division Clerk.SSCCombined HigherSecondaryLevel(10+2)Examination 2012 isgoingto be conducted on 21 October2012&28 October 2012.To beeligibleforSSCCombined Higher Secondary Level(10+2)Examination 2012, thecandidate must havepassed 12th Standard or equivalent or higherexamination from arecognized Board or University. In addition, the candidatesminimumageshould be 18 yearsand maximumageshould be 27 years. Theselection willbebased on basisof 2 hourswritten examination carrying200marks,which is followed byData EntrySkillTest/ Typing Test of shortlisted candidates.Thewritten examination consistsof objective typepaper including 4partsthat are asfollows: General Intelligence(50 Questions) English Language (50 Questions) Quantitative Aptitude (50Questions) General Awareness(50Questions)

Thequestion willbeset in both Hindiand English Language for Part I, II,and IV.There willbe negative markingof 0.25 marksfor each wronganswer. SyllabusforObjective Paper General Intelligence Semantic Analogy,Symbolic operation,Symbolic/NumberAnalogy,Trends,Figural Analogy, SpaceOrientation,Semantic Classification, Venn Diagrams,Symbolic/NumberClassification, Drawinginferences,FiguralClassification,Punched hole/patternfolding&unfolding,Semantic Series,FiguralPattern folding and completion, Number Series,Embedded figures,Figural Series,Critical Thinking,ProblemSolving,EmotionalIntelligence,Word Building,Social Intelligence,Codingand decoding,Numericaloperations English Language Spot theError, Fillin the Blanks,Synonyms/Homonyms,Antonyms, Spellings/Detecting Mis speltwords,Idioms&Phrases,One word substitution, Improvement of Sentences, Active/Passive Voiceof Verbs,Conversion into Direct/Indirect narration,Shuffling of Sentence parts, Shufflingof Sentencesin apassage,ClozePassage,Comprehension Passage Quantitative Aptitude 1. Arithmetic NumberSystems:Computationof WholeNumber,Decimal and Fractions, Relationship between numbers

FundamentalArithmeticalOperations:Percentage,Ratio and Proportion,Square roots, Averages,Interest (Simpleand Compound),Profit and Loss,Discount,Partnership Business, Mixtureand Alligation,Timeand distance,Timeand work 2. Algebra Basic algebraic identities of SchoolAlgebra (and their simpleapplications) e.g.Formulasfor 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 3 3 3 (a + b) , (a b) ,(a + b) , (a b) ,a b , a + b ,a b ; if a + b + c=0, then a + b + c = 3abc etc.and Elementarysurds(simpleproblems),and Graphsof Linear Equations 3. Geometry Familiaritywith elementarygeometricfiguresand facts: Triangle and itsvariouskindsof centresviz.Centroid,Incentre, Orthocentre,Circumcentre Congruenceand similarityof triangles Circleand itschords, tangents,anglessubtended bychordsof acircle, common tangentsto two ormorecircles 4. Mensuration Triangle, Quadrilaterals,RegularPolygons(sum of theinternal anglesof apolygon),Circle, Right Prism,Right Circular Cone,Right CircularCylinder,Sphere,Hemispheres,Rectangular Parallelepiped,RegularRight Pyramidwith triangularorsquare Base 5. Trigonometry Trigonometry(foracute angles0 with 0090): Trigonometricratios, Degree and Radian Measures,Standard Identities likesin20 + Cos20=1etc ComplementaryAngles, Heightsand Distances(simpleproblemsonly) 6. Statistical Charts Useof Tablesand Graphs:Histogram, Frequencypolygon, Bardiagram,and Piechart General Awareness History,Culture Geography,EconomicScene, GeneralpolicyandScientific Research

GENERAL INTELLIGENCE
ANALOGY
Analogy: In thistypeof questionsthe studentsarerequired to identifythe previousrelation and find out thebest suitablerelation for theotherterm.These questions are asked in theform of proportion where two related terms are given and thenext matchingmissingtermcan be asked.The questionsof theanalogy can be in theformof words,numbers, lettersand coded lettersetc.with anyrelation. ForExample,Cricket : Pitch :: Tennis::? (a) (b) (c) (d) Arena Course Court Rink

Answer: (c) Court.Here Cricket isplayed at Pitch and Tennis isplayed at Court.

CLASSIFICATION
Classification: In thistypeof questionsthestudentsarerequired to identifytheitem which doesnot belong to agroup.It meansthe other itemsin thegroup are similarwith respect to certain logicbutoneisdifferent.Thestudentscan get questionson word group, numbergroup, lettergroup, coded lettergroup and numeralpair group etc. For Examples 1. (a) 36 (b) 125 (c) 144 (d) 121 Answers: (b) Allexcept 125are squares.

SERIES
Series: It can be understood as asequenceof numerical,alphabeticaland alphanumerical terms which followsafixed pattern.The students are required to identifythemissingtermor wrong term in the series.

For Example 1. 6,11, 18, 27,38,?. (a) 49 (b) 50 Answer: (c) The seriesis+5,+7,+9 (c) 51 (d) 52

CODINGDECODING
Coding: Codingisa processbywhich certain information iswritten into anotherform of information on thebasis of certain principles. Decoding: Decodingis used to inferthe right informationfromthe coded information. ForExample, In acertain codelanguage,BOOK iswritten as2151511.In thesame language how PEN bewritten? Answer: In the above examplethelettersof BOOK iscoded on thebasisof their position in the Englishalphabet.ThelettersB=2, O= 15, K= 11.In thesamewaywecan encode PEN as16514.

SEQUENCE
Thequestion on thistopic can be of followingtypes; 1. Ascertainingmeaningful word sequence. 2. Ascertainingsimilar numericalsequence. 3. Findingapositionin asequence. ForExample, Find themeaningful orderof thefollowingwords in ascendingorder. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Line Angle Pentagon Rectangle Triangle

Answer: Theright order for these wordswillbeLine Angle Triangle Rectangle Pentagon.Therefore the answeris1, 2, 5,4,and 3.

DIRECTION TEST
In thisunit, theproblems are generally formulated with successivefollowup of thedirections and thecandidatesare required to find thefinal direction,the finalposition with respect to the initial position or thedistancebetween the finalpositionand initialposition. On paper,we can drawthedirectionsas;

(Here,N = North,NE= NorthEast, E=East,SE =SouthEast,S =South,SW =SouthWest, W=West,NW= NorthWest) Example: If a person is goingto the east of hishomeand turning to hisleftafter that turningto hisright. Hisfinalposition Wecan drawhis path as; HisHome ForExample,A startswalkingtowards East, turns right, again turn right,turnsleft, again turns left, turns left,again turnsleft.In which direction isAwalkingnow? (a) (b) (c) (d) East West North South

PUZZLES
ThePuzzle questionscan bein theformof followingtypes; 1. 2. 3. 4. Blood RelationProblems Height and PositionRelated Problems Cubeand BlocksRelated Problems Embedded Words&Unscrambled WordsRelated Problem.

Examples; 1. Pand Qarebrothers.Rand S are sisters.Psson isSsbrother.How isQrelated to R? (SSC2011) Answer: In thequestion PssonisSsbrothermeansP isthefather of Sand similarlyP isthe fatherof R becauseSand Rare sisters. Therefore Qistheuncle of R. becauseQisthefathers brother of R. 2. There are five friends Satish,Kishore,Mohan,Aniland Rajesh.Mohan isthe tallest.Satish is shorterthan Kishore but tallerthan Rajesh.Anilislittle shorter than Kishorebut littletaller than Satish.Who is taller than Rajesh but shorterthan Anil? (SSC2011)

Answer: It isgiven that Kishore>Satish>Rajesh and Kishore>Anil>Satish.It meansthe sequence of height isMohan>Kishore>Anil>Satish>Rajesh.Therefore, theperson who istaller than Rajesh but shorter than AnilisSatish.

MATHEMATICAL PUZZLES
Introduction: In this unit wewillstudy various typesof questionsbased on thebasic mathematicaland logical concepts. These typesof questionsare regularly asked in theSSC exams.Afteranalyzing previouspapers,it isclear that in the examyou can get 5 to 8questions fromthis unit. Thequestion types 1. Arrangement of correct mathematicaloperations. 2. Fillingthe correct mathematicaloperations. 3. MathematicalLogicalproblems When you are solvingthese questionsyou should follow basic mathematicaloperationsin a correct sequence.Thecorrect sequenceof solving mathematicalproblemsisknown by BODMASRule or VBODMASRule. V Vinculum B Brackets O Of D Division S Subtraction. ForExamples 1. Which interchange of signswillmakethe followingequation correct? 25 5+ 324 6=13. (a) (b) (c) (d) and and and + and M Multiplication A Addition

Answer: (a) 2. Select the correct combination of mathematicalsignsto replacethe *signsand to balance the given equation. 5*5* 3* 4 *64* 4. (a) (b) (c) (d) = + = + + = = +

3. Someequationsare solved on the basis of certain system on thesamebasisfind out the correct answerforthe unsolved equation. 12 5= 125,2 1 6 =216, 34 3= ? (a) (b) (c) (d) 125 216 512 343

SYLLOGISM
Syllogism: Theliteralmeaningof syllogismisConclusionorinference.Thequestions in the syllogismare in the form of statements(premises) followed byConclusion (proposition) and the students are asked to find thecorrect conclusion on the basisof thestatements. Thegeneral formof statementsand conclusionsin thesyllogism is; All As are Bs. Some Asare Bs. No A isa B. Thegraphical representationof thestatements 1. All As are Bs.

## 2. Some Asare Bs.

3. No A isa B.

For Example Direction (Q. 1 2): In each questionsbelow there are two/three statementsfollowed bytwo conclusions Iand II.Assumingboth the statementstrue,you haveto decidewhich of thetwo conclusions logicallyfollowsthe statementsand then give youranswer (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Ifonly conclusion Ifollows. Ifonly conclusion II follows. Ifeither conclusion I orconclusion II follows. Ifneitherconclusion Inorconclusion II follows. Ifboth conclusion I and conclusion II follow. Somepensare pencils. Somepencilsare books. Conclusions: I.Somepensare books. II.Allbooksarepens. Answer: (d) 2. Statements: Allbottlesare bags. Allbagsare buses. Conclusions: I. Somebagsare bottles. II.Allbagsarebottles. Answer: (a)

1. Statements:

NONVERBAL
Thequestionsfromthis unit can be of followingtypes; 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Pictorial pattern based questions. Embedded figure questions. Mirror Imagequestions. Paper Cutting problems. Relationship based problems.

ForExample 1. Which answerfigure will completethe pattern in thequestionfigure? Question figure: (SSC2011)

Answer: (D) willcompletethepattern 2. Which of the answer figuresisexactlythemirrorimage of thequestion figure,when the mirroris held on the line MN? (SSC2002) Question figure:

(b)

(c)

(d)

## 3. Select the answerfigure in which thequestionfigure is hidden/embedded. Question figure:

(b)

(c)

(d)

QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE
HCF & LCM
SomeImportant concepts Factorsand Multiples: If anumberm dividesthe numbern with remainder=0, then mis called the factorof n and n is called multiple of m. Highest Common Factor (HCF): TheHCFisthe highest common factorfor two ormore numbers. ForExample,if wehavetwo numbers30 and 20, then thefactors of 30 are 1,2,3, 5,6,10,15 and 30.And thefactors of 20are1, 2, 4,5,10and 20. Here 10 is thehighest common factor. Least Common Multiple (LCM): TheLCM isthe lowest number which is exactly divisibleby the given two ormore than two numbers.For example,if wehave two numbers20 and 30, then the multiplesof 20are 20,40, 60, 80.And themultiplesof 30 are 30,60, 90, 120.. Here 60 isthe lowest numberwhich isexactly divisiblebyboth 20 and 30.Therefore 60 isthe required LCM. Productof twonumbers =Productof their LCM and HCF Forexample,the LCMfor20 and 30is60 and HCFfor 20 and 30 is10.Here20 30 = 60 10 = 600. Coprimes: Two numbersare coprimes if their HCF= 1. HCFand LCM of Fraction: HCF= and LCM = ForExample TheL.C.M.of two numbersis189 and H.C.F.of two numbersis 9.If one of thenumber is63 then othernumberis: (a) 27 (b) 28 (c) 29 (d) 30 Answer: (a)

RATIO &PROPORTION
Ratio: A ratio isacomparison of two numbers(quantityin the same unit).It iswritten as,a:b = a =a b,whereaand b aretwo number (quantity). b In aratio a: b, aand b aretheterms of theratio; aiscalled theantecedent and b iscalled the consequent. Theword antecedentliterallymeansthat which goes before and the word consequent literallymeansthat which goes after. Compound Ratio: Compounded ratioisaproduct of two ormore ratios. Example: Find theratio compounded of thethree ratios: 2:3,3 :4and 7: 11 Solution: therequiredratiois =3 4 11 = 22 . InverseRatio: Ifa: b is a given ratio, then a b orb :a iscalled its inverse ratioorreciprocal ratio. 1. Iftheantecedent (a)= theconsequent (b),the ratioiscalled the ratio of equality,such as 2:2. 2. Iftheantecedent (a)> theconsequent (b),the ratioiscalled the ratio of greater inequality, such as3: 2. 3. Iftheantecedent (a)< theconsequent (b),the ratioiscalled the ratio of lessinequality, such as2: 3. Proportion: Aproportion expressestheequalityof two ratios.e.g. b = d Ora:b = c : d ora :b ::c :d. In aproportion in theformof a: b :: c :d the first and thelast termsarecalled the extremes and thesecond and thethird terms or themiddle termsarecalled asthemean terms. When four quantitiesare in proportion, wecan writeit in themathematicalform asa: b :: c :d a c ad =bc = b d
a c 1 1 2 3 7 7

ForExample, IfRs.510 be divided amongA,B,Cin such a waythat Agets 3 of what B getsand B gets 4 of what Cgets,then their sharesarerespectively : (a) Rs.120,Rs.240,Rs.150 (b) Rs.60,Rs.90, Rs.360 (c) Rs.150,Rs.300,Rs.60 (d) None of these Answer: (b)
2 1

PERCENTAGE
Percentage: Theterm percentmeansfor everyhundred.A fractionwhosedenominators is 100is called apercentageand the numeratorof thefraction iscalled theratepercent. Itis denoted by thesymbol%. Here x % =100 .Forexample 10% =100 = 10 . Similarly,fractioncan be changed in theform of percentagewhen wemultiply them by100. ForExample 4 = 4 100 = 25%. To decreasea numberbyagiven %: Multiply the numbersby thefactor To find the% increaseof anumber: %increase=
1 1 x 10 1

To find the% decrease of anumber: %decrease= For Example 1. In an election between two candidates, 75% of thevoterscasted theirvotes,out of which 2%of thevotes were declared invalid.A candidategot 9261 voteswhich were 75% of the total valid votes.Find thetotalnumber of votesenrolled in that election. (SSC2003) (a) 15000 (b) 16000 (c) 16800 (d) 17000

Answer: (c) Let the total enrolled votesare x.Then,Numberof votes cast =75% of x.Valid votes= 98 % of (75 % of x) 75 % 0f [98 % of (75% of x)]= 9261 2. If50% of (x y) =30%of (x +y),then what percent of x isy? (a) 25 % (b) 50 % (c) 75 % (d) 100% Answer: (a)here 50% of (x y) =30%of (x +y) 100 (x y) = 100 (x + y)
50 30

## 10(x y) =6(x +y) 10x 6x=6y+10y 4x=16y 4 x = y 25 % of x =y.

Because4 = 25%
1

AVERAGE
Averageisdefined asthe sumof n different numericalvaluesdivided byn. Average =

Average Speed =

Ifaperson covershalf of hisjourney at aspeed of x km/h and thenext half at the speed of y km/h,then the average speed during thewholejourneyis + . Weighted Average of x1, x2 where weight is w1,w2 = Average of different groups Iftheaverage of a group of n itemsisaand theaverageof another group of mitems ism,then + the combined average = + . For Example 1. Theaverageof anonzero numberand itssquare is5timesthe number.Thenumberis: (SSC2003) (a) 9 (b) 17 (c) 29 (d) 295 Answer: (a)Let the numberbex.Then
+ +

x2+ x 2

## SURDS AND INDICES

Lawsof Indices: (a) am an = am+n (b) a n =am n (c) (am) n =a mn (d) (ab)m =am bm (e) b = m b (f) a0=1 Lawsof Surds: (a) a = a n n n (b) ab = a b (c) b = For Example, 1. Find thevalueof (81) . (a) 3 (b) 3 (c) 9 3 (d) 3 Answer: (b) (81) =(3 3 3 3 ) 2. ( (a) (b) (c) (d)
1 4 3 =? ) 64
1 4 1 2 1 4 n n 1 n

am

a m

am

n

a n b

1 4

=(34 )

1 2

1 4

=(3) =3.

1 2

## 254 254 256 256

1 4 1 3 (4) 3 =( ) 3 ) 64 4

= (

1 4 ) 4

=(4)4 =256.

## PROFIT & LOSS

Someimportant termsforProfit and Loss: Cost Price: It isthepriceat which an article ispurchased.Thecost priceisgenerallyabbreviated asC.P. Selling Price: It isthe priceat which an articleissold.Thesellingpriceis generallyabbreviated asS.P. Profitor Loss: It isthe differenceof selling price (SP) and cost price (CP).If thedifferenceis positive, then it iscalled aprofit and if the differenceisnegative,then it iscalled aloss. ImportantFormulae 1. SP =CP +Profit =CP Loss 2. Gain % = 3. Loss% = 4. SP =
Gain 100 C.P. Loss 100

CP SP %)

CP =

## 5. CP=(100 + Gain For Example

SP = %) (100 Loss

1. Arjun buys an old carforRs 1,12, 000and spends8000 on its repairs.IfhesellstheCarfor Rs 1,80,000,hisgain percent is: (a) 50 (b) 51 (c) 52 (d) 53

Answer: (a)C.P.= Rs.(1,12,000+ 8,000) = Rs.1,20,000, S.P= 1,80,000, Gain % =( 1,20,000 100)=50% 2. Iflossis1/4 of S.P.,thelosspercentage is: (a) 25% (b) 20% (c) 35% (d) 40% Answer: (b) S.P.=a,Loss=a/4,CP.=a+4 = 4 Loss% =(4
a 5a a 60,000

100)% =20% 5a

INTEREST CALCULATION
ImportantFacts and Formulae relatedtoInterestcalculation

Principal: Itisthemoney which isborrowed orlend out forcertain period.Generally,Principal isdenoted with P. Interest: It isthe cost of holdingothersmoneyforacertain period of time. Rateof Interest: Itis therateat which the interest iscalculated.Therateof interest is the amount of interest which iscalculated at everyRs. 100for afixed period.Generallyfor 1year. SimpleInterest (S.I.) =
P RT 100

,P =
R

S.I. 100 RT n

,R=

S.I. 100 PT

,T =

S.I. 100 PR

R 2

## (When interest iscompounded annually) (When interest iscompounded Half yearly)

2n

100

When ratesof interest aredifferent fordifferent years,forexampleR 1%,R2% and R3% for 1st, 2nd and 3rd yearrespectively. Then Compound Interest =P 1 + 100 1 + 100 1 + 100 P. For Example 1. Find thecompound interest on Rs.160,000 in 2yearsat 10 % per annum. Theinterest being compounded half yearly. (a) (b) (c) (d) 32000 33000 34000 34481
10 2

R1

R2

R3

22

## Answer: (d) Therequired C.I. =160, 000 1 +

21 21 21 21

100

160, 000

= 160, 000 20 20 20 20 160, 000 = 194, 481 160, 000 = 34, 481 2. Thedifferencebetween the compound interest and simpleinterest on acertain sum at 10% perannumfor2years isRs.200.Find the principal. (a) (b) (c) (d) Rs.10,000 Rs.15,000 Rs.20,000 Rs.25,000

P 1 + 100 P

10

P 10 2 100

## = 200 P 100 1 5 = 200 P 100 = 200

121

Therefore, P =20,000

## TIME, SPEED &DISTANCE

Importantfactsand formulae Distance =(Speed Time) Speed = Time =
Distance Time

Distance Speed 5

## x km/h = x 18 m/s x m/s=x

18

km/h 5
Total Distance Total Speed

AverageSpeed =

Ifaperson covershalf of hisjourney at aspeed of x km/h and thenext half at the speed of y km/h,then the average speed during thewholejourneyis + . In water, thedirection alongthe streamiscalled downstream.And the directionagainst the streamis called upstream. Ifthespeed of a boat in stillwater isa km/h and the speed of thestreamisb km/h,then: Speed downstream =(a +b)km/h Speed upstream= (a +b) km/h Ifthespeed downstream isp km/h and thespeed upstreamis b km/h,then: Speed in still water = ( + ) km/h Rateof stream= ( ) km/h For Example 1. Aman travelled fromthe villageto the postofficeat therateof 25km/h and walked back at the rateof 4 km/h.If the wholejourneytook 5 hours48 minutes.Find the distance of the postofficefromthevillage. (SSC,2004) (a) 10 km (b) 15 km (c) 20 km (d) 25 km

## Answer: (c) The averagespeed for thewholejourney= 5 60 = 5 5 =

48 4 29 5

2 25 4 25 + 4

200 29

km/h.the totaltime is

h. the totaldistance=
40

200 29

29 5

= 40 km.Thereforethe distancefromvillage

to the post office= 2 = 20 km. 2. In what timewillatrain 100m long,crossan electricpole,if itsspeed be 144 km/h? (a) 2.5 seconds (b) 3seconds
5

## (c) 3.5 seconds (d) 4seconds

Answer: (a)Thespeed in m/s =144 18 = 40 m/s and thetrain hasto crossitsown length to crossa pole.Thelength of the train is 100m.therefore therequired time is 40 = 2.5 s
100

TIME &WORK
Some Important Facts and Formulae 1. Ifmpersonscan completeawork in p days,then thesame work willbe completed byn m persons in n p days. 2. IfPcan completea piece of work in A days,then Psonedaywork = A of thecomplete work and if Pcan do A of work in 1 day,then Pcan completethework in Adays. 3. IfAcan complete apiece of work in m days and B can complete thesamework in n days, then the 1daywork of both of them together= m + n =
mn 1 1 m+n mn 1 1

## of the work and both of

them togethercompletethe work in m+n . 4. IfAis twiceasgood aworkman asB,then ratio of work doneby Aand B =2:1and theratio of timestaken byboth of them to finish the work =1:2. For Example 1. Aryan takes5hoursto do ajob,and Aryaman takes6hoursto do the samejob. How long should it take if both Aryan and Aryaman, workingtogetherbut independently,to do the same job? (a) 3days 8 (b) 211 days Answer: (b) (c) 211 days (d) 4days
9

2. Acan finish awork in 12days and B can do thesamework in 3 thetime taken byA.Then, workingtogether,what part of same work they can finish in aday? (a) (b)
1 5 1 4

(c) (d)

1 3 1 2

ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA
Below are some important formulae which areveryusefulto solvequestions. (a+b)2 =a2 +b2 +2ab (a b)2 =a2 +b2 2ab a2 b2 =(a+ b)(a b) (a+b)3 =a3 +3a2b +3ab2 +b3 (ab)3 =a3 3a2b +3ab2 b3 a3 +b3 =(a+ b)(a2 ab +b2) a3 b3 =(a b)(a2 + ab +b2) a3 +b3 +c3 3abc =(a +b +c)(a2 + b2 +c2 ab bc ca) 1 2 2 2 =2(a+b +c)[(a b) +(b c) + (c a) ] 9. (a+b +c)3 = a3 +b3 +c3 + 3(a+b)(b + c)(c +a) 10. If(a+b + c) =0or a= b = c,then a 3 + b3 + c3 =3abc. 11. aman =am+n 12. (am)n =amn 13. (ab)m =ambm 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 14.

=x

m n

Thequestionsin theSSCexamare generallybased on the addition,subtraction,multiplication and divisionof algebraicexpressions. Somequestionsarealso asked from quadratic equations. ForExample, 1. Iffortwo real constants aand b, theexpression ax +3x 8x +b is exactlydivisible by(x + 2)and (x 2).Find thevalueof a and b. Answer: theexpression isexactlydivisible by(x +2)and (x 2).Therefore a(2) +3(2) 8(2) + b =0 8a+ 34+16 +b =0 8a b =28
3 2 3 2

(1) (2)

## Again, a(2) +3(2) 8(2)+b =0 8a +34 16 + b =0 8a +b =4

3 2

After adding (1)and (2) 8a b + 8a +b = 28 +4 16a=32 a= 2. After putting thevalueof ain (1) 82 b =28 16 28 =b b = 12. Hence,a= 2 and b =12. 2. Ifa+ a =2,find the valueof 3a 2 + 4a 3. (a) (b) (c) (d) 0 1 2 1
1 4a 1 4a

Answer: (b) Solve a+ a =2and put thevalue in 3a 2 + 4a 3. 3. Ifa2 +b2 + 2b+ 1= 0,then find thevalueof a 34 +b38. (a) 1 (b) 0 (c) 1 (d) 2 Answer: (a)Here a =0and b = 1, then a34 +b38 =1

GEOMETRY
Concepts Triangles: Triangle isapolygon which hasthreesides.Thesumof all theanglesof a triangleis 180. Typesof Triangles: 1. 2. 3. 4. Acuteangle triangle: Itis atriangle in which all theangles are lessthan 90. Obtuse angle triangle:It isatriangle in which one angle isgreater than 90. Right angletriangle: It isatrianglein which oneangleisequalto 90. Equilateral triangle: Itisatrianglein which allthe sidesare equal and the allangles are equal to 60. 5. Isoscelestriangle: It isatrianglein which two sidesare equal and angleopposite theequal sidesare alsoequal. 6. Scalenetriangle: It isa trianglein which allthe sidesare unequal. General Properties of Triangles: 1. Sumof the length of any two sides of atriangleisalways greaterthan thethird side. 2. Differencebetween the lengthsof anytwo sidesof a triangleisalways lessthan the third side. 3. Thesideopposite to the greatest anglewillbethegreatest similarlythe sideopposite to the smallest anglewillbe thesmallest. a b c 4. Sinerulein a triangle:sinA = sinB = sinC = 2R,where a, b and c are thesideof a triangle and A,B and Care the correspondinganglesof theside.Risthecircumradius. 5. Cosinerulein a triangle: a2 =b2 +c2 2bc cosA. 6. Theexteriorangleisequalto thesumof two interiorangleswhich are not adjacent to it. Importantterms 1. Median: Alinejoiningthemidpoint of asideof a triangleto the opposite vertex iscalled amedian.Themedian dividesatriangle into two partsof equal areaand the point whereallthemedians meet iscalled thecentroid of the triangle.The centroid divides each median in theratio 2:1. 2. Altitudes: Altitudesare theperpendicularsdrawn from any vertexto the oppositesides.Allthealtitudes meet at the orthocentre of thetriangle.The anglemadebyany sideat the orthocentre and verticalangleis togetherequalto 180. Here, A+ BOC =180.

3. Perpendicular Bisectors: Itisalinewhich bisects aside and at thesametimeperpendicularto the side.Thepoint at which the perpendicular bisectors of thesidesmeet iscalled the circumcentre of the triangle.The circumcentre of a trianglecircumscribesthetriangleand the circleisuniqueforthetriangle.Theanglemade byasideof a triangle at the circumcentre is doubleto theopposite angle. Here,2 A= BOC. Circles: A circleisa set of pointsin a planewhich are equidistant from apoint O. Thepoint Ois called centre of thecircleand the distancefrom the centre Ois called radiuswhich is generally represented as r. Properties 1. There can beonly one circlepassing through threeormore noncollinear pointsin aplane. 2. Iftwo circles intersect in two points then thelinethrough thecentres istheperpendicular bisector of thecommon chord. For Example 1. ABCDisasquare.M is themidpoint of AB and N isthe midpoint of BC. DM and AN are joined and theymeet at O. Then which of thefollowingis correct? (a) (b) (c) (d) OA:OM =1: 2 AN = MD ADM = ANB AMD = BAN

Answer: (b) 2. AB =8cm and CD =6 cm are two parallelchords on the same sideof thecentreof a circle. Thedistancebetween them is1 cm.Theradius of the circle(in cm)is (SSC) (a) (b) (c) (d) 5 4 3 2

3. Thecircumcentre of a triangleABCisO. If BAC= 85 and BCA= 75, then thevalue of OAC is (a) (b) (c) (d) 40 60 70 90

Answer: (a) 4. AB isachord of acircleof radius7cm.Thechord subtends aright angle at thecentre of the 22 circle.Find thearea of theminorsegment in sq cm.Use = 7 . (a) (b) (c) (d) 7 24.5 14 38.5

MENSURATION
Below are some important formulae which areveryusefulto solvequestions. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Areaof a rectangle=Length Breadth 2 2 2 In arectangle,(Diagonal) =(Length) +(Breadth) . Perimeterof arectangle =2(Length +Breadth). 2 1 Areaof square =(Side) =2 (Diagonal)2. Perimeterof asquare =4Side. Areaof 4 wallsof aroom =2(Length +Breadth) height Areaof a parallelogram =BaseHeight. 1 Areaof a rhombus =2 (Product of Diagonals).
3 4

9. Areaof an equilateral triangle= (Side)2. 10. Perimeterof an equilateraltriangle =3(Side). a +b +c 11. Area of a triangle=s(s a)(s b)(s c),where s= 2 . 12. Areaof a circle=r2, where r istheradiusof the circle. 13. Circumferenceof a circle =2r 2 r 14. ArcAB on acircle= 360 ,where AOB = and Oisthecentre. 15. Areaof sectorAOB = 360 . 16. Volume of acube =a3,where aisa side or edge. 17. Wholesuface area of acube =6a 2.
r2

18. Diagonal of acube =3a. 19. Volume of acuboid = lbh,where l =length,b =breadth and h =height. 20. Wholesuface area of acuboid = 2(lb +bh +hl). 21. Diagonal of acuboid = l2 + b 2 + h2 . 2 22. Volume of acylinder =r h. 23. Curved surface area of acylinder= 2rh. 2 24. Total surfaceareaof a cylinder =(2rh +r ). 4 25. Volume of asphere = 3 r 3 . 26. Surface area of asphere=4r2. 2 27. Volume of ahemisphere=3 r 3 . 28. Curved surface area of ahemisphere =2r2. 29. Wholesurface area of ahemisphere =3r2. 30. Right circular Cone, I. Slant height l= r 2 + h2 ,where r =radiusof baseand h =height. 1 II. Volume of acone=3 r 2 h. III. Curved surface area of acone= rl =rr 2 + h2 . IV. Total surfaceareaof a cone= (rl+r2). 1 31. Slant surfaceareaof a pyramid = 2 (Perimeterof thebase)(Slant height). 32. Total surfaceare of apyramid = 2 (Perimeterof the base)(Slant height) +area of base. 33. Volume of pyramid = For Example 1. There isa pyramid on a basewhich is aregularhexagon of side2a cm.Ifeveryslant edgeof 5a (SSC) thispyramid isof length 2 cm,then thevolumeof thispyramid is (a) 3a3 cm3 (b) 32a3 cm3 (c) 33a cm (d) 6a3 cm3
3 3

Height.

25a 2 4

3 4 (2a)2

63a2 3a = 3 2

5a 2

4a2

9a 2 4

3a 2

## ,then thevolumeof apyramid =

33a.

2. Theareaof thefour wallsof aroomis660 m 2 and its length istwiceitsbreadth.If the height of the roomis11 m,then thearea of itsfloor(in m 2) is (a) 120 (b) 150 (c) 200 (d) 330

Answer: (c) Let b be theBreadth,lbetheLength and h betheHeight of theroom. 2 (l+ b) h =660 2 (2b +b) 11=660 23b 11= 660 66b = 660 b = 10, then l=200. Therefore, area of the floor= 20 10 = 200. 3. Acylindricalrod of iron whoseheight isfivetimesitsradius ismelted and cast into spherical ballseach of half theradiusof thecylinder.thenumberof such sphericalballsis (a) (b) (c) (d) 5 30 10 25
r 4 r 3

Answer: (b) Let thegiven radiusof thecylinderberand theheight be5r then thevolumeof the cylinder = r (5r) = 5 r .Again the volumeof onesphere whoseradius is2 =3 2 =
2 3

4 3

r3 8

r 3 6

## .Thereforethe numberof spheresin the volume5 r =

3

5r 3
r 3 6

=30

TRIGONOMETRY
PythagorasTheorem: In arightangled triangle, h =p + b angled
2 2 2

## Here, h isthehypotenuse,p istheperpendicular and b isthebase of theright

Trigonometric Ratios: thetrigonometricratios arecalculated according to theangles.The hypotenuseisthelargest sideof aright angled triangle,the perpendicularistheoppositeside of the angle and the baseisthe adjacent side. Forexample, Here,forangle R,PR=hypotenuse, PQ= perpendicularand QR =base. P Q A The Trigonometric ratios are p Sin h Cos b h R p b b p

Tan Cot

Sec Cosec

h b h p

## The importantvaluesof Trigonometric ratios Sin Cos Tan 30 45 60 1 2 1 2 3 2 3 2 1 2 1 2 3 1 3 1

Cot 3 1 1 3

Sec 2 3 2 2

Cosec 2 2 2 3

Some important formulae Sin = cosec ,cos= sec ,tan = cot ,sin (90 ) = cos,tan (90 ) = cot , Sec (90 ) = cosec,cos(90 ) =sin ,cot (90 ) =tan , Cosec(90 ) =sec,Sin2+ Cos2= 1,Sec2 Tan2 =1,Cosec2 Cot2= 1. Angle of Elevation: Ifa person lookingat an object which isplaced abovethe line of hiseye.Then,the anglewhich isthemadebytheobjectslinewith the eyeand the horizontallineis called theangleof elevation.
1 1 1

Angle of Depression: If a person lookingdown at an object which is placed belowthe level of his eye.Then, the angle which is madeat his eyebythe objects line with thehorizontal line of his eyeis called theangleof depression.

For Example 1. Iftan = 4,then thevalueof 4 cos 2 3 sin 2 is (a) 1 (b) 0 115 (c) 37
3 5sin +2cos

(d)

110 23 3 3 4

Answer: (c) Here tan =4,then sin =5 and cos =5 fromthePythagoras Theorem. 2. Thevalueof tan 5. tan 15.tan 35.tan 55.tan 75.tan 85 is (a) 1 (b) 0 (c) 0.5 (d) 0.75 Answer: (a)Herewecan change tan 5= tan (90 85)=cot 85and tan cot = 1. 3. Aladderleaningagainst awallmakesan angleof 60with the ground.If thelength of the ladder is30m,find the height of thewallup to theladder. (a) 15 (b) 153 (c) 30 (d) 303 Answer: (b) Thediagramcan be,

DATA INTERPRETATION
Thequestionsin thisunit can beasked fromfour different types of data. 1. 2. 3. 4. Histogram Frequencypolygon Bardiagram Piechart

ForExample Question (1to 5):Thelinediagram showsthe cost of production and profit of fivecompanies forthe year201112.(Thefiguresarein '000').

## 500 400 300 200 100 0 A B C D E COSTOFPRODUCTION PROFIT

1. Theratio of profitsof companyB to D is: (a) 2:3 (b) 3:4 (c) 4:3 (d) 3:2

2. Theprofit of companyCiswhat percentage of thecost of productionof company E? (a) 20% (b) 25% (c) 30% (d) 35%

3. Thecost of production of companyB ishow manytimesof companyCprofit? (a) 2.5 (b) 3 (c) 3.5 (d) 4

4. Which companyhasthe maximumpercentageof profit? (a) A (b) B 5. What istheaverageprofit of all thecompanies? (a) 50,000 (b) 60,000 Answers: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Theprofit of B is50,000and D is 75,000 thereforetheratio is2:3. Theprofit of Cis1,00,000which is 25% of E's cost of production which is4,00,000. Thecost of B is 3,50,000which 3.5 times theprofit of C' profit which is50,000. Thecompany Chasa40% profit. Thetotalprofit of allthe companies are 75,000+50,000+1,00,000+75,000+1,00,000 = 4,00,000,therefore theaverage willbe(4,00,000)/5= 80,000. (c) 70,000 (d) 80,000 (c) C (d) D

ENGLISH LANGUAGE
SYNONYMS
Synonyms: The word comesfromancient Greek wordssynand onomawhere syn means withand onomameansname.Synonyms are theword which hassimilarmeanings. Two wordsaresaid to be synonymouswhen theyhavesimilar meanings. Thewords caste and classissynonymousbecauseboth the wordshavesimilarmeaning. ForExample, Q. Find the word which issynonymousto Deny. (a) (b) (c) (d) Regain Refuse Repair Reduce (SSC2011)

Answer: Thesynonyms forDenyareContradict,Refuse,Reject etc.here wehaveRefuse asan option, which meansthe right answer is(b). Q. Find the word which issynonymousto Deposit. (a) (b) (c) (d) Degrade Dethrone Place Removal

ANTONYMS
Antonyms:The word antonymcomes from ancient Greek words antiand onomawhere anti means oppositeand onoma means name.Theliteral meaning of antonyms is the opposite name which meansthe word which hasoppositemeaning.Forexample; Day Night, Long Short,Up Down,Small Large,etc. ForExample Q. Find the oppositeword to Concur. (a) Disagree (b) Disappear (c) Disarrange (d) Discourage (SSC2011)

Answer: Thesynonyms forConcur are agree, cooperate,combine etc.Therefore theantonym foragreeis disagree.Henceright answeris(a). Q. Find the oppositeword to Condensation. (a) Abridgment (b) Broadening Answer: (b) (c) Compression (d) Concentration

## IDIOMS AND PHRASES

Idiomsand phrasesrefer to commonly used groupsof words in English. Theyare used in specific situations and often used in an idiomatic, ratherthan afigurativesense.Idiomsare often full sentences.Phrases,however, are usuallymadeup of afewwords and are used asa grammaticalunit in a sentence. ForExample, 1. Ramused veryugly wordsagainst hiskind uncle;hethrew down thegauntlet before him. (a) heabused and insulted him (b) hethrew thechallenge (c) hebehaved as if he wasaverygreat and important person (d) heput several conditions for negotiation Answer: (b) 2. Healways cutsboth ends (a) Work for both sides (b) Inflictsinjurieson others (c) Arguesin support of both sides of theissue (d) Behavesdishonestly Answer: (c)

## ONE WORD SUBSTITUTION

Oneword substitution isthe wordsthat replaceagroup of wordsorsentenceswithout creating orchangingthe exactmeaning of sentences.Thesewordsgenerallybringcompression in any kind of writing. There are lots of wordsin English language that can beused effectivelyin placeof complex sentencesor wordsto makewritingto thepoint without losingthe meaningof thecontext. ForExample,

1. Onewho eats too much (a) Foodie (b) Glutton (c) Eater (d) Food loving Answer: (b) glutton 2. Abook published afterthedeath of itsauthor (a) Posthumous (b) Anonymous (c) Synonymous (d) Mysterious Answer: (a)Posthumous

SPELLING TEST
Spelling test is basicallydevised to test thevocabularypowerand thecandidate abilityto write the wordswith correct spellings. Question asked issuch sectiongenerallyrequired to choose thecorrect spelt word or themis speltout of the alternativesgiven. ForExample,find the mis spelt word. 1. (a) (b) (c) (d) Comission Commisson Comession Commission

## Answer:(d) 2. (a) (b) (c) (d) Liutenenat Lieutanent Lieutenant Leiutanent

INCORRECT SENTENCES
Directions: In questionsno.1 to 2,apart of thesentenceis underlined.Belowaregiven alternativesto theunderlined part at (a),(b) and (c) which mayimprovethesentence. Choose the correct alternative.In caseno correction isneeded,youransweris(d).
1. Alltheallegationslevelled against himwere found to bebaseless.

## levelled for levelwith levelagainst no correction

Answer: (c) 2. Last SundayI went to themarket and bought spectacles. (a) two spectacles (b) apair of spectacles (c) aspectacle (d) no correction Answer: (b)

SENTENCE RECONSTRUCTION
Sentencereconstruction isthegrammaticalarrangement of words in sentences,phrase structure,and syntax. Thesentences are presented in ajumbled mannerand thestudents are supposed to arrangeit chronologically. Here weare givingsomeexamples.Studentsare advised to go through it carefully. 1. There isa fashionnowadays P. Q. R. S. asan evil who isborn with asilver spoon to bewailpoverty and to pitytheyoungman

in his mouth (a) (b) (c) (d) PSRQ RPSQ RSQP SPRQ

Answer: (b) 2. Though the governmentclaims P. it has failed to arrest Q. the rateof inflationisdown R. orthedecrease S. the risein prices 6.in thepercapitaincome (a) PQRS (b) PQSR (c) PSQR (d) QPSR Answer: (d)

## SPOTTING THE ERROR

Directions: Read each sentenceto find out whetherthere isanygrammaticalmistake/errorin it.Theerrorif any willbe in one part of thesentence.Mark the numberof thepart with error asyouranswer.Ifthere isno error, mark the last option. 1. (a) My brother lived at the top / (b) of an old house / (c) which attic had been / (d) converted into aflat. / (e) No error. Answer: (c) Replacewhichbywhose.

2. (a)Allcompaniesmust / (b) send its annual report to/ (c) itsshareholders twentyone days / (d) before theannualgeneralmeeting./(e)No error. Answer: (a)Useevery in place of all. 3. (a)Theyagreed / (b) to repairthedamage/ (c)freelyof charge / (d)No error Answer: (c) 4. (a)Radhawastryingforadmission / (b) in the ScienceCollege / (c) even though herparents wanted/ (d) herto takeup medicine./ (e)No error. Answer: (c) Usehad wantedin placeof wanted. 5. (a)Myyoungersisterand / (b) Iam interested / (c) in mathematics./ (d) No error Answer: (b) Usearein placeof am. 6. (a) You should purchase/ (b) this insurance policy/ (c) as the company/ (d) offers many benefits./ (e)No error. Answer: (e)No error. 7. (a)Havingacquired someexperience/(b) sheisno longer/ (c) oneof thosewho believes/ (d) everyexplanation sheis given./(e)No error Answer: (d) Replaceiswith has

CLOZE TEST
Clozetest isthe test of theabilityto comprehend text in which thereaderhasto supply the missingwordsthat havebeen removed from thetext at regular intervals. Itisbasicallya test for diagnosingreadingability; wordsare generallydeleted fromaprose passageand thereader isrequiredto fillin theblanks. Directions(Q. 11O):In thefollowing passagethere arcblanks,each of which hasbeen numbered.Thesenumbersare printed below thepassageand against each,five words are suggested,oneof which fitstheblank appropriately.Find out the appropriateword in each case. Raju wasorphaned at avery(1) age.Helost (2) of hisparentsbecause his familywas(3)poor to afford anytreatment.He wasdeeply affected bythis. Hedecided to work hard and (4) on his own feet.Alongwith hisstudieshe(5)parttime in arestaurantand earned enough moneyin order to (6)his studies.Beinga brilliant student, heearned scholarshipsand latermanaged to get admission in agood medicalcollege.Heisnow a(7) doctorand helpspoor patient for(8). Thisshowsthat one can surviveevery(9) condition.Determine and hard work (10) to successin life.

1. (a)youth (b) early (c) childhood (d) childish (e)recent 2. (a)any (b) few (c) either (d) couple (e)both 3. (a)little (b) so (c) too (d) some (e)ample 4. (a)balance(b) establish (c) stand (d) erect (e)talk 5. (a)worked (b) employed (c) busy (d) established(e)functioned 6. (a)done (b) practice (c) follow (d) pursue (e)proceed 7. (a)recognise (b) know (c) respected (d) worth (e)merit 8. (a)favour (b) less (c) penny (d) subsidy (e)free 9. (a)failed (b) adverse (c) worse (c) evil (e)tragedy 10. (a)result (b) follow (c) excel (d) lead (e)urge Answers: 1. (b) 2. (e) 3. (c) 4. (c) 5. (a) 6. (d) 7. (c) 8. (e) 9. (b) 10. (d)