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Piazza della Grammatica 1 • Antonella Olson & Eric Edwards, Presentatori e Capocomici Gentili Ascoltatori,

Piazza della Grammatica 1 • Antonella Olson & Eric Edwards, Presentatori e Capocomici

Gentili Ascoltatori, Dear Listeners, Thanks for tuning in! Here is the transcript of our recent broadcast, “The One Where Arlecchino Visits the King,” which you can hear by accessing the following link:

Transcript

Arlecchino: Una volta, tanto tempo fa, quando ero molto più giovane, lavoravo nella fattoria di una vecchia signora. C'erano due altri servi che ci lavoravano, un tale Brighella, un Pedrolino, e c'ero pure io. La signora non era ricca. Era sempre gentile con noi, anche se lei mi considerava un po' scemo.

Antonella: Un giorno abbiamo saputo che

il re festeggiava il suo compleanno, e tutte

le case della zona, grandi e piccole, volevano mandare qualche regalo al monarca.

Arlecchino: La signora non aveva molto, come ho già detto, ma in un cestino ha messo quello che poteva: burro, pane, vino

e una bella torta di mele, tutte cose fatte lì alla fattoria.

Antonella: Visto che Brighella era il più forte dei servi, la signora lo ha chiamato e gli ha dato il cestino. Gli ha detto di andare al castello del re per consegnargli il suo regalo.

Molto fiero di poter eseguire questo importantissimo compito, Brighella è partito subito la mattina dopo con il cestino. Per arrivare al castello del re

Arlecchino: Once upon a time, a long time ago, when I was much younger, I was working on the farm of an old lady. There were two other servants who were working there, a certain Brighella, one Pedrolino, and there was me. The lady wasn’t rich. She was always kind to us, even though she thought of me as rather a dolt.

Antonella: One day we learned that the king was celebrating his birthday, and all the households thereabouts, great and small, wanted to send some gift to the monarch.

Arlecchino: The lady didn’t have much, as

I have said, but she put what she could into

a basket: butter, bread, wine and a fine apple pie, all things made there on the farm.

Antonella: Since Brighella was the strongest of the servants, the lady called him and gave him the basket. She told him to go to the king’s castle and offer him her gift.

Very proud of being able to carry out this very important task, Brighella set out right away on the following morning with the basket. To get to the king’s castle he had to

Radio Arlecchino, Episode 1, pg 1 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center http://tltc.la.utexas.edu/

doveva attraversare una grande foresta misteriosa, ma lui non aveva paura -- almeno così diceva.

Arlecchino: Nel mezzo del bosco ha incontrato una brutta strega che è saltata davanti a lui da dietro un albero.

La strega: Ehi, giovanotto --

Arlecchino: ha detto la strega --

La strega: Che cosa porti nel cestino?

Arlecchino: Brighella non ha voluto dire la verità alla strega. Quella brutta vecchia era capace di rubare le buone cose che lui doveva portare dal re.

Antonella: Quindi le ha detto:

Brighella: Davvero niente, signora

bucce di patate, gusci di uova, grani di

caffè e cespi di insalata marcia

mia nonna che li dà da mangiare alle galline.

Sono

li porto da

La strega: Quelle cose non mi servono, giovanotto. Addio!

Arlecchino: ha detto la strega, e Brighella ha ripreso la strada.

Antonella: Quando Brighella è arrivato al castello, lo hanno portato davanti al re. Brighella si è inginocchiato e il re gli ha domandato:

il Re: Che cosa di bello mi hai portato? Qual è il tuo bel regalo?

Antonella: Brighella, tutto fiero e orgoglioso, ha aperto il cestino e l'ha offerto al re.

cross a great mysterious forest, but he was not afraid – at least that’s what he said.

Arlecchino: In the middle of the woods he met an ugly witch who jumped out at him from behind a tree.

The witch: Hey, young man --

Arlecchino: said the witch --

The witch: What are you carrying in your basket?

Arlecchino: Brighella didn’t want to tell the truth to the witch. That ugly old crone was capable of stealing the good things he was supposed to take to the king.

Antonella: So he said to her:

Brighella: Nothing really, ma’am They’re potato peels, egg shells, coffee

grounds and bits of wilted salad

taking them to my granny who feeds them to the chickens.

I’m

The witch: I have no use for those things, young man. Farewell!

Arlecchino: said the witch. And Brighella set off again down the road.

Antonella: When Brighella arrived at the castle, they brought him before the king. Brighella knelt down and the king asked him:

the King: What nice things have you brought me? What is your fine gift?

Antonella: Brighella, all beaming with pride, opened the basket and offered it to the king.

Radio Arlecchino, Episode 1, pg 2 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.la.utexas.edu/

il Re: Diavoli e demoni!

Antonella: ha gridato il sovrano.

il Re: Venite tutti a vedere le bucce di patate e e tutte le schifezze che questo mascalzone ha osato di portarmi!

Antonella: Brighella è rimasto stupito ma era vero: nel cestino non c'erano più le

buone cosa preparate dalla signora

tutte le brutte cose raccontate nella sua bugia alla strega.

ma

Arlecchino: A calci nel sedere lo hanno spinto fuori del castello. Brighella mogio mogio se ne è tornato a casa, dove la signora lo ha accolto a bastonate.

la vecchia signora: Pedrolino --

Arlecchino: ha urlato la signora --

la vecchia signora: Ora tocca a te! Non ripetere la sciocchezza di Brighella! Eccoti un altro cestino

Arlecchino: Mentre Pedrolino attraversava la foresta, di nuovo si è presentata la strega, sempre con la stessa richiesta.

Antonella: Anche Pedrolino le ha mentito, dicendo:

Pedrolino: Qui nel mio cestino c'è solo sterco, che porto da mia zia che vuole fertilizzare i suoi campi.

La strega: Uffa, che schifo!

Arlecchino: ha risposto la strega.

La strega: Lo sterco non mi serve. Addio,

the King: Devils and demons!

Antonella: cried the sovereign.

the King: Come all of you and behold the potato peels and all the rubbish this scoundrel has dared to bring me!

Antonella: Brighella was astounded but it was true: the good things prepared by the

lady were no longer in the basket

ugly things described in his lie to the witch.

only the

Arlecchino: They drove him out of the castle with kicks in his behind. Brighella sheepishly returned home, where the lady welcomed him with blows of her stick.

The old lady: Pedrolino --

Arlecchino: cried the lady --

The old lady: It’s your turn now! Don’t repeat any of Brighella’s foolishness! Here’s another basket for you

Arlecchino: As Pedrolino crossed the forest, the witch appeared again, again with the same request.

Antonella: And Pedrolino lied to her as well, saying:

Pedrolino: Here in my basket there’s nothing but manure, which I am taking to my aunt to fertilize her fields.

The witch: Ugh, how disgusting!

Arlecchino: answered the witch.

The witch: I have no use for manure.

Radio Arlecchino, Episode 1, pg 3 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.la.utexas.edu/

giovanotto!

Arlecchino: E Pedrolino ha ripreso la strada.

Antonella: Potete immaginare la sorpresa e la disperazione del disgraziato Pedrolino quando il re ha aperto il suo bello e profumato regalo di sterco!

Arlecchino: Alla signora non rimaneva nient’altro da fare che chiamare me. Mi ha dato un terzo cestino e mi ha implorato di non farla vergognare ancora davanti al re.

Quando la vecchia del bosco mi ha chiesto cosa portavo nel mio cestino, ho visto non una strega ma una povera donna affamata, e le ho detto:

“Signora, nel mio cestino ho pane, burro, e una torta di mele, sono per fare un regalo al

re, ma vedo che Lei ha fame

quello che vuole, tanto al re non manca

certo il cibo

Prenda

La strega mi ha fissato a lungo, ma non ha preso niente dal mio cestino.

La strega: Grazie, giovanotto, sei molto gentile, ma ho appena pranzato e non ho fame. Addio e buon viaggio!

Arlecchino: Dopo mi sono inginocchiato davanti al re, e gli ho detto: “Maestà, la mia padrona non è ricca, ma ha mandato

del meglio della sua fattoria, solo

Antonella: Ma il re, che già guardava nel cestino, mi ha interrotto.

il Re: Angeli e cherubini!

Antonella: ha esclamato.

Farewell, young man!

Arlecchino: And Pedrolino set off again down the road.

Antonella: You can imagine wretched Pedrolino’s surprise and despair when the king opened his fine fragrant gift of manure!

Arlecchino: There was nothing left for the lady to do but to call upon me. She gave me a third basket and implored me not to shame her again before the king.

When the old crone of the woods asked me what I was carrying in my basket, I saw not a witch but a poor starving woman, and I said to her:

“Ma’am, in my basket I have bread, butter, and an apple pie, they’re to be a gift for the

king, but I see that you are hungry

what you will, after all, the king surely

doesn’t want for food

Take

The witch stared at me a good while, but she took nothing from my basket.

The witch: Thank you, young man, you are very kind, but I’ve just had lunch and I’m not hungry. Good-bye and farewell!

Arlecchino: Later I knelt before the king and said to him, “Your majesty, my mistress is not rich, but she has sent the

best from her farm, only

Antonella: But the king, who was already looking in the basket, interrupted me.

the King: Angels and cherubim!

Antonella: he exclaimed.

Radio Arlecchino, Episode 1, pg 4 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.la.utexas.edu/

il Re: Venite tutti a vedere i diamanti e le perle, l'oro e l'argento, che questo povero contadino è riuscito a portarmi!

Antonella: Scusa un attimo, caro

Arlecchino

sei sicuro che il protagonista sei proprio tu?

molto bella la tua storia, ma

Arlecchino: Eh'

servitore di tanti padroni, e il protagonista

di tante storie

il tuo Arlecchino è il

the King: Come all of you and behold the pearls, the gold and the silver, that this poor peasant has managed to bring me!

Antonella: Pardon me a moment, my dear

Arlecchino

you sure that you yourself are really its

hero?

your story is lovely, but

are

Arlecchino: Ah, your Arlecchino is the servant of many a master, and the hero of many a tale

Nota Grammaticale

People learning Italian sometimes have a tough time with this issue of picking the right verb tense when they are narrating past events, but it doesn’t have to be all that difficult.

Events that occur in a sequence will be expressed with the passato prossimo. One event takes place and is completed before the next one begins. These are the events that move the plot forward.

Events that occur in the background, while others are taking place, are expressed with the imperfetto. We rarely know (or care) when these events begin or when they end. They are in progress when another action begins, is carried out, and ends. They are the events, or states of mind or being, that flesh out the story but do not move it forward.

Arlecchino begins his account by describing the situation that was in existence at the moment his story began: I was much younger, I was working on a farm, there were two other servants there,

the lady was not rich, she thought of me as a dolt, etc

Arlecchino’s tale, nothing actually happens we merely learn about the setting in which the real story will unfold. The verbs are in the imperfetto.

Notice that in the first paragraph of

In the second paragraph, a series of completed actions begins that puts the story in motion and

moves it forward. We found out

prossimo.

; the court requested

These verbs are in the passato

As the story moves forward, sentences contain verbs in both the passato prossimo and the

imperfetto. “La signora non aveva molto

(we know neither when this condition began nor when it ended—and that’s not the point), it’s the situation she was in when the real story events took place. So the verb is in the imperfetto.

Later in the same sentence, “in un cestino ha messo

event, a completed action, that moves the plot forward. She has to put the items in the basket

before she sends Brighella off to the castle with it. It’s an event in a sequence of events. The verb

is in the passato prossimo.

Not having much is not something that the lady did

,” “she put in a basket

Now this is an

Radio Arlecchino, Episode 1, pg 5 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.la.utexas.edu/

“Visto che Brighella era il più forte dei servi, la signora lo ha chiamato e gli ha dato il cestino.” Brighella’s being the strongest of the servants is not an action he performed or completed. When did he start being the strongest? We don’t know and that’s not important. The statement is merely describing the situation that existed at the moment the lady called him. So, “era il più forte,” imperfetto. Then, “la signora lo ha chiamato.” This is an action completed by the lady before the next action was completed. First she called him, then she gave him the basket. Events in a sequence. Passato prossimo.

We encourage you to look at all the verbs in the imperfetto and the passato prossimoin Arlecchino’s tale and think about why it’s in the tense it’s in. Then when you tell a story or relate an anecdote in Italian, you can think about which verbs are supplying descriptions and background information, and which are relaying information about completed events that move the plot of your story forward.

For all the excruciating details about the imperfetto and the passato prossimo, we recommend that you consult a good dictionary or grammar reference book. Make sure you are familiar with the appendices of any textbook you might be using. Buon divertimento!

Nota Culturale

As Antonella mentions, in fictional narrative such as fairy-tales, novels, and short stories, and in relatively formal non-fiction prose such as biographies and histories, the passato remoto is frequently used instead of passato prossimo to communicate events (“actions”) completed in the past.

The passato remoto is rarely used in conversation. However, in some Southern regions of Italy (particularly in Sicily) as well as in Tuscany, this tense may be heard in everyday conversation. In either context, the passato remoto is used in Italian only to mention changes and events, while the imperfetto remains the tense used for describing the setting, the atmosphere, an ongoing state of mind, or the general situation.

It can be great fun to see how Italian folk tales both resemble and are different from the ones we are familiar with. If you are interested in reading fairy tales in Italian, keep in mind Italo Calvino’s Fiabe italiane (1956). Calvino’s intent in this work was to represent all kinds of documented fables and folk tales existing in the various Italian dialects and regions. He collected and translated from dialects tales passed on through oral tradition by the Italian people. In Calvino’s collection, the majority of the tales belong to the regions of Tuscany and Sicily.

Tune in again soon—and tell your friends you heard it conjugated on Radio Arlecchino!

Your hosts with the most – grammar, Antonella Olson & Eric Edwards

Out of our minds

into your ears

Radio Arlecchino, Episode 1, pg 6 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.la.utexas.edu/

Piazza della Grammatica 1 • Antonella Olson & Eric Edwards, Presentatori e Capocomici Gentili Ascoltatori,

Piazza della Grammatica 1 • Antonella Olson & Eric Edwards, Presentatori e Capocomici

Gentili Ascoltatori, Dear Listeners, Here’s a transcript of “Great Caesar’s Ghost!” our recent show about narrating in the past using the passato remoto, which you can hear by clicking on the following link:

Hanno partecipato:

Featured in this broadcast:

Marco Derisi

il Gatto Giulio Cesare

Bob Olson

il Gatto Marco Aurelio

Antonella Olson

Colombina

Mark Garrison

il Gatto Nerone

Buon divertimento!

Transcript

Arlecchina parla con il Gatto Giulio Cesare

Arlecchina: È vero che tu conquistasti anche la Gallia?

Gatto Giulio Cesare: Certamente, pochi anni dopo mi spinsi anche fino al Tamígi. Fui un generale valoroso ed il senato romano mi nominò prima console e dopo dittatore.

Arlecchina: Mamma mia, che interessante! Come fu la tua vita privata?

Gatto Giulio Cesare: Ebbi una moglie e mi legai anche a Cleopatra, la bellissima regina d'Egitto.

Arlecchina: Beh, tu fosti un uomo molto fortunato.

Gatto Giulio Cesare: Sinceramente no. Il

Arlecchina speaks with Julius Caesar the cat

Arlecchina: Is it true that you even conquered Gaul?

Julius Caesar the Cat: Certainly, and a few years later I drove on as far as the Thames. I was a valiant general and the Roman senate named me first Consul and later Dictator.

Arlecchina: Gracious, how interesting. What about your private life?

Julius Caesar the Cat: I had a wife and I was also linked with Cleopatra, the incredibly beautiful queen of Egypt.

Arlecchina: My, you were a very lucky man.

Julius Caesar the Cat: Frankly, I wasn’t,

Radio Arlecchino, Episode 2, pg 1 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.la.utexas.edu/

mio figlio adottivo Bruto mi pugnalò a

morte e mia moglie non pianse molto per

la mia scomparsa. E io non ho mai

imparato a camminare all’egiziana!

Il Gatto Marco Aurelio rivolge la parola ad Arlecchina

Gatto Marco Aurelio: Io fui l’imperatore Marco Aurelio. Non mi credi? In effetti, non ci credette neanche l’ultimo a cui ho parlato.

Arlecchina: Beh, se un gatto può parlare può pure essere un imperatore. E se sei davvero Marco Aurelio, so che la tua statua

di bronzo scampò alla distruzione perchè i

papi pensavano che fosse Costantino, il primo imperatore cristiano.

Gatto Marco Aurelio: Non posso dire che

mi dispiacque. E fui molto orgoglioso

quando Michelangelo decise di metterla in cima al Campidoglio.

Arlecchina: Ma facesti anche dei film, non è vero? Ti vidi molto tempo fa in uno chiamato Il Gladiatore.

Gatto Marco Aurelio: Ma quello non ero

io, bensì un attore

vent’anni e morii nel 180 dopo Cristo. Mio figlio Commodo non mi uccise mica.

io, io regnai per quasi

Arlecchina: Oh, “la morte sorride a tutti;

un uomo non può far altro che sorriderle di rimando”.

Gatto Marco Aurelio: Bella la tua frase Non avrei potuto esprimermi meglio io stesso.

Arlecchina: Lo disse una volta un mio amico filosofo

really. My adopted son Brutus stabbed me to death and my wife shed few tears over my death. And I have never learned to walk like an Egyptian!.

Marcus Aurelius the Cat addresses Arlecchina

Marcus Aurelius the Cat: I was the emperor Marcus Aurelius. You don’t believe me? In fact the last person I talked to didn’t believe me either.

Arlecchina: Well, if a cat can talk then what’s to keep him from being an emperor? And if you are really Marcus Aurelius, I know that your bronze statue escaped destruction because the popes thought it was Constantine, the first Christian emperor.

Marcus Aurelius the Cat: I cannot say that I was displeased. And I was quite proud when Michelangelo decided to place it at the top of the Capitoline.

Arlecchina: Now you made some movies, too, didn't you? I saw you once a long time ago in one called The Gladiator.

Marcus Aurelius the Cat: That wasn’t

me, but an actor

twenty years and I died in 180 A.D. My son Commodus didn’t really kill me.

me, I reigned for almost

Arlecchina: Oh, “Death smiles at everyone; all a man can do is smile back at her.”

Marcus Aurelius the Cat: What a fine turn of phrase! I couldn’t have said it better myself.

Arlecchina: A good philosopher friend of mine said it.

Radio Arlecchino, Episode 2, pg 2 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.la.utexas.edu/

Colombina parla con il Gatto Nerone

Colombina: È vero che Lei fece cose orribili?

Gatto Nerone: Tutte fandonie! Fui un grande artista incompreso.

Colombina: Si dice che Lei uccise anche sua madre Agrippina.

Gatto Nerone: Quella fu una idea della mia seconda moglie, Poppea. Io prima le dissi di si, per farla stare tranquilla, poi mi dimenticai di dare il contrordine

Colombina: Allora sua madre morì per sbaglio?

Gatto Nerone: In un certo senso. Ero cosi occupato con la memorizzazione dei versi della mia nuova tragedia, che mi passò di mente ed il sicario scelto da Poppea, fece a pezzi la mia dolce mammina! Povera mamma! Senti, non avresti per caso un cerino?

Colombina speaks with Nero the Cat

Colombina: Is it true that you did horrible things?

Nero the Cat: All fibs! I was a great misunderstood artist.

Colombina: They say that you killed even your mother Agrippina.

Nero the Cat: That was an idea of my second wife, Poppea. At first I told her yes, just to keep her satisfied, then I forgot to issue the countermand.

Colombina: So your mother died by mistake?

Nero the Cat: In a manner of speaking. I was so busy memorizing the verses of my new tragedy, that it slipped my mind and the killer Poppea had hired tore my sweet mummy to pieces. Poor mummy! Say, you wouldn’t have a match on you, would you?

Nota Grammaticale

The passato remoto is a simple, that is, a one-word, past tense that, just like the passato prossimo, is used to report completed actions, changes in states and to make reaction statements.

Although there are some regions of Italy where the passato remoto is used in conversation for relatively recent events, in contemporary standard Italian this tense has essentially become a literary tense used in two main situations:

1. when you are talking about events that occurred in a remote past (historical events or events that are seen as unrelated to current events), and

2. in narrative fiction (short stories, novels) and in formal expository prose (histories, biographies, encyclopedia articles.

Even in these two situations, the imperfetto will still be used to convey background and descriptive information, ongoing actions, and habitually repeated actions.

Radio Arlecchino, Episode 2, pg 3 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.la.utexas.edu/

Almost all first- and third-conjugation verbs (-are and –ire) have regular passato remoto conjugations; almost all second-conjugation verbs have irregular passato remoto conjugations.

Regular in the passato remoto

1-3-3 Pattern

1 st conjugation: cantare

avere

cantai

cantammo

ebbi

avemmo

cantasti

cantaste

avesti

aveste

cantò

cantarono

ebbe

ebbero

2 nd conjugation: vendere

leggere

vendei (vendetti)

vendemmo

lessi

leggemmo

vendesti

vendeste

leggesti

leggeste

vendè (vendette)

venderono

lesse

lessero

(vendettero)

3 rd conjugation: capire

Completely irregular: essere

capii

capimmo

fui

fummo

capisti

capiste

fosti

foste

capì

capirono

fu

furono

In summary, you don’t have to worry much about the passato remoto in conversation or in informal writing, but you definitely need to be familiar with it and to recognize it in order to read Italian texts.

Nota Culturale

The most centrally located of the seven hills of Rome is the Capitoline Hill, which was the center of the political, social and religious life of ancient Rome. It is still one the most crowded sites of modern Rome. The Piazza del Campidoglio is a stunning backdrop for wedding photographs: in the Sala Rossa, civil marriage ceremonies are performed by officials of the Italian State.

The piazza, designed by Michelangelo, has three majestic palaces and the famous statue of the philosopher-emperor Marcus Aurelius (121-180 AD), of whose famous aphorisms Arlecchina seems to be so fond. His gilded bronze equestrian statue survived destruction because the popes mistook it for a depiction of Constantine, the first Christian emperor. It was placed in this piazza by Michelangelo in 1538 and was removed for restoration in 1981. It can be seen in the Capitoline Museum; however, a copy of it still dominates the breathtaking piazza del Campidoglio. Legend has it that so long as Marcus Aurelius’ statue stands in the piazza, the Eternal City of Rome will survive.

According to another legend: the stray cats of the Coliseum are the reincarnation of

Radio Arlecchino, Episode 2, pg 4 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.la.utexas.edu/

Roman Emperors. Look for them when you visit this Roman landmark, they may share some unrevealed secrets about Ancient Rome with you!

Thanks for listening! And be sure to tell your friends that you heard it here on Radio Arlecchino!

Your hosts with the most – grammar, Antonella Olson & Eric Edwards

Out of our minds

into your ears

Radio Arlecchino, Episode 2, pg 5 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.la.utexas.edu/

Piazza della Grammatica 1 • Antonella Olson & Eric Edwards, Presentatori e Capocomici Gentili Ascoltatori,

Piazza della Grammatica 1 • Antonella Olson & Eric Edwards, Presentatori e Capocomici

Gentili Ascoltatori, Dear Listeners, Here is a transcript of our recent broadcast about using the trapassato prossimo and the trapassato remoto to talk about the past, “Pulcinella Plugged,”

Ha partecipato:

Featured in this program:

Nevin Pecorelli

as Pulcinella

Buon divertimento!

Transcript

Antonella: Pulcinella, che piacere rivederti! Come stai?

Pulcinella: Bene, bene, grazie

grazie, grazie

Ciao,

grazie a tutti quanti

Antonella: Senti, mio caro, questo tuo nuovo CD,

Pulcinella: "Pulcinella Plugged"

Antonella: ma è stupendo! L'ho sentito ieri. Non avevo mai sentito una musica simile

Pulcinella: È piaciuto anche a te?

Antonella: Come no! Dimmi una cosa, Pulcinella, è vero che all'età di sette anni avevi già composto le tue prime canzonette?

Pulcinella: Senti, io, quando sono nato, il medico non mi aveva ancora sculacciato quando ho cominciato a cantare

Antonella: Pulcinella, it’s great to see you again! How are you?

Pulcinella: Fine, fine, thanks thank you. Thanks, everybody.

Thank you,

Antonella: Listen, my dear, this new CD of yours

Pulcinella: "Pulcinella Plugged"

Antonella: why it’s stupendous! I heard it yesterday. I had never heard music like that

Pulcinella: Did you like it too?

Antonella: Of course! Tell me something, Pulcinella, is it true that at the age of seven you had all ready composed your first little songs?

Pulcinella: Listen, me, when I was born, the doctor hadn’t spanked me yet when I started to sing

Radio Arlecchino, Episode 3, pg 1 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.la.utexas.edu/

Antonella: Ma dici sul serio?!

Pulcinella: Non so scherzare

Antonella: Comunque il tuo grande successo da cantautore non è stata una cosa repentina

Pulcinella: Assolutamente no!

avevo abbandonato ogni speranza di raggiungere la fama.

Da grande

Antonella: Incredibile! E come hai trovato poi il coraggio di proseguire?

Pulcinella: L'ho trovato grazie a Colombina. Tutto è cambiato da quando le ho cantato alcune mie melodie.

Antonella: Davvero?

Pulcinella: È rimasta sbalordita dalle musiche che avevo scritto da giovane.

Antonella: Posso immaginarmelo

effetti, il grande pubblico aspettava da anni

una novità musicale quando tu finalmente hai ritrovato l'ispirazione e hai portato una ventata di novità col tuo "Pulcinella Plugged".

In

Pulcinella: Come mi ha incoraggiato l'entusiasmo di quella fanciulla!

Antonella: Poi ti hanno contattato i rappresentanti della Dimentichi

Pulcinella: No no, è stato proprio lui

signor Dimentichi

cominciato a scrivere una nuova canzone quando mi ha telefonato.

il

avevo appena

Antonella: Allora questo CD Plugged" ?

"Pulcinella

Antonella: Are you serious?!

Pulcinella: Pulcinella: No joke

Antonella: Anyway, your success as a singer-songwriter didn’t happen overnight

Pulcinella: Absolutely not!

up I had abandoned every hope of becoming famous.

When I grew

Antonella: Incredible! So how did you find the courage to go on, then?

Pulcinella: I found it thanks to Colombina. Everything changed when I sang a few of my tunes for her.

Antonella: Really?

Pulcinella: She was astonished by the music I had written when I was young.

Antonella: I can imagine

public at large had been waiting for years

for something new in music when you finally found your inspiration again and ushered in a breath of fresh air with your “Pulcinella Plugged.”

In fact, the

Pulcinella: How that girl’s enthusiasm encouraged me!

Antonella: Then the agents from Dimentichi contacted you

Pulcinella: No no, it was him

Dimentichi himself. I had just started

writing a new song when he phoned me.

Mr

Antonella: So this new CD

Plugged"

?

"Pulcinella

Radio Arlecchino, Episode 3, pg 2 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.la.utexas.edu/

Pulcinella: Tutt'una nuova fase nello sviluppo della musica leggera, modestia a parte

Antonella: Questo CD, dicevo, sarà in vendita

Pulcinella: È in vendita! Nei negozi, in

rete

stamani le copie del CD erano già

arrivate

ma devo andare -- vi saluto, amici

Quando i negozi si sono aperti

Anzi, ragazzi, è stato un piacere,

Antonellaa: Oh, Pulcinella! Non puoi rimanere ancora un attimo con noi?

Pulcinella: Mi dispiace, devo fare uno spot

pubblicitario qui nello studio accanto, poi

si fa una festa da Colombina proprio scappare

devo

Antonella: A presto, Pulcinella, tanti auguri per il CD

Pulcinella: An entirely new phase in the development of pop music, if I do say so myself.

Antonella: This CD, I was going to say, will be on sale

Pulcinella: It is on sale. In the stores,

online

morning, the copies of the CD had already

arrived. Guys, it’s been a pleasure, but I

have to go

When the stores opened this

So long, friends

Antonella: Oh, Pulcinella! Can’t you stay with us a little bit longer?

Pulcinella: I’m sorry, I have to do a promo

here in the studio next door, then there’s a

party at Colombina’s run

I really have to

Antonella: See you soon, Pulcinella, best wishes for the CD

Nota Grammaticale

The trapassato prossimo and the trapassato remoto are the last two past tenses we are going to talk about. In fact we can't have a passato prossimo, without having a trapassato prossimo, and having a passato remoto doesn't save us from also having a trapassato remoto. The good news is that, since the trapassato remoto is mainly used in literature, we can focus on the trapassato prossimo.

The function of the trapassato prossimo is to put the actions in the right chronological order:

the trapassato prossimo is used to report actions that had happened further back in the past than the other ones that we are talking about.

As Pulcinella says: 'Colombina è rimasta sbalordita dalle musiche che avevo scritto da giovane'. The action 'scrivere le musiche' happened way before (in fact Pulcinella says 'da giovane') than the action 'Colombina è rimasta sbalordita'.

And again: 'Avevo appena cominciato a scrivere una nuova canzone quando mi ha telefonato il Signor Dimentichi'. Even in this sentence the action of writing the song happened before (even if it was 'appena', just before) Mr Dimentichi called Pulcinella.

Radio Arlecchino, Episode 3, pg 3 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.la.utexas.edu/

When the trapassato prossimo reports an action that took place before another action in the

past, the other action is not always explicit. Sometimes in fact you use the trapassato prossimo by itself without referring to the other action like 'Da grande avevo abbandonato ogni speranza

di raggiungere la fama'. Here you assume something happened after 'avevo abbandonato' that

changed Pulcinella's situation.

Other times the trapassato prossimo comes out to show the prior cause of a past event: 'Non ho più scritto canzoni perchè avevo abbandonato la speranza di diventare un grande cantante' where 'avevo abbandonato la speranza' is the cause of past event 'Non ho più scritto canzoni'.

formation

The pluperfect (il piuccheperfetto, or more commonly il trapassato prossimo) is formed with the auxiliary in the imperfetto followed by the past participle of the verb. The choice of auxiliary, essere or avere, is the same as for the passato prossimo.

Trapassato prossimo = auxiliary in the imperfetto + past participle of verb

mangiare, to eat I had eaten, you had eaten, etc.

mangiare, to eat I had eaten, you had eaten, etc.

avevo mangiato

avevi mangiato

aveva mangiato

avevamo mangiato

avevate mangiato

avevamo mangiato

andare, to go - I had gone, you had gone, etc.

andare, to go - I had gone, you had gone, etc.

ero andato/a

eri andato/a

era andato/a

eravamo andati/e

eravate andati/e

erano andati/e

The rules for past participle agreement in the trapassato prossimo are the same as for the passato prossimo.

Trapassato remoto

Like the passato remoto, the trapassato remoto is a tense used in literature and narrative writing. The two tenses are often found together in the same text. The trapassato remoto is used

in literature, in formal writing, and in very formal speeches, when speaking of past events which

are prior to other past actions. It is very similar to the trapassato prossimo in that it is used to

refer to a past action that was completed before another action in the past, but its use is very restricted.

Three different conditions must all be met before trapassato remoto can be the right tense to use:

Radio Arlecchino, Episode 3, pg 4 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.la.utexas.edu/

1.

trapassato remoto must appear in a subordinate clause introduced by a conjunction of time, such as (non) appena (as soon as), dopo che (after), or quando (when);

2. the verb in the main clause must be in the passato remoto;

3. the action of the verb in the trapassato remoto must be prior, that is, it happens before the verb in the main clause.

Consider the following example:

Appena ebbe compiuto dieci anni Pantalone cominciò a risparmiare. (As soon as he turned ten Pantalone began to save)

1. the clause with “had turned ten” is introduced by “appena,” a conjunction of time. The first condition has been met.

2. the verb in the main clause, “cominciò”, is in the passato remoto. The second condition has been met.

3. the action of the verb in the subordinate clause is prior to the action in the main clause. Thus all three of the necessary conditions for trapassato remoto have been met.

formation

The trapassato remoto is formed with the passato remoto of the appropriate auxiliary (avere or essere) plus the past participle of the main verb.

Trapassato remoto = auxiliary in the passato remoto + past participle of main verb

parlare 'to speak' - I had spoken, you had spoken, etc.

ebbi parlato

avemmo parlato

avesti parlato

aveste parlato

ebbe parlato

ebbero parlato

andare 'to go' - I had gone, you had gone, etc. fummo andati/e foste andati/e furono andati/e

fui andato/a

fosti andato/a

fu andato/a

Radio Arlecchino, Episode 3, pg 5 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.la.utexas.edu/

Nota Culturale

It can be great fun to familiarize yourself with these tenses through the history of the great period of the Italian opera and by reading the libretti that accompany each of these operas. Libretto (pl. libretti) is an Italian word that translates literally as "little book"—it’s the script of an opera, the words that the singers sing. They are usually very easy to access online. To start your journey, you could visit the web site of Casa Ricordi (www.ricordi.com). Casa Ricordi is the oldest Italian music publishing firm and ‘undoubtedly the world’s most important publisher of opera. It was founded in Milan in 1808 and Ricordi has published some of the all-time greatest Italian opera scores and libretti. Ricordi is also a very important Italian recording label. On the web site of Casa Ricordi you may read about the most famous Italian composers from Rossini to Donizetti, as well as the other great names like Bellini, Verdi and Puccini. You may also read and listen to some of the most important contemporary composers both Italian and foreign.

If opera is not your genre, there is a wide array of Italian pop singers whose work is accessible on the website of MTV Italia (www.mtv.it). Despite the strong presence of foreign artists, there is also a considerable number of Italian singers ranging from hip-hop and rap to techno. Sadly, you won’t be able to learn much about the trapassato prossimo and the trapassato remoto as they are not much employed in this musical context.

Another option is to log on the web site of the Italian public television network (www.rai.it) Usually, on the very first page there is a music section where you can learn about very many talented cantautori (singer-songwriters) that do not belong to the pop mainstream. You may search and learn more about such talented artists as Fabrizio De Andrè, Paolo Conte, Mimmo Locasciulli and many more. Unfortunately, Pulcinella’s greatest hits are probably confined to history and our imagination.

Thanks for listening! And be sure to tell your friends that everything is plus quam perfectus more than perfect – here on Radio Arlecchino!

Your hosts with the most – grammar, Antonella Olson & Eric Edwards

Out of our minds

into your ears

Radio Arlecchino, Episode 3, pg 6 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.la.utexas.edu/

Piazza della Grammatica 1 • Antonella Olson & Eric Edwards, Presentatori e Capocomici Gentili Ascoltatori,

Piazza della Grammatica 1 • Antonella Olson & Eric Edwards, Presentatori e Capocomici

Gentili Ascoltatori, Dear Listeners,

Here’s a transcript of “I’m In the Mood For …” – our recent show about expressing opinions and emotions using the subjunctive mood, which you can hear by accessing

Gli artisti:

Artists in this broadcast:

Steven Miller

Pulcinella as a singer

Eric Edwards

Writer and composer of Pulcinella’s song

Marlene Lucio, Henry Fuentes, Wesley Baker and Bryant Moscon as the Wheirdos

Buon divertimento!

Transcript

La canzone di Pulcinella “Spaghetti alle lacrime”

Il povero Pulcinella crede che la vita sia bella ma non sa cosa lo aspetta al veder Arlecchinetta.

Quando la vedo sul palcoscenico crederai ch'io diventi schizofrenico

In quel momento leggendario quando si alza il sipario

mi pare che si tolga il tovagliolo per rivelare il raviolo

più squisito della terra. Nel mio cuor: effetto serra!

Più deliziosa di Arlecchinetta

The Song of Pulcinella “Tearful Spaghetti (A poetic translation, not word for word!)

Poor little, little Pulcinella thinks that life is so stellar but he doesn’t know what’s gonna come when he sees Arlecchinetta, she’s the one!

When I see her up on the stage

I think I’m flying into a rage

In that moment so legendary when the curtain lifts heavenly

it seems that it removes the wrapping to reveal the ravioli’s delicate topping

most exquisite throughout the globe

a deadly greenhouse effect on my soul

More delicious than my lovely Arlecchinetta

Radio Arlecchino, Episode 4, pg 1 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.la.utexas.edu/

non credo che pizza abbia fetta.

Questo è sogno? o è fatto? Pulcinella, dai, sei matto

Voglio disperatamente dirle quanto io le voglio bene ma lei non sente non vuole che le dica niente.

Arlecchina, Arlecchina,

quando sentirai il mio pianto saprai che il mio cuor è infranto.

Per il dolor della mia anima spezzata non c’è altro rimedio che una bella spaghettata.

not even the most delectable tomato on bruschetta

Is this a dream, or is it really true Come on, Pulcinella, don’t be a fool

I desperately want to say how much I love her every day but she doesn’t hear a thing she wants that I tell her No-thing!

Arlecchina, Arlecchina,

when you hear me cry and wail you’ll know that my heart’s gonna fail

For the pain of my broken soul and psyche there’s no other remedy but a fine plate of spaghetti.

Nota Grammaticale

Indicative vs Subjunctive Main rules to use subjunctive (wheirdo category/two subjects) and infinitive (one subject)

By far the most common use of the subjunctive is to express actions that are viewed subjectively rather than objectively: actions that are colored by emotion or doubt rather than reported as matters of fact. This use of the subjunctive in dependent clauses is triggered by verbs in the main clause that we may consider as belonging to the “WHEIRDO” category: verbs that denote wish or will, hope, emotion, impersonal expressions, recommendations, doubt or denial,

opinions:

W is for Wanting and Wishing. Vorrei che Colombina si innamorasse di me!

I wish Colombina would fall in love with me.

H is for Hope.

Spero che il Dottore non dia più fastidio ad Arlecchina.

I hope the Dottore won’t bother Arlecchina any more.

E is for Emotion.

Gli spettatori hanno paura che Arlecchino gli salti sulle gambe. The audience is afraid Arlecchino will jump right into their laps.

Radio Arlecchino, Episode 4, pg 2 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.la.utexas.edu/

I is for Impersonal Expressions.

È impossibile che Arlecchino smetta di corteggiare Colombina.

It’s impossible for Arlecchino to stop courting Colombina.

R is for Recommending.

Il regista si raccomanda che tutti gli attori imparino la parte a memoria.

The director recommends that all the actors learn their parts by heart.

D is for Doubt.

Arlecchina dubita che Pulcinella la difenda da Balanzone. Arlecchina doubts that Pulcinella will defend her from Balanzone.

O is for Opinion.

Pulcinella crede che la vita sia bella. Pulcinella believes that life is beautiful.

While in the indicative mood, the choice of verb tense almost always depends on when the action takes place: in the past, the present, or the future, in the subjunctive mood, the choice of tense depends on when the action takes place in relation to the verb in the main clause that triggers the use of the subjunctive in the subordinate clause:

Il Dottore sa che Colombina è bella -- indicative The Doctor thinks that Colombina is beautiful.

Colombina pensa che il Dottore sia brutto -- subjunctive Colombina thinks that the Doctor is ugly.

Here some of the golden rules that govern this mood:

1. Verb in the main clause belongs to the WHEIRDO category;

2. The dependent clause is introduced by che and has a subject different from the one in the main clause.

The subjunctive mood has four tenses:

Presente:

Penso che la canzone di Pulcinella abbia parole strane

I

think Pulcinella’s song has weird lyrics

Passato:

Penso che lui abbia scritto la canzone in un momento di follia

I

think he wrote the song in a moment of foolishness

Imperfetto:

Speravamo che Pulcinella invitasse tutti We were hoping that Pulcinella would invite everyone

Radio Arlecchino, Episode 4, pg 3 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.la.utexas.edu/

Trapassato:

Avremmo voluto che lo spettacolo fosse cominciato prima We would have wanted for the show to begin earlier.

If the verb in the main clause belongs to the WHEIRDO category and the subject of the main clause is the same as the subject of the dependent clause, then the infinitive mood must be used. Infinito presente is used if the action is contemporary or future compared to the action of the verb in the main clause:

Pulcinella pensa (pensava/aveva pensato/ecc.) di cantare bene. Pulcinella thinks (thought/had thought/etc.) to sing well (that he sings well).

Infinito passato is used if the the action is past compared to the action of the verb in the main clause:

Loro sperano (speravano/avevano sperato/ecc.) di aver recitato bene ieri sera. They hope (were hoping/had hoped/etc.) to have performed (that they have/hadperformed) well last night .

Nota Culturale

If you get a déjà vu feeling during this Moody Musical Moment, it might be because our Pulcinella has freely quoted--and misquoted--passages from Donizetti's L'elisir d'amore ("Una furtiva lagrima") and Puccini's Tosca ("E lucevan le stelle").

Vocabolario: a teatro

If you decide to go to the Teatro in Italy you can buy il biglietto (the ticket) on line or al botteghino (ticket office). Before entering the theatre, you must find a parcheggio (parking area) for your car. Often, outside the theatre a parcheggiatore (parking man) is available to accommodate your needs. In Rome, he will lure you with a venghi, venghi Dotto’ (come, come Doctor). You will wonder when you went to medical school or got your PhD or what strange use of the subjunctive is the one he uses. Tuttavia (nonetheless) you give him your car and your money but non temere (fear not!) when lo spettacolo finisce (the show ends) your valuable car will still be there.

Often, you will consume una bibita (a drink) before the show starts. When you decide to seat al tuo posto (your seat), you ask la maschera (the usher) to help you locate it. In big theatres there are molte file numerate (many numbered rows) and it is not easy to find the right seat. If you seat in platea, (the main floor in front of the stage) your tickets must be molto cari (very expensive). If you seat in piccionaia (lit. where the pigeons stay) you are a probably a student and your tickets are molto economici (very cheap). Wherever you seat, il palcoscenico (the stage) dominates the theatre.

Ecco, Si alza il sipario, entrano gli attori, la magia incomincia. (Here it is. The curtain goes up, the actors enter the stage, the magic begins). If la rappresentazione (the performance) is nice,

Radio Arlecchino, Episode 4, pg 4 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.la.utexas.edu/

you applaudirai gli attori molte volte (you will applaud the actors many times). If la rappresentazione is not nice, si può fischiare (one may boo) but always with classe e discrezione (tact and discretion). Enjoy the show and don’t forget to vestirsi in maniera appropriata (dress appropriately); after all you are in Italy!

Thanks for listening! And be sure to tell your friends that you heard it here on Radio Arlecchino!

Your hosts with the most – grammar, Antonella Olson & Eric Edwards

Out of our minds

into your ears

Radio Arlecchino, Episode 4, pg 5 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.la.utexas.edu/

Piazza della Grammatica 1 • Antonella Olson & Eric Edwards, Presentatori e Capocomici Gentili Ascoltatori,

Piazza della Grammatica 1 • Antonella Olson & Eric Edwards, Presentatori e Capocomici

Gentili Ascoltatori, Dear Listeners, Here’s a transcript of “Opening Night Jitters” our recent show about the present and past subjunctive, which you can hear by clicking on the following link:

Hanno partecipato (Featured in this podcast):

Simone Sessolo

Pantalone

Esmeralda Moscatelli

Colombina

Buon divertimento!

Transcript

Dialogue 1 - italiano

Dietro le quinte al Teatro San Carlo. Si è alzato il sipario per il Primo Atto. Ascoltiamo gli attori mentre aspettano di entrare in scena…

Dottore: Quando usciranno le recensioni, Pulcinella vorrà che gli leggiamo solo quelle favorevoli.

Arlecchina: È importante che Pulcinella impari ad accettare anche i commenti negativi.

Arlecchino: Mi auguro che i miei colleghi si comportino bene sul palcoscenico. Sono così zotici! A presto -- Ora tocca a me entrare in scena!

Dottore: Voglio sperare che questo pubblico sappia riconoscere una rappresentazione di qualità!

Dialogue 1 – English

Backstage at the Teatro San Carlo. The curtain has gone up on the First Act. We listen in on the actors who are waiting in the wings

Dottore: When the reviews come out, Pulcinella will want us to read him only the favorable ones.

Arlecchina: It’s important that Pulcinella learn to accept negative comments as well.

Arlecchino: I hope my colleagues will behave themselves on stage. They are so boorish. See you soon – it’s my turn to go on now.

Dottore: I certainly hope this audience know how to recognize a quality performance.

Radio Arlecchino, Episode 5, pg 1 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.la.utexas.edu/

Arlecchina: Non credo che ci sia da preoccuparsi, Dottore.

Dottore: Invece io dubito che gli spettatori presenti siano in grado di apprezzare le mie innate qualità di attore teatrale.

Arlecchina: Non si turbi, Dottore. Credo che Arlecchino e Pulcinella si siano sempre esibiti qui a Napoli con grande successo.

Dottore: Proprio questa è la questione, mia cara. Non crederai che io sia felice di dividere questo palco con quei due disgraziati senza arte nè parte.

Arlecchina: Però mi pare che il pubblico si diverta. Sente come ridono?

Dottore: Voglio che sappiano ora cosa significa meravigliarsi davvero! Il più grande attore teatrale di tutti i tempi sta entrando.

Arlecchino: Ecco, arriva il Dottore! Temo che lui ce l’abbia con me. Mi arrampico sulla scala, così non mi vedrà

Dottore: Ecce Doctor doctororum! Balanzone, a vostro servizio!

Dialogue 2 – italiano

Pantalone: Colombina, hai visto quello che ha combinato il tuo Arlecchino durante la scena?

Colombina: Ho visto, ho visto! Qualsiasi cosa abbia provato a fare, gli è riuscita male!

Pantalone: Io credo che abbia cercato di

Arlecchina: I don’t believe there’s any reason to worry, Dottore.

Dottore: I rather doubt that these spectators are capable of appreciating my innate theatrical abilities.

Arlecchina: Don’t upset yourself, Dottore. I believe that Arlecchino and Pulcinella have always performed here in Naples to great success.

Dottore: This is the very issue, my dear. You mustn’t believe that I am happy to be sharing the stage with these two jobless and penniless wretches.

Arlecchina: However it seems to me that the audience are enjoying themselves. Don’t you hear how they’re laughing?

Dottore: Now I’ll have them know what it means to be truly amazed! The greatest actor of all times is entering the stage.

Arlecchino: Behold, here comes the Dottore. I fear he has it in for me. I'll climb this ladder so he won't see me.

Dottore: Ecce Doctor doctororum! Balanzone, at your service!

Dialogue 2 – English

Pantalone: Colombina, did you see what your Arlecchino managed to do during the scene?

Colombina: Oh, I saw it! No matter what he tried to do, it came out wrong!

Pantalone: I believe he must have been

Radio Arlecchino, Episode 5, pg 2 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.la.utexas.edu/

fare il più bel lazzo della stagione

Colombina: Hai visto quando stava per cadere veramente dalla scala? Forse perché c’ero io sotto! Credo che abbia provato a cadermi addosso -- invece ha fatto venire un bel bernoccolo sulla testa del Dottore!

Pantalone: Non c’è nessun altro qui che abbia visto quello che è successo?

Colombina: Te lo racconto io come è andata. Dunque, quando ha visto che ero proprio lì sotto, ha messo appositamente un piede male sulla scala!

Pantalone: Ma che furbastro!

Colombina: Allora io ho urlato ‘Stai attento!’ e sai che ha fatto allora Arlecchino? Mi ha guardato dall’alto e penso proprio che l’abbia fatto apposta a cadere. Ma io mi sono scansata e lui ha beccato il Dottore.

Dottore: Maledetto Arlecchino!

Arlecchino: Coraggio, Dottore!

Dottore: Assassino!

trying to come up with the season’s greatest bit

Colombina: Did you see when he was really about to fall from the ladder? Perhaps because I was underneath! I believe he tried to fall on top of me – but instead he gave the Dottore a fine bump on the noggin!

Pantalone: Is there no-one else here who saw what happened?

Colombina: Oh, I’ll tell you how it went. Now, when he saw that I was right there underneath, he deliberately let his foot slip on the ladder.

Pantalone: What a scoundrel!

Colombina: Then I shouted, “Watch out!” and you know what Arlecchino did then? He looked at me from above and I really think he fell on purpose. But I got out of the way and he hit the Dottore.

Dottore: Confounded Arlecchino!

Arlecchino: Courage, Dottore!

Dottore: Murderer!

Nota Grammaticale Congiuntivo presente e passato

As we’ve already said we have to use the subjunctive when the verb in the main clause belongs to the WHEIRDO category -- verbs of Wishing and Wanting, Hope, Emotions, Impersonal expressions, Recommendations, Doubt, Opinion -- and when the verb in the subordinate clause has a DIFFERENT SUBJECT from the one in the main clause.

NOTE: Beside verbs that belong to the WHEIRDO category, the subjunctive mood can be introduced by conjunctions such as benché / sebbene / per quanto (although), affinché / perché

Radio Arlecchino, Episode 5, pg 3 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.la.utexas.edu/

(so that), a meno che non (unless) as well as indefinite expressions such as qualsiasi cosa (whatever), chiunque (whoever), nessuno (nobody).

Now we need to focus on how to choose the right tense--in this particular episode, how to choose between the first two tenses of the subjunctive: the present and the past. These two tenses of the subjunctive are used when our main verb is in any present or future tense, or if it is in the imperative. We pick between the present and the past subjunctive depending on WHEN the two actions take place in relation to each other.

So, we use the present subjunctive when the action in the subordinate clause takes place at the same time as or later than the action of the verb in the WHEIRDO clause.

Ho paura che lo spettacolo stia per cominciare. I’m afraid the play is about to start.

And we use the past subjunctive when the action in the subordinate clause took place prior to the action of the verb in the WHEIRDO clause.

Credo che abbiano chiuso le porte.

I believe they’ve closed the doors.

As we said before, we use the subjunctive if in the main clause we have a verb that belongs to the WHEIRDO category and if the verb in the subordinate clause has a different subject from the one in the main clause. What happens if the subject of the two clauses is the same? In this case we use the infinitive.

Spero di avere ancora il mio permesso-stampa.

I hope I still have my press pass. (I hope—now—that I have it—now: simple infinitive)

Spero di non avere lasciato a casa il mio permesso-stampa.

I hope I didn’t leave my press pass at home. (I hope—now—that I didn’t leave it at home—

earlier: past infinitive, the infinitive of the auxiliary verb plus the past participle)

And here’s how we form the present and the past subjunctive:

For the present, the easiest part is that the three singular forms are always the same within the same conjugation, the first-person plural form is always the same as the first-person plural of the present indicative, and the second-person plural ending is the same in all three conjugations. Furthermore, you can always get the third-person plural form by adding –no to the singular form:

Radio Arlecchino, Episode 5, pg 4 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.la.utexas.edu/

Regular of the subjunctive

1 st conjugation: cantare

2 nd conjugation: chiudere

cant-i

cant-iamo

chiud-a chiud-iamo

cant-i

cant-iate

chiud-a

chiud-iate

cant-i

cant-ino

chiud-a chiud-ano

3 rd conjugation: sentire

3 rd conjugation with –isc-: capire (-isc)

sent-a

sent-iamo

capisca

capiamo

sent-a

sent-iate

capisca

capiate

sent-a

sent-ano

capisca

capiscano

The past subjunctive, like the passato prossimo, is a compound tense: it is formed with the present subjunctive of the auxiliary avere or essere + the past participle of the main verb:

Conjugation with avere as auxiliary verb:

Conjugation with essere as auxiliary verb:

abbia recitato

abbiamo recitato

sia andato/a

siamo andati/e

abbia recitato

abbiate recitato

sia andato/a

siate andati/e

abbia recitato

abbiano recitato

sia andato/a

siano andati/e

abbia venduto, abbia sentito, etc.

sia nato/a, sia uscito/a, etc.

As we know, in Italian some verbs like andare, avere, bere, dare, dire, dovere, essere, fare, piacere, potere, sapere, stare, uscire, venire, volere, are irregular, therefore they are conjugated in a different way. The good news, though, is that the three singular persons will always be the same, the first-person plural form will always be the same as the present indicative, and you can get the third-person plural form by adding –no to the singular form. As an example, we can look at essere, which is just about as irregular as any verb is going to get:

sia, sia, sia, siamo, siate, siano

In our next episode, Episode 6, we’ll be looking at the imperfect and pluperfect subjunctive, and how they are used when the WHEIRDO verb is in any past or any conditional tense!

Nota Culturale

If you go to Naples you must visit the Teatro San Carlo. The theatre was built in 1737 and it is the oldest one in Europe. According to Stendhal, it is also ‘the loveliest of the all world’ but the French novelist loved Italy too much to be a reliable source

The theatre is named after King Carlo di Borbone who conquered the city in 1734 after thirty-

Radio Arlecchino, Episode 5, pg 5 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.la.utexas.edu/

four years of Austrian domination making Naples the capital of an independent and sovereign kingdom. Pretty important for a city that has a history of foreign domination!

The first performance at the San Carlo, Achille in Sciro by Domenico Sarro, took place on the 4th of November 1737. The theatre was completely destroyed by a fire in 1816; Ferdinand I di Borbone ordered the theatre to be rebuilt six days later and what you see today is the result of this latest architectonic manipulation.

The San Carlo contributed enormously to the development of the Italian opera, both the opera seria and the melodrama. Great composers of the Neapolitan school, Paisiello, Traetta, Cimarosa, as well as more internationally known artists such as Rossini and Donizetti were actively involved in composing for the San Carlo. Many of them also served as artistic directors of the theatre. If you go to Naples and decide to pay a visit to the San Carlo remember that the opera season begins in January.

The theatre is also renowned for its school of ballet, whose fame spread all over Europe along with that of the theatre itself. The Neapolitan ballet was born. Evviva. Grazie, Carlo!

Vocabolario: a teatro

Everything went well alle prove (at the rehearsals) but the night della prima (of the premiere), all the actors are ansiosi (anxious). There are those who read endlessly il copione (the script), others

who lo recitano a voce alta (recite it aloud) and the diva mysteriously locked herself up nel suo camerino (in her dressing room) where nobody knows what she is doing. Probably, si sta provando i costumi di scena (she is trying on her costumes) or si sta facendo il trucco (she is putting her make up on). “Due minuti, solo due minuti”(two minutes left) cries l’assistente del regista (the director’s assistant). Everyone’s ready a entrare in scena? (to enter the stage). Where

is the diva? Ah

As any great theatrical actress, la protagonista si sta fumando una sigaretta

dietro le quinte (the female main character is smoking a cigarette backstage). “Tutti gli attori sul palcoscenico” (all the actors on stage) cries now il regista nervosissimo (the very nervous director). Buona fortuna! Break a leg!

Thanks for listening! And be sure to tell your friends that you heard it here on Radio Arlecchino!

Your hosts with the most – grammar, Antonella Olson & Eric Edwards

Out of our minds

into your ears

Radio Arlecchino, Episode 5, pg 6 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.la.utexas.edu/

Piazza della Grammatica 1 • Antonella Olson & Eric Edwards, Presentatori e Capocomici Gentili Ascoltatori,

Piazza della Grammatica 1 • Antonella Olson & Eric Edwards, Presentatori e Capocomici

Gentili Ascoltatori, Dear Listeners, Here’s a transcript of “All’s Well that Ends” our recent show about the imperfect and pluperfect subjunctive, which you can hear by clicking on the following link:

Hanno partecipato (Featured in this podcast):

Esmeralda Moscatelli

Colombina

Simone Sessolo

Pantalone

Nevin Pecorelli

Pulcinella

Buon divertimento!

Transcript

Dialogue 1 - italiano

Arlecchina: Vorrei che mi aiutassi con il mio abito.

Colombina: Va bene. Cosa devo fare?

Arlecchina: Speravo che mi potessi aiutare ad accorciare l’orlo di un centimetro.

Colombina: Sarebbe meglio che lo lasciassi così com’è. C’è il rischio che la gonna diventi troppo corta.

Arlecchina: Davvero? Allora sarebbe opportuno accorciarlo di due centimetri In prima fila c’è un bel ragazzo biondo. Vorrei proprio che mi notasse!

Colombina: Fa’ come vuoi. Secondo me

Dialogue 1 – English

Arlecchina: I’d like you to help me with my costume.

Colombina: All right. What do I need to do?

Arlecchina: I was hoping you could help me raise the hem by a centimetre.

Colombina: It would be better for you to leave it the way it is. There’s a risk that the skirt will end up too short.

Arlecchina: Really? Then it would be a good idea to raise it two centimetres There’s a goodlooking blond guy in the first row. I’d really like for him to notice me.

Colombina: Do what you want. For my

Radio Arlecchino, Episode 6, pg 1 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.la.utexas.edu/

sarebbe giusto che ti notasse senza che tu gli facessi lo spogliarello davanti.

Arlecchina: E secondo me, sarebbe meglio che tu pensassi agli affari tuoi.

Dialogue 2 – italiano

Pantalone: Allora, fatemi leggere. Qui il critico dice: "Era ridicolo che gli attori avessero provato così tanto, visto il risultato così misero".

Arlecchino: Lo sapevo. Abbiamo dato retta di nuovo a Pulcinella. Era già evidente nelle prove che tu non ne avessi azzecata una. Ora basta! Questa è l’ultima volta che gli diamo retta!

Pulcinella: Eppure sul palco avevo la netta impressione che avessimo preso la strada giusta.

Pantalone: Come no. Senti qua: "Quello chiamato Pulcinella sembrava che non avesse mai recitato in vita sua".

Arlecchino: Ma come? Dopo lo spettacolo dell’anno scorso ti diceva che sembrava fossi nato per fare il buffone.

Pulcinella: E qui c’è scritto che nessuno credeva che le Muse mi avessero ispirato ma che presto tutti vedranno i frutti del mio impegno e della mia creatività

Pantalone: Ma quale critico ha scritto tutto ciò?

Pulcinella: Critico? Ma questo è il mio oroscopo!

money it would be best that he notice you without your doing a striptease in front of him.

Arlecchina: And for my money, it would be best that you mind your own business!

Dialogue 2 – English

Pantalone: Now then, let me read this Here the critic says, “It was ridiculous that the actors should have tried so hard, in view of the miserable outcome.”

Arlecchino: I knew it. We listened to Pulcinella again. It was already evident in rehearsals that you hadn’t got it right a single time. Now that’s enough! This is the last time we listen to him!

Pulcinella: And yet on the stage I had the distinct impression that we had chosen the right approach.

Pantalone: Oh sure! Listen to this: “It seemed that the one called Pulcinella had never acted in his life.”

Arlecchino: What’s the deal? After last year’s show, he was telling you that you seemed to have been born to play the clown.

Pulcinella: And here it says that no-one believed that the Muses had inspired me but that soon everyone will see the fruits of my dedication and creativity.

Pantalone: Now what critic wrote all that?

Pulcinella: Critic? This is my horoscope!

Radio Arlecchino, Episode 6, pg 2 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.la.utexas.edu/

Nota Grammaticale Imperfetto e trapassato ( piuccheperfetto) congiuntivo

At this point we should be familiar with the WHEIRDO verbs and how their use in the main clause triggers one of the subjunctive tenses in the subordinate clause when the subjects of the two clauses are different.

NOTE: Beside verbs that belong to the WHEIRDO category, the subjunctive mood can be introduced by conjunctions such as benché / sebbene / per quanto (although), affinché / perché (so that), a meno che non (unless) and expressions as come se (as if), magari (I wish, if only)-- for these last two, only imperfetto and trapassato of the subjunctive mood are used--as well as indefinite expressions such as qualsiasi cosa (whatever), chiunque (whoever), nessuno (nobody).

Here we will talk about the imperfect and the pluperfect subjunctive, the imperfetto and the trapassato, or piuccheperfetto. So, if the verb in the main clause is in a past tense or in a tense of the conditional we will use either the imperfect or the pluperfect subjunctive. How do we choose between the two of them?

Once again it’s all a question of when the two actions take place in relation to each other: if the action in the subjunctive happens at the same time or later we use the imperfect.

Speravo che mi potessi aiutare ad accorciare l’orlo di un centimetro.

I hoped you could help me to shorten the hem by one centimeter.

Vorrei che mi aiutassi con il mio abito

I would like you to help me with my dress

And if the action in the subjunctive took place earlier we’ll need the pluperfect subjunctive.

Era già evidente nelle prove che tu non ne avessi azzecata una. It was already clear during the rehearsal that you hadn’t guessed any correctly.

Avrei voluto che tu ti fossi nascosto meglio

I would have liked that you had hidden yourself better. Or,

I would have liked for you to have hidden yourself better.

Remember that when the two clauses have the same subject, you’ll continue to use the infinitive instead of the subjunctive in the subordinate clause. The subjunctive has four tenses, but we only have the simple and the past infinitives, so we will “recycle” them when our main verb is in a past or a conditional tense:

Arlecchina sperava di attirare l’attenzione del giovanotto in prima fila.

Radio Arlecchino, Episode 6, pg 3 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.la.utexas.edu/

Arlecchina hoped she would attract the attention of the young man in the first row.

Colombina sperava di non aver fatto male ad Arlecchina con l’ago. Colombina hoped that she had not hurt Arlecchina with the needle.

The formation of the imperfect follows this pattern:

1 st conjugation: cantare

2 nd conjugation: chiudere

canta-ssi

canta-ssimo

vende-ssi vende-ssimo

canta-ssi

canta-ste

vende-ssi vende-ste

canta-sse

canta-ssero

vende-sse vende-ssero

3 rd conjugation: sentire senti--ssi senti-ssimo

senti-ssi

senti-sse senti-ssero

senti-ste

As you’ll notice, the endings are the same in all three conjugations. Don’t forget to pay attention to the irregular verbs such as bere, dire, fare, porre, trarre, tradurre. The imperfect subjunctive of these verbs is based on the same stem as the imperfect of the indicative: bere, bevevo, bevessi; dire, dicevo, dicessi; porre, ponevo, ponessi, etc.

The conjugation of the pluperfect follows the rules of any compound tense, in this case: the imperfect subjunctive of the auxiliary, avere or essere, + the past participle of the main verb.

Conjugation with avere as auxiliary verb:

Conjugation with essere as auxiliary verb:

avessi cantato

avessimo cantato

fossi andato/a

fossimo andati/e

avessi cantato

aveste cantato

fossi andato/a

foste andati/e

avesse cantato

avessero cantato

fosse andato/a

fossero andati/e

avessi venduto, avessi sentito, etc.

fossi nato/a, fossi uscito/a, etc.

In Episode 7 we’ll briefly summarize the WHEIRDO use of the subjunctive and introduce one other special way in which the third-person singular of the present subjunctive is used.

Vocabolario: recensioni

Often times, un critico teatrale (a theatre critic) assists alla prima (the opening night) to write una recensione (a review). He/she notes how the actors hanno recitato (have recited), how the music è stata eseguita (was performed), how la scenografia (stage set) was realized and how il regista/la regista (the director) was able to merge the elements together. If il critico is happy with what he/she saw, he/she will write parole meravigliose (beautiful words) about the actors

Radio Arlecchino, Episode 6, pg 4 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.la.utexas.edu/

and the performance. Li loderà (he will praise them) and li innalzerà (he will rise them) to the sky. If il critico is not happy with what he/she saw, he/she will write parole terribili (terrible words) and causerà molti guai e tribolazioni (he will cause difficulties and tribulation) to the actors. But, guai ai vinti! (Woe to the vanquished!). A true actor will never be defeated by the words of un critico teatrale and continuerà imperterrito per la sua strada (he will continue on his/her way undaunted).

Thanks for listening! And be sure to tell your friends that you heard it here on Radio Arlecchino!

Your hosts with the most – grammar, Antonella Olson & Eric Edwards

Out of our minds

into your ears

Radio Arlecchino, Episode 6, pg 5 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.la.utexas.edu/

Piazza della Grammatica 1 • Antonella Olson & Eric Edwards, Presentatori e Capocomici Gentili Ascoltatori,

Piazza della Grammatica 1 • Antonella Olson & Eric Edwards, Presentatori e Capocomici

Gentili Ascoltatori, Dear Listeners, Here’s a transcript of “Someone’s is the Kitchen with Pulcinella” our recent show which summarized the subjunctive and the formal imperative. You can hear this podcast by clicking

on

Ha

partecipato (Featured in this podcast):

Nevin Pecorelli

Buon divertimento!

Transcript

Frittata di spaghetti

Pulcinella

Benvenuti, radioascoltatori

Al programma di cucina di Pulcinella

Volete un piatto di gnocchetti?

E invece no!

Vi farò una frittata di spaghetti!

Prenda, signora, cinque uova, Della frittata son la prova, Unisca pepe, sale e pecorino Non troppo, solo un pochino

Gli spaghetti cari amici Son allegri e son felici

Di poter essere uniti

Ad ingredienti assai squisiti.

Tagli 80 grammi di salame-- Napoletano, il migliore del reame--

E in cubetti regolari

Della provola di Bari

Ma non è finita qui, amici cari:

Se la provola non è abbastanza,

Spaghetti Frittata

Welcome, radio listeners, to Pulcinella’s kitchen program

Are you wanting a plate of little gnocchi? No, instead, I’ll make you a spaghetti frittata!

Take five eggs, ma’am, They’re the proof of the frittata, Add pepper, salt and pecorino Not too much, just a bit.

Spaghetti, dear friends, Is merry and happy To be brought together With such exquisite ingredients.

Cut 80 grams of salame-- Neapolitan, the best in the land-- And some provola from Bari In uniform little cubes.

But that’s not the end, dear friends:

If the provola’s not enough,

Radio Arlecchino, Episode 7, pg 1 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.la.utexas.edu/

Possa il provolone dar la sostanza.

Ecco a voi la frittata di Pulcinella! Non vi sembra che sia bella? Ah, no? Volete un altro ingrediente Qualcosa di più potente?

E allora, signora, aggiunga un bel peperoncino calabrese-- Ma attenzione che la vostra bocca farà fuoco per un mese!

Let provolone lend it substance.

Behold Pulcinella’s spaghetti frittata! Don’t you think it looks grand? Oh no? You want some other ingredient? Something more potent?

Well, then, ma’am, add a lovely Calabrese

pepper--

But watch out! your mouth will be on fire for a month!

Nota Grammaticale

Using the subjunctive mood

Here we are, for the last time, talking about the subjunctive mood. There are several different situations that call for the subjunctive in Italian, but by far the most common is its use in subordinate clauses triggered by a verb in the famous WHEIRDO category. These are verbs that

express:

Doubt or Denial, Opinion.

Wishing and Wanting, Hope, Emotions, Impersonal expressions, Recommending,

When a verb in this category introduces a subordinate clause with a different subject, we will have to use the subjunctive in that subordinate clause.

How are we going to choose the right tense of the subjunctive ? Remember that the subjunctive mood has four tenses: Presente, Passato, Imperfetto e Trapassato, also called

Piuccheperfetto.

la concordanza dei tempi nel congiuntivo.

The following chart summarizes the sequence of tenses in the subjunctive:

the tense of the WHEIRDO verb is

and

the action in the subordinate

the

verb in the subordinate

clause has a different subject and takes

clause will be in this tense:

 

place

present, future, or imperative

at the same time as or later than the WHEIRDO verb

present subjunctive congiuntivo presente

prior to (before) the WHEIRDO verb

past subjunctive congiuntivo passato

any past or conditional tense

at the same time as or later than the WHEIRDO verb

imperfect subjunctive congiuntivo imperfetto

prior to (before) the WHEIRDO verb

pluperfect subjunctive congiuntivo trapassato

Radio Arlecchino, Episode 7, pg 2 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.la.utexas.edu/

Arlecchina pensa che il Dottore sia ingrassato troppo. Ha il sospetto che Balanzone negli ultimi mesi abbia mangiato troppo spesso cibo cucinato secondo le squisite ricette di Pulcinella. Adesso vorrebbe proprio che il Dottore si mettesse a dieta perchè era già evidente da qualche settimana che fosse ingrassato troppo. E poi teme che prima o poi la gondola si rovesci facendo cadere tutti e due in acqua!

Arlecchina thinks that the Dottore has gained too much weight. She suspects that Balanzone ate too often in the last months food cooked according to Pulcinella’s exquisite recipes. Now she would really like the Dottore to go on a diet because it was already quite evident some weeks ago that he had gained too much weight. And she’s afraid that sooner or later the gondola will tip over throwing the two of them in the water!

Remember that these directions only work if the subjects in the main and in the subordinate clauses are different. Otherwise we have to use the infinitive, present or past:

the tense of the WHEIRDO verb is

and

the action in the subordinate

the

verb in the

clause has the same subject and takes

subordinate clause will be

 

place

in this tense:

present, future, or imperative

at the same time as or later than the WHEIRDO verb

simple infinitive infinito semplice

prior to (before) the WHEIRDO verb

past infinitive

 

infinito passato

any past or conditional tense

at the same time as or later than the WHEIRDO verb

simple infinitive infinito semplice

prior to (before) the WHEIRDO verb

past infinitive

 

infinito passato

The present subjunctive as formal imperative

We have one more recipe we need to talk about before we say goodbye to the subjunctive mood. We need to talk about the formal imperative. What does it have to do with the subjunctive? Well, apparently nothing, but grammatically there is a lot in common between the subjunctive and the formal imperative. In fact, when we need to address someone with the Lei (you formal) and Loro (you all, forma) forms using the imperative, we borrow the present subjunctive.

Prenda, signora, cinque uova

Tagli 80 grammi di salame

Take five eggs, ma’am,

Cut 80 grams of salame

Radio Arlecchino, Episode 7, pg 3 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.la.utexas.edu/

Unisca pepe, sale e pecorino

Add pepper, salt and pecorino

The other forms of the imperative are a separate mood that we’ll take up in our next episode. So stayed tuned, and

Buoni studi e Buon appetito!

Nota Culturale

Un grande Pulcinella del XX secolo: Eduardo De Filippo

Pulcinella is undoubtedly one of the most famous characters of the Commedia dell’Arte. The beaked-nosed maschera that is now notoriously identified with the city of Naples encompasses both the tragic and the comic aspects of human life.

Pulcinella has influenced many famous actors who brought his character to life on stage trying to maintain this delicate balance of emotions. One the most important actors to perform Pulcinella was Eduardo De Filippo. Eduardo was born in Naples in 1900 into a family of theatrical artists. His work as both actor and dramatist has been universally acclaimed. Despite his close ties with his beloved Naples, Eduardo went beyond the Neapolitan theatrical tradition to produce theatre with a universal appeal. Many of his plays and performances were filmed for television broadcasts, and they are often revived in both European and American theatres.

As Pulcinella, Eduardo revitalized this ancient mask making him a more real and human individual. With Eduardo Pulcinella became the common man who dealt with the hardships that life threw at him using, at times, deceptive means but also possessing a strong humanity that enabled him to persevere in spite of the daily uncertainties and the precariousness of men’s lives. His work influenced many other actors and theatrical directors who continued to bring Pulcinella onto the stage after Eduardo's death in 1984. The actors Massimo Troisi and Massimo Ranieri and the great director Giorgio Strehler often represented Pulcinella following Eduardo's suggestions, presenting through his character the tragicomic aspects of our daily lives.

Vocabolario: utensili

If you like to eat pasta, you need to buy una pentola (a pot) e uno scolapasta (a colander). Do you like white pasta? Of course not! Then you have to purchase una padella (a pan) where you can friggere (fry) delle cipolle (some onions), pomodori freschi (fresh tomatoes) and basilico

(basil). With a mandolino (mandolin) you can finely cut all the ingredients. Hmmm

delizioso

(delicious). Aspetta! (Wait!) We need to grate some Parmesan with la grattugia (the grater). Here it is, La pasta è pronta (the pasta is ready). If you like to make pizza, you need una ciotola (a bowl) where you can mix la farina (the flour), l’acqua (the water) and il lievito (the yeast). Un

Radio Arlecchino, Episode 7, pg 4 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.la.utexas.edu/

matterello (a rolling pin) is needed per stendere la pasta (to spread the dough) and una teglia (a baking pan) per infornare la pizza (to put the pizza in the oven). Il forno (the oven) has to be at a very high temperature. Careful, non ti bruciare (don’t get burned) and enjoy your pizza with your friends.

Thanks for listening! And be sure to tell your friends that you heard it here on Radio Arlecchino!

Your hosts with the most – grammar, Antonella Olson & Eric Edwards

Out of our minds

into your ears

Radio Arlecchino, Episode 7, pg 5 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.la.utexas.edu/

Piazza della Grammatica 1 • Antonella Olson & Eric Edwards, Presentatori e Capocomici Gentili Ascoltatori,

Piazza della Grammatica 1 • Antonella Olson & Eric Edwards, Presentatori e Capocomici

Gentili Ascoltatori, Dear Listeners, Here's a transcript of "Your Call Is Important to Us," our recent show introducing the imperative mood. You can hear this podcast by clicking on the following link:

Ha partecipato (Featured in this podcast):

Esmeralda Moscatelli

Someone To Whom Your Call Is Important

Buon divertimento!

Imperatives that you and Antonella heard while she was on hold:

(noi) Spieghiamo l'imperativo! Let's explain the imperative!

(noi) Vediamo! Let's see!

(noi) Ascoltiamo! Let's listen!

(noi) Impariamo! Let's learn!

(noi) Parliamo adesso della seconda persona! Let's talk now about the second person!

(tu) Canta! Sing! Recita! act! Balla! Dance!

(tu) Chiudi la porta! Close the door! Ripeti! Repeat! Smetti di ripetere! Stop repeating!

(tu) Pulisci! Clean! Finisci! Finish! Dormi! Sleep!

(tu) Parla della seconda persona plurale! Talk about second-person plural!

(voi) Ridete! Laugh! Piangete! Weep! Applaudite! Applaud! Fischiate! Whistle! State zitti! Be