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Writings from the Ancient World

Society of Biblical Literature


Simon B. General Editor
Associate Editors
Jo Ann Hackett
A. Jr.
Peter Machinist
Patrick D. Jr.
William J. Murnane
David LOwen
Robert K. Ritner
Martha T. Roth
Volume B
and
Edited by Susan Tower Hollis
Hymns, Prayers, and
Songs
An Anthology of Ancient Egyptian
Lyric Poetry
by
John L. Foster
Edited
Susan Tower Hollis
Scholars Press
HYMNS, PRAYERS, AND SONGS:
AN ANTHOLOGY OF ANCIENT EGYPTIAN LYRIC POETRY
1995
The of Biblical Literature a grant from the National
Endowment for the Humanities to underwrite certain editorial and research
\Af ... t-u"'y,,, from the Ancient World series. Published results and
neices,salwy represent the view of the Endowment.
of ancient !-',0',,,nt1!ln poetry
Susan Tower Hollis.
p. cm. IWrtt'If'Hl'o;z from the ancient world no. 8)
Includes blt)hc)graplrucal references and index.
ISBN : alk. -ISBN
alk.
'-,0"",>1,,'" poetry - Translations into I. Foster,
,!lUTrpnC'PI 1930- . II. Hollis, Susan T. HI. Series.
893',1 dc20
Printed in the United States of America
on paper,
Series Editor's Foreword
cnlrOJ101ollcal Table
of
J::!,xlPlalnatlon of
INTRODUCTION
TRANSLATIONS
I: The lta:nstlguratJLOn of the
from The Texts
1.
2.
3,
4,
5.
6,
7.
8,
9.
10.
11.
12.
Contents
v
xi
xiii
xvii
xviii
1
13
15
15
19
21
21
22
23
24
25
26
26
27
28
vi
13.
14.
15,
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21. Archaic
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
Contents
III. 1-1","" .. ,,:, and V ..... 'uA1rc to Osiris: The Earth KeJllJ.on
28. The Great
29.
of Amenmose. Louvre
TT
IV. t-i urn 1'"\(1
P1'"'.:1'1'P1C to Amun-Re: The
30. To Amun as Sun God
BM
the Stele of
i.
ii.
iii
To Amunas
To Amun as Aton
31. The Cairo 1-1, ...........
32.
V'.:1r,"1'"11C Leiden 1350
vi. The Gifts of the Creatures to God
vii. The Goddess and Thebes
ix. at Sunrise
of Ancient
and HOI.
29
29
30
30
31
32
33
35
36
38
39
41
41
42
44
45
48
48
53
55
56
56
57
57
58
65
68
68
69
69
Contents
x. The
xx. to Amun-Re as HOlralchty
xxx. Defeat of the Enemies of Amun-Re
xl. The Self -Creation of God
I. The Power of God
lx. God's
lxx. God's
lxxx.
xc. The Creation
c. The Birth of God
cc. The Forms of God: His UnrmlPre:sellce
ccc. The
d. God as the Divine Warrior
dc. for God's Nature
dccc. the Place of Truth
V. H'Il'rn.,.,C! and from The Book
Dead
34. Intlrod
1
uctcory
35. Intlrod
1
uctcory
36. Intlrod
1
uct4orv
37. lntlrodluctcorv
38. Intlrod
1
uctcorv
42.
43. IntlrOQiuctcory
44.
VI. Amarna: The Heretical Interlude of Aton
45. Akhenaton's to Aton of
..... " .. r ... 1"C! to Other Deities: The Riches of
46.
47.
Harris I]
and Osiris
vii
70
71
71
72
72
73
73
74
75
76
76
77
78
78
79
80
80
82
84
85
87
89
91
95
97
98
99
102
102
108
108
110
viii
48.
49.
50.
51.
Contents
of Horemheb in New
of Horemheb in New
to Thoth and Maat
Us'tra(:on Deir el-Medineh
53.
54. to Hathor as Goddess of Love fP'3n,r'!"l1C
Chester I]
VIII. The Nature of the KA'tr ........ rt. The of
55.
ii.
m.
for Life in the Afterworld
the Afterlife
iv. His Claim of Rectitude
v.
IX. I-inT'n'-'c and Praises to Pharaoh: The Divine
56. Ode to Senusert I The Tale oj
57. of the Princesses for
58. to Senusert III
.. tH! Kahun
60.
i. The
ii. A
iii. The Greatness of the
his First IUDtUeie}
61. In Praise of Ramesses II as a Warrior
Anastasi II]
62. In Praise of as a Warrior
Anastasi
63. In Praise of MC!relnp1tah
64. A Letter of
Anastasi
The Tale
66. In Praise of the Delta Residence of Ramesses III
Anastasi
111
112
113
114
118
122
123
125
125
127
128
129
130
132
132
134
134
134
135
136
136
137
138
139
140
140
141
142
143
Contents
X. From the ;::'CI10QIIDC) Miscellanies: on the
KeJl,2UlUS Tradition
67.
71.
74.
75.
Anastasi
76. In Praise of Amun f P!1n'tT1rnc Anastasi
77. In Praise of Amun Anastasi
XI. In Praise of Life
78. From the Tomb of
79. From the Tomb of
80, Three H!1'r"n",'r'
iii, Third
XII. Love
81.
82.
83. f P!1n'tTrnc
84.
Harris
In Praise of Love
ii I J.,l"tr.u, .... .,
88. of the Birdcatcher's iii IP'2n'tT1r"l1C
Harris
89. of the Birdcatcher's lJaLu,2.hte:r, vi
Harris
ix
145
145
146
147
147
148
149
150
150
151
151
152
154
154
156
157
157
158
160
162
162
163
163
164
164
165
165
166
166
x Contents
XIII. Other Poems
of Weni Museum Stele
the Battle of Kadesh. 1275
in Praise of the Teacher
Sources
Indexes
167
167
168
170
172
178
184
204
Series Editor's Foreword
\Nrd'U''\t'YC! from the Ancient World is defngrled to UD-IO-Q<3lre. read-
hn,glJ,sh translations of 'UTrfh .. ,t'YC! recovered from the ancient Near East.
The series is intended to serve the interests of geller,al r."<:JI'1.-rC! stllde:nts,
and educators who wish to the ancient Near Eastern roots of West-
,u ..... or compare these earliest written of human
'.lrr"'lnr'u with from other of the world. It should
also be useful to scholars in the humanities or social sciences who need
clear, reliable translations of ancient Near Eastern materials for compara-
tive purposes. in areas of the ancient Near East who
need access to texts in the and of other areas will also
find these translations Given the wide range of materials translated
in the different volumes will to different interests. But these
translations make available to all readers of J:.Dlglllsn the world's earliest tra-
ditions as well as valuable sources of information on
tu C!r"""T reli-
etc. in the world.
The translators of the various volumes in this series are sp.eClau:s:ts in the
n!1 ... r11' .... " .. and have based their work on the
the most recent research. In their translations
much as of the texts in a
Int:rOtClutctllons. notes, maps, and ChlrOfllOl()glCal aim to
nr,,",'U1il'1.- the essential information for an of these ancient docu-
ments.
from the invention of UTr'lrt1"l,cr
co'nquests of Alexander the Great
3000 down
the ancient Near
East northeast Africa and southwest Asia. The cultures repre-
sented within these limits include '-''''I-.I,-,'''J.CUJ.
Hittite,
\Nrtru,CJ'c! from the Ancient World will trans-
xi
xii Series Editor's Foreword
lations of most of the many different genres attested in these cultures:
letters-official and law col-
re(:or'Gs. to
mention but a few.
The prepar,aticln in a generous
I:'rc)gr,amls of the National Endowment for the
Humanities. the
of Biblical Literature. In aO<lltlOn, those involved in this
volume have received financial and clerical assistance from their
institutions. Were it not for these of confidence in our
the arduous tasks of translation. and could
not have been or even undertaken. It is the of aU who
have worked on these texts or this work that from the
Ancient World will open up new horizons and the of all
who read these volumes.
Simon B. Parker
Boston
In"lTPl"C;:ttv School of
Chronological Table
When of When
rulers ove:rlao
rnT1''\.:l1011r'lT there was a
I. LATE PREDYNASTIC PERIOD 3150-3050 S.C.E.
Narmer
II. ARCHAIC PERIOD I-II
I 3100-2907
II 2907-2755
III. OLD KINGDOM III-VIII
2755-2680
2737-2717
2680-2544
2680-2640
2638-2613
2603-2578
2578-2553
2544-2407
2544-2532
Sabure 2532-2516
Vnis 2428-2407
VI 2407-2250,
Teti 2407-2395
I 2395-2360
Merenre 2357-2350
II 2350-2260
VII 2250?-2230
VIII 2230-2213
xiii
xiv Table
IV, FIRST INTERMEDIATE PERIOD IX- XI
IX 2213-ca. 2175
nr .... '."r'" X 2175-ca. 2035
Merikare
nr .... '."ru Xl
V. MIDDLE KINGDOM
l" .... ."'r .. ' XII
Amenembat 1
Senwosret I
Amenembat II
Senwosret II
Senwosret III
Amenembat III
Amenembat IV
LIVlrlaSl[V XIII
VI. SECOND INTERMEDIATE PERIOD
& Middle
Ta 0
Kamose
VII. NEW KINGDOM
XVIII
Abmose
Tutbmosis 1
Tutbmosis 11
Tutbmosis III
Ilm4mbcJtep II
Tutbmosis IV
Ilmcmbc)tep III
ca. 2075
2134-1991
2061-2010
XII-XllI
1963-1782
1963-1933
1943-1899/8
1901-1866
1869-1862
1862-1843
1843-1795
1795-1786
1786-1782
1782-1668
}u .... ,u!r"lr XIV-XVII
1720-1665
1688-1560
1610-1569
1665-1565
1668-1570
1591-1576
1576-1570
XVIII-XX
1570-1293
1570-1546
1551-1524
1524-1518
1518-1504
1504-1450
1503-1483
1453-1419
1419-1386
1386-1349
Table xv
IV 1350-1334
Smenkare 1336-1334
Tutankbamun 1334-1325
1325-1321
Harembab 1321-1293
XIX 1293-1185
Ramesses I 1293-1291
Seti I 1291-1279
Ramesses II 1279-1212
1212-1202
1185-1070
Ramesses III 1182-1151
VIII. THIRD INTERMEDIATE XXI-XXV
XXI 1070-946
946-712
946-912
local 828-772
760-712
772-656
753-713
IX. LATE PERIOD XXVI-XXXI
XXVI 685-525
Psammeticbus I 664-610
XXVII 525-404
525-522
Darius I 521-486
Xerxes I 486-466
Artaxerxes 465-424
XXVIII (in 404-399
XXIX 399-381
XXX 381-343
Nectanebo I 381-362
Nectanebo II 360-343
XXXI 343-332
Darius III 335-332
X. ALEXANDER THE GREAT 332-323
xvi nrOfnOIIOQ!ical Table
XI. PTOLEMAIC PERIOD
1Jtr./,/:>""l\l I
Ptl'll,l"ffl'\1 I
Ptr.I./:>",,1\1 II
Ptr.l.t:>fflI\J III
Ptl'\l."'""I\I IV
Lle()patra VII
XII. ROMAN PERIOD
Diocletian
Last text written in 'H."''''''
323-30
323-305
305-282
285-246
246-222
222-205
52-30
30 B.C.E.-330 C.E.
30 B.C.E.-14 C.E.
284 c.E.-305
394 C.E.
Mediterranean Sea
Lower
Middle
THEBES {Theban Nec:rooolisle-:
MEDINET
Nubia
1<l1.l.:l.UU:;U from map of
Oriental Institute apl=>ear'inR
xvii
Oriental! nstitute
Institute Communications
Explanation of Signs
brackets [ ] enclose restorations.
A row of dots ( ..... ) indicates gaps in the text or untranslatable words.
xviii
Introduction
I
The and prayers of a are its conversation with the
Sometimes there were many sometimes, as in later there
was one. Over the span of their recorded hH!rnT"IT
with many

was not supreme. and among
the other of all He was
called Amun-Re in the New but in the mind of the individual per-
son, the best translation would be our word "God." The
for the interlude of Arnarna Akhenaten in
the mid-fourteenth never felt it necessary to move De,rontO
did not need to reduce the richness of the many
one; for that would have done to the and 'U<:1t' .... t"u
God's creation.
When an or wrote down. his or con-
versation with his of attitudes and emotions could
exhibit in the creation and over the of
human or it could express a for a sim-
of a thankfulness for divine or it could
for or for divine interference in the
course of human Q,J,J,Q,"''''.:it, as a for the favor-
for aid in court of the weak from the hands
1
2 and
of the for aid with with advancement in a
pr()tessl1on, or for of heart and power to serve the well. In other
words, the entire of emotions and attitudes seen in the
and prayers of later or there
in the poems.
What was the The answer to this sets that civi-
lization from all the others of its time; for the looked for-
ward to a afterlife in the presence of and under the of the
Death had to be to be sure; and sometimes death was an
enemy. But the literature shows an almost oV4ervvh.elnling
faith in the of in the presence of
communion with him while vis-
whose beams lit the faces of
lC\Ylfrn,,,,",rl"n tllfO'U2n the underworld toward his new birth
at dawn. The ancient were not a somber IJ'-',JIJJ.'-'. as mlSCClnc:et)-
tion has it. life could be
stems more from what has been from those ancient
times than from built their tombs of mate-
rials because those tombs were their "houses of and their souls
would dwell there. as well as in the realm of the afterlife
would tend to call " .... "'''''';rl'Ort
have a purpose-a
house-were built of more friable r"",,_,0'1:"'''' .,rn,":.JTHV mtlO-IOrtCK:
evcem:uauv turned to dust. what has endured to our own time are the
stone tombs and the where God was to be forever. The
ovrarmClIS at the rock -cut tombs in the Theban ... UJ, ... \oj, ........ ,
the coffins and the endless mummies-all
eXlpe<:ta't!on of eternal
The time span ancient in the of civilization
was from before the turn of the third millennium 3100 down
to the classical world of Greco-Roman times. flourished and was a
center of civilization from about 3100 to 1100 B.C.E. _ ... ' .. AU"'"
it reached three of culture and the and New
after the eleventh century B.C.E. did it its power
and to other, younger civilizations. endured for the better
of another but a diminished role. The details
of this span can be read in the histories of some of which
appear in the at the end of this volume. The prayers,
and songs were all in this earlier world: David of Israel
came to his throne about 1000 but in this volume (eXCel)t
Introduction 3
for poem No. his and some of it
nium or more. The and prayers from the of
and 6 were cut into the walls of who lived twelve or thirteen centuries
before David. And those written to celebrate and assist
in the can still be seen on the walls of their tombs.
n
Ancient civili2:ations, was a one. The
secular state of the modern are allowed but not subsi
w
of lite
a young itinerant scholar could see
as he down the Nile on the
boat tor or the Ramesside to the Nile" could end
in the small of verse known as "the
of the and lite after
nu .. n''' .... is not clear since appear otten in COJrlJUlnctlon
with material the traditional In some ot the
literature" "The Debate Between a Man Tired of Life and
His the mood will sink to <lesp.ilr;
not The ot a ...... A' .. c>"" .... "1
in the modern world is a result of the scientific re,'ollLltilon, which for
SUJ:r01un4::1mlg air of its invisible
there .
For the ancient
. u,l'I..n;;\.,;',-,. one way to consider the ancient view ot his deities is
to think of them as one divine .. some of it materialized and some of it
Int:an,glt,le. When the creator Re,
the universe, he aooe,are:<l
and order, and IaSinu:>mng
world. But even Chaos itself was a an,'_I"-lllln
Atum as the Nine Great Gods of HellOl)OllS
Great Gods of NermopIOUlS-,UI
divine stuff.
The presence of this unseen divine stuff
the of become connected
of the
into, the natures of
'nu.f"tAI"u 'lITn"C1hiln""ti deities. VI'1g1.nal1Y,
before the unification of Menes about 3100 B.C.E. the CXI.JLaJtla-
tion the r"" ...... was a series of more or less autonomous smaller
the of the Nile, each with its local or
4 and
As the or cultural units became over time. the local
deities came into conflict with each and the weaker the ..,'"' . .., .. " ....... "
was subordinated to the The lesser often became
absorbed into the nature of the but his name would become an
or alternate name for the latter Thus Tatenen. an ancient
of the became an of the
M4em,pflllS, Ptah. Or Khentiamentiu, a at
became absorbed into the nature of
of the con-
nected with the luc:!-eJOn,am::lng "f ......... 4 ......
the the an1CastOnlst; Isis is seen with the of com-
pafiSlcm and ae'llot:l0J1. whether to her husband or child. Amun is the "hid-
but he is often a of power and CO:OQlue:n
On the other hand, the amlalJl:aIIla1:JlOn can be seen
eSI)eclalllv in the creator or supreme For instance. in
most accounts the solar Atum is the author of creation. But in time. as
the Re became more and more the supreme was
called the ultimate A similar con-
Hation occurred in the New visible Re was fused
with the Hidden into the supreme a
COlmr:'OUlno name.
of course, were invisible, not present to human appre-
hension. But on occasion the wished to appear to human and
would become manifest to human The would materialize from
the invisible divine
human eyes. The
The first of these terms is ValrlOlUSlV as
-a-,:.pearClLnce," or "form." It would perne:lp.s be best to use the word "incarna-
tion" for this process. The
essence in a that can be
cHic form chosen is ............. 41117
"' .......... n,"" his invisible divine
human eyes; and the spe-
many incarnations.
The Re chooses to appear as the sun disk but he can
1-I"" .. "ll"h+,. the Falcon of the Two Horizons, or of Atum as
an old man to his rest at the end of All three are of the
sun Horus in the Re himself the
sun goes to rest. The kbai of a refers more to the SplenCJOr
that appearance than to the of the at that time.
The could appear to human in various that
1nS,lstIU which is called vision. or in a dream. or a statue or
icon invested with the power and sometimes carried in a reJJL21()US
Introduction 5
"the appearance of the or
by means
of an oracle. Ramesses II, as he prays to his "" .... " .......... describes
how the came to save him in battle and to him as if
behind him Or the man from el Kab whose tomb a
detailed of the who is within the
human breast In these several ways the powers of the invisible
divine realm made contact with the human world.
m
nXlcern: for the interlude of monotheism under Akhenaten in the
second half of the fourteenth S.C.E., the relll.on of the ancient
.... 0".Tn,i'"1!llnc:: was pOlytneJlStlc.
and of all of
prc::>m.lnc:mc:e and power. "lesser" gOi(]S--CC:lUIO be hunted
and eaten in the communion meal
Yet in the same there is mention of a
so awesome that his name cannot be named.
The of has been but the did de\relclo
pe:rcePtllon of their many deities. Not all fit
a or cosmogony. The of several
have not been made clear to there is a central
of and there are two The is the
nnneaa, the Nine Great Gods of the most
wide.splrea.d ... , ...... ..... view of the creation and de'velopmc:mt
a hillock out of the surg-
wateriness of Chaos and on that hill the
.. ., ",11", called Atum. He then the universe either thI'ouh
cOllghlng and
tence. The result was the first divine ... v, ...... I1. ..... ,
dess Tefnut in turn Pf()dllCed as
the next Nut and Geb were then for Isis.
Neohth,rs and Seth. in a distinct Osiris and Isis have the child
Horus.
This Helllot:)olltan SUl:l-S;!'OO as the
ret:>Jac:ea Atum as creator it was
Atum. But when
the in the
Ptah was substituted
6 and
the Mc:!mpnlte tn4:!OloglaI1lS as the creator the universe
ljeglIlnl.ng was the he had the idea in his
and it came to be.
The second cosmogony, .....,J:::U"-"a.u of is
different and offers a ev()lutlolnar'Y account of the creation
nrl.[J'lnlll disorder-there were four
male-female of deities. Nun and Naunet the
ocean; Kuk and Kauket Huh and Hauhet rpt',rpC1P't,f"
and Amun and Amaunet ret:)re:serlt air. These divine "ele-
ments" in the disorder set themselves in motion and created the
UU]I(Uldl hillock mentioned in connection with the cosmogony.
with the appearance of the where the stands to
the cosmogony takes over .
.... c .. .-.",,,.,, there were two
with the Re as its focal
of resurrection and the blessed as its central
terns were but the
to harmonize them into a Re was the creator
snlnln:g down from the heavens and Osiris was lord of the afterworld
and a eternal Hfe.
Outside of the of creation and the formation of the J::!.nneaa, the
C01'lCf:rnmg Re dealt with his ","u, .. ",,,, ...
the sun disk. His incarnations as HClrraJent:y
been mentioned. He was also of as a
across the heavens much as the scarab-beetle pmme:a
the Re would cross the
pu:ShJflg the sun
over
Bark then sink
to rise once more in the east at the next dawn. This
was as the the realm of darkness-the after-
world of the blessed dead "the upon the
faces of all those them with the rays which had
shone upon them while on earth. this the
Bark-the Re who had into Atum at sunset was
the Divine Child or Divine Youth of the new
1A111'nA'tT Re and his encountered the cosmic of chaos or
disorder called or and a battle between order and disorder
.... n ....... r The followers of Re had defeated
the issue had never been
new dawn was a miracle. a of the forces of
and the matins of the of
renewed in Splen(lOr
Introduction 7
a cOI'oll,a.ry that does not harmonize with the earth rellgU)n--t.hle
blessed dead his
the and his
rel1g1Ion,-a still earlier strand of almost lost in
Impulg1ng upon the of historical times-the dead went
to be with the Orion and Sothis and became stars in the
Remnants of this subordinate theme and lTT'1!Hl''''''''U can be seen in
relIgion centered on Osiris. Like whose resurrection each
a sense of recurrence, and renewed
eX.i:1lml)le, defeated death and demonstrated that all persons
into a new and eternal life. the New
.... ..., .......... ,. ... ,41,,.. of ancient civilization-the
n'lT1'"\C+'"'''' at death had become "an osiris." The individual emu-
eXclmlPle of the death and on into con-
of Osiris is seen in its most
articulated form in the stele of Amenmose
of con-
and scattered the
m()Urnulg. searched for
reunited and her power to work miracles breathed life
back into his Because he had Osiris could not return to this
world: but he was made of the ruler of the otherworld. He
also Isis with Horus the Child. When Horus was Isis
took him into seclusion to raise him and also to escape the Seth.
When Horus came of age, Isis took him to the conclave of the Ennead
in the hall of so that Horus could be from Seth and be
as his inheritance from Osiris and Geb. The
divine tribunal him "true of voice" -that is. his claims were vindi-
cated--and Horus was for his as the heir of
Osiris.
This of death and resurrection fuses with another
rule of the land. For was a He was
ac(:or
i
0lf112' to the dictates of Maat (a fusion of
felt to be divine the !-in':1",,"''''''

he had become "an osiris" or been
the next world; and at his death his eldest son, the crown became
the new to his father's and the leader-
of the Two Lands. In this way the of resurrection became a pow-
8 and
erful for the proper succession of power in
also goes back in written sources to the PV11"!1n"ltti in the
in which Horus __ O. ____ J
services for his father,
IV
The deserve the resoec:t need to
C""T'H-"!ICI'T for us to aP1pre:neno the richness and of the
ancient Modern monotheistic too often look down on the
various pOlYl:ne:lSlns nrl!n'l'"''l''''' and and this does a dis-
service to what is there and to be savored from the ancient
ian sources, Part of the is an arrogance in toward
humankind's earlier att:eIIlpt:s to and the cosmos; but
also is the lack of readable translations of the ancient literature, The
become more alien to us-when their
stories. and activities come down to us in a form which our Im_:lgl1oa-
tions can grasp. A third of the is the of the
ancient as in the belief that deities had animal heads or were
divine animals. This is not true. deities were with
animal heads or as animals: their their were repre-
sented thus so that the behind the could be 2rasoe:d
the visual But the or the statue was not the
even it could have the power of the it. God is
unseen; and no one knows God's as in the
later monotheistic lIl0c:!e(l,
there are
the character and attributes of the ancient I-i ..... 'rnh <:In
Amun-Re of the New In aO(11tlon.
we read the individual or prayer from
an sense that there is no other besides the one
addressed. These poems merit close with the and
prayers of the tradition.
v
The authors of these prayers, and songs are unknlC)W]n: have
the authors of the become anonymous after the millennia. l.:Jene:raIJly,
Introduction 9
wisdom of ancient maxims and moral-instruction texts-had
names to their work: Kaires. and
many others. But with the one must be content with the
result alone. We can say that these authors were from and rrulrrl'1T
ClClCles; "', .... ''' ... :r..... CY Havnril!ln literature is not a folk literature but rather
exhibits the many intricacies of a craft in the le,U'n,mJg.
And the writers were all almost male. There is very little overt evi-
dence for female it must have existed to some
among the at court and the in the teIlnp),es.
The audience also was constituted of members of the court and
as we add the institution of the scribal where
young training in and hieratic
form of the written laIllguag4:J and were introduced to the
the tradition. In the scribal schools
nected to the and staffed the most slgmtllcallt
and best-loved were nr"Qpr'lTPl'1 .... u .. .. t sttl<llJe<l, and
the ap'prc:mtlce scribes. We have innumerable of their
and ostraca, and with many
misSl)ellmgs. On one ostracon the teacher's corrections are written in red
ink over the student's copy; on a papyrus formed characters are
prtoperly drawn the teacher in the The "classics" were nr''''"t::!,,'r'l1Pl'1
because someone of them to write them down and pre-
serve them for small of but
even so, among the remains there are the author's
name be the or prayer or song is an eXlpre:SS1.on
ual's of view-his of his with its dreams and
uuagluauons. And we can still the human voice and be moved by
it after four millennia and a transformed world.
VI
The literature of ancient LY'ITt"\r __ 1rc.< belles lettres, as we would say in order
to this uT1.h ..... CY from more utilitarian material like historical
, ..... "" ....... 0;). accounts, and such-is written in verse, as
nn.F"f-r'IT and it took three fundamental or fell into three basic genres-
narrative, and and structure were used for
stories and a broader range and
were constituted of instructional and material such as malXllns,
and testaments. This genre the wisdom or
10 and
-PtlllC)SOPh'y" of the culture. The third main genre was the
the of prayers
.......... r ... ... "r of the
torav4erst or
can sometimes be C01UU,sInl}1;
rather than -",y __ ,_n'"
Ancient
extensive of secular
all genres-are written in of verse lines that tOi!tetller
up a sentence or a of a sentence. The
structure of the verse is each COlllst:ltllttll':l}1;
one line of verse, make up the sentence; and of those both can be
lnClepenj\lerlt (a or one can be on the other
COJUpleX 4 there are some variations and qua-
trains to vary the sentence and this is the basis of ancient
In there is a marked attention the author
to matters of likeness and difference-in
terns and clause constructions. in sound ret)etJ.tlons.
is the familiar to students of biblical nn,F'tr"U" it is a
can be
to the rhetori-
thousand years older. The flavor of ancient
hinted at
without the meter or
on the other, to the free-verse of Walt Whit-
The result is what can be called the
ancient
A word should be said about this translation. The
been what is called "a smooth literal translation." One reason ancient
ian literature is not well known is that so many of the current translations
are too literal: are intended for and both cOllltlnu:tty
and overall are sacrificed to word-for-word accuracy. It must
be understood that these are not but are not at all
h ...... ?' ..... " and their rebuffs both the curi-
inteUige:nt, and in other fields who are not in the
1"1 .......... '>t'1'A At the other end of the of translation is the lit-
erary
Introduction 11
OD1DOfjea to translation. This is where the translator
the words in all the rich anna-
IF..,.,,.....'''''I'''',-I ....... of
word
Imagllna:uv'e aura of the
The literal
r.rllglllSll that was never there in the VI. "Ft.""""""
1.1.4,UOI.41.1..\J".t. as used to be a sort of middle way.
But what translator and reader alike need to remember is in the
mind of the ancient these prayers. and songs were
meant to be poems.
===== Translations =====
The Transfiguration of the King
Hymns and Prayers from
The Pyramid Texts
... ",., .. "".,,,,trl Texts are the world's earliest substantial of rellgUJUS
were carved and in the chambers of the last
5 and several of the of 6
a
As one reads the
thrust
of ancient reH-
as the location of the afterworld the
is felt to be somewhere in the is
cOlmp'leted, aided the cosmic the
renewed life with his peers for """"" .. nHr'!.T
1. The Resurrection of King (lnas
VHr;;Hnln Texts
Heaven stars
celestial bowmen are shaken, bones of the tremble.
are all
for have looked upon Unas, the
Whose soul shines forth as a among his ancestral
fathers;
he is comforted ancestral mothers.
15
16
Vr#!I\Is:l>ICC;; and
ii
This is Unas, the possessor of secret
whose very mother knows not his hidden Namel
The of Unas the heavens,
the cm:lmlg
and once he had borne him,
was the son more than his father.
Unas's masculine powers hover about him,
his feminine powers at his feet;
His
him:
"Watch over his SouU Be effective, 0 Oner
The powers of Unas all are him!
This is Unas. the bull of heaven,
with in his heart,
Who feeds on the incarnation of each
who eats the organs of those
Who come-their bellies full of
from the Island of Fire.
iv
This is the renewed.
his blessed
power-
Unas shines forth as this Great owner of !lrc\'U'1"p
he sits, and his back is toward earth.
This is Unas, the
hidden
on that
This is Unas, the
v
beside One whose Name must be
Slau2Jt1terml2 the firstborn.
nrC\U1t"'fpr of nti'""r1,"n
who ties the rope. himself the sacrifice.
This is Unas, the who eats men, feeds on
possessor of tribute victims, swift }uCllgrrlen,t.
The rarlstlQUratllon of the
vi
It is Seizer of llUV"'I'\..CHdILl.
who lassoes them for Unas;
It is He of the Head who hobbles them for him,
rt ... ' ..... ,rr them in to
It is He who oversees Blood Rites who binds for him;
and Wanderer overpowers these divinities
To slit their throats for Unas,
rAf'YU'\ltn ... ,C1' their vitals-
this is the Unas sends for the execution.
It is of wine, who butchers them for Unas.
cooks for him the of them
in his kettles for the meal.
vii
This is the who eats down their .. p., ........ "' .. power.
swallows their vital force:
Their ones are for his ....... 1"1 ...... " ... 11'
their are for .... u ..... ' .. ,
Their small ones for his meal at
and their old men and women-sticks for his
The Great Ones of northern skies his fires
under the oonltaU1In,g them, the
of their eldest.
Those in the heavens about I:!AI"'\l1n,a
cot' .. ... .." .... his kettles with of their women.
All the Two Heavens revolve round about him
and the Two Banks of serve.
viii
This is Unas. the a
power of powers among those with
This is Unas. the as a
fiercest of forms of the Great Hawk.
he finds in his way,
he eats him down without palLlSlnlr.
His proper is as CnlleI1CaUl.
before aU the eminent in the K,n,,, ... ,r1
This is the a
17
18
and
older than
""",rU1nIr him,
on:enng to him.
citation as "Great God"
the father of
ix
Unas has risen into the heavens,
his shines as Possessor of heaven!
He has shattered the bones of the vertebrae.
seized on the hearts of the
He has dined upon blood,
swallowed down the fresh
Unas is nourished of the wise ones,
content with the life from their hearts
power as well.
up the
""lr,Arlln broth,
The divine flesh thrives-
their power is within him!
No more shall the honors of Unas be
he has swallowed the
x
The time of
his limits, are forever,
this power of his to do what he likes,
not what he does not,
Within the realm of the Land of the Blessed
for and forever.
their
xi
in the
sut>jec:t to
of Unas,
nrc'u'<1'1"\ this his communion of
cooked for the from their bones.
So, their souls are to Unas.
and their Shades are gone from their forms.
Unas is free from them a1ll
from him-
The of the
Risenf Risen I
Evil-doers no have power
to the beloved house of Unas
among the on this our earth
for ever and ever more.
2. Archaic Prayers to Nut
In behalf of King Pepi
Texts
o Nut, out over your son, the osiris
that you may conceal him from Seth.
Protect 0 he who comes to you;
may you conceal your son. who comes to you InClleejCl,
may you this Great One.
ii
o bend over your son. the osiris
o
this Great One who is among your oUsp:nn2.
Geb:
o the is yours,
And the power was yours from the of your mother,
before ever you were born.
you to life and dominion-
and thus he cannot die.
iv
Powerful is your heart.
you move back and forth in the
in your Name of
of your mother
19
20 and
v
You are the da1ugltlte:r, .... "u1Acrtnl
you transltlglJre within you;
and thus he cannot die.
vi
o Great One who came to be in the
since the power is yours. and the is yours.
you have filled with your loveliness.
All earth is under your sway;
take it for your ownf
You have the world in your em.braLce,
all He within your arms;
And you have this for your sake
as an indestructible star within you.
vii
Sel)arare:Q you from Geb in your Name of
1 have united all earth to you.
viii
Be above earth!
Yours be the zenith of your father, Shuf
Be him!
To enstar them all among the
never to be driven away from you among the distant stars.
o let not be tar from you
in your Name of One.
ix
lam the the haven at the zenith for osiris
The of the
for the Horus beloved of the Two
for the of the
For the Two Ladies, beloved of the
for the Golden Hn.rl1'CPCl
For the heir of Geb. and one he
for the beloved of all the
"' ..... , ..... I ... '[T dominion. health. and
forever.
3. Prayer to Nut
V'\lll":annlt''l Text
Hail, 0
who strews the 2re:enstone, malachite. and
of the starsf
ree:O-I)JallI greens and flourishes!
4. Prayer of King Onas to Nut
.... u'r:a ... nll''l Text
I come to you, 0
Un as comes to you, 0 Nut.
I have my father to the
and I have left Horus behind me.
grow like the of a
my double is like the hawk's.
soul has me,
and my power as a has renewed me.
You shall take your seat in the
for you indeed are the Lone
You shall look down on Osiris
amidst the stars of heaven,
COlnpanllon of Hu.
as he governs the tra,nS1t12111re:C1 souls-
21
22
DT'l'l,"",lrc: and
it is you srano:m,R there above him.
You are not down there among
nor shall you ever be with them.
5. Prayer to the King to Rise Up
V1./lr"",nnU"l Text
Ohol Oho!
Raise '('1"\111r<:'""lt
Teti!
Take back your
your bones;
Collect your limbs.
shake the earth from your flesh;
Receive your food which does not stale,
your drink which does not sour.
You shall stand at the which bar mere ..... "',r"'1lc
and ___ h.,e_L:lC:ynlermt4et shall come to you
To grasp your hand
and take you to the to your father.
And Geb will in your COlffiUtl,R;
and he will stretch out his arms to you.
And kiss you.
and hold you.
And he will you first among transjtl,Rl:Jre:Q
and stars,
and those from hidden seats will you.
The Great appear that
the ,RWUOlan
is threshed
andemmer
Served at your mCtntJtlly t""ctnl''.llc
served at your mid-month feast
All this as ordered your father Geb.
Rise up, Tetil You have not died!
The of the
6. Triumphal Hymn of Ascension
..... urAI"nII'1 Text 5111
Geb shakes with Nut shouts for before me,
go forth to heaven!
res;ounos, earth l.J.vJlIU ..hlv'::>,
and hail rains down for me
as I roar out like Sethi
The of open the of heaven to me
that I may stand on Shu, the air.
For me the stars are blotted out the laIlUlllJ;t of
that I may cross the heaven like an arrow;
Sothis has three times the tnt'ones,
and I have OIl'l"1t1IPi1
The Cow who crosses the waters
prepares my
of dawn.
To me toward the Great Throne which the
which Horus created and Thoth
Isis take me, may me,
that I may sit on the Great Throne which
the
Let the Dawn come to me with rel()lCllng
and the with veneration;
Let the Horizon-dwellers come their faces
and the stars in obeisance.
Let me receive the altar-stone
and attend upon the sacrifice.
I have shouldered the means of life
and sustained the earth with
This arm of mine holds the
my left sustains the earth ... "''''' .... ,..
Let me find a fare
to summon the Guard at the Gate of Osiris-
One who hates to any
who is cannot pay
made,
23
24
Let me breathe in the breath of life
that I for my own sake breathe
be overfilled with abundance of
And I have indeed breathed air!
bathed the north
content among
shall be skilled as the greate.st of Skilled Ones
foremost before the twin shrines of
I shall strike with the staff
and rule with the rod;
I shall the memory of me before the
and love of me among the
that which should be SOC)i{e'n.
and do not what is not true;
for God detests words:
you not misname mel
I am your sonl
I am the Heritorl
7. Hymn of Triumph on the King's Ascension
VUlr::::lnrur1 Text
Geb is in uproar;
The earth has been hacked and the A1'I ..... , ..... O'
before me-who am immortal!
I shall betake
.. "' .... , .. v ... '" of life and dominion,
Traverse the
and
I shall betake
upon feathered
I shan be cleansed within
be wr'ilO[)ea embalmed Osiris.
The of the
I shall betake
among the indestructible stars;
sister is my is the star;
and hold my hand as we go toward the Field of
with its
its feet like the hooves of the Great Wild BulL
I shall raise up on my throne
in the space between the two
my papyrus in hand,
And I shall lift my hand toward the SUI1l101k,
and the shall come to me bO'Wl1112':
shall be watchful beside them
find me among the Two Enneads r.H ..... i' .... l"T Judlgnlertt.
of all thus of me;
ott:enng to me among the
8. Hymn of Ascension to Re
Text
I. Teti,
let me take my sacred in the
I,
let my beautiful endure.
Let me take my sacred station
in the bow of the Bark of
The sailors .. Re are
and it is who will row me also.
It is who convey Re about the I-In ... "', ........ ,
and will convey me also about the Horizon.
mouth is unsealed I
nose is
command a
25
26 and
Re cleanses me and me
from any who would do evil me.
9. Hymn to the Risen King
V'\I,r:::.nntl'1 Text
"Chaos in heavenl We have seen a new
so say the and the Ennead.
"Horus the shines like the sun!"
thus those with divine natures him.
The two Enneads serve him
who seats himself on the throne of the Lord of AU.
takes heaven for his own.
the vault of the
He is,.. ........ "" ....
then rests alive in the
and those below attend him.
Then he leams, renewed. in the
and the envoy of chaos comes to him nA'll1.-"n
Give 0 to the older than the Great
he is the power behind his throne.
He assumes is him,
and wisdom sits at his feet.
Praise be to him!
He has taken heaven for his own!
to. Hymn to the Risen King as Osiris
V,\llrRnnlrT Text
shouts. earth tembles.
in terror of you. Osiris, as you ac(:onlpllsh resurrection!
o you cows here.
you cows
The ral1lsti(luratic>n of the
Circle about himl for him!
Shriek out for him! Mourn for him!
As he his resurrection,
as he arrives in the among his brothers. the
11. Hymn to the King as a Primordial God
Text
Hail. n1".rn/:l'u<l1 waters. which Shu n1"t'ultlrhr forth and the
twin
where Geb
While hearts were n ...
fear
and minds were numb with terrorf
was born in that Chaos
Before there were ne,lVelnlV
of Horus,
of Great Ones
ago in Hel1oo0US,
Who are not carried off because of a
not taken away before m41LRilstr.ates.
Not with death,
not found
punUine:Q with
Not carried off because of a
not taken away before
enemies shall not be victorious.
I shall not be poor;
nails shall not grow
nor the bones in me be broken.
Should 1 go down to the 1J,I,,I,,U1Q,1,,,",lH1Vi>.
Osiris will raise me up. the Two Conclaves of
will shoulder me,
27
28 and
And Re will me his hand to take me
wherever a may dwell.
And should I go down into
Geb will raise me up. the Two Conclaves of
will shoulder me,
And Re will me his hand to take me
wherever a may dwell.
12. Prayer to the Celestial Ferryman
V\f,r",n""rt Text
you awake in peace,
o you of the in peace,
o you who watch in peace,
o of the in peace,
o of
in peace.
I, Unas. have come to you
that you may me in this t ....... ul"r.c't-
in which you the
I have come to your side
as a come to your side;
I have come into your presence
asa come.
There are none alive who
none of the dead accuses me;
No creature denounces me;
no four-footed beast
Should you vO!un,elt fail to take me.
of Thoth-
and he will r ... ,rt-!1lnl,r take me across to the other side!
lam
The of the
13. Hymn of King (lnas
Ferrying across the Sky
..... l r ~ I'1rnt1 Text
14. Song of the Royal Menial
""111"l2""""" Text
29
30 and
I sit before
open his boxes,
Unseal his decrees,
seal up his ................. ,
l,)lsp,atcn his never weary.
I do whatever he tells me to do.
This is the
15. Hymn to the King
As a Flash of Lightning
Text 261]
who startles the
far-stretched across the a Dllnollng
This is the a flame before the wind.
to the limits of heaven, the ends of
until his Dla.ztn.2: bolt is gone.
The treads the air. strides over
kisses the waters of the hilL
Those at the zenith open their arms to him;
and he stands on the of the eastern
He has reached the end of his 1ru,.r1"'lPUI
This is the the messenger of storm.
16. Prayer of the King
As a Star Fading in the Dawn
L'UlrgnnlrJ Text
I have come to you, a I'\,J.,. .... hrh,TC'
I have come to you, Sun Bark of
I have come to you, You who are in the
I have come to you, Stars of the Northern
remember me.
Gone is Orion, the nnrlp'f"UJ'n'f"lrl
yet cleansed and alive in the KP't1r.,r>r1
Gone is the unrlp'f"UIArlrl
The of the
cleansed and alive in the Kt'!'V'Olnl1.
Gone am I. the I1nnp'ruT,nrln
yet cleansed and alive in the Ke'lfOI1a.
It is well with me, with
it is for me, for
Within the arms of my
within the arms of Atum.
17. Prayer of the King to R6
V\nr::lnnirl Text
Awake in peace, 0 pure one, in peace.
Awake in peace, 0 Eastern in peace.
Awake in peace, 0 Soul of the East, in peace.
Awake in peace, 0 Horus of the in peace.
in the
For you are the one who watches over the
and there is no to watch over you.
o father of take me to you,
with you to live with your m()tner,
Who for me will open the of heaven
and throw open the doors of the firmament.
Let me come to you
to make me live forever.
Command me to sit at your side
or him who from the Horizon.
o my command Meskhaat beside you
to a for me
at the Great Staircase under the
Commend me to Him who has the son of
to forme,
for he has pn)mtsed me a seat in heaven.
Commend me to the ::>nJnlfl2 One.
beloved and son of
To on my behalf
31
32
and
that he maintain my ntt'pr1lna
For I indeed am one from these four
upon earth.
uuamute:t,andveoellsene'weI
and who watch over
-out of your grasp, mankind, and up like a bird.
In the of a falcon I tear my hands from your power;
of a kite I break free of you.
t am safe from any who would fetter my feet to earth;
I am free of all who would hold me.
18. Prayer of the King
As He Offers Incense
V\llr;:tnnu1 Text
fire and fire brtgh1tens;
incense on the fire and incense
tragrtilfic:e comes to me, 0 incense;
tragnmc:e come to you.
Your aromas come to me, 0
let my aromas come to you.
I be with you all. 0
and may you be with me.
I live with you, 0
and may you live with me.
The loves you, you
love him.
The wafer is and the is ""\.II ReI:H'
which came from the knee of Horus.
He who had gone away comesr He comesf
He who has risen comesr He comesl
He who has flown up comesl He comesf
I ascend upon the of Isis;
I climb up upon the of Neon1tnvS:
The of the
And my father Atum takes my hand
to
inte1l1,geJlt and wise, the Iml)erlSnaOJle Stars.
19. Prayer of the Royal Son to his Father
VUlraMnirf Text
Rise up for me, 0 Fatherf Rise up for me, Osiris!
It is I. Your son. I am Horus.
I have come to you to cleanse you,
to make you pure, to you
To up your
to preserve your moisture,
and to you what has been severed.
lam
and I have struck down the one who would strike you;
I have shielded you, 0 Osiris the
from him who would cause you
I have come to you as envoy of Horus,
for he has you, 0 Osiris the
the throne of Re-Atum
that you may the sun folk.
Betake 'tTnc, .... .,""lt into the Bark of Re
Merenre has gone down into itf
He is Re himselH
You are seated upon the throne of Re
that you may pronounce the of the
For you indeed are
come forth from who bears the Sun each
reborn like Re each
Take to the of your father Geb
before the Nine Great Gods of He:llopOl1S.
33
34 and
"Who is like him?" say the two Enneads
who stand before the Souls of nel1OPOl1s.
conclaves you-
p r e ~ s l c l e in the Field of Reeds-
upon the throne of whom fathered.
have Shu on your eastern side
and Tefnut on your west,
Nu on your south
and Nenet on your north
To you toward their thrones, so beautiful and pure,
o
which had made for Re
him there.
let them cause you to liver
you reach the years of 1-I,., ...... lrhtu
created his Name
in the far over the
utter for you these chants
did for who shines each
on their thrones
precedlmsz all
his throne!
come into
in this his Name of He who Becomes.
you arise for them like Re
in this his Name of the Sun.
you turn aside from their faces like Re
in this your Name of Atum.
The Two Enneads 0
in near to you, 0 Osiris the
"Our brother comes to us!"
say the Two of Osiris the 0 Father,
"One of us comes back to usl"
say the Two of you, 0 Osiris the
"The eldest son of his father comes back to us!"
The of the
say the Two of you, 0 Osiris the
"Eldest son of his motherl"
say the Two Enneads, of you, 0 Osiris the
"The one hurt his Seth. comes back to usf"
say the Two Enneads. of you. 0 Osiris the
you up for ","",.r .... t"",
so say r.nlnealOS. of you. 0
Osiris the
Raise YOlLlrs:eu up. 0 Osiris the
o
You are alivel
20. Hymn to Geb
V'\flranr\lri Text
son of this is Osiris the
Your mother's heart trembles for you in your Name of Geb.
eldest of Shu, his firstborn.
Atum has you his
to you the Ennead entire.
With Atum himself among those
his eldest twin children
He has looked upon you, splencuo.
in your Name of Clever of ........... .,..,.". . .,.
Guider of you stand upon earth
to make before the Ennead.
Your fathers and mothers are more eminent than
and you are above any
Come to Osiris the
to him from his enemy.
Gebl Clever of "'v ... ..,"".C<.
35
36 and
Make him live means of the K111gfml1P.
health and in him-
For you are lord of all earth.
among the Ennead and all
drive off each evil from Osiris the
Nor let it ever return to him
in your name of the Horus who never rej:lealCS his actions-
for you are the of all
them to vo'unieU
so that you may preserve
And as you cause them to
cause Osiris the
You are
to live.
The came forth from your head
as Great of the Crown of the South;
The came forth from your head
as Great of the Crown of the North.
Horus has been your COlmt:'anlOIl,
he has loved you
As you shone forth as
r\l',",upr'tnl among all the
21. Archaic Hymn
To Egypt as the Eye of Horus,
Horus being the King
.... "'r""nrnn Text
Hail to you, Atum!
Hail to you, who came into on his own!
You are exalted in this your Name of HPtO't'I,'"
You show in this your Name of He who Becomes.
Hail to you, of Horus.
which he has restored with his own two handsf
He will not allow you to listen to \Npct'",' .. n,"'rc
nor listen to na:S1:e][nc::rs,
The
Nor listen to Southerners,
nor listen to
of the
Nor listen to those in the middle of the earth-
thus you will listen to Horus.
It is he who restores you,
he builds you up,
he for you-
So do for him all that he told you
in every where he appears:
You shall offer him the waters which are in you
and the waters which shall come to be in you.
You shall offer him all the trees which are in you
and aU the trees which shall come to be in you.
You shall offer him the food and drink which are in you
and the food and drink which shall come to be in you.
You shall offer him the which are in you
and the which shall come to be in you.
You shall offer up to him all that is in you
and all that shall come to be in you;
And you shall take these to him
to every his heart desires to be.
The upon you are like the Pillar of his Mother:
there is no them for the Westerners,
No them for the
them for the "t.., ..... ,.,"" .. ' .... "", .. '"
no openJLn them for those in the middle of the earth.
But open for Horusf
It is he who created
raised them up;
Protected them from P<'u;", .. ,,'th1,nO' harmful
which Seth them.
For it is he who settled you
in this your Name of Settlements.
It is he who comes and goes you
in this your Name of
37
38
and
It is he who PfC)telcted you from every sort of ill
which Seth would have done you.
Go back, go back. 0 Nutl
Geb has commanded that you go back
in this your Name of
all tbe verses above to astbe
You shall listen to
You are not to
the It is he who created you.
the Wicked One.
22. Hymn to the SunGod, Re
Vu,r::on",.rt Text
Hail to you.
Great One and son of a Great One!
The walls of the Shrine of the South are eager for you
and the Shrine of the North attends you;
The doors to the windows of heaven open for you
and the ways of the are loosened.
Hail to you.
One. who continue steadfast each
Horus comes! The comes!
The Powerful One comes from the reS!lorlS Kev(:ln(1.
fTU.Tht'Uamong the
Hail to you,
o Soul within that firef
one rnln"I"rC;:1Ina
wise one who counsels
Who takes his throne in the of
in the where your heart dwells at peace.
You stride across the to your
enCOlmplaS:Sln.j:! both North and South in your
Horus.
The
He who knows this
who acts upon these
He will be known to Re
and be a comrade to
The is one who knows this
he follows these
of the
Thus he will indeed be known to Re
and be indeed a comrade to
o take the the hand and up to heaven
entiour,age of ReI
23. Prayer to Atum
To Bless the King, His Pyramid, and His Pyramid City
""fir", "' ..... n Text
o you who came into on the hill of creation
with a blaze like the Phoenix in the Benben Shrine at
C01LlgClea out
You your arm round about like the arm of a
and your was in them,
o your arm thus about
about this about this .. rt
So that the to
An.rt.l, ... ncr for ever and ever.
o Atuml Place your over this
over this over this work of
Let no evil to him for ever and ever
as you gave your to Shu and Tefnut,
o
Isis, Ne:phth"s
Children of Atum. stretch out his heart to his child
in your Name of the Nine the Stretched Ones.
39
40
Vr;;!iUI"lrc;: and
Let the turn from you and toward Atum
that Atum this
Protect this of
and this work of his
From the hands of the from the hands of the
and evil from him for ever and ever.
o Horusl This he is Osiris I
This work, it is Osirisl This Osiris!
Reveal to himf
Thoth has
And Horus is your
in his Name of
Horus has the
in your Name of Kemwer.
under your lurtS(llctllon neclltl1tV and
and Demaa.
he has made them mount on stone
to your face in the Palace of
Hymns and Prayers to Re
The Sky Religion
The four in this section, taken from a tomb at Thebes and a tomb
at to the end of 18, reflect the beliefs of the
solar religllDn, rp1'ltprina
focus on the
Horemheb was a
Akhenaton. He became pnara.on
""'C!f'r.'r'.t"Icr order to the land after the Amarna interlude and n .. I"''',rl .... ,tT
"n'"T""'''''''''"' of 19, the first Ramesside <HIT> """TU
24. Hymn to the Rising Sun
of TT 1
Praise of Re in the mClrnlLng as he rises in the horizon of the the
mayor. confidant of Horus, Lord of the
of the chief herald of the
steward of the estate
V1fl014cat,eO, who
says:
Hail to
Re in your concealed as Amun in your to rest,
You shine down from your mother's back.
o:l1'l1"'\Po:l,"1'M,a JlorlLouSly as of the Ennead.
Nut at your appearance;
the arms of Maat you and
41
42 and
You traverse the with
and the Lake of the Two Knives is at peace;
For the Rebel is his arms fettered.
hacked with knives, his backbone broken,
Unable to
your enemies are down on their field of
The hearts of the Bark.
and you shall have a breeze;
the Bark has delstn)ved him who attacked it.
You traverse your two heavens trt1tJmlpn.ant!
with the Nine Great Gods ac<;:ornpan'VU1l you;
UOUflSnJLng wherever you have been.
steward of the
Justlueo, who says:
Let me you, with your in my heart.
and may your Power grow fruitful in my breast.
25. Hymn to the Setting Sun
of TT 1
\J\Ir.r<!l .... l" of Re when he goes to rest as one alive in the western horizon of
the the nobleman, mayor, and sole who draws near his Lord.
who is in the heart of Lord of the Palace, First Herald,
scribe, steward, Kheruef. Vlrldllcate<l, who says:
Hail to you, lord over forever!
You have with the horizon of the
Glorious in the West as Atum of
come in your power, freed of the LAULAlJ.V.
You rule the as
rea,cnllng both your heavens with in your heart.
You have driven away the douds and ter:np4est
to go down within the of your mother.
and VrJ'll\I""lrc: to Re
While your
Mountain
and those in the Underworld
of the Western
without ce'lSlltl.
For see their lord of the wlidestIlollnj:t to()ts1:eps.
Amun-Re, ruler of all mankind.
Welcome in 0 you who tread the Two Landsl
You have gone to the arms of the Western Mcmntailtl.
And your has the allotted time
moored to custom,
With the arms of your mother a pr()tectlon about you
and the U':lfOlans oeleatmg
The Western Souls draw you the in the Sacred Land
to Underworld
To hear the of him in the
and raise up those on their side in the grave.
You feed on Truth beside the one who it,
refresh your nostrils with what is in it,
and are raised it to a throne.
You care for those who become
their vital fires renewed COlnpletielY
'-''-''U.U,.u);. as ;:)UltlOl.SK, Controller of Heaven,
yet nelplI11 to rule in the realm of the dead.
Splen4JOr thIOUliZh()ut the ...... ,; ..... u' ..... , .. lrl
You reach out to them in your of
who the
At dawn reborn as the Divine
the colorful Easterner amid his creaHon.
Who appears from his mother's womb without ce,iSlltl,
to rest within her until his time ....
43
44
Hail. you who are Re in his
Atum to rest.
as I watch your
Let me take the to..,;vrc,oe
sail with you each
26. Hymn to Re
the Tomb of MI'"l,rAI'"'nn,A"
[. .] Horemheb, who says:
I have come to you that I may UTi"' ... """ ....
and honor your
you take the Horemheb. to you in heaven.
him with those honored in your
his name be read the
the lector of the Lord of
he be in that company
which draws Re to the West;
he rise and may he set
while he watches Re's h"",n,r'tT
he be with Him in heaven and in the Underworld
when Re's mother birth each morfllnS:!.
Present as one of the Ennead in Kosetau,
among the blessed atten,:JlnS:! Him.
Let me enter and go
the entrance of my tomb;
Let me sit in his
wanaennS:! the banks of the lake each forever.
Then my soul shall flutter down upon the branches
of your trees.
The Foremost of the Westerners. Lord of the Sacred Land.
you all your duties while you were on earth.
conSlllmpn,on of upon the altar before the
HlIrnr,'" and IJr!:l"/lI:>lr'''' to Re
45
while you are there in the at the altar of
And all your while upon earth,
the entry to the at the Sacred
While you are there within your of heaven
nellololflg Re.
Your heart will to the of your desire
as when you were on earth.
Your soul will be refreshed in your
you will Re from dawn until his ... _ ......... ,....
as you serve in his retinue.
You will take the of the
as Re in his descent
With the Westerners "Welcomef Welcomer"
as he opens up the Underworld:
And then he shall the
and those who will up at his aplprOtaCl[].
For the heI'edlltary com}:)anll01[], master of the secrets of the
supreme of the 0. ..... "",,",0,
the osiris Horemheb, ,ustlIJ.eo.
27. Hymn to Re, Thoth, and Maat
the Tomb of ..... ,....:,...::> .... 'n ... r>
of Re to
him at his
says:
Hail to you, you who are and ,. ... "."t"""r4
o
As you rise from the horizon of ne,lven.
are yours from the mouths of everyone,
tse,aut:Ullll, fresh as the sun disk
from the arms of your Hathor.
Rise in splen<lor ... " ...... ""u71 ....... ' ...
with your heart
The Two Shrines of come to you in obeisance
to offer at your
46
vr;!I"Plrc:.: and
How beautiful you are on the horizon of heaven-
and the Two Lands are suffused with tUI'ouoisel
This is
the Divine
who pI()creat:eo nmlSeJll,
chief over desert and realm of the dead;
Who came to be in the waters. drew himself forth from Nun,
himself up made his illustrious.
who
the Nine Great Gods at your
The whole world is
!lnl,,\p!:ltr1rI0' for them.
Glorious
lord of ""r"' .. n ... u
The Horizon-dwellers row you,
those in the Bark sail you,
The Souls of the East invoke you,
and the Souls of the West you
You are the who neJu:!nterlS the beautiful
of this world.
who tints the Two Lands and
A a lord weal-i.ov,ea.
o ariser from eastern horizon,
OlSpeJ:ler of darkness from far ends of earth,
Each eye is filled with awe
as it offers at your
As it watches the Primal One with
and those who accompany you kiss the earth.
You who go to rest in the western nonz1on,
spJ:ea
,
ClU1lg darkness over all
is born at your
earth darkens when you go down to your
and VI";::!,"""lrc;: to Re
whom Ptah created,
above all the
You came forth as the Falcon, commander,
with the two , ................. t"C!
Oellovea. and your eyes enJtl$!j'lten the earth.
And you are Re-aU all Oeltni1"S-
all come to exalt you:
Your mother Nut awe in the Two Lands
that double their of you.
Bark,
the tic.relllneD, who says:
of forever.
to the far end
Let me you. with your in my eyes,
and may your fill my breast
ch.almt:)lOflS Truth
each
47
I I I
Hymns and Prayers to Osiris
The Earth Religion
The earth centered on Osiris, murdered
revived his sister-wife and installed with honor as
Lord of the Afterlife. The theme in this strand of ancient
ideas is death and resurrection. The
for a eternal a among the ancient civiliza-
tions. The stele of Amenmose,
nrrl'.lCY"U 18 and now in the
nrl"'\'{T1t;PC the most extensive of
Osiris and his son, Horus. This a in the suc-
cession to the of became Osiris, and his son
took the throne as the Horus, and the nn.ru .... F'n'
ruled land of The from the tomb of Kheruef is an eX<lmlPle
He says:
rather than narrative, to this
28. The Great Hymn to Osiris
of Amenmose: Louvre
the Overseer
Born to the
Hail to you,
lord of "'f'" ......... f','
of the
48
MUrY\r\C1 and vrJ:ll,U","lrC1 to Osiris
With names, with awesome visible
A
Receiver of in the ancestral home of
first in in He:110POIIS;
Who remembers down in the Hall of Two
a secretive yet lord of the underworld caverns;
Sacred in White-Wall, Soul of the
whose remains rest in Heralcle'OP,Oll,S;
Lavish his from the Tree
which sprang into life to lift up his Soul:
Lord of the
first in r" "vu" ""-
distant his throne in the Land of the Dead:
his name in the mouths of the
of time, to all mankind-
foremost of the Nine Great
most among the divinities.
ii
It was for him Chaos JJV'I.JJ.'I,.''-' forth its waters.
for him northwind blew UP,strlearn;
would make breeze for his nostrils
so that his heart could find peace;
of heaven were openeo:
Receiver of
adored in the northern ne,lveln:
The stars were under his gUloanc,e,
and the unwe:ar,V"in,Q" stars were his
And he went forth in peace the of
and the Nine Great Gods gave him
Those in the underworld kissed
49
50
Vr::::l,U""lr<:: and
those in the desert bowed.
Past fC!!jO:lcea when saw him.
those in the were in awe of
And the Two Lands united offered him adoration
at the advent of his
Effective leader. foremost of the honored ones,
whose endures, whose rule is est:abllsltle(j,
Beneficent power of the Ennead.
loved any who see him;
Who awe of himself among all the nations
so
Whose memory is dear, whether of heaven or earth;
unenllm,g the at festival-
the Two Lands as one.
iv
First-ranked of his divine brothers.
noblest of the Ennead,
Who made order tnr'Oll:i2:n()ut the Two Banks.
a son upon his throne,
Praised his father. Geb.
beloved of Nut. his m()tner:
With hand. he threw down the rebel.
with arm, he slew his opponent,
Put the fear of himself on his enemy.
reached the far borders of evil.
with heart, he tralmplea their forces.
v
He inherited from Geb the KU1lgsinlp of the Two Lands
when Geb saw his mastery.
He gave him his kUl2:(ioIn
to the world to a successful future.
And he delivered this land into his hand-
its waters. its air, its and
All of its creatures. all who up, all who
its creepers and crawlers, and its wild desert
All were to the son of
and the Two Lands were with it.
M\JrTlT\ct and Vr",,,,,,., .. ,,, to Osiris
vi
And he rose upon the throne of his
like Re when he shines from the '"'''', ... '7,,.... .....
He on the face of darkness
after he had the sun with his double
And he flooded the Two Lands with abundance
like the sundisk at break of dawn.
His crown the
became a brother to stars.
He was a for each
effective at gover'n11ng;
Praised the Nine Great
whom the Lesser Ennead loved.
vii
His sister served as his
drove off the enemies, a to the misdeeds;
Removed the power of her
her
beneficent Isis. who rescued her brother.
She searched for him, would not in to her weariness,
wandered about this land in m()urnung,
Would not take rest
until she had found him,
She made him shade with her
made breeze
Danced the Dance of Last MC)Or:ln2 for her brother.
the weakness of Him who was weary of heart;
She received his an heir.
on)Us;mt up the child in solitude
could not be
Introduced with his arm grown
into the court of Geb.
viii
And the Ennead relCIlced,
we:lC()m,e, Horus. son of
Firm-hearted and true of voice.
51
52 and
son of Isis and heir of Osiris!"
The Tribunal of Truth assembled for
the Nine Great Gods and the Lord of
The Lords of Truth were 2at:ne:rea there.
those who turn their backs upon evil.
sat themselves down at the court of Geb
to offer the to its owner
and the to whom it beJ.on2ecj.
And determined for Horus, his voice was true;
and his father's was to him.
ix
And he went forth the mace of Geb.
and he took the of the Two Banks,
and the crown was firm on his head.
The earth was allotted him to be his po:sseSSl,on,
heaven and earth were under his care;
Entrusted to him were the pe4)Ple,
and nobles, and sunfolk.
The dear land of the middle ISlC:lmaS;
whatever the sundisk circles was under his tT\,[y"",.'1"\11nnt._
The northwind, the River, the flood.
the and all
And
and
And everyone was
tnC)Ulln1:S were
hearts were sweet,
and each face showed
x
all gave for his 20
1
0aJles,s:
"How sweet is the love of say wef
His kindliness, it has encircled the
is the love of him in every person.
And offered this song to the son of Isis:
"His is fallen because of his otl:en.se,
for evil acts the
He who commits retribution comes upon him-
as the son of Isis, who his father.
.... ".TU' ... and vr::!.UPlrc: to Osiris
Hallowed and exalted, his name!
are open;
pe'llce:!U! are the Two Banksl
In),ustlce is paliSlrl,g
The land is at peace under its master;
Truth stands firm for her lord;
the back is turned on l1"ut'YI11f"ul"
xi
Good health to your you who were
the son of Isis has taken the crownl
t\ctJuCl,ge:ct to him is his father's
within the court of Geb.
Re Thoth wrote it
and the Divine Tribunal was p1t::as
1
ect,
your father Geb in your favor(
And did as he said,
29. Hymn to Osiris
of TT
to Osiris. the earth for
man, mayor, sole friend of the Lord of the Two Lands. trusted
.., ..... ' .. J ..... , chief steward of the
of the Sacred
exalted in the are:I
dreaded. master of s:>r& ........ 't"u
lord of Maat, relc::nc:tn,g
Comfortable upon the
one the when see him.
To whom those in the Underworld come rejlOlClOjZ.
and Sunfolk kneel foreheads to the eYrr ........ ""
53
wife,
54
The
and
your heart be in your KUljtsnll),
your rule the throne for your son,
your successor upon earth
after he seized the Two Lands in trilJmlph.
overseer of the estate. ""u""", ... n",,>, vlru::ll1catect. who says:
Hail to you, Wennefer,
son of Nut. heir of
M,lgnuhcellt and Ulelll,",'::'!,.l\,.
in the hearts of mankind.
One who mSipllres
nnuTI'l'rhll in
Let me come and go among the
the redeemed. and the dead.
who are in the of your
And let me feast upon the of your table
as is the custom of each
Hymns and Prayers to Amun-Re
The Apogee of Ancient Egyptian
Religious Thought
56 and
i. First
The of Amun when he rises as the Overseer of the
Herds of Amun. and the Overseer of the Herds of Hor.
say:
Hail to you, Re, beautiful each
one who rises every dawn and does not cease,
o wearied with toil-
Your rays shine upon the face are not understood.
finest nO!fll.n2: to your
Fashioner of U,,",1 .... .,'AIt you molded your own
the Procreator who was never
One without paralJlel,
who oversees the million
Your sPlerlo()r is the sp,lenloc,r
your features are more than the colors of the
You across above with each face you,
you leave as one who hides himself from
You offer at dawn each
the voyage which bore your has been su(:ce:ssltul;
. fhrm:l2:h the short you cross unnumbered
and each moment is within your care.
itself passes and you go to rest;
and you endure the hours of as well-
measllnrlg them all. You make your way
nor is there ... :"", ........ "'" from your labors.
All eyes see means of you
and cease not when you go to rest;
You are up to shine upon the morrow-
is your opens the creatures' eyes;
And you go to rest in the Western Mountain
that may a as calm as death.
and rivers.
ii. Second To Amun as Alan
Hail to you, Aton, Sundisk of
who have fashioned all and made them to
Who came to existence all
Elder Horus in the midst of the
Offered shouts of
who created and formed the earth;
Khnum who fashioned
who seized the Two Lands and small;
most blessed of
Craftsman with
Great One grown weary
-and are eniCUe:ss;
Brave Protector who tends his
who is their ,)l .... ... ,L.
Runner who measures the course,
of birth-
Primeval One who created
who oversees all his creation.
Who reaches the ends of the earth each
of
in the of all those who walk on it;
born,
Who shines from the whose visible form is the sun
to make seasons and mcmtns,
With heat as he wishes and cool as he 'UT1,cn,,'C
and he makes bodies weak in order to nurture them.
Each land is at his each
in order to him.
iii.
The overseer of and the overseer of who say:
I was in of your U ... "<1.,,,",
57
58
........ """"":.'r"C1 and
Made for you your son, whom you love,
Lord of the Two life.
lord gave me the
for he knew that I was
And I exercised firm control over them,
one who did
Because I knew that you were
and that you advanced the one who pr,lctlce:Q it on earth.
it and you advanced me,
me favors upon earth in IDe=I-S,UL
While I was in your
whenever you ap1pe.llre,Q.
I was a man who detested wrong
with no in evil words or
-As for my one like took ple:aS1Jre
in his C01Jnf;:el,
for he had come from the womb with me on the same
The Overseers of the Herds of Amun in the Southern Harim. and
I in of the western side and he of the eastern side, both
of the monuments in foremost of the
Amun.
you to me an old age in your
that I may see your Splen(lor
may the earth in the of content.
I be to the honored ones who f1"""\;)f"t".f1 in peace;
and may you me the sweet breeze at mc'on.n
and on the of festival.
31. The Cairo Hymns to Amun-Re
In Praise of Amun-Re,
Bull in the heart of He:llo'pOllS. aU1tnc,nty over all
the
and to all the beautiful creatures.
.... "fTlr"'" and to Amun-Re
Lord of the Throne of the Two Lands.
...
IVl()tnler. first in his
T foremost in Southern
and ruler of Punt,
eldest of heaven, firstborn of earth,
Lord of what is, who established all
unpalrauelf:O among the
Handsome Bull to the nnne,ao,
"' ... n...., ...... " over aU deities.
Lord of Truth, father of
who created formed the creatures,
Lord of what is, grower of U}(}(]-DI';;lns_
who created that cattle live.
Handsome and one fashioned
divine Child handsome to love.
To whom the
who created the lower and upper heavens
as he first gave to the
Who ferries across the in peace,
of and Lower Re the Trj.unlptlanlt.
'lt1t .... " .... ru over the Two Lands.
chief who created the entire world;
\Vhose counsel is res:pecre:a
at whose
To whom followers make in the Shrine of the South,
who appears in in the Shrine of the North;
Whose the love
as he comes from Punt.
Chief of when he sends out the ''''I''-;''11'.1,(T
handsome his face when he comes from the God's Land.
----'---1 as their Master;
59
60
vr:::','\IAlr<:: and
CY.lnrfnltC in his ..... ."'.., ....
Praises to you, who created the
raised up the laid the 2'r()uftd.VIlOI'k of earth,
ii
Be wakeful and be
lord who created p .... .rnft'u
Receiver of WClrSlllO as foremost one in Karnak.
with horns and handsome
Who wears the crown of
and t'nUllPrin{'f
double plUmes,
sPlenlCUd dla,oern, exalted in the White
these are at his brow.
the nemes, and the
Handsome as he receives the -c:ro'wn
beloved of the crowns of South and North;
Master of power as he takes the mace,
lord of the bearer of the
Glorious ruler, in the White Crown-
Lord of the sunbeams, who created
One to whom the songs of
whose arms embrace the one he
Who sends the enemy chieftains to the
for his fells those who rebel him-
She strikes her spear in him who tries to drink Nun
torClnl2' the to up aU he swallowed,
Be 0 Re. Lord of
the Amun hid in his shrine Lord of the
.". "" ...... I., master in the sacred
who ordered that be when first apIPeaLre(],
who formed uu; u ..... uu ... ,
H\f ..... and to Amun-Re
d15ftU1lgullstled their natures, made them
made their features differ one from the other.
Who hears the prayer of the one in dls:tre:ss.
is kind to whoever calls on
Saves the fearful man from the hand of the .u.""v .. ,,-, .... ,
between the wretched man and the affluent.
61
Lord of the Mind and Utterance, who makes his
comes forth for love of
Pleasant and sweet, with Iar'-reaclrunlg love-
for each creature made from the
who bro1u'Jlt Splen(lOr of
In whose
their hearts come alive when see him.
iv
who has established the .:"l.U:fl,aav and LWlce-mOntnJV
prosper, be ne.altJtlVI
who gaze at him in the world "",,,,,,,rnfl,('1
chief over mankind and the realm of the
Hidden his name more than his oUSOJnn2-
that is, in his name of the Hidden.
v
Praises be yours, who dwell in contentment.
lord of in power.
Possessor of the Crown, with double pl'tlmes,
with tall in the White Crown.
The of you is cherished the
the Double Crown firm on your
With love of you the Two Lands
in the eye.
62
vr"'UIi->'"'" and
Mankind is beautiful at your
and beasts grow in your beams,
Your love the southern
your sweetness aU the northern heavens.
Your takes the heart,
your love the arm,
Your of appearance makes hands use:less,
the mind all else at of you.
Sole Perfection who made all that is.
""rrnTIT" who forth all existence,
From whose eyes mankind came
at whose command the
Who creates the for the animals
and
Who for fishes in the River
and for birds who mount the
Who offers breath to all who are unborn.
life to the oUsprm.g of the worm,
Provides for
insects and fleas as
:'Ulc>pl1es the fieldmice in their burrows
and cares for all the in the trees.
vi
Praises to you, who created all this I
alone, the
the wakeful for all who must
out what is for his creatures.
"0 Amun, who established all
Atum, Horus of Two Horizons-
Praises to so aU of them say;
tlo,mc':tge to you because you are wearied for us.
We reverence you because you have made us.
vii
Thanks be to you from all the creatures,
pr<iuse:s to you from every land
To the of to the ends of earth,
and VI"::l,\I;::>'lr<: to
to the uvIIJI.Jc,l" of the Great Green Sea!
Gods bow down to your countenance.
to the one of power who made
in the nearness of him who them.
to you, "Welcome in
Father of fathers of all
who raised up the and laid down the
Who created what is and fashioned existence.
prosper, be and chief of the
Let us power inasmuch as you have
creation is yours for you have us;
let us offer you thanks because you are wearied for us.
viii
Praises to you, who made all
Lord of Truth and father of
Who created mankind and fashioned the anllffic:llS,
Lord of the
nrclvlc:tes for the creatures of
bull with the handsome countenance.
rrlr,r1ru,c in House of the tselnb.en.
With many fillets in tieuopous,
who between the two Enemies in the broad
Chief of the Great Ennead.
Hel101DoJ.1tan, at the head of his Ennead,
HOlflz;on-cs,,velJer, Eastern Horus.
For him the lands of silver and were
and lazuli for love of
Balsam and frankincense from the land of the Mprt1!li'{T
fresh
for his nncrr.lc.
Handsome of face when the come,
He is Lord of the Throne of the Two
63
64 and
Sole
... V L <"'''-Ai names, that cannot be distinstuished.
ix
One who rises from the eastern "r",-o'7,"\",
goes down content in the west,
Who overthrows his enemies
ac(:or
,
ctml2 to his custom:
Whose eyes have raised up Thoth
that he may him peace tnl'OU2n
In whose peflectlon
whom the baboon exalts in his
Lord of the Bark and the
which carry you across the floods of Chaos
With your OlS;UI1lguISI1leO crew eXll.lltllnst
as watch You fell the Wicked One-
His limbs are cut to with the knife
and fire has eaten
than his
power,
are controlled.
is safer
the enemy of Atum has gone downl
is safe
and He.lloJ)olJLS
The her heart is well at ease-
the enemy of her Lord has fallenl
Gods arms in the field
and those safe in their shrines kiss the earth
when see his flood tide of power.
x
Power behind the the Lord of Karnak leI1[lOle-
in your Name of Maat, Creator of
H\lrTlrlC: and to
Lord of abundance.
hr{,\lH,ht aU that is into oeJ.n2'-
in your Name of
Great Falcon. with ornamented
with handsome face and ",,,,o,,,,,,,,,,.u .. ,,,,,
Perfection of creation.
with crest. uraei at his
To whom the hearts of aU mankind are drawn,
for whose return the sun folk """",.4."''',
at his
Be Lord of the throne of the Two
beloved of his when he shines.
32. Hymn to Amun-Re
(Credo of a High Priest of Thebes)
Cairo
This Lord of all
Lord of the thrones of the Two
::>pJlenl\lld Soul who came to be in the
God who dwells in
Primordial God who
whom every
Most n_."".,._ of the UU.ll"lU!!;">,
the world back in the First
Whose features are ............ """"'. his appearances.
and there is no vn'","UT1,nn how he flowed
to the world at the creat:l01rl,
Sundisk who the sunbeams;
Who offers himself so that all men may
about above without wearied;
65
66
and
riser whose ways endure,
one who rises at dawn with the
Reaches the ends of circles about the
traverses the Below to the world he had created.
The God who fashioned himself on his own,
who created heaven and earth to his
Eldest of old ones, most eminent of the eX(lLlte,d,
than all the
Virile Bull with the
at whose Name the Two Lands tremble;
arrives under his power,
who reaches the far end of tnt'AUAr.
Great God who Existence.
who seized the Two Lands his
lord of a his enemies;
Ancient Nun who revealed himself in his own
to to life what came forth from his
Who across the traverses the underworld,
at dawn his of the before.
1Vl1.rYl"\"U in power, sacred in ...... ..
secret the contours of his
His eye and his left eye are the sun and moon,
time
wheel;
heaven and earth are united his SntnlI1lg ..... ,:>'31111"'1'
Beneficent
or ... _ .... u "".
From whose sacred eyes mankind came
and the very are from his
Who food and ordered sustenance,
created all that master of
Who leads forth the years,
and yet there are no limits to his
Old one grown young who reaches At'''''rn1'!'U
one his
rUIn II .... and Vr;:!,'\li<:>I'Q to Amun-Re
67
With thousand eyes and ears,
who the millions when he shines;
Possessor of Life who offers his
who encompasses the world within his care;
Who ordered forth creation. and not one amiss-
of all he has pel Hill.eu.
With name and "'" ... "'t",. .... ,{T
all men are up to pray to
Yet terrible and awesome. in
and every goes in the tear of
Bull who grows young subdues his ad'ver'srurle:s,
whose arm strikes down his enemies;
This the universe his oeC::lSl,ons,
the Soul ot the world shines forth from his two
which took on
the sacred one with none who knew him.
This is the who created
and united the lands the commandments he had
Gods and bow to his Power
the of his __ ., ___ ,
One who came first, he endures to the
the
Whose Form is there is no Irn,"'\'UT1Incr
who conceals himself from all the
Who hides himself in the there is no cOlrnr:1relhelldJng
who masks himself even from those who
Fire in the UJLUJ' __ G.J.U"" ......... """ .. ,,,..,..
whose what is nlCloen;
Who without
and at dawn prays to
Glorious when he appears within the tnneao,
his is like every
Waters flow north and northwind blows uDstrealn
from the of this
Who his orders to the
what he has laid down shall not be reInOVe(l;
With resonant voice and excellent COlrIlI1naI10,
68 and
without failure in his
Who a term on doubles the years of one he
harbors for one who him in his heart,
and builds for all pt"p'rn1'tu
33. The Leiden Hymns
Leiden 1350
vi. The the Creatures to God
is in awe of you,
even those in the Underworld your ...... <l ..... ".1'"'[,.
Your name is exalted and your power ........ ,rvhfu
and the ocean dread you;
makes to you when he arrives on earth
and among the islands in the Great Green Sea.
Deserts and mountains descend to you,
and land lies in fear of you.
The of Punt come to you,
and the land blossoms for love of you;
DflnJIn gums and resins
t"prnnllp t]rararlt with aromas of festival.
And incense trees. and abundance of
which waft to you sweet odors to t"n1'nO'IP
with baked and nonev-
Oils and aromatic roots mixed with resins
to distill the which are put about your
for your countenance.
and ladanum for your brow.
Cedar trees grow tall for you. . . . .
to decorate your Userhat
Mountains of stone flow down to you
to elevate the your saIlctuairy I
l'llle-;SnllDS and of the open sea are out on the waters
laden and headed for your presence.
and to
the entire is your domain.
The Goddess and Thebes
She is the one who removed the affliction from Thebes-
mistress of cities.
who takes Two for her own;
Effective for the Lord of
the of of Re.
Who makes Thebes victorious over every
that she may offer this earth to the one Lord
tnl:-OUl2n her
grasps the arrow-
no occurs near her because of her C'f" .. ,"", ........ f"A
Each grows in her name-
it is she is their Ruler. than
rest is
Ix. at Sunrise
The Nine Great Gods are come forth from Chaos
to to see you, 0 of ... (!r\F._
Lord of who fashioned himself
Lord of the Goddesses-He is the Lordf
Those who were he shines for them aU
to their faces in another of his
his ears are Ils1ten.lnJg:,
is clothed in
The is like the fl1"1f'1"1l"'V!li waters are lazuli
and the Southland is as he rises among them.
The their ternp.les are open.
and n .... r.nll'" appear, to marvel and look at him.
69
70 and
The trees sway their bodies before
turned toward the One. their arms wide with bIOtssc:>ms;
The ones dart about in the water,
come out of for love of
The small beasts
birds dance with extended
The creatures all know him at his loveliest moment-
it is life to them to see him each
are in his hand. with his seal,
and never a shaH open them for his I\A
There is created without
the life of the Ennead.
x. The Thebes
Thebes is the for every
both waters and land came from her in the tseJgmnu1g;
Then sands came to underlie fields
and form her foundations on the helgh1ts become
And then faces within her
A
in its true Name-
ac<:oridinlg to its purpose
"""nru".,.'u of Thebes, the of Re.
Her came down as the and nrt"'H:rIPr'lna
to the world her to the
At peace, alit to dwell in Isheru
in her form of Sakhmet. Mistress of the Two Lands.
"How she is. said about her.
"in her Name of Waset. Dominion. the
t'rclspercms in her Name of yyL. .... 'j,L.
divine in the Sun-disk before the face of her Lord.
gUJ,dlflg from her throne
without
Each carries her
to make itself like Thebes.
She is the n'3i'r"" .. 1"\
MUrnr\<;; and "",r:::>,UQ,rQ to Amun-Re
xx.
How sp.lellIOlICl1} you sail the skies.
your task of ye:ste:rd8lY
You who create the years, months
and hours occur aC4colrclln2
far above yel,telrday.
en1terllng the darkness you '-'''''L ..... .,' ....
Sole one awake-for you detest slumber-
who circles the world in a moment-no secrets are
from you:
Who sails across traverses the
the on each which moves among men,
All are in awe of your countenance
with mankind and "Welcome!"
xxx. Enemies
:::.elrpent, who falls to God's
those who wreak Slau2Ihte:r,
He death in the hearts of his enemies
so that as outcasts forever.
He has caused that their be
to his his own heart
The shrine of God is
the Mflrrht",r One cellebrates,
Re is there are no enemies of his;
The Bark of Millions of Years has
the divine crew their hearts filled with 2lclorless.
Felled is the of the Lord of
no enemy of his exists in heaven or on earth.
HelloPOilS, Underworld-
their inhabitants deJl12tlt in their aelLtles;
71
72 and
the sword!
xl. The
God crafted himself. none know his nature;
his features came into means of
He sn'1Pe:a
form
" ... nn,.nn his into existence from the .......
of the mystery;
And his Form came into at birth-
he finished himself to perlectIon. a Craftsman in ways.
I. The Power God
[ ...... J
The Sundisk's beams streamed from the because of your face,
from his cavern because of your
presence;
Earth was established because of your
and to you, all that Geb nurtures.
Your Name is I-'V'."' ..... your power
even mountains of iron cannot withstand your
Divine Falcon with extended
SelZlIllg in a second whoever attacks
Hidden Lion with war-cry,
who to himself whatever comes under his claws;
Bull over his lion over his I-''''''''''V'''-.
CUJ'.ctunn his tail at whatever annoys him.
Earth shakes when he forth his cry;
all that exists is in fear of his ...... 'u""",.",
t-turnr\c and vr:::'",jO>lrc to Amun-Re
He is t:"n1.rrkt,,'lT there are none of his kind-
of for the Ennead.
Ix. God's Creation
To him De.lOflS the Southland as well as the
for he took them, alone, for his own, in his
His boundaries were set while he was still upon
wider than all earth, than heaven.
From him the their necessities-
SU1:>plles from his stores.
Owner of arable and new land-
to him each title-deed in his t"",.,.1 C!1"1"'I"
From to end of the stretched cord
he measures all earth with his countenance.
For him the foundation-rite was
and to him the cubit for stone.
He stretches the cord over the of the e:n)UI1C1.
the Two Lands with his abundance of
houses and ternpJles.
Each lies in his shade
that his heart may walk about as it
Praises to him come from every
each endures in its love for him.
For him consecrate the to
and is awake amid the beauties of
His presence moves about over the ro()UOpS,
and his are the while it is dark.
The receive sustenance from his
God is one who pn)tects:-to
lxx. God's and
He is one who t:"nfCu:: .,',r drives off Clu;ease,
a who cures the eye without
73
74 and
Who opens the vision, aids the
[ ........ ]
'Vho rescues the one he loves he be down
in the Underworld
who from the hand of fate the one he would offer
his heart.
To God ,... ... llnnrr eyes, and ears as
he is a face on his every for one who loves him;
He hears the of the one who cries out to
lOf;tantly comes from afar to the one who summons him.
He lets life be or wreaks havoc within it,
nevona compare to the one who loves him.
A is his Presence is over the waters of Chaos-
Death the Crocodile is when God's name is sP()ken.
The winds contend, a rebel wind blows back-
yet the one is content to remember God.
Words will work in the moment of terror,
and breezes are sweet for who calls upon him,
the Rescuer of the weary.
God is rn ..... rt't .. 1 r .. """r,:nr. .. rh,u wise;
his is the one who bows to him while he is there.
Effective is he above millions for one who him in his heart;
brave one, sole one of his Name, hundreds of
thousands.
Who nt'r"r ... ,('rc the
in very truth,
effective, who seizes the moment, with none to oppose him.
lxxx.
The Great Gods were your first incarnation
COlmtHelCe this world, while you were one alone.
Your was hidden among the oldest pnm()rClllal ..... "".,,,.,.. .... ,
for you had concealed as Amun from the face of
the
You fashioned your form as the
F"lHlIlf'" and """'''''''0'1'''' to
to the first
to birth back in your time.
Your comeliness was honored as J:'l.c1I,UUil.\ ..;!.,
his mother;
bull of
you distanced VOlurs:elt to the midst of .... .. ""',u. remained as
the sun,
Came as the fathers who their sons;
and a inheritance was left for your
You
there was no there was no Void:
The world was from in the tieJgmlnlltlgi
all other came after.
rest is
xc. The Creation
All the Nine Great Gods came from your
and your for each was based on your form.
You flowed forth when you ago,
as who concealed his nature from
Oldest of the
The toes of whose were
who rose shlnmlg as Re from chaos that he
I I Shu and Tefnut tOjl[etrler
himself to the Kmlgslt'up torieve:r.
to the end of "",h,,' ... t'uiru sale Lord.
means of his Power.
was his incarnation in the
all existence was hushed in awe of him.
Then he screeched the cry of the Great Shrieker
above the districts which he had formed. alone.
75
76 and
He from within the .:;> ... u.u .... ,,;,.:;>,
it see;
He sounds while the world was siIent-
and his encircled the earth.
f Ie gave birth to eX:lstlln
caused all to know the
offer them
Their hearts live when see him-
for He is the ,...1" .. , ... " .. , One.
The Birth God
Creation with the First Occasion.
Amun came to be first of all-and none know his means
of ...... I".lT .... "' ...
No became before him,
nor was other
his
with him there when he forth
There was no mother to him that she have created his nature,
no father of his to the one who said. "It is II"
He fashioned the egg of himself all
Divinest of
all
who came into
came to be after he
The Forms God: His
his own .... "" ....... ".
on his own-
with himself.
He is one whose nature is and his
of wonders with forms.
All boast that come from him-
but to exalt themselves in his and holiness.
Re himself is in his
and he is the Fashioner dw'ell:ln2'
Whatever is said of Tatenen is to
and Amun who came forth from chaos-that is God's
above.
77
His
His
appearances.
No ntr'f'111'p
ccc. The
78 and
for the of which cares for these
The divine are answered from Thebes.
and the oracle comes forth as if from the Ennead-
All that comes from his mouth is U"""''''''''''''
so the administer for him what is commanded.
The message is sent: it can kill or make live-
life and death for each one on it.
God reveals himself or
One the Three united.
d. God as the Divine Warrior
The rebels a2:,Unl)t him are down on their faces,
there are none who attack him;
The land in the midst of his enemies,
cannot be found before him.
Fierce lion who rends with his claws.
drinks down in an instant the power and blood of attackers;
bull, with hooves
on the neck of his enemy, his breast;
Bird of prey on whoever attacks him,
who knows how to crush his limbs and his bones.
Who takes to battle his "'''''.'''1'''\'''''''"'_
mountains tremble beneath him when he rages:
Earth when he utters the war-cry,
all creation is in fear and terror of him.
Woe to the one who faces he who likes a taste of his victim-
for he is with his horns.
dc. God's Nature
His heart is Mind and his its tXPfC:!SS,10I1.
is all that exists because of his tOI:l2:1Je;
nQU'\,.lJ,.l}:;. makes the twin caverns under his
and the Nile comes forth from the beneath
his sandals.
.... urnr .. ' and Vr:::l,UA,r,;:, to Amun-Re
79
His Soul is space and his the moisture.
and he is Falcon of Twin Horizons in the midst of neclve:n;
His eye is the and his left the
and it is he who faces down every way.
His is Nun, and
birth to all
His hot breeze is the breath for every ".,,"' .... J,
and fate or fortune for all are under his care.
His wife is the fertile field which he Imlpre:gnates,
his seed is the his fluids the
is
who are in his presence custom;
Their faces are turned toward him
as mankind and both say. "He is unClersltancllng."]
dccc. the Place Truth
And so one moors as one of the in
district of of silence.
Worthless ones cannot enter there, the Place of
the boat.
It of
will not cross for the 1H',\1[J.1'"r1"I"\"(1'
How it is to moor within
then shall one become a divine soul like the Ennead.
Thebes-She Who Is Before the Face of Her Lord-is ennobled
and
rest is
to rest within
COrlCejiillrtg her
is the One in the his is
the faces of the ennobled dead in the
Underworld.
Hymns and Prayers from
The Book of the Dead
(New Kingdom and Later]
The Book of tbe Dead is a collection of prayers. and
directions to the deceased on his or her .r. ........ "" .. to the afterworld. It
was, in effect, the successor to the VIIQ-l\.ln:golom 1-1'lF1f'!ln,,\frt
the use of which had been limited to the and the Middle-
Kllrlg(iorn Coffin a similar collection more disseminated but
still limited to the upper In the New anyone who could
afford it could have a Book tbe Dead. The Book was divided into ....... ' ... p""" .. ,"'.
and the owner of the
still alive, had his or her copy made to order, which of the many
PO:SSIJt>le selections were necessary or desirable. In the Book
tbe Dead can be seen the characteristic fusion of the of Re and
the underworld of Osiris. This is evident when
Ktnl)!:Olom of Osiris, the realm of the dead.
34. Introductory Hymn to Re
of
Praise of Re at the time of his from the eastern horizon of the
the osiris. scribe of the divine ntlf"" .. "nt1rc for all the Ani, who says:
Be you who are come as
who came to be as creator of the
You rise and shine down from the back of your mothe:r.
80
The Book Dead
as of the
Your mother Nut raises her arms to you,
The Western Mountain receives you in peace,
and Maat embraces you and
Re the power and strenjittn
COlnlrt2: forth as a
redeemed under Osiris.
And he says:
o all you
who
of the
lUT''''"1nO' of the
o one, who created TT'EII'-''''''''"V
o Enneads of the North, West, and East-
Give to Lord of the ne.ivens.
the prosper, and be who created
WClrSJ110 him in his beautiful
as he rises splencllCl
those who are above WOfrSlllO
Bark.
may those who are below you;
Thoth and Maat write for you every
be to the
The House of the Ruler is
there is sound of reI4JICJ!n2:
and the of
For have seen Re apl)ealnnll!
his rays UOIOClJlnl!
do not exist.
The of this moves forward
and the land of Manu unites with him.
Earth with his birth each
once he has returned to his of ye1>telrday.
81
82 and
you be at peace with me,
and may I see your on earth!
Let me strike the
\'PClphlS as he actsf
aDI(]1Ul-u:sn. its moment come to be;
the bulti-fish its oec:onunJ'!:,
while gUJLOUlg I
For I have seen
and Thoth and Maat with him there;
And I have seized the of the Bark
Bark.
he allow me to see the sundisk
and the moon without every
And may my Soul come forth to walk about in every it
and may my name be called
that I may find the of ntt."'r1rI0'C;:
sustenance be
of
me in the presence of the Followers
maya be made for me in the Bark
on the when the ferries over;
And may I stand in the presence of Osiris in the Land of
the Redeemedf
For the soul of the Ani.
35. Introductory Hymn to Re
of
M/I"' ... "'I"' ..... of Rt when he rises in the eastern horizon of u ....... v"""tL.
the merchant who says:
Praises to you, Rt in
Atum in your brilliant Shllnllrlg!
Risel Riser Gleam! Gleam!-
at break of dawn aPlpetllnrlg
the osiris,
The of the OOUDlle-l)lUme to you,
as you
The Book the Dead
The Bark cte:)tf(}VS those who attack Him.
Re
o comer Your sacred bark is tfllUmtpntan.tl
And that vile causer of his head is
Their hearts are
for their Lord at the rebel's faIL
The crew of Re is at peace,
and HehOI)ollS
And the merchant '-"""lUl,Q., vmcl1Cclte'l, says:
Let me come to you, Lord of the
Hc.rallc.hty let me rise up to Truth!
I know that your life is there:
let me be one of your favored ones
in of the Great God.
One's name is called out; he is
and he is commanded to ....].
The oar of the Bark is f(lSplect
and the boat moves peclceJtuU
I see Re when he makes ottenng
his enemies felled at the
I see Horus as nellml)m,an,
the Oarsman .. IT"",, .. ""'" LV with his arms.
I see the aDlU-Illsn.
and may I cOlnlflg to be,
while gUl.dlflg the canoe on its lone waterway.
Blessed is he who is free from evil acts
which him from the Lr'OSfnnlZ.
Who does not rend another man because of what he
who does not drive a man away to take his father's n"l'"\n", .. "'{1'
Who does not lie.
is the Blessed Lord of
And the merchant V""lHI.Q., v 1lllUil .... says:
83
84
and
Praises to you,
with pal"twolore<l
with handsome face and the
you awake in pertectlon in the
with the Ennead to you and all mankind
in the ev(:!mnQ".
Honor is yours in the Hall of Truth
from the divine stars who go to rest weary.
a watchful one, child who his mother each
Re lives. the serpent-<lelmO'n is deadl
You are your is down!
you cross the skies with life and power,
the Bark in and ti11'nft,,_
your heart sweet,
the Uraeus in at your bow!
36. Introductory Hymn to Re, II
of
\Aln ... "t" .... of Re when he rises from the eastern horizon the the
osiris, the merchant vindicated. who says:
Praises to you, who rise out of Nun
and illumine the Two Lands at your rr. ....... ..,'iY forth.
The Enneads in unison in you,
the Two Ladies and the Followers have nursed you,
a beautiful divine beloved when you rise.
The common n"",,...nll""
Sunfolk
The Souls of him,
the Souls of Pe and Nekhen lift him
Baboons veneration to
and with one voice small creatures him.
Your Uraeus visits havoc on your enemies,
those in the Sun Bark in you,
your crew is victorious.
The Book Dead
The Bark has united with you
and your heart is 0 Lord of the
Those you have fashioned offer you ad()ratlolll,
with Nut blue beside you,
And Nun with you
as you shoot your rays.
you likewise illumine me
that I may see your pelrte,ctl_0n.
I am the the merchant "-' ...........
Vlfldlc:::at,ed, pn)Sp
1
enU2 on earth:
WCtrsJh.lO to your beautiful countenance
as you rise from the horizon of the
85
And honor the sundisk when it goes to rest upon this its mountain,
caluslng the Two Lands to live.
Words sP()ken the merchant _"',HAL"", vmCllcc;ltecl, who says:
The
you shine and shinef
come forth from the chaos of Nun renewed,
as is your custom,
Divine who came to be of
without insemination
You have illumined the
your rays snl.nll1lg nun,gle:d
And Punt aromas of your sweet lra,gnmc:e
to the of your nostrlls;
And you shine like bronze in the
the two firm on your brow.
The Lord of the Two Lands has allotted all
and all nOilormg you.
the merchant _ ..... ULQ,. vindicated.
37. Introductory Hymn to Re
of
\AI,., ... "' ........ of Re when he rises from the eastern horizon of the the
U4 .. U ... ': ............. who says:
86
Praises to you, Re in your
Atum to rest.
Riser Risef Shinel Shine!
you who appear as
It is you who are lord of the
and
lord of
who created the stars above and those who are
Who created the
who came to be in the lSe;g-1I1lnulg.
fashioned humanIty,
created the waters. fashioned the
Who created the caused those who are in them to
knitted the mountains, made men and beasts appear.
Heaven and earth
you traverse the above in of heart,
with the Lake of the Two Knives at peace,
The his arms cut away,
the heart of the One in his shrine.
who appears as the Power of the
The Effective One come forth from chaos.
he is LLl'UUlIIJ".a.ll'L.
heir of pr"'r""tru
",,,,,,,.,,t-t',,, .. who caused his own birth.
Sole one, who cares for creation.
of the world. ruler in He1l0POUs.
breeze.
At'".r ..... t'", wise in the ways of forever-
the Ennead is because of your Sflllflling.
The ferries across,
the one in the Bark exalts you.
Praises to you, Ref
.. .,..,'t'1rl,1"Ir in Maat as you across above.
"",.pr"t,rn",p watches you as you grow;
and your travels on with your rays in all faces.
There is no
to describe the likes of you.
The Book Dead
.. ,a.",,,,,,", .. , you are like [ . . ]
so that honor to your name;
And swear oaths means of you
as the one to whom their faces turn,
You are the one who attends with your ears,
and you see millions across the
There is not an Asiatic there from whom you would draw
as you watch over them, in your heart.
The is beautiful because of your name,
your course is far-millions upon millions of milesf
you across it in tnlJmlPh,
87
bound for the waters at the of your desire.
You this in a little moment
and go to rest once you have the hours.
the osiris. steward of the Lord of the Two
who says:
We:lC()me. my who traverses PTI"rf"l1t"u
whose existence is
WeJlCOlme, 0 lord of the sun.Ugtlt.
You shine and everyone livesl
Allow me to see the Lord of the Dawn each
the osiris, the scribe. overseer of the 1"""'rn .... II"'" of Seti I. Hunefer.
38. Introductory Hymn to He
of
Wc>rsJl1P of Re the scribe and geller.al of the army,
risen from the horizon of the
Praises are yours from the mouths of everyone.
beautiful renewed in the sundisk
in the arms of your Hathor.
who says:
88
and
foreverf
come in nomalge
at your
LJ14earmnlg from the horizon of the
you suffuse the Two Lands with turquoIse.
This is
the divine heir of p.rJ"rntr'tr
himself and bore nmlsen,
Chief over the districts of
who came out of the waters.
Drew himself forth from Nun,
nursed nunS4eu, and sanctified his birth.
o who loves every soul,
may you shine forth as of the
Nut has offered before your countenance.
and Maat embraces you both and
is yours from those who attend upon you,
bow to the earth at your aplDHJ'aCll."
who fashioned the
The Ennead
your rays.
to gaze on your
As you across the to your custom,
safe and sound your mother, Nut
You cross the in of heart-
the Lake of the Two Knives is at peace,
The and his arms
tnlrOlJI2n his vertebrae-
and Re continues on Spjlen,01<lly.
The Book Dead 89
The
it is finished
north. west, and east are you,
o of earth. who came to be himself.
Nephth'\'s honor you,
cause you to appear in in the two divine barks;
their arms you.
The souls of the Easterners follow you,
the souls of the Westerners for you.
The ser'oent-delmOln
and your heart is
Your mother Nut
you ... _', ........ ,"'"
39. Two Hymns to the Rising and Setting Sun
of
Adoration of Re in his from the horizon until he comes to rest in life.
Words the osiris, the scribe Ani:
Be pralse
i
O,
nl"lrtl".r-t1{'\nc:: be with my eyes,
come to be within my breast.
pf()ce:ea in your own peace in the
breeze within the
rrClC::!l:1Incy of the skies among the
dead
with all your enemies fallenl
The stars to you,
the indestructible stars adore you-
You who go to rest in the horizon of the Western Mountains.
beautiful as the Sun each
De,aUl:lItU, ,-"LlU'""g as my Lord.
90 and
ii
Be 0 Re in your
Atum to rest.
You are beautiful as you shine from the breast of your m(}tnter,
of the
v.u"."" ... before you,
and Maat embraces you both and
You cross the in of heart-
the Lake of the Two Knives is at peace,
The and his arms
the knife has cut
And Re continues on with tnlln'tllY .... rr breeze-
the Bark has those who attacked him.
Southerners and Northerners draw you
while Westerners and Easterners
Primal
who ....... .... c'ht forth the forms of
his voice
when the earth was flooded with silence;
Sole One who came to be in the midst of the
before there was or mountains;
sole Lord, who created all that exists,
whose fashioned the Ennead of his
Who nursed the seeds of all that is in the waters
who raised
whence you on the bank of the Lake of Horus.
Let me breathe the breath which comes from your nostrils
and the northwind which comes from your mother!
you my
make sacred the osiris. my soul!
Be in 0 Lord of the
be exalted in the midst of your wonders!
Pour your rays over my breast like the
The osiris and scribe of accounts of the ritual .nt"l''''' ..... u'."
overseer of the Two Granaries of the lords of the district of Ta-wer. the gen-
uine whom he loves, vindicated and tri1umtphtant.
The Book Dead 91
40. Hymns to the Rising Sun
Praise of Re at dawn when he rises from the eastern horizon of the
with those who are in his t ...... II ...... '1IT1rl .,.
the osiris. vindicated.
who says;
Hail. 0 "" ... ,,, .... ,"' ..... lord of the sunbeams.
who rises from the horizon each
you in the face of the Virldijcat.ed;
let him adore you at
let him
go forth with you to the
That he may command in the
endure in the
and the incles1trucW,le, umNe;'LrVling starsf
The osiris Ani and vindicated-
may he say that he honors his the Lord of "''-'''''''''1.-''
ii
Praises to you, 0 Horus of Two HOiflz,ons,
"'''.'''''1-''''',1" that is, who came to be himself,
How beautiful is your from the horizon
to illumine the Two Lands with your
With all the
when
With the
of the ne,!lvens:
the at your brow-
she has taken her before you:
With Thoth ahead of your sacred bark
de:strjDvj,n2' aU your enemies;
With those in the underworld come forth to you,
to see this beautiful
I have come to you, and I am with you,
to see your sundisk each
Let me not be let me not be turned
92 and
let my limbs be renewed at your peJrte'Cti4e>n,
like all those you have nOlrlO['ea,
for I am one you treasured on earth.
Now I have reached the land of priO'rnfT'tr
I have the land of
and you indeed have commanded it for me, my Lord.
iii
the osiris Ani. vindicated and tfllUmaplllanct:, who says:
Praises be to you, when you rise from your horizon as
at peace in Maat as you cross the
With every face you
concealed from their
VOlurs:eU at the dawn and the
how fortunate are who voyage with your -----1---'
Your beams shine in the but there is no undelrst,in(lmg
the brilliance of fine is to your own.
have been described in the nrrfT1rHl'C
of Punt can be eXlplc'recj;
But you were concealed when you created.
one alone, for your Word.
Your first incarnation was Nun, the ocean.
and he would make his movements follow yours;
Nor does he make a like your
the is the lI''Ulrn,A't'
Millions upon millions of miles,
yet a little moment and you have it.
You have gone to rest.
and, same as in the you the hours of
to your custom.
once more as
over the horizon.
iv
The osiris, the scribe Ani. VlrtOllcateO, who
The Book Dead 93
he you in your Snllnllng.
you be up for the of your visible
may you shine in the wealth of your 0 Traveller.
You fashioned your own without
as Re who shines down from the
o let me reach the heaven of pf'iO'rntrU
the district of those who are honored;
I the most favored in the
and let me go forth with them to see your pelrteiCtlc:Jn.
you shine in the I"'VI"'n1ncr
after you have traversed your m()tn,er, Na.unet:
you turn my face to the
my arms in adoration at your to rest as one
For you indeed created pr.:>,rn,rrul
Be as you go to rest in Nun.
Let me you in my heart,
o you without weariness, more divine than the
v
The osiris vtrldl1cated, who says:
Praises to you, who rise _'-',. __ ..
of the
ugJntlng the Two Lands with because of your birth.
Your mother you forth upon her
and you illumined all the sun disk circles-
The who rose out of Nun.
who marshals followers from out the waters,
Who makes the districts of the cities rich with 1' ... .,1'.'(1,'11.,
lord of
prcltects ttlf01Jgh your pelrle(:tl()oS-
blossoms forth in food and sustenance;
strc:mi!:est of the oO'wertu!l.
who arms your throne agcun:st
Awesome in appearance in the
your is Iar-reacltlll1lg Bark.
94
the
Vr"",,r.,.,rC! and
you the osiris rescued from the grave,
and may you let him be there in the
You who are free of evil.
may you
Place me as a blessed among your ones
that I may the in the Sacred Land
And sail about the Field of Reeds
ac(:orIOIn:2 to command from the Lord of
the scribe vindicated.
vi
You shall go forth to the
travel across the be brother to the stars.
Praises are offered for you in the SUI1811l10,
and you are summons to the Bark.
You shall see Re within his
and you shall his sun disk every
For you have seen the bulti-fish in all its forms upon the
Sea of TUlrquoise,
and you have seen the time has come-
The evil one is fallen as toretC)lCl,
for I have had the knife cut
And Re shall Ie\! t'l"nl"'l.T
the him who would attack it,
The heart of the Mistress of Life is glGlOClenlea
for the of her Lord is overthrown!
You shall see Horus with the T11IP'I"_'rnrIP
and with Maat in his arms,
For
the osiris, the scribe of for the Lords of '" .. ,,_'-'''''' ....
with them.
vindicated
The Book the Dead 95
41. A Hymn to the Setting Sun
XV, of ,,\utnotepet
Another 1"n'l"C!'-"''''1'''C! of the underworld: the lSS:U1I1i2
forth in secret from the realm of the dead to see the Sundisk when he goes
to rest in the the adoration of him and in
the underworld; and the of the soul in the presence of Re-to
to exalt it it its rltn'f'Ht''I'
it to be attentive
to()ts1tep,s. and to it learn to see when it is with the Great God,
which he has it shall go forth into the ri!l1IrlH:rht
in any form that it may wish, and it shall be among the of the
underworld so that shall it as one of them and so that it may
enter in all its power into the secret 0'>11'pur>1v.
Ml1t-JrlOltet:.et, vindicated:
\Alr,,,,C!I"tn for you,
in your movements. beautiful and 21c.nc,us.
When you go in the sacred p n ~ C l l t l c t of the
western mountain
that you rest in your field which is in Manu,
your of the rushes you.
Praises to you as you go to rest in peace,
you are united with the of
The their about your flesh
as you touch down on earth.
You have ferried across the sunbeams
and the of heaven and earth come to you n,\'\J.TI,ncr
offer you adoration each
and the of the West in your pe:rIecuons;
you,
those in the Bark row you;
And the Souls of the East sink down at your
"Welcome, you who come in
There is for you,
o lord of heaven and ruler of the West I
96
Vr"',"AI"CC and
Your mother, Isis, has you
that she may see her son in you
As lord of awe, exalted in ...... 0 ..... " .... ,
when you go to rest,
And your father lifts you up,
I:>e"on.a the threshold.
Tatenen
of
as you rest within the Western Mountain.
You have me as one honored before Osirisr
o come to me, Re-Atumf
Let me you; may you show love for me;
let me be vindicated the Ennead.
You are be,aut:ltllll, 0 Re, in your horizon of the West,
lord of exalted in awe,
you do,
in your love of those in the underworld.
You illumine the faces of all those over there
and all who have withdrawn the horizon.
You the to Rosetau, of the underworld.
you have the way to Shu and
You the thrones within their terool,es,
and are as his household propers
when Re goes down.
o you of the West who 'tur ... clr"ttn
and you who offer at his ap1Jr0
1
aCll,
hnlPI.OY the arrows of the fallen aJl'., ... u " .. seI'oent-enerrlv of
oppose him who would wreak destruction on Osiris!
The of the West
as take the of the
For have come in tfllum,ph
o
to voice the Truth of the
whose in the West are hidden.
who vindicated Osiris a,un:s[ his enemies.
vindicate Mtlt-ltl01te[let. whose voice is true,
her enemies;
The Book Dead
\pJ:>rO,ilcn the tribunal
Lord of life.
who is in the sundisk shall aPlOro.aCll1.
Protector of his Wennefer-re.
And Osiris shall go to rest
Praise be to you,
come into
Praise be to you,
the souls Below.
come as
as maker of the
come as bun of
one within the horizonf
Praise be to you, more effective than the
who illuminate the underworld with your
Praise be to you, who voyage on with your transltlglLlre:(1
the Sailor in his sundisk.
42. Hymn to the Setting Sun
Dublin 4]
97
Adoration of etlor'akltlty in his to rest in the western horizon ot the
Praises to you, Re, in your to rest.
onme:val one, the first who came into
Praises to you, who created the
who raised up the that his eyes
Who created earth to be the broad hall for his SUfloeam,s,
The
each man to consider his ",""tX-.l.llU\,.;'J..
Bark is the Bark shouts orallse-
have crossed Nun for you vic:to:rious,
and your crew is
The Effective One has felled your
for you she the to()tslte1J
t
S
and she is beautiful as Re each
Your mother,
pelrlec:t in your
98 and
There is in the horizon of the Western Mountain,
and the illustrious dead are
You shine forth there for the
ruler of ..... "' ....... t-,'
And the in their caverns-
their arms are raised in adoration of your "''''''''C'L''\,''''
And offer you all their pel:1t1()nS
once you shed
And the lords of the ..... ri""' .. uT,r. .. lri
for you have made clear the splen<lor
Their eyes are wide to look at you,
and their hearts when see you.
you hear the prayers of those in the grave-
remove their drive off their sadnesses'
And may you offer breath of life to their noses
that may take the foremost in your bark
in the horizon of the Western Mountain.
You are 0 Re, each
and may your embrace you.
The osiris NN. vindicated.
43. Introductory Hymn to Osiris Wennefer
of
att,alIllng millions of years as his duration;
First son of the womb of Nut,
whomGeb the
Lord of the double crown, ennobled the White
smrer,euzn of and men.
He has received the crook and flail
and the of his fathers.
Glad is your heart. in the Western
your son, Horus, is established on your throne.
The Book Dead
While you shine forth as Lord of .&J .... "' ...... .;>.
as the ruler who is in
For you the Two Lands flourish in vindication
in the presence of the Lord of All.
He has ushered in the one who has not come to be
in his Name of
He has the Two Lands clean once more
in this his Name of he who Cleanf;es;
and matgnUl(:ent, IftSp:LnOt
Praises to you,
and lord of
Who took the Two Lands for his own in the womb of Nut
and ruled the of the
With Tn"",,"_CT,rur.
now he is in the sacred Ktn,20,om
Let me be gl()r1()US in the
downstream to Busiris as a
""'''' ... nr ..... UPs1tre,ilffi to as a
without hindrance
a!:lf-p"UT!:I'T of the underworld,
water and OUier1l12S
A burial "' ... , ......... ""'"
with emmer and there.
For the soul of the osiris. the scribe Ani.
44. Litany to Osiris
of
the Lord of Forever:
.UVLU"<U modes of
numberless
99
100
and
Ptah-Sokar. Atum in HellOpouS,
Lord of the ""4.J.,t UJ.'''', who mere:a
who govern the
Dr()tel:t you when you go to rest in Naunet
Isis wraps you in her peace,
the is driven from your
You have turned your face toward the West
that you may the Two Lands with fine
The stand to look at you
that may breathe the air. your
as the Sundisk from his nO:r1Z
I
Dn,
of Ptah-
their hearts are with what you have created.
For it is you who are eternal and
Praise be to
say the stars in the Sunfolk in ancient K-:>! .... ulinn
You are Wenti, diviner than the
the hidden one in tte:uopous.
Praise be to
say ancient deities of Iwn-des. You are the Great
UT1.rt"" . .,t-t't".,nrr when he crosses heaven-
You are indeed
Praise be to
You are the Soul of ....... "' ............ ., the Ram who dwells in ................... 4 ... '
Wennete:r, son of Nut-
Lord of the realm of the dead!
Praise be to you,
in your rule of the Great Crown firm on your
you are the one who is his own prc::>tectlon
as you go to rest in Busiris.
Praise be to you,
lord of the nome, one who Sokar
on his
drives off the rebel who does
and the to rest where it ne:lOI1I,2S.
Praise be to you,
in your power. and rnt,rrhfu
foremost in master of time and ... r., .... "'lr"
it is you who are lord of He,calcJeopol1s.
The Book the Dead 101
Praise be to you,
at rest in it is you who are lord of
who has the Sacred Land with your
you are the one who hates falsehood.
Praise be to you,
in the midst of your sacred you fetch from
his cavern,
one on whose dead
he is the one in H14era:Konp
i
OlllS.
Praise be to you,
creator of of and Lower Osiris,
vindicated,
who founded the Two Lands with his acts:
this is he. lord of the Two Banksf
you make mea
that I may pass on in peace.
I am one who is and true.
I did not
nor did I do an evil
Amarna: The Heretical Interlude
of Aton
Akhenaton of was the first known
monotheist in He was a who abolished the traditional
...... "hri-'h"' .......... of and substituted for it his of the creator
and whom he called Aton. Akhenaton left Thebes to build and live
in a new called el-Amarna, where he could his with-
out the or of the other
Aton was a benevolent and not the creator of the cos-
mos but also the nurturer of aU creatures. His shone forth in the sun,
whose and warmth made life There are several to
Aton in the tombs of the courtiers of Akhenaton at Amarna; the finest of
them, from the tomb of is here.
45. Akhenaton's Hymn to Aton
of
In Praise of the who
the divine which is in the Sundisk.
Great One who is in the "'""c,t'nr.,1
Ne'ilvel!l. Lord of
and forever, the liv-
Lord of all the sundisk .....
Lord of the Two
Mistress of the Two Lands, Nefer-neferu-aten f'l..IAt"A .. i-.i-,
necUUllY, forever and He says:
102
Ama.rna
21ctric
t
us]fy in the horizon of the
Arisen from the eastern hOJrlZton,
you have filled all earth with your SpJlenaor;
You are exalted above each
your rays encompass the lands
to the limits of all which you have created;
There in the you reach to their D01Un(larleS
And you are your rays are over the
and you are in the faces of those who watch your
You go to rest in the western no:rtZ4;)n
t
and earth is in a darkness like
With the in heads covered-
the eye cannot discern its co]m):>anll01!l;
All their be carried off-
lion comes forth from his ";"''''UT'Cl'tT
insects and snakes bite and
Darkness earth is silent-
he who created them is at rest in his tomb.
iii
Dawn rises on the nOrlZl;)n,
from the sun disk as
You scatter the bestow your sunbeams.
and the Two Lands offer
for you have raised them up;
Their bodies are
their arms raised in
the land
take up their work.
on their clo,tll1nR'.
at your ap1pe'!lfllrl2.
103
104 and
iv
The herds are at peace in their meadows,
trees and the grow green,
Birds from their nests,
their wide in of your Person;
All the small beasts about on their
and all who up or settle to rest
live because you have shone upon them.
go downstream or as
each lies open because of your presence:
The fish in the River dart about in your
and your beams are in the Great Green Sea.
v
It is you who create the seed in women,
the fluids into human ..,. ... " .. JJ;. ....
Make the son alive in the womb of his mother,
soothe him, his tears.
Nurturer from the womb to those breath
to into life all that he has created.
He descends from the womb to breathe
on the of his
And you open his mouth, determine his nature.
and minister to his needs.
vi
The tleclgl:mg in the
so you him breath within it to succor him;
And you have to him his allotted time
so that he break out from the egg
To come forth Oele0102" at that time
and move about upon his own two feet
when he emerges from it.
vii
How various are the
and are all
o sole God, without another of your
Amarna
you created the world to your desire,
while you were
With mankind and cattle and every sort of small
all those upon land, those who go upon feet,
Those who are on upon their
the lands of Khor and Kush.
and all that to
viii
You each person his
and you for his
Each one has his sustenance.
and his lifetime is reckoned for him.
"lolt1gtleS are words.
the natures of persons as
And their skins are made different
so you can the pecJcpl.es.
ix
in the Underworld
at your desire, to nourish the Oe()Olle.
as you create them for
Lord of them who is weary for
o Lord of all who shines for
awesome in
lands are far away,
you make their lives PO!SSll)le.
For you have a in the
that he come down upon them-
J.YU'I,l\.U,I}; waves upon the mountains like those of the Great
Green Sea
to water the fields in their
x
to the small beasts of each land who go upon feet.
And comes from Below to beloved as well.
105
106 and
while your rays are ..... rct ....... each meadow.
You shine. and
grow for you;
You fashion the seasons to make all your creation flourish-
the winter for COOUU2
and the heat which
And you have made the far off
in order to shine down from it,
to watch over all you have created.
xi
You are one
sn:mlng forth in your visible Form as the Aton.
You create the numberless visible forms trom 'trn'lrc,,,,lt
you who are one alone-
towns, the the River;
and each eye looks to you as its ShlnlIll$:t e:!(anaple:
You are in the sun-disk of
overseer of wherever you go and whatever shall
For you fashion their so that you may be COlmpflete-
celebrate with one your creation.
xii
And you are in my
there is no other who knows you
for your son,
Ne:telr-kheper-re Wa-en-re.
Let him be wise with your counsel, your ctr."" ..... CYth
that the world may your condition
as when you created it.
You have risen. and are alive:
you go to rest, and die.
For you are the measure of Time
one lives means of you.
shall be filled with until your setUn2;
all labor is set aside when you go to rest in the West.
Then rise I Let creatures of thrive for the
Amarna
And let me hasten on with every
I since you founded the world.
And raise them up for your son
who came forth from your very
107
and Lower who lives on Lord of the Two
Wa-en-re. son of the who lives on Lord
llIc:::tlrne; and the Great
Nefer-neferu-aton "who lives and
Hymns and Prayers to Other Deities
The Riches of Polytheism
At the center of consciousness was the He1l01POll-
to Re and Osiris and their sto-
des. But there were many Hathor was a
with many aSl)ec:ts. sometimes as the mother of Horus,
sometimes as a and sometimes as the of love and
intoxication. Thoth was the of wisdom, scrivener to the preserver
of the and pf()tectc)r of scribes. Ptah was the creator
1"h."r..lr"YH of than but he was
also the of craftsmen and artisans,
in flood. the energy that return of the waters each year. unseen and
without Maat is a case of she from the
head of Re as a values of
and Order.
46. Hymn and Prayer to Ptah
Harris I]
Usermaatre Meramun. the under his
South of his Wall, lord of the life of the
exalted in the double
the Handsome of Face upon the Great Throne:
108
with
M\JrY\r\C! and IJrlOl,\lS::>I'q to Other Deities
The
to you. exalted ancient one,
o Tatenen, father of the
Eldest of the time,
snclpe:Q mankind and formed the
1:SeICOrnml)! as the first f'l1"1T'nP'UllJ
every event that occurred came after him.
Who created the to what his heart Imagllne:a
and raised it up like one lifts up a teatnc::r;
Who founded the world as his own creation,
circled it about with Ocean and the Great Green
Who made the for the
"11' ... " ....... "'" Re to sail across below to comfort them
as Ruler of Lord of Forever.
Lord of who causes throats to
who offers air to every
who lets all live tnl:oU2:h his n .. ,"''''T1C!H",.nC!
Time, and fortune are under his dominion-
we live that which issues from his mouth.
Who created the for all the
when he embodied himself as waters.
Lord of is under his care-
he breathes out life for everyone.
And the to his Throne
of the Two Lands.
The
I am your son, whom you installed as
on the throne of my father,
And I am upon your waters,
your counsel is with me.
you double for me
while I am upon earth.
109
you draw me toward rest at your side in the West of heaven
as you do for aU the hidden of the otherworld-
A friend of your Enneads in your secret
like your who is at your side.
110
A
and
Let me swallow contentment from your nU"""'rl:nO'c_
the and wine.
within the Sacred Realm;
and let me see you as your two Enneads do.
But while I am Ruler upon earth as lord of the Beloved Land,
let me not my heart from zealousness for you-
.::>eleKln{! out all that is useful for your splencllO dViielljnllZ,
1!0'lermrll! well before you in your
tbe Ramesses I I I will
41. Prayer to Ptah, Sakhmet, Ptah-Sokar, and Osiris
of Horemheb in New
of the to Ptah South of his Wall. beloved of
and lord of Rosetau:
you all allow my Soul to come forth in the
to see the Sun disk:
every
whom you made so er.n ..... n.' .,
And may you have me follow you both and
as one of those you honor,
Because I am one who has been true to God
since first I was on earth.
Let me Truth, every
for I have turned my back on evil in his presence,
nor has there been occasion since my birth,
For I am one who is benevolent under
wise and who listens to the truth.
Let me be among the crew in the bark of Osiris
celeblratllng in the district of
of the het'edlLtary Sole Friend.
scribe. vindicated.
riA'''''.'''' for the
Hurnr"" and Vr::1I\ll'llrc::. to Other Deities
48. Hymn to Thoth
of Horemheb in New
111
Worsh.io of beautiful lord of appear-
the mayor. fan-
bearer on the commander in chief of the armies,
scribe. No.relnneo, vindicated. He says:
Praises to you, 0 moon.
bull of in its sacred
One who clears the way for the knows the relJL21()uS
writes down the statements of the
Who one from another like it
and evaluates each person;
Skilled to the Bark of Millions of Years;
courier for the Sunt()lk.
Who knows a man
and measures the deed the doer.
Who attends on ascends to the presence of the sale Lord
to inform him of all that has
Each dawn he an aC(:OUlntl.n2
and he does not
Who the Bark ne,llttllV
and makes the Bark pe<;lCeJ[Ul,
His arms unhindered in the prow of the
Cle:ar'selemlil when he has taken the rope of the
of the Bark
the celebration when it crosses the
Who overthrows the
and calculates the .......... u,'F. on the Western 1"\'10 .. 1'7"" ...
While the Ennead in the Bark offers
to him,
'HaiH Hail! 0 you whom Re favors
as you compose the paeans to the
re-echo what your wishes
as you open a to the destination of the Bark.
you sacrifice that cut his head
112
and
annihilate his soul. and throw his on the
for you are the who him.
There is done without your
as the Exalted
who came forth from her
Protector of Mc.raJCnty, with entree to the lore of HellOPol1s.
who created the of the
Who knows the sacred M,rstenes,
u",t-"",.,.,,.,,,,'t-,,,,,. of their words.
plllmoune which is true in the center of the oallance,
receives the one who does not lean toward crime.
Vizier who words, who uproars into peace,
scribe of records who the .;)'-LVU.;),
Who the the one in chains,
---------J of arm, wisest of the Ennead.
back all
nel!PtlJl to one who has gone
Who recalls the moment,
who on each hour of the aaJrkfleSS;
Whose words will last forever-
who has entree to the Underworld.
",\1,171",,0' all those
and who records them. each ac(:or,ClUlLi! to his name.
49. Prayer to Thoth
of Horemheb in New
An of the to Thoth, lord of the sacred ur,..t-.r\O'C! lord of Her-
mc>pOrllS, who determines and who ferries Re in the
you cause that the .. ' .. words be accurate:
I am one tn .. t-hr',O'I',"
each prC)Dllem
and my tOfl$:!llte en()U2:n to set it
Bark.
... "."r .. ", and vrl'lIUPlrq to Other Deities
113
I am one who upnOlClS
who instructions to the 1"'''1'''''',,,,,,,,,,
wise in my of which I am 19n:orC:lnt.
lamonewho
who each man to know his way,
and I do not what is in my _AU_F._'
I am one who advises the Lord of the Two
who of
I am one who .. D .... A .. ~ ' "
and I do not
For the
vindicated.
what my Lord has said.
50. Hymn to Thoth and Maat
Museum Stele 551 ]
Praises to you, Lord of He:rmLop
1
011lS,
who came to be of not
Sole who governs the underworld.
who instruction to the Westerners-
Those who are in the retinue of Rc-
and who among the of all the lands.
H(llrelnnel), the to flourish at his
side
as you are beside the Lord of
as you nurtured him when he came forth from
the womb.
And to Maat. our of the ro...lrI ......... "u" ... ,-;
who opens the nostrils of the
and who air to the One in the midst of his bark.
Allow Prince Horemheb to breathe the breezes born of heaven
as the of Punt breathes her aromas from the Lake
of
you allow my from the Field of
and let me be OrC)VUlea there from the Field of UI:[erllngs,
114 and
and receive the from the altars of the Lords
of He,llOI)OllIS:
And let my heart be in the from the Ne'cf()p()l1S
to the pure islands of the Field of Reeds.
you open wide to me the blessed
and my road before me,
and may you me in the retinue of Sokar
before the of the fie'VOllCl.
No'reInneo, vindicated. possessor of
blessedness.
51. Khety's Hymn to the Nile
Praises to you,
one who from the earth, come to save
With hidden features. a darkness
to whom his followers
Who waters the created
to life to each kind of small creature;
Who satisfies the the the water's
and he is the very dew. as it falls from ne,lveln:
Beloved of the one who
who makes the crafts of Ptah flourish.
ii
Lord of the who makes wildfowl south-
and no birds fall command of the winds-
But let him be ",Iurrrrf",n
up.
then every face is po,ve:rty'-stncKen;
If one the ottenn.e:'-ca.k:es
then millions are
l"1"rnr\", and to Other Deities
Who creates the raf)aCI0tlS man to trouble the land-
But when he draws near,
when Khnum fashions him on his wheel.
Let him rise, then earth is
then every
Backbones have taken to laulghter.
each tooth is bared.
iv
Who food and abundant LlL'-J'V ... 'U."-'Lh7.
who himself creates all his
.. " .... :1.1"".," ... ' ... , of aromas,
one is at peace when he comes.
Who to be for the cattle
OrC)v1(leS the sacrifices for each
He is in the heaven and earth are under his
and he takes the Two Lands for his own,
the the ,., ........... , ........... ,
v
Who makes each desirable tree flourish
so that one shall never lack for it;
Who makes ShlPPln2 pOSsIJble means of his force
will not sink like a stone. so the
Bluffs are seized in his sUlrglll1g,
yet he cannot be seen.
Who works he cannot be 2:o'v-ernej:.1.
he is well-versed in the I'\II .. .... ".C!
One cannot know the where he is
nor spy his source from the UTrtf"11"CfC
vi
115
Floodwaters cut thI:OU,2h the Vllla2eS-H:lel:e stoppiln2 them-
wander and no gUl,amlg
of the young accompany
116 and
and him with honors like a
Whose ways are who comes in his season,
who fills both Lower and
eye is moistened him
who an excess of his
vii
Poised at the entrance. he comes forth
and every heart reJ10lces;
Who conceived Sobek, child of the tloC:1d,waters
J:.nneaa. which is from him,
sails over his u ... , .... Hug."n ...
..... r' ... '" "'11"'1 ..... '" to all mankind:
Makes one man
and there is no contt:=n<::un
He makes his own peace. will not be tnI'ealcenea,
lets no boundaries be set for him.
viii
Who illumines those who go forth in darkness
with the tallow of
AU that has come to be is rh.".""",h his strc:!nj;!:tn,
no district of the
Who clothes mankind with
the weaVf!r-iJ'od to his work;
of orchards with his gu ms
so that Ptah can fasten with his
Who r ..... ] for !\.nc;!pn-
all workers come into
All to the words of God
papyrus.
ix
Who enters the underworld. emerges
r",,<'P,!!Ip, .. who comes forth with secrets.
But should he lie his are few-
the food of that year is
Then one may see Thebans like women-
each man his
.... ., ........ r .. " and to Other Deities
There is no thread for Pf()\l'llCt;s,
there is no cloth for clO
i
tnln,
There is no the children of the rich,
no cosmetics for their
The trees have been ruined for lack of him-
there is no ""' ..... h"rni, ... iY anyone.
x
Who firm in the hearts of mankind
would lies of the among
mIngles with the Great Green Sea
but does not try to control its waters;
Who to all the
his
no man
One cannot eat
food comes before prc:>st:)erltv:
xi
songs to the
chantresses their
of the young shout for him,
a of retainers is for him-
And he returns decorates this
makes the features and flesh of mankind
Nourishes the tOC)Ugllts of women with child.
ae:Slflng multitudes of all creatures.
xii
He rises among CitIzens,
and are satisfied with his fruits of the fields-
Fresh greens for the u ... " ...... , .... lotuses for the nose-
and all over the land.
Each
Good is strewn tm'ougn
this entire land is aaJ1Cln1
117
118
Vr:::li\/l'>lrc;:; and
xiii
surges, and OIJ:enng is made to
for him cattle are
For him
For him lions are out in the
for him beautiful are nrf".'utrf""rl
And make to each
like what has been done for
Finest incense. short- and
burnt nttprlnO'_
and down in his secret cavern, is Do'wertu,l.
Yet his name cannot be known in the nnrl .... t"urr.rlrl
nor can the very reveal it.
xiv
AU mankind extols the Nine Great
who stand in awe of that
Which aids his divine son. Lord of
to make green the Two Banks of the Nile.
o then you will come! Thrive. then you will cornel
thrive. then you will come!
Come back to 0 you who satisfaction and peace,
ULQAJe"'F. green the Two Banks of the Nile.
Give life to mankind and the creatures
your from the T-A,,,,,,,t-.. ,,,,<,,'rl.,.1
o thrive, then you will comer then you will come!
o then you will comer
52. Ramesside Hymn to the Nile
l<:tt"r".,..',... ... Deir el-Medineh
H\lrnr,,,, and """"""Ar", to Other Deities
Father of ......... .
And every heart
at this COlnp,en:satlOn for his years of hesitation .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . his
ii
He has come forth
from his ... n'" cavern;
And he rages on his UTt'nrt1tnn
COInlI1l2 to rest upon the n12:ne:5t m .. "nnrt._
Wave
and earth is in chaos. like Nun .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . dread:
for he is like a lion who has sprung forthl
is awakened.
its is
All the creatures celebrate
when he greens the Two Banks of the
When he pours forth abundance
among the old and the young alike.
the lotus. whose blossoms dot the flood
that may tell the to come:
Each cre:epm
dance on air
or buzz upon the banks-
announce the birth of cm.loren,
and the booms for nalPPlLne:ss.
Faces are
and take to
iv
To the ends of the land it grows green.
there is so much food one wearies to see it;
Good are strewn in the n"ih.,.""""",
119
120 and
and abundance surfeits the stomach.
Teeth are sweet with dates
and comes
The back turns away from
and unbounded \.I1.::1'I-'\#,l'" tribulation.
v
All hearts fashion
The reeds and rushes are SPl,enlCl1O
and the
Blossoms are at their best
and all the trees are tln,11r'l..:t'I,lrtA':1'
The staff-ofHfe have offered their fruit
and cannot hide their Ira,graLnce,
vi
Ears breathe in OeICK()ntngs.
hearts receive messages.
The small do not curse the OlstmgUllsh,ed,
the low show tor the
The young offer
and the chasten the boastful.
The governance ot the Residence
The
is like what had been before in the oa,(ace-
with Maat in the mouths of the maglstra1tes.
and teeth are
with wine,
to fine
The eyes ot the curious gaze
and limbs are clothed in red linen.
vii
The are splen
l
OlO with services.
otl:erllng:stake at the
Double doors wide tor the Lords of I-;+,,,, ...
H\I ...... r'C! and to Other Deities
and the are content.
The torches flare on the
and the homes of the are brigh1tened.
. . . . . . . . . . . . the blessed dead.
viii
of the Audience Chamber is to
and the Book of has been found.
Crocodiles rage, about to their heart's desire,
and the waters are fresh with their
The fish are swollen with roe
which are set free in the flood.
ix
Wildfowl halt on the
of the I-i!l1'tTl11rY"1 lakes
or havens on the earth-mounds of the
The Delta-Northland will become their ne:Stll12-1Place;
the feathers of the ro-geese
Fowlers snare,
their arrows catch
x
be.:trU1t2 their seeds.
are down with their stalks.
see their
young animals nurse at their mothers,
All of birth to
and are filled with cream,
The small beasts of the
The ostrich
his ott:sprin2
xi
The poor are like the of the
and the are like the nUmr)le;
attains to power
121
122 and
so that he
and the bees are
xii
do not be slow!
And do not be les:seltUl1l1!
to his nose when you come;
do not sink into the 1!rCluno;
There are no . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . his prayers.
Your is here before us
that we may turn back to your
and the are near.
53. Hymn to Maat
of Amun at ""I_t'"unlc!
A recitation Lord of the Two son of Re, who lives for-
ever: Maat to her fathers. Amun-Re and Ptah.
Praise to you, of
consort of whom Ptah
The one who adorns the breast of Thoth. who fashioned
her own nature,
foremost of the Souls of HellOPOUS;
Who the two falcon her
filled the Per-wer shrine with life and dominion;
Skilled one who forth the from herself
[)f()Usmt low the heads of the enemies;
nrr,\'utl"1pc for the House of the All-Lord,
for those who are on
her throne before the lUCIQ'es-
and she consumes the enemies of Atum.
.-." .. u .... and vr:::',"Plrc;: to Other Deities
She is
and there is no in the Son of Re, who lives forever.
Shu with Thoth-
his is with mankind
which he offers to and Amun of Hibis.
And the Great Ennead is nr."IT .... tul
in the House of the Prince in HellopOl1S.
Rise splen<llOJly, a
how beautiful you are because of Maatf
As Maat shines from the heart of
so are you 0 Son of who lives
You too are beautiful because of Maat ....
see her who comes to the Son of who lives forever(
o Maat, build your throne in the
of the Son of who lives foreverf
you make heaven and earth in Re his father
from whom I, the have come forth.
you rise from him on this beautiful
in this your divine Name of
She who appears in
And may your beautiful face peace
to this lord of the Two
son of the Sun and forever.
54. Prayer to Hathor as Goddess of Love
..... ,...-"n'rJ.'" Chester I}
Let me the Golden One to honor her -"--"1---J
and exalt the of
Let me adoration to Hathor
and songs of to my nei:IVelruv Mistressl
her to hear my pet:1t1()ns
that she send me my mistress now!
And she came herself to see mer
What a that was when it nalPplenieOl
123
124
Vr:::::lUAI"C: and
I was
from the moment look at herr
here she comes!" -and the young men I"\"":.7O..,,f1'
tnI'OUQ'n their enormous for her.
Let me consecrate breath to my Goddess
that she me my Love as a
It is four now I have in her name;
let her be with me
I I 1============
The Nature of the Beyond
The Prayers of Pahery
lived earlier 18 and was mayor of el-Kab and
Esna. The walls of his tomb at el-Kab offer the most extensive characteriza-
tion of the afterlife that survives from ancient From his prayers and
del5criotiorts we can see the function of his tomb and the of regu-
to sustain his soul. We also follow his vision of what life with
Osiris would be like and of the for back and forth
between this world an invisible
ous It is also mtere:sting to note the presence in prayers
of the of "the within" the human breast.
55. The Prayers of Pahery
i
to the Gods
An which the makes:- to Amun,
Lord of the Thrones of the Two Lands,
of lord of t" .. 'p",.", ..
double
beJtoretilmes. grealtef;t of Ancients of "",,,,,m,,.,,,,,>
without creator of men and
flame which rose out of chaos
in order to the :su:nlc)lk;
125
126 and
To Osiris, Foremost of Westerners.
Lord of in
To mistress of desert """.'I"1Al"'"
fearless among the
To lord of ,n, .. rUT'
lord of
J:mneaas. the Greater and Lesser:-
a thousand of bread,
of .... r.""ut"'."', .... '"
""fl'''''t'',rHlrct of every
which flourishes upon earth,
meat, and
And a thousand of and pure
which is offered in the presence of the All-Lord.
And may receive the bread and drink which is before
the Lord of
and the milk which appears upon the onef),ng table.
And the water which forth from
and the northwind which over the
At the festivals of the Month, the Sixth
the Great Procession, the of
The feast of of
of the First Birth of of Isis.
The Procession of Min, the Procession of the Fourth
the the of the River.
aC(:orIClm. to their
""",""'Tfl"1"" for you a sacred robe of finest linen
from those taken from the limbs of the
anoint you with sacred oil,
may you drink the water that is left upon the altar,
And may you receive from what is upon it,
as one honored among the foremost of the blessed.
For the Soul of the of el-Kab. the scribe
filled with devotion to his Lord,
The Nature of the
if
in the
you come and go, while
with heart favor of the Lord of
With a fine burial in old age,
after your of years has come.
you take your in your
over
Which may take
as falcon or
PJ1!oeJl1X or
as you wish.
you across without hindrance
and sail upon the waters of the flood.
your life return once more-
your never your
your be among the tranSJ:tglJreICl,
and may the blessed hold converse with you;
Your likeness is there among them in heaven
while you are your on earth.
you have power over water, breathe air,
drink whatever your heart def;ires;
you be your eyes to see
your ears for whatever is
Your mouth for .....
and your feet to walk.
your arms move for you, and your shoulders.
your flesh be your muscles t'n .. 1"(1'1 ........
you have of all your members
and count your whole and welL
No evil is accountable to you,
Your mind is yours as f'nrrnp'rl,,(T
as you go forth to the
you the afterworld
in whatsoever you shall desire.
127
128
And may you
and the
oIl:efllng;s in His presence
for the Lord of the Sacred Land.
For the Soul of the of
Counter of Grain from Denderah to ""L-o.,,"alLr.
The administrator free of wr'OnltrO()ln2:.
the scribe vindicated.
iii
the
you eat the loaves in the presence of God
the Great Staircase of the Lord of the i:'..nl:1eaOj
you turn from there to the where he is
in the midst of the tribunal of ,--'r.--'
you move about among
a friend to the Followers of Horus.
you come and go unhindered
and not be turned back from the doors of the otherworld;
the of heaven be to you,
and the very doorbolts unlock of
you enter the Hall of Two Truths
and the who is in it honor you.
you be at ease in the underworld.
travel about in the of
your heart have in your plc.u2:1Ufl2:
in your in the Field of
your reach what has been set for you
and the harvest arrive full of
the be taut in the ,."" ...... "t,,"",1"_
Sail to your heart's desire I
you go forth from the tomb each dawn
and find your way back each
kindle a for you at
He says:
The Nature of the M.P\JrU1,1'1
until the sun shines on your breast.
Let them say to you, -Wlelc4Dme,
to your of the p'I""'r_lnl1rHl'l'"
you gaze upon Re in the circuit of Heaven
and Amun when he shines;
you be mindful of each
may all that you be driven to
you in of heart
esteemed who is within you.
-Your heart is with you, it will never abandon you;
and your orlDV1Slc,ns endure in their
For the soul of the vindicated.
Iv
His Claim
I was a effective for his
wise, not
on the which I
and came to understand the
I reckoned up the farthest limits in those urrli-lr\cyC!
which dealt with actions of the
And all the affairs of the
were smooth as
t'lr",xn'l"'tY to the Great Green Sea.
voice was skilled in
1JGJ.D.U ..... Ul.}:'. accounts:
pen made me talnous;
it made my voice heard among the
And it enhanced my rep,ut"ltic.n
so that I outdistanced noblemen.
129
130 and
[ ..... , ... J me in the rreSeI'llce.
and my character elevated me-
Summoned as one unbiased and in the UQ.I,All''''''''.
I as one esteemed and without taint.
I came and went
with my heart my sole co:m):)aI'lllOln,
I did not to another person.
who dwells in humankind-
and thus dlS,tln,gulsn from another.
I acted as COlnnlanloea,
did not confuse
I did not the langu.:tge
nor consort with those of little character.
I was one who attained oeln.e'V'OJence.
one who came forth favored from the womb.
The mayor of el-Kab.
of the Prince's tutor, the Scribe .rp"_T""'''' vtnCltCCUelCl,
and born to the Mistress of the
v
to the
He says:
listen, all you who have now come to
let me to you without eq1ulv'ocauonl
o ones. you who
nobles and commons who are upon the earth,
Servants of hallowed in their """',"<lUi,,,,
each scribe who bears the staff of
The one conversant with
each one skilled in ae,Uln,jt with subordinates.
the for his of the ........ 0"17_
you all to Re, Lord of
and to Goddess of el-Kab.
And an of you effective in your varied . n ............ "',
may you live to endow your childrenf
The Nature of the .... ." .. "1" ... .,,,..
so, may you recite the
in the manner found in the ulrt1"1r\0'(;!
And the invocation as those dead
as it came from the mouth of God.
who shall here bend his arm
shall grow in the counsels of
To act to tradition
is to bear witness before this
Your thousand of bread, your thousand of beer,
your hundred-thousand of true. and pure,
For the osiris. mayor of el-Kab. mayor of Esna,
treasurer on the southward voyage,
the scribe excellent at vindicated.
Let me to you all,
you to understand:
This is a recitation without excesses or
there is no slander, no in it,
There is no with another person,
no some poor man in his
These are sweet words of consolationr
The mind cannot be surfeited with themr
The breath of the mouth can never be used up-
there is no no weariness in this.
Goodness is yours when you it
for discover it
While I was on earth among the
no toward were counted me.
and I became a blessed
Ohl I have furnished my house in the realm under
and my share is me in "'"u ..... 'urh.".. ....
Yet I shall not fail to answer a prayer-
a dead man is father to any who aid
He does not one who pours water to honor him.
It is for you to consider this.
131
Hymns, Prayers, and Praises
to Pharaoh
The Divine King
Whereas the and prayers of the Texts were con-
cerned with the dead resurrection. the tollo'UJlna songs of
and prayers are directed to the The first several
poems reflect the era of the Middle
the later New the Ramesside
taste the flavor of the adulation offered the y.4''''''' .. ,'"'SL
apl::>ropnate for the to receive such
56. Ode to Senusert I
The Tale
He is a without an
no other came to be before
A master of wisdom. excellent in COlLlnliel.
brilliant in his use of words.
and are at his
and it is he subdues the Ioreuz:n
His father is within the
so he to him what he decides shall naJ,Jpt::n .
.... rUIT"' .. tttl too. with arm,
there are none like him.
132
and Praises to Pharaoh
He can be seen as he descends upon the
once he has entered
He bends the bow, weakens enemy
rebels cannot group for 0PPO:SltlOn.
And he is tprr1hlp Slmasnllng
He is 1' ..... _<"1', ... rt" .... ..., Sn()otlOg tU{lrttl'ves-
no is there for one who turns the back to him.
Steadfast at the moment of assault,
he faces never turns bis back.
Stouthearted he observes the mUllti1tudles.
allows no in his
Bold to fall on easterners,
Im1pat:leIlt to the Iorelgnelrs
Let him but seize his gear for
he need not raise his arm a second time to
There are none who can flee his arrow,
none who can draw his bow.
scatter all before him
as from the angry power of the I\.Jh,rrt'\f'''u Goddess.
t'lS1:htJmg in his absence ends-
he cannot for the residue.
Yet he is full of sweetness.
of the land his attc:!ctlon;
Citizens love him more than their own
in him more than their own local
Husbands and wives pass in him
because he is
He took while still in the womb,
his face on the KII1tgSJrup since the he was born.
He ensures that r..1'1'" ... r."''''
he is one
This land in his dominion-
he is the one to broaden its borders.
He shall seize tor his own the lands of the
he need never think twice about the lands of the north.
133
134
Vr;;!,U","lrc;: and
He was born to strike down Asiatics
and to the desert wanderers into dust.
5 7. Prayer of the Princesses for Clemency
The Tale
Your lot is more than 0
who wear the emblems of the of Heaven;
The Golden Goddess offers life unto your "n"'''rfl",.
and the of the Stars you;
The Goddess travels the Red goes south.
1Af'r''lfnn with the utterance of your M !lI1PC!f"IT'
is upon your brow.
You have saved the poor from ... r'lT.
you have Lord of the Two Lands-
to you, and to the Mistress of the World as welU
Slacken your down your arrow,
breath to one who suffocates I
Son of the !'..11"1'''''''''''',nri
a bowman born in our beloved land.
He took to for fear of you,
he fled the land in terror of you.
But yet, no face should ever blanch at yours.
no eye should fear to gaze upon you.
58. Songs to Senusert III
Kahun LV. 1 I
For the Horus. the Two Ladies. Netchermesut. the
Golden Horus.
and Lower Khakaure. son of
Senusert-who takes the Two Lands in tntlm'ph:
i. The Hero
to you, L'"U."'."' ........
our Horus who embodies the
t-Iurnr\c: v:r;:llu"",rc: and Praises to Pharaoh
Protects the widens its
and conquers
the Two Lands thriOUll!h
I SUbOll1nJIZ I the tore12n
and shoot an arrow without
Who instills the tribesmen in their lands with terror
and the Nine means of
Whose cause the deaths of thousands
among those tribes who try to cross his borders,
::>nootmill! arrows like ::>aJl(:nlnet,
thousands who
The of his overawes
his very words scatter the Asiatics.
Sole
over his bo:roe:rs,
Who does not allow his servants to weary
but lets the rest till dawn
While his young folk take their
his heart is their
His decrees have marked out his Dounaanes,
his word has the Two Banks toS:'!;ettler.
if. A
How are the
for you have maintained their oU:en,njtsl
How are your children.
for you have established their domain!
How are your fathers who were OJ ... ,,"' .. ' ....
for you have increased their .... ... ,
How are in your
for you have the ancient
How is mankind under your On'JPTn11"IO
for your power has received their lives unto itselff
How are the Two Banks in awe of you,
for you have increased their po.sse:SSllonSI
135
136 and
How are your young men of the army.
for you have allowed them to pf()spterl
How are the old and ve:neJratlle,
for you have caused them to feel young
How are the Two Lands in your "' ............... .
for you have their citadels!
Refrain: o Horus who broadens his may you go on forever.
iii. The Greatness
How is the Lord of his
He is exalted a thousand times over; other persons are small.
How is the Lord of his
He is a dike which holds back the its flood
of water.
How is the Lord of his
He is a cool room which lets each man until dawn.
How is the Lord of his
He is a with walls of copper from Sinai.
How is the Lord of his
He is which does not lack his nelPlrl)! hand.
How is the Lord of his
He is a fort which rescues the fearful man from his enemy.
How is the Lord of his
He is a sunshade to cool in summer.
How is the Lord of his
He is a warm nook in winter.
How is the Lord of his
He is the mountain which blocks the storm in a time of
How is the Lord of his
He is Sakhmet the enemies who test his borders.
His Vr,-..tortin
He came to us to seize the Southland,
and the Double Crown was firm on his head.
and Praises to Pharaoh
He came, he united the Two Lands,
he the and the Bee.
He came, he ruled the I-<O'1LT".'." .. \"
he the desert under his control.
pn:>tecte:d the Two
oajClIlteO the Two Banks.
He came, he nourished the .... 0"lTnt1!ln
he their troubles.
He came, he saved the
he let the throats of the commoners breathe,
He came, he the tor,elg:ner's.
he struck down the tribes who did not fear him.
He came, he descended to his lro,ntller:s,
he rescued those who had been InJliJred.
He came. his arms
for what his power had
He came, us our \,,111,1,""',,",",
we have buried our elders
59. To Pharaoh Coming to Thebes for His Jubilee
Us.tralcon Wilson
Praises to you, 0 divine one who comes to Thebes
for her.
The districts celebrate with cries of satisfaction-
our prayers are heard the One who lUllmllnes;
The House of the her fame
and the son of Re rel
1
01ces.
The memorial stelae reach to the
because of this of him who is divine overlord;
The Great Gods are bowed, their arms bent in J.IVUJ.Q,J".'""
their mouths directed downward-
all their is for the One.
that you may be renewed
that you may forth more than np1-fp,"t
Praises are chanted for you in the Palace-
how beautiful is all that is ordered in your Name!
137
136 and
The Two Lands entire are bound to your person,
the Nine Bows are under your feet.
And say. "0 divine Ruler prosper, and be ne,altltlYJ
you who love you who love I klngshllp 1-
There are none who can
a consequence
of falsehood:
there is no ",t-... tr."...,.
o You who make the downstream lrnllrrH"'UC;: pe,icetul fivefold-
let health be to you,
Let life in abundance be yours.
and us also renewal each
60. Hymn to Ramesses II
his First ..... ... ,v .. ",,,,
In Praise of the Great Inundation for the first of the Horus. User-
maat-re, son of Re. Ramessu life-when the Nile reached
cubits
The dikes cannot stand before
He reaches the mountainsf
Lord of the fish. abundant with
all his
and the very
rnc::>u'i!:n1CS are sweet.
make celebrationf
We:lH)le.ase:(1 is the heart of in your timer
the Black Land shall offer sacrifice
There is no dearth of to satlstaC1:t0Il,
and the whole world has come to your throne.
The Ennead of has gat:nerea
I"\r",,,,,,t"., like the
and Praises to Pharaoh
Incense and
your
It is like the mouth with cakes
that Father Amun bakes for
Your excellence is in His
and the heart of every and in your
139
and
their peace of mind rests in your 20jDCllles:s,
You are the who wields his """',rTh .. ""
who knows how to use his hand.
in his power for those who follow him.
61.10 Praise of Ramesses II as a Warrior
Anastasi II)
A
in his power.
Divine who came forth from
child of the Bull of He.llOJ)OillS;
A
means of his
He made the Two Lands bow to his counsel,
and the Nine Bows are trodden under his feet.
All lands are drawn to him their r ... lr.., .1-",
aU nations on a
The chieftains of the rebel lands are
become like cattle in their terror of
He enters in among them like the Son of
and lie due to his breath.
slaugJhte:r. fallen to his
strlemnn is him for ever and ""'r .......... "r'trl
His power enfolds the mountains-
o Ramesses Mer-amun
lord of of his army.
140 """""',"""Irc:: and
62. In Praise of Merenptah as Warrior
""",",I,.,.HI"IIC:: Anastasi II]
.... ""llu".tnl lions;
.... .. '''' ... J" ..... encompasses each land.
He crosses mountains to seek out those who would attack
his in their hearts. fear in their faces.
Perfect effective in his counsel.
may he make his Name victorious the world
As of Lord of the Two Lands.
like the rn
The ones of the nations are bent to your fierce benevolence-
o Meramun.
Son of the at peace in Maat.
63. In Praise of Merenptah
Anastasi II J
The who lives on Maat,
smrerlelQ'n beloved of the
Precious son of
descendant of the Bull of He:l1opOI1S,
Falcon who enters in the
child of Isis. Horus,
The of sent to appear in
and the land faUs into its proper .. h,.th,rn
How very is
how very his counselsf
Whatever he says is like Thoth.
all he succeeds.
He is like one the way before his army,
With
dwells.
and Praises to Pharaoh
141
whose words are a wall.
How beloved is he who bends his back to him,
to Beloved of Amun
The victorious army has returned
after it has in and power-
_a,"" .. AU" fire on the land of Isderektiw
bUI'nlrl2: the of the
The whom you carried off your arm,
the tribes of the lands.
r""tl1r." .... ,l'I' to Thebes-
your chariot is weu!'f1tea
Their chieftains are tied as in front of you,
and you shall soon send them on to your
Amun Bull of his Mother.
64. A Letter of Homage to Pharaoh Merenptah
Anastasi U]
nr{'\l;1r,pr,r'\, and health! This is for information of the
Beloved of Maat, the two horizons of Re wherein he
Attend to me, 0 ;::,nl,nlrlg
who the Two Lands with his loveliness I
Sundisk of the Sunfolk
who drives darkness from the Black LandI
You are like the of your
who shines down from the ne'lvens:
Your rays even the underworld
and no lacks your
The affairs of each country are told to you
while you are at rest in your
And you hear the of all nations
for you have millions of ears.
H.r.,n-ht",r your eye than the stars of neclveln.
for you can see more than the sundisk itself.
If one a voice from the underworld-
142 and
it reaches your ear;
If one does it is concealed-
your eye will still observe it.
o Ba-en-re Meramun
Lord of c.,;UllIl}Jla::>:Slun who fashions the breath of life.
65. In Praise of Merenptab
Anastasi
Ba-en-re Meramun is the foremost of the
a club for be,atlI112.
A
He came down from the was born in He:ll0pohs,
and he has led to u.r1"nr'u in every land.
How beautiful the is near you.
how welcome is your voice in
As you build the House of Ramesses Meramun
at the southern border of each L""'L"'''F.,''
at the far north of
With its beautiful windows and balconies
of lazuli and LUJ,\.fU'V'i:)\'-.
It is the to drill your rh""'.r'\f"f"'U
to field your armies,
To moor your seaborn bowmen
who you tribute.
Praises to you, as you a01DrC)aCn
with your of archers
with fearsome faces and hot ttn2eJrS
Who go out upon the ways of battle
after a Ruler who is to
The mountains cannot stand before him-
are terrified before your awful presence,
o Ba-en-re Meramun.
You will exist while exists.
and exists while you
and Praises to Pharaoh
you dwell se<:urlely on the throne of your
the Horus of Twin Horizons.
66. In Praise of the Delta Residence
of Ramesses III
Anastasi II]
tsejglnnU1lg of the Recital of the Power of the Lord of
built himself a rA'f1n1r."'u mansion,
of Power its name;
It is between Phoenicia and the Delta
and is filled with food and Or()Vl:SclOns.
Its is like Thebes of
and it will outlast the House of Ptah in
The Sun rises over its horizon
and goes to rest within it;
All abandon their home districts
and settle in its
On its western side is the
on the south is the
Astarte appears on its east
and to the north.
The Residence within it
is like the two horizons of the
Ramesses Meramun dwells there as a
Montu of the Nations is his
Re of the Rulers is vizier-
and descends on
The one beloved of Atum is the mayor.
and the land has settled into its familiar ways.
The chieftain of Khatti writes
the chief of V,"",' .... n lU.
that we may hie to
to say. A miracle of has
143
144 and
And offer to User-maat-re
that he may the breath of life to those he loves."
Each land exists love of
Khatti is within his awful power-
God will not receive its ,.,.tlt"" .. , ..... "r'"
nor can it spy the rain,
For it is in the power of User-maat-re
our bull who loves valor.
From the Schoolboy Miscellanies
Passing on the Religious Tradition
cOJ.lectlv
i
etv known as "the
'tU ... r ... H'Y", which seem to have been
intended for instruction of scribes in the schools. are indeed
a miscellaneous from proper Ipf'tpr_'UIr1i"llf'\a
to of the to accounts of how much harder life was
in aU other than that of scribe, to and prayers to
and like those in this section. Much of this material is hum-
much of it is the staff to the young stu-
pr()tesslon to which were
often of school and
and at times the are of
Thoth in these poems is due to his role as of urr'tf'U"'Ifa FoUAA,UA,Q,ll of the
sacred and of scribes and the scribal pf()te:ssllon.
67. Prayer to Ptah
"Longing for Memphis"
Anastasi
See how my heart runs
It flies to a it
upstr,ealu to see House of the
and I wish I were with itl
But I sit here my heart back
so it can tell me how it is in
145
of Ptah-
146 and
No work can be done my
my mind cannot concentrate.
o come to me, to carry me off to
Let me look about unhinderedf
I would the
but my heart is l1stless;
mind will not in my
and seizes all of my limbsl
eye is exhausted with ..... "" .. U<,""
my ear, it will not be filled.
my voice is hoarse and words become tumbled.
o my Lord, be at peace with mef
me to rise above aU these
68. Hymn to Thoth
Anastasi III]
Praises to you, Lord of the Manor,
baboon with mane,
To him contentment-for he is Thoth
who overwhelms the earth with
His headdress is red
his is
Love out from his pVI"'nr'{'\,\l;rc:
as he opens his mouth to
pn'trunT<lIU is sweet
since the creature entered it.
It has and is well furnished
since my Lord set foot therein.
you all be you of my ne:l2t1LDO,rnIOOeJI
"'-vIV"''",v for me, all my nelSZf1LDO,fSI
Behold my lordf He made me what I am
and my heart to him.
o for me you are more than a charnlpilonj
I shall never fear what you do.
From the ;::,cnoou:.ov Miscellanies 147
69. Prayer to Thoth
Sallier!]
Chief of the of the archives, Ameneminet. of the UeaSl.lry of
u ........... writes to the scribe, Pentaweret. This letter is to you as
follows:
o Thoth, take me to HermloP
'
ol1s,
your where it is to live,
....... .,,,,'"1 ....... '" for my needs of food and drink
WBltCJ11nlg over the words I utter.
If Thoth would be near me tomorrowf
"Cornel" say-
And I go into the presence of the Lords of
I come forth vindicated I
o doum cubits
the one with nuts upon it.
With fruit within the nuts
and water in the fruit:-
o you who can water from a faroft
come, rescue me, a manr
o a well is sweet
when a man is in the desert:
It is sealed to one who uncovers his mouth UnW1.SeIV
but open to the man.
Let the man come
that he may discover the well for the man.
And you shall be filled.
70. Prayer to Thoth
For Wisdom in His Service
V:::'ln\lI", fC: Anastasi
2:1()rlC)US sacred
148
Scribe of letters to the Ennead.
exalted in HellopOl1S!
and
Come to me that you may counsel
and make me wise in your affairs,
Your is C1nl.,.n,("11" above any other-
it makes for
to form a
I have seen the many men you ta\l'orled.
and officials, seated on the Council of the
because of what you do;
and it is you who gave them wisdom.
And it is you who counsel to him without a mother;
fate and fortune are in your hand.
o come to me that you may me wisdom!
I am a devotee of your domain,
Let me recount your deeds
wherever I may be,
Then shall the multitudes of
"Great are the
nrlnO'llna their children,
them to your service.
The service of the Lord of Power is pelrIelCW[)nI
And he who is allowed to follow it.
71. Prayer to Re-Horakhty
Anastasi (I]
Corne to me, 0
so that you may me wisdom,
You are the one who aC(:onlpllsnes;
no one acts without your KnOWleCl2'e-
you act with him.
From the ;,:,c:nOiOlDfOV Miscellanies
it is you are the Splenj::Uo
heart is gQne to He:l1QPQl1S;
my have fallen away,
my heart is and my are
Hear my prayers:
my entreaties of each
and my in the
pe1tltl()nS shall be increased in my mouth,
are heard this
o
no other here is like himf
Guardian of his nunorecl-trlollsanos,
prcltec:tQr 'Of any who shall call tQ himl
o Lord 'Of HeJllot)Oll,S.
I am a man whQ does nQt know hunsc;,U,
a persQn without a heart 'Or C'r",An,rrl-h
Who fQllows his own dictates
like an ox fodder.
As for my in [ ..... J
I take
rest is
72. Praise of Amun-Re
Anastasi II J
vizier of the PQQr.
He does not take bribes from wrongoioelrs
nor with 'One who bears
nQr him who makes easy pc<)mtses.
149
150 and
Amun-Re the earth with his
and his words shall rest in the heart;
He the and sends him on to the Place of Fire;
man goes to the West.
73. Prayer to Amun
Supplication in a Year of Need
"''''''''''"''''' Anastasi
Come tome,
preserve me in this year of 1'ntlt::pr'lll
The sun is up but does not
winter has come summer,
Months backwards
and the hours are IUI'l['lOI.ea.
The eminent cry to you,
the humble are you;
And those in the arms of their nurses say,
"Give us our air, 0 Amun!"
Amun find how to come here in peace
with the sweet breeze before him!
Or may he let me grow of on>tectlon
like those his ClrtT_c',\tn
-Thus
the herders in i"nl!lni'ru<:!.t1""
74. Prayer to Amun
Anastasi
you find that Amun acts as you desire
in his hour of benediction
As you are praLlseO within the circle of the malstrates
and well in the Place of Truth.
o your flood overwhelms the UVlAIIUi:)'-
o lord of with many birds-
and all the poor are fed.
From the ;:,c.nO'DIO'OV Miscellanies
o the eminent in the seats of the eminent
and the in the seats of the
And the Scribe of the lreaSl.lry, ... ,. ... 1"' ... .., ....
before who is your Truth.
75. Prayer to Amun
Of a Man on Trial
Anastasi 111
Amun. your ear to one who is alone in court:
he is and without power.
The court extorts him
with silver and for the scribes
and for their followers.
that Amum transform himself into a vizier.
this humble man go forth free!
And let it be found that the humble man becomes a man,
and let the humble man surpass the ...... r.u7"' ... + 1
76. In Praise of Amun
Anastasi II J
A who knows the waters, that is
a ste:entn oar for the
One who food to the one who has not,
who the servant of his house to prosper.
I do not take a man as pf(>te,ctolr.
with the men of means;
n r . ' ~ " " " , , , , under the arm
household.
151
152
Vr:::li'll&>lrc:t and
Amun. who knows what kindness is
and hears the one who cries to
of the
Bull who in his power.
11. In Praise of Amun
Anastasi
Make the heart of Amun in your heart
that he may lead you to a fine old age.
And may you a lifetime of such service
until you reach the state of blessedness.
Your your limbs
Iar-gC:lZllrlg. and your fine.
You shall
a staff of within your grasp.
A chariot of your own with all new
and to
With Southlanders you have
before you.
You shall embark and travel in your of cedar,
decked out from prow to stern.
rr1',,,ntT at your villa
which you 'l1("\'l1rC:plt
Your mouth shall be filled with wine and
With oxen outCf1ler4eO, wine
and sweet in your presence.
Your chief shall anoint with rich pelrtumes,
your chief of lands
Your overseer of farmers offer
and your fishermen fish.
Your shall return from Khor
laden with every sort of spI.enl010
From the ;:,c.n010UJ
i
OV Miscellanies
Your pens be filled with young,
and your weavers nounSnl.flR.
You shall prosper and your enemy fall,
the one who you be no
And you shall enter in the conclave of the Nine Great Gods
and come forth blest!
153
Harper's Songs
In Praise of Life
The songs are difficult to in the ancient
for
brate life in this
diem theme, "seize the cele-
while one can; for the end of life is
the grave, not a blissful afterlife with Osiris. Their occurrence is
not because of in the statement of their theme-that death is
the end is clear-but because are in tombs with other
and prayers which are traditional in eXl::>reSSlnj!
in the of The from Inter s tomb
tna,UJU to go back to the Middle the
1\.Ul(]Orn. The three songs from Nelerno'rep
tomb are palrtlCUlc:lrI} Neternotep CO!nplaU1S ... " .... "' .. 1" of the
of the ":ArT''-'''''
78. From the Tomb of King Intef
in the tomb of
U'''" ,n\ II" .. ,' Harris
vindicated. in front of the
with the
He is pf()spennj!,
death is a
154
155
One passes, another behind-
such has it been since the men of ancient times.
The of ago rest in their PVlranlUlS.
and the and blessed likewise lie buried in their tombs.
Yet those who built mansions, their are no more.
What has become of them all?
1 have heard the words of ImlrlOtep, and Ho,rOJeOc:!l too,
in their narrations.
Where are their now?
Their walls are down,
Their gone.
like SOlnetntUir that has never been.
There is no return for them
to their
To say how it is with
to our hearts
until we hasten to the where have gone.
ii
let your heart be
fade from your
and follow your heart's desire while you liver
Put
own pelrtumes,
up your
and let not your heart become weary.
Follow your heart's desire and what you find
act on your own behalf while on earthf
And let not your heart be troubled-
that of for you must come;
And will not hear their Wal1l11rl2.
we:eo:tnQ' does not save the heart from the grave.
156
and
79. From the Tomb of Inherkhawy
Tomb
So a
that your name may encJUJ'e l)eC,lUs:e
Count up your
Be not troubled at heart over all that nalPpeo,s,
let there be smgUllg
Recall not the
but
o and true,
fJo." ..... 4.' .. , content with your lot.
not evil-
Let your heart be drunk on the of the
until that comes when you anchor.
80. Three Harper's Songs
From the Tomb of Neferhotep
Tomb
i. First
157
Chanted the with the for the God's Father of Amun, Neter-
vindicated:
o all you excellent eminent dead, 0 .L..r .. 0
in the
hear what has been com}:)os:ea
of Life
To the of the God's Father in nononng his
what is neJlPtlLll for the excellent dead man
Now that he is a for ""h:: ........... "u
elevated in the West.
these words become a memorial in future
to anyone who passes
I have heard those songs in the tombs of ancient
and what say, Hfe on earth
and the of the dead.
is this,
which is
It loathes Cllsorcler;
and no one a,rms himself a nelgrlD()r
in this land without a rebel.
158 and
All our ancestors have come to rest within it
since the wastes at the of time;
And those who shall come to millions on millions,
aU go there.
There is no Itnap'r1na in our Beloved
not one fails to arrive
And the span of what was done on earth is the flicker of a dream
when say, safe and soundr"
to the one who reaches the West.
ii. Second
of the song:
of ...... ,.,."" ............
in the minds of all who shall be buried!
it
none escape.
and weak are in the same condition:
whether travel up or down the River
it is there moor at last.
o God's Father, what a fine lot is yours
that you have the lords of p.hrrutul
How is your name forevermore
as one in the Land of God.
The you followed when you were alive-
you have the entree to them face to
are to receive your preserve your honors,
mtlltl1Dlv the works of your
your
and maintain the altar to your person.
each with his .... A. ... ,.,'n
And say to you,
"Welcome in peace, 0 to our
-For the God's Father I'-IPTPrnn'l"pn
of the noble man, Ameneminet.
o God's Father, let me hear your ...... r before the Lords
of btermty:
say, "He has drawn the bark of Sokarl"
you the halitelnmL2
and circle the
"He has raised up the. J"C.<-'--L"':tdl
taken the hoe on the
Recited the ritual of Busiris."
shlnmlg breast.
"' .... T>_.-.... " .. .." at his
Blessed be your existence with the
You shall be remembered for your ac<:oflnpllisttmlen1:s;
and it is you who can enter Hel1opohs, Irr",",UT'lnO'
- For the who satisfies the heart of
o God's Father. your soul advances
and your coffin passes
Anubis seeks you out, his arms about you;
the Two Sisters embrace you;
The rites are once for you.
for you are now entrusted with the labors of prs:; ....... 11''l''
the likeness of a
anointed the hands of Shezemu,
Clothed the labors of
with the Sons of Horus as your whole pr()te,ctijDn.
For you the Twin Kites sit at the Twin Gates
to cry out lamentations in your Name.
your life on earth is beneficial to your Lord
o God's Father of vindicated.
o God's the memory of you endures in Hellopolls,
your remains in Thebes.
Never can it be that you are lost all .,.1'" ........ 1''1.
nor shall your Name be gone-
Because you are one who was in the House of
who could enter face to face at the Great
appearances,
one
in the Irn,(">ul'lpc10'P of time and of prp .. n1ru
Be raised up. 2Ic.nc)Us
o honored Neterlhot:ep.
whose enemies are overthrown for all pf:p .. n1f:'l1'
159
160 and
iii. Third
the
God's Father of
who is in the tomb of the osiris and
Nf'ltplrh{""'ltpn vindicated. He says:
How restful is this man(
What had to come has turned out well!
Generations have on since the time of the
and the young come into their
Re offers himself at dawn,
and Atum sinks to rest in the Western Mountain.
Men women conceive,
and every nostril inhales the breeze.
At dawn are born one after another.
then aU go on to the set aside.
Live 0 God's Father!
Take fine to your nostrils.
With lotuses, and berries at your breast.
with your who is in your heart, at your side.
Put and music before you;
turn your back on every sadness
Remember
until the of that wherein one moors
In the land that loves silence
where the heart of the Son who loves Him never wearies.
the vindicated,
o God's Father. excellent, with pure hands!
I have heard the nappenea to those of former
their homes gone.
As if had never been since the time of the
abandoned what are now your
OC(:UPles their posse:ssl.ons.
fi .. ' .... I;,j"," their waters and your heart.
Offer bread to him who is without his land
that a name may be yours in future and pt",.rnitu
The eyes of their look to you-
161
Raise up their sacred to the throne of ReI
Their cry out in their fTlt,::!pr'lT'
cannot do while to their
and counts off his
Awaken situation-
the wretched man who must be servant to his Shade.
bere on tbe text is
Love Songs
In Praise of Love
The love songs of the New are different in flavor from all
the other selections in this volume; for are secular. the
moods of and adulation are there; but in this case the is not
a but a sometimes a man or a woman. These
since the modern reader a {!:u:mtlse
attitudes of young lives full of
love and sadness. These few love are
them-show another side of the voice of ancient
kind of to the of the ancient as
for could be further from the truth. The ancient
love the and the while a in the heart for
one or more human creatures.
81
Chester I,
to do to me?
about it?
....... ,,"" ... 11'.. me stand at the door of her house
while she herself insidel
162
Love
Not even "Have a nice homef"
she dammed up her ears the whole
82
V;:or'\\lIrt Ie Chester
I,
do you your heart?
After her! I say. Take her in your arms!
For it's me at you,
my tunic over my shoulder!
83
Chester
love is one alone, without her
beautiful above all women.
I,
See like the of the ..... 1"1 ...... " ......... star in Splen(lOr
at the
With c1az,zlulg
with
year.
With that are sweet in
and not a word too much;
her neck and white her
and her tresses like
Her arms are more ......... , ............. ...
her like lotus bIClsSc)ms,
With l'11'nnna
bel.gbten her
Her is as she treads upon earth;
and she fastens my heart in her embrace.
She makes the necks of the young men
round about to see her.
163
164
is he who can embrace her-
he is first of all the young loversf
look at her as she walks
like that One alone!
84
Chester
heart was to go and see Nefrus
and sit awhile at her
But I found down the road
with his band of young men.
I did not know how to escape him
in order to
Oh lookl the
there is no
him unhindered.
is like the River-
to my feet!
heart is so foolish:
avoid
Oh, if I go near him
I shall tell him my heart.
"I am 1 would say to him.
And he would shout out my name
And me away in the finest harem
of all those meant for his servants.
85. The Memphis Ferry
Harris
I am downstream on the
under the of the caCltalJO,
my bundle of old clothes on my shoulder.
love
I am headed for
and I shall say to
"Give mea
The water is full of
Ptah is the reeds.
Sakhmet the lotus shoots.
The of dew is the lotus buds.
and Nefertem the Dlc.ssc,ms,
[. . . . . . .]
of berries
offered the of the handsome face.
I shall go lie down at home,
86
Harris
and I shaH sickness.
Then the will enter to look at me,
and my love will come with them.
She will force the doctors to leave defeated-
for she knows my ..... <31 <3r1"1
87. Songs of the Birdcatcher's Daughter, ii
Harris
The voice of the wild goose cries out,
his n!lt'r_'UTorrn'
And love of you ensnares me-
l do not know how to work free.
165
166
I must my nets;
but what in
Keltuflnml to her each
and
shall I tell
loaded down with my catch?
I shall be sett:ln
I am taken m\!rSeII-nv
88. Songs of the Birdcatcher's Daughter, iii
Harris
The wild goose flies up. then settles,
into the np,rrf1,,\...,
Birds scurry about like lizards.
and I calm
Deann my love for you,
for I am alone-
This heart of mine is to your own;
I shall never be far from your charms.
89. Songs of the Birdcatcher's Daughter, vi
..... ",''"'Ufl'. H;;' Harris
The voice of the swallow is .......... u ....... '
"Land is
cease your chattennQ:
for I found my love in his bed;
And my heart was ... 'rprt
when he said to me, "I shall never be far:
But hand in hand we shall
and I shall be with you in each
He me first of his favorite
-he would never my heart.
II
Other Poems
This final section is' devoted to three small poems which do not conve-
fit elsewhere. The first is a song a 'utrrnr"U'
It appears in the 6 tomb of Weni and is because of its
verse structure (a and because it is one of the earliest
to have survived. The prayer of Ramesses II to his
is an from the "Battle of ............... ,'u .. ,
poem in its own And there is the .. .-",rnT_''''',..
teCllcn:er, at the same time how different the ancient Fa'lTnt,2n
or
90. Victory Song of Wenl
Museum Stele
This army returned in trtlLlm,pn
after the land of the oe<lOl:l1n:
This army returned in trtlLlm,ph
after the land of the
This army returned in trilLlm,ph
after down its .. " ............ " ..
This army returned in trilLlm.ph
after down its
This army returned in tril11mph
after fire to all its aW'elllln,2s;
This army returned in fortl!',"",,""''''
167
168 and
after the tens of tn()Usanas;
This army returned in tnlJmph
after a multitude of the therein as
And I was prallsea
91. Prayer of Ramesses II
At the Battle of Kadesh, 1275 B.C.E.
What is this with you, my Father Amun?
What sort of father his son?
\"'Vl,la .. .... without you.
Have I not gone and listened for your voice
that I the counsel which you
......... r'Ynf .. ., Lord of
encroach upon his landsl-
What is on your mind?
These Asiatics are scoundrels lnlor.mt of
Have I not constructed for you many monuments?
Did I not fill your with my of war?
Did I not build for you my House of Millions of Years
and you all my as 'OCT">""'"
Did I not govern for you each land entire
in order to ""''1'''",.".,-1""
Did I not n'l"'P'C;!Pt",f"
in order to comJ,:Helce
Did I not raise you n"l1.[)'ht'tT
and set their
Did I not you obelisks from Abu?
And it was I who furnished workers skiUed in stoner
Did I not over from the Great Green Sea
in order to convey to you the work of lands?
Other Poems 169
One consider then a small deed
in favor of the one who trusts himself to your counsel?
Do to him who counts on you;
then he you with a heart of love!
I have cried out to you, my father
amidst a multitude of enemies I do not know.
The lands assembled me,
there is no other with me.
has gone,
nor did a charioteer look back at me
as I cried out to
Not one heard me
as I called to them.
But then I found Amun for me
above a million soldiers, a hundred thousand
More than ten thousand men, comrades and children,
united in of heart.
not the work of multitudes of Del:lDle-
Amun is than
I learned these from your own U"' .... 'U\.I". 0 Amun;
and I did not exceed your counsel.
I at the far end of the world.
and my voice echoed thl:OU.gh ... .....
And I found that Amun would come
once I cried out to him.
He his hand in mine
and I was
And he called as if behind me,
"Go forwardf I am with
I am your my hand is in
I am than hundreds of thousands of menf
I am the Lord of Lover of
And I found that my heart was Ste.aOlea,
and my mind was filled with
All I was turned out well.
and I attacked like Montul
170
v .. "",\l .... ,re and
92. A Litany in Praise of the Teacher
You have skilled hands the censer
before the Lord of the Gods each time he appears.
You are a God's Overseer of the M'lirc:t'I"r11"C:
r!:11"r'U111'\0' the fan in your hand and the linen
in your
with the Hand-of in your grasp to your Lord.
You are an in the of Ptah,
one wise in all the secret
You are of ..u..\;J.,
Greatest of Seers of Re at
You are Wloestlrlomsz
one adlmlt:tlI1I.2 nan' .... la
the flail.
Your arms are skilled at
ouen.fi.2libations,
first to invoke in the
You are the one who embraces the
of Heaven,
of the House of the Prince.
over his
to your lord who bears
of Mut, Mistress
on the first of tprrU1inO' her about within her
of Asheru.
You are the one who draws the water for Khonsu in
on the of the in the House
of the Prince.
You are wise in counsel, in
100'KII1l2' ahead-and whatever you do succeeds.
of hearts-like the divine Ibis:
and Ear.
Nile.
You are rich in Or()VlSlons. l1'\t"\Ul'I1'\O'
Olspellse them
to all whom you love like a sw,elllnu sea.
You are an eminent, evc:!n-ternp4ered man, of the
Other Poems
beloved of all who bear the favor of the
You have been of station since your
and your hall is flooded with abundance.
You are rich in with XIC:Lnanc/);
has accrued to you since the of your birth.
You are blessed with horses, with sails;
your like red on the flood.
You have many crews wise in
their words are 1-'''' .... ',..'''.''' .... carry and load.
You are careful in your answers;
you have hated coarse since your birth.
You are nalno:sorne, Iormeo.
and love of you fills everyone like a Nile.
You are in skilled in what is
whatever you say is accurate-and you hate
You sit
your servants answer
Those who pour the ale pour .. "".,n"" ........
and all who see you are festive with
You serve your lord well, you
all that comes from your mouth is
You are one when you the
beloved of Him who drives the cattle at the '\t't'A ...........
And you direct the Festival for the
171
He who the Nine Bows at his feet and cares for his army.
Sources
l. Text: Sethe 1908: 1:205-16.
Translations: Faulkner 1969: 80-84; Lkhtheim 1973: ..L .... 1\.J-Ju.
son, and Wente 1973; Foster 1992: 19-23.
2. Text: Sethe 1908: 1:426-32.
Translation: Faulkner 1969: 141-43.
3. Text: Sethe 1908: 1:292-93.
Translations: Faulkner 1969: Lichtheim 1973: 1:41.
4. Text: Sethe 1908: 1:137-38.
Translations: Faulkner 1969: Lkhtheim 1973: 1:32-33.
5. Text: Sethe 1908: 1:358-62.
Translations: Faulkner 1969: 123-24: Lkhtheim 1973: 1:41-42.
6. Text: Sethe 1908: 2:142-49.
Translation: Faulkner 1969: 187-88.
7. Text: Sethe 1908: 2:127-31.
Translation: Faulkner 1969: 184-85.
8. Text: Sethe 1908: 1:387-91.
Translations: Faulkner 1969: Lkhtheim 1973: 1:43-44.
9. Text: Sethe 1908: 1:161-66.
Translation: Faulkner 1969: 67.
10. Text: Sethe 1908: 1:280-81.
Translations: Faulkner 1969: Lkhtheim 1:40-41.
11. Text: Sethe 1908: 2:80-83.
Translations: Faulkner 1969: Lkhtheim 1973: 1:47-48.
12. Text: Sethe 1908: 1:199-202.
Translations: Faulkner 1969: Lkhtheim 1973: 1:35-36.
172
Sources 173
13. Text: Sethe 1908: 1:181-83.
Translations: Faulkner 1969: Lichtheim 1973: 1:34-35.
14. Text: Sethe 1908: 1:253-54.
Translations: Faulkner 1969: Lichtheim 1973: 1:39.
15. Text: Sethe 1908: 1:174-75.
Translation: Faulkner 1969: 70.
16. Text: Sethe 1908: 1:85-86.
Translation: Faulkner 1969: 43-44.
17. Text: Set he 1908: 2:308-13.
Translation: Faulkner 1969: 228-229.
18. Text: Sethe 1908: 1:195-99.
Translation: Faulkner 1969: 76-77.
19. Text: Sethe 1908: 2:389-97.
Translation: Faulkner 1969: 250-51.
20. Text: Sethe 1908: 2:358-60.
Translation: Faulkner 1969: 243.
21. Text: Sethe 1908: 2:344-55.
Translation: Faulkner 1969: 238-41.
22. Text: Sethe 1908: 1:474-79.
Translation: Faulkner 1969: 151-52.
23. Text: Sethe 1908: 2:372-77.
Translation: Faulkner 1969: 246-47.
24. Text: The 1980: PI. 20.
Translations: Wente 1980: 38; Assmann 1975: 162-64
25. Text: The 1980: PI. 7.
Translation: Wente 1980: 30-32.
26. Text: Martin 1989: PI. 25.
Translation: Martin 1989: 33-34.
27. Text: Martin 1989: Pis. 21-22.
Translations: Martin 1989: and Daumas 1980: 122-124
and 352-53 Assmann 1975: 165-69
28. Text: Moret 1931: 725-30 and Pis. I-III.
Translations: and Daumas 1980: 91-97 Assmann 1975:
443-48 Lichtheim 1976: 2:81-86: Foster 1992: 40-46.
29. Text: The 1980: PI. 19.
Translation: Wente 1980: 37.
30. Text: Edwards 1939: 22-25 and PI. xxi; Sethe 1927-30: De
Buck 1963: 113-15.
Translations: and Daumas 1980: 187-91 Assmann 1975:
209-12 Lichtheim 1976: 2:86-89.
174
31. Text: Mariette 1872: 2: PIs. xi-xiii. Cf. G ...... v,u ..... , Hieratiscbe Lesestucke
2: PIs. 33-34 (Sec:tlOJ1S
Translations: K'!llrnrrr and Daumas 1980: 191-201
1975: 199-207
32. Text: Golenischchev 1927: 169-96.
Assmann
Translations: K""'111""rr and Daumas 1980: 255-61 Assmann 1975:
308-12
33.
and Daumas 1980: 206-29 Assmann
selections Foster 1992: selections.
34. Text: 1910; 1:1-3.
Translation: Faulkner 1985: 27; Assmann 1975: 133-35
35. Text: 1910: 1:3-5.
Translation: In K!lrlllrrr and Daumas 1980: 168-69
36. Text: 1910: 1:6-7.
Translation: and Daumas 1980: 170-72 'TT'llL-".H,
37. Text: 1910: 1:7-9 .
..... """ .......... and Daumas 1980: 174-77 Assmann 1975:
38. Text:
Translation: None.
39. Text: 1910: 1:36-38.
Translations: Faulkner 1985: and Daumas 1980: 172-74
Assmann 1975: 135-37
40. Text: 1910: 1:40-45.
Translations: Faulkner 1985: 41-44; Assmann 1975: 139-44
41. Text: 1910: 1:45-48.
Translation: None.
42. Text: 1910: 1:48-50.
Translation: Assmann 1975: 150-51
43. Text: 1910: 1:12-13.
Translation: None.
44. Text: 1910: 1:38-40.
Translations: Assmann 1975: 137-39 Faulkner 1985: 40-41.
45. Texts: Davies 1908: 6: PIs. 27 and Sandman 1938: 93-96.
Translations: Lichtheim 1976:
Foster 1992: 5-10.
46. Text) Erichsen 1933: 49-50.
Translations: oalrUC:Q
Assmann 1975: 414-15
Assmann 1975: 215-21
Sources
47. Text: Heick 1955-58: 2090-91.
Translation: Lichtheim 1976: 2:101.
48. Text: Heick 1955-58: 2091-94.
Translations: Lichtheim 1976:
49, Text: Heick 1955-58: 2089-90.
Translations: Lichtheim 1976: 2:101.
50. Text: Martin 1989: PI. lines 18-25.
175
Assmann 1975: 463-65
Translations: Martin 1989: 31; and Daumas 1980: 352-53
Assmann 1975: vv. 69-93
51. Text: Van der Plas 1986: 2: Eclectic Text: Foster 1975: 1-29.
Translations: Van der Plas Lichtheim 1973: 1: Foster
1992: 47-52.
52. Text: Posener 1938-80: 3: PIs. 81-84a.
Translation: Fischer-EIfert 1986: 31-62.
53. Text: Davies 1953: 3: Pl. 12.
Translation: and Davies 1980: 461-64
54. Text: Gardiner 1931: PIs. XXIV-XXIVA.
K" .. ,,,r-rt and Daumas 1980: Lichtheim 1976:
t<alJllkrler. and Wente 1973: Foster 1974: 54-55.
55. and Griffith 1894: PI. Sethe 1927-30: 1:111-23.
Translation: and Griffith 1894: Lichtheim 1976: 2:15-21.
56. Text: Foster 1993: 10-12.
Translations: Assmann 1975: 474-76
1:225-26; i::>lnlpSOn, t<aU1Kn4er
89-91.
57. Text: Foster 1993: 33-34.
Translations: Lichtheim 1973:
1973: Foster 1992: 104.
58. Text: Griffith 1898: PIs. I-IV,
Foster 1992:
i::>lnlpSOn, ralJl1KIler, and Wente
Translations: Assmann 1975: 476-80 Lichtheim 1973:
..L . L"' . l"'alJllkIler, and Wente 1973: 279-84.
59. Text: Foster 1994: 87-97.
Translation: Foster 1994: 94.
60. Text: and Gardiner 1957: PIs. and Oriental Institute
.... " Ostracon 19265
Translation: and Daumas 1980: 504-6
61. Text: Gardiner 1937: 13.
Translation: Caminos 1954: 40-43.
62. Text: Gardiner 1937: 14.
Translation: Caminos 1954: 43-44.
176 and
63, Text: Gardiner 1937: 14-15.
Translation: Caminos 1954: 44-47.
64. Text: Gardiner 1937: 15-16.
Translations: Caminos 1954: and Daumas 1980:
488-89 Assmann 1975: 497
65. Text: Gardiner 1937: 28-29.
Translation: Caminos 1954: 101-3.
66. Text: Gardiner 1937: 12-13.
Translation: Caminos 1954: 37-40.
67. Text: Gardiner 1937: 39.
Translations: Caminos 1957: -L.Jlc.l-.JoL. Foster 1992: 60.
68. Text: Gardiner 1937: 25.
Translations: Caminos 1954:
360-61
69. Text: Gardiner 1937: 85-86.
Translations: Caminos 1954:
359-60 Assmann 1975: 384-85
70. Text: Gardiner 1937; 60.
Translations: Caminos 1954: .L..JJ;;-.J'..,.
63 Assmann 1975: 356-57
71. Text: Gardiner 1937: 18-19.
and Daumas 1980:
" ' ~ . .. rrY and Daumas 1980:
Lichtheim 1976: 2:114.
and Daumas 1980: 362-
Lichtheim 1976: 2:113.
Translations: Caminos 1954: 60-63; and Daumas 1980:
145-46 Assmann 1975: 380
72. Text: Gardiner 1937: 2, 16.
Translations: Caminos 1954:
Assmann 1975: 379
73. Text: Gardiner 1937: 45.
Translations: Caminos 1954:
and Daumas 1980: 253
Lichtheim 1976: 2:111.
N,!lrlltrrr and Daumas 1980:
254-55 Assmann 1975: 382 Foster 1992: 59.
74. Text: Gardiner 1937: 45-46.
Translations: Caminos 1954: 174-76;
Assmann 1975: 383
and Daumas 1980: 255
75. Text: Gardiner 1937: 17.
Translations: Caminos 1954: 56-58; and Daumas 1980:
253-54 Assmann 1975: 379 Lichtheim 1976: 2:111.
76. Text: Gardiner 1937: 17-18.
Translations: Caminos 1954:
Assmann 1975: 380-81
77. Text: Gardiner 1937: 37-38.
Translation: Caminos 1954: 137-43.
and Daumas 1980: 254
Lichtheim 1976: 2:112.
Sources 177
78. Text: Fox 1985: 378-80.
Translations: Lichtheim 1973: 1973: 306-7.
79. Text: 1930: PIs.
Translations: Lichtheim 1945:
80. Text: Had 1985: PIs. XXVI.
Translations: Had 1985: i: pp. ii: pp. 14-15; iii; pp. Licht-
heim 1976: 2:115-16
81.
Translations: Lichtheim 1976: 2:188
Wente 1973: 324-25
82.
Translations: Lichtheim 1976: 2:188 ::smlpson, ralllKller, and
Wente 1973: 324 Foster 1974: 9; Fox 1985: 74
83. Text: Gardiner 1931: PI. 1-9.
Translations: Lichtheim 1976: ... ...... " ............. , and Wente
1973: 315-16 Foster 1974: 45-46; Fox 1985: 52
84. Text: Gardiner 1931: PI. 4-9.
Translations: Lichtheim 1976: :SlnlPson, ra1.UKIICr, and Wente
1973: Foster 1974: 50-51; Fox 1985: 53
85. Text: Fox 1985: 372.
Translations: Lichtheim 1976: 2:189 :smlPson. ralUKIler, and
Wente 1973: 299-300 Foster 1974: 71; Fox 1985: 11-12
86. Text: Fox 1985: 372-73.
:SmlPson. Faulkner, and
Foster 1974:
87. Text: Fox 1985: 375-76.
:StnlPson . .t'alUKIler, and
Foster 1974:
88. Text: Fox 1985: 376.
Translations: Lichtheim 1976: 2: 190 ::smlPson. l:'alllkJler and
Wente 1973: 303 Foster 1974: Fox 1985: 20
89. Text: Fox 1985: 377.
Translations: Lichtheim 1976: 2:190-91 ........................ , and
Wente 1973: 304-5 Foster 1974: Fox 1985: 23
90. Text: Sethe 1933: 103-4.
Translation: Lichtheim 1973: 1:20.
91. Text: Kitchen 1975-90: 2:34-44.
Translation: Lichtheim 1976: 2:65-66.
92. Text: Gardiner 1937: 112-15.
Translations: Caminos 1954: Lichtheim 1976: 2:173-75.
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Ian
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"'-'''A".U44U eCiltlon, 1960.
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4.44 .. "' ........... J.
1947 aan Amon 'Van Leiden I recto. Oudheid
Kuno1Lge uit het KijJ[{snluseulD van New
Series XXVIII. Leiden: Het van Oudheden.
Glossary
Abdju-fish. Unidentified fish, mentioned in the context of Re's
1nnrnJ"u in the Bark and ac,;:ornpanleCi the int-fish bulti-
Watches for the appearance of
Abu. The town of in the far south of proper, near the
for the grave of whose
it is. Destination for both the and the dead.
Afterworld. Translation of word duat, the realm that the individ-
ual reaches at death. Also translated as "otherworld" or "underworld,"
Akhenaton [Akhenaten). One of the last of
ac(:or1dm,g to traditional
in Middle about
Akhenaton for the .. ''' ... '''1'' .....
Ameneminet. Official the end of
13th B.C.E. Several of his letters to Pentaweret survive on
V<1T"nrr.u' SaUier I.
Amenmose. "Overseer of the cattle of Amun." Lived 18.
Owner of stele known as Louvre Stele 286 on which appears the most
extensive account of the Osiris known from .... ......... '"'., . _
Op'pOliea to times.
Amun [Amon). Chief of from the Middle KlflgClom
nates in Thebes and becomes
184
185
of unite a divided and become the of
11 and 12. He is "the Hidden One."
Amun-Re (Amon"Rel. The supreme of
the as a fusion of the divine pe.rscmalUtles
Hidden and Re visible sun
AndjeU. "He of the town of of the Delta at Busiris.
Precursor of Osiris.
Ani .. Owner of one of the finest and fullest of The Book the Dead.
Lived at the end of 18.
Anubis. God of emballmlrl.2:
Apis. of Memp.nls.
of Connected with
Apophis (Apepl. Cosmic v ..... ' ......... ,t- of disorder. which attacks Re his
lUITnp,,\, in the
and the follow-
ers of Re occurs he is defeated but cannot be anni-
hilated. Should he be victorious. the universe would slide back to
chaos. Hence the of the songs to the Sun.
Asiatics. General term for the east and northeast of Often
KlIl.2:(lOIU and functions as a or()tectc)c
Atef. See Crowns.
Aton (Aten). The conceived of the monotheistic
the New
A version of the traditional "'''''''T"r'<1n SUII-l!loa. mani-
testm,j! himself in the and warmth of the sun's disk.
Atum. The to the ........ """" ... yy of
which constituted the central of ancient
Atum-Horakhty. Atum as he was identified and fused with Horus of the
Two the of the sun of the new
Cel)t14::>n. Re himself was the sun as seen the
and Atum was the or sun.
Atum .. Khepri. Atum as he was identified with the cosmic scarab beetle
18. He became
I"",nnrr the death of
to
its traditional ways. Amarna tomb contains the finest copy of
Akhenaton's to Aton.
186 and
asr'eclts of the human pel:SOlnallty, ac(:or1oml to the
19
Baboon. Animal sacred to who at times is "''''''''''':>u,"",rI as a baboon.
The creature is often shown with its arms raised wo,rstllplln the
sun.
Babylon, Ancient. The town of south of ancient HellOPOUS.
Not the
Bark of Millions of Years. Name of the
he traverses the underworld at
Bark. Re's .,.1...,,, .... " .. '" in which
to rise at the next
dawn.
Bark of Re. The Bark or the on the context.
Battle of Kadesh. Battle Ramesses II in his fifth year
ag,un:st the Hittites at the town of on the
Orontes River in It was, in effect. a defeat for the
but the valor of the was celebrated in a
poem, "The Battle of Kadesh. which survives in
\..VIJJ,,,,.,. both on and on monuments.
The condition or process of into
Often a materialization or appear-
ance of a The cosmos "becomes" when Atum creates it.
Bee. The heraldic creature of Lower the Delta.
Benben. A sacred stone in the obelisk in the at
.. ""' .. " .. ""' .... ""'''" .. the initial form of the sun
when he first rose out of chaos
created the universe.
on the hillock from which he
Beyond. A translation for the of the afterlife.
Black Land. A for eSJ)eclall,v the black soil of its fertile
A reference to terrain. not to V'" ''''v 4 ....
Book of the Dead. The collection of relll()US and prayers
and divided into the cn,loters of a
k .... ""n+'1 "' .. , c who could afford it would select the
ters that to them. A copy was buried with them and used as a
to the afterworld.
Bull of Heaven. The and of the bun as a cos-
mic
Bull of Heliopolis. The Mnevis. ancient sacred bull of Heuopous. espe-
187
in the New and later. Mediator for the sun-
source of oracles.
Bulti-fish. Translation for the int-fish. See Abdju-fish.
Busiris. Ancient town in the middle of the "House of Osiris."
to be the of the
texts. Known as
in
prc:ml:stonc northern
before the unification
Cartouche. The oval in which the fourth and fifth names
prenomen and of the are written.
Celestial Cow. A of the heavens who aids the deceased in
his proper
Celestial Ferryman. In the 1-"1:71,..,"'''Urt who is to row the
to his new life in the ne'VOltlO.
Chaos. The before creation
It was, in characterized as a darkness.
Coming Forth. The emergence of the deceased from the tomb after death
as an invisible but vital upon earth. In that resur-
rection.
Council of the Thirty. A high JUdtlCl.a1
Crocodile. The creature that often death.
Crowns. There were several worn on various occasions the There
was the White Crown of the Red Crown of
Lower the Double Crown, a combination of the
first two, which the union of the Two the a
version of the White Crown with two feathers at the first worn
the Blue Crown and others.
Darius. Persian 27.
Day Bark. The the
Day of Mooring. of death.
Debty (Djebaty]. "The in his coffin." of Osiris and other
Dedja. Unidentified or
Delta. Northern or Lower that north of modern
where the Nile fanned out into several branches in antiquity.
Site of an times. With the south-
or
Denderah.
tTly",,". ",n town t-I ,,"'rnr... whose
1""'", .... ""11'" there is one of the best in
188 and
Divine Tribunal. Name for the Ennead in conclave to administer
Divine Youth (Divine Child). Re as the dawn sun, after he has gone below
the horizon and been the so as to reappear
renewed and in the m()rl1ltnJg.
Djed .. pillar. A or of uncertain as a of
power. "endurance."
Djehuty. Name for the Thoth.
Djoser IZoser). 3 and owner of the
his famous architect
Duamutef. One of the four pnltectln the call1ODtC with the
deceased's internal organs. Duamutef the stomach.
Eastern Horus. Horus as the sun and thus of lands to
the east of
Easterners. Here, deities or the blessed dead who have gone to the in
death. and rise like Re to renewed life.
Eight Great Gods. The of of
male-female pr:mC:1PleS
re(:ec.ta,:le for the cosmos. n!3,.'lrnpl;:l;: space, and motion.
EI .. Hibis. Locale in the Oasis in the western desert. Site of the
Hibis
Nekhbet.
Elder Horus. The ancient cosmic Horus, "whose eye is the sun and
whose left is the moon. Not Horus the son of Isis and Osiris.
Elephantine. at the south of near the of Aswan.
Enemy. for the cosmic of disorder.
Ennead. The Nine Great Gods of the the
creator formed Shu
united to Pf()OllCe
four deities of the Osirian
Enneads, Two. The Greater and the Lesser. The Greater consists of the
nine of the while the Lesser stems from
Horus, child of Isis and Osiris. When the two are of
all of the are meant.
Esna. south of modern Luxor. Site of the of Khnum.
Euphrates. The waterway of
189
Eye of Mutt Eye of Atum, etc. as it serves various in a
11era}WflpC)US. Some-
Form.
appearance, or incarnation an
power,
Geb.
190
vr"IVPlr" and
Golden One. 2:ojaol:!ss of love.
np:lthcet of various
Wrt. "The Great One."
gOdC1jeSses. In it is a
Great Green Sea. best understood as "the open sea." It seems to
have referred to both the Red Sea and the Mediterrean Sea.
Great Shrleker. The cry of the creator either as a divine falcon or as
the celestial goose who laid the egg of the universe.
Great Staircase. The locale in the Afterworld where the blessed congre-
to Re or Osiris. The foot of the throne.
Great Wild Bull. A celestial in the form of a
and power. Divine bulls in various mani-
festations were all over
Greatest of Seers. The Priest of a
Hall of the Two Truths. The of the deceased in
the where the heart was welQ'l1leO in the balance agcunl,t
the feather of Maat. or Truth.
Hall of Truth.
Hand-of-Shu. Ritual carried
Hapy. (1) The of the Nile River; pel:solilllication
made it rise each year to flood and fertilize
the Nile.
Hapy. (2) One of the four the caflOPlC
embalmed internal organs of the deceased.
the
cOIltal,nlflg the
for
Harper's Songs. A small group of poems found in IUrter,ary
which express the theme. "Seize the
A'-",I"\U',nl'T life while it lasts and not of the
death. All this runs t111".""rf"llu oc>n1:ral'y
ideas.
Hathor. Ua
1
ugtlter of
Heart, Will, Mind. From the ib. The seat of UllIrl1Ung, + ... "', ..... ,rY and
U1'.III1.-.tT was the same for the ancient and it was the heart.
The brain was as no useful function and was dis-
carded at mummification.
Heliopolis. The earliest of ancient locale where the theol-
ogy of the flourished. northeast of Giza and !Sa(laaLfa;
now a suburb of modern Cairo.
191
near the t-i!l1'1.FH1n'\
9 and 10 in a divided
Center for the
the First Inter-
who became Hermes in the Greco-Roman I-I ... " .. v .....
the source of the the Great Gods who
tnc:OlOY of from that of He:l1O'DOl1S.
Hlerakonpolls. Ancient on the west bank of the Nile in
ODIDm;tte el-Kab. Center for of the cosmic Horus, the
pe:rmtps the center of late pre-
........ ,.n"'" , .. "to",... civilization. The Followers of Horus seem to
from this locale.
HIli of Creation. The mound that rose of itself out of Chaos and
upon which the creator stood to create the universe.
Hor. Brother of and co-owner of a stele with a sun
Time of III
Horakhty. Horus of the Two HOlnz,ons,
of Re, the .,. ....... ",r."
HordJedef. 4. and
becomes the last
traditional ways of
Ramesside of
Horizon.
death.
Horizon-dwellers. The blessed
arrivals in the Afterworld.
to the
One went to or over the Horizon at
who often come to welcome new
Horus. ancient Lord of the and pf()tect()r of the
This is the cosmic Horus and is sometimes fused cOlntlJlSejj) with
Horus the Child, son of Isis and Osiris. In either COlnCC:mt:l0Jl,
of
Horus of Two Horizons. HOiralchty.
House of Ptah in Memphis. The of which in its 11'-'YUC:I;Y was
than the of Karnak .
.He:110pOllS, used for J ...... ,"' ... .l, ....
House of the Scepter. The that Thebes.
192
vr::::l,\ll'>lrc: and
House of the Spirit of Ptah. for the
Hu. Here, an for the SllIl-Q'loa. pelrson1tlcatl0,n of divine or
authoritative from the of a or
Hunefer. Owner of a papyrus of the Book of the Dead from
Thebes. Time of Sed I at the of
19. Overseer of Sed's tenl01e.
Hypselis .... ,.n ............... ::'fJlrls/Jiotep. near Assiut in Middle Town of Seth.
laru. For "the Field of of the blessed dead.
Ibis. A bird sacred to whose form the
someimes took. ,,,YT>n.,c'u of
Thoth's wisdom and
Igret. for the ne<:rOIc>ollS
dead.
Imhotep. Flourished the
nr'f"\!3<:!T"tl' 3. Architect of the
sage. author of a book of wisdom
so that he was deified in later OYlrlaS;nes.
Imsety. One of the four
embalmed internal organs of the deceased.
the liver.
Imy-Kehau. "The " an otherworld
for the realm of the
COJrlt8.1Olng the
responslDle for
Inherkhawy. Foreman of one of the teams on the tombs in
the of the at Deir el-Medineh. Time of Ramesses III
and IV 20.
aD(J1U-IlSn aC:CQ1mJ)anJes and the
'vn.astles 11 and 17. The name is
Bark of Re
Intef (Inyotef). Name for
attached to the fine
Ipet-Sut. H'<T,.rnr'!3n
aOIc>ealrtflt2 on Harris 500.
rellLQ"l()US consciousness and !3rr'.u.t"''t,
Isderektiw. Unknown land or .... .,. ...... ""''''''
Isheru. The of the lellnpJ,e
known as Karnak in Thebes.
,,"","..,'1,,", of Karnak, the center of
of
Isis. The mother wife of Osiris and mother of Horus in the
HeUOPOJlltaln s,rmlC>OllC mother of the Has immense
SUI)erna1tural power. When Osiris is murdered she the
of his dismembered reunites them. and his
resurrection. He then her with Horus and goes to rule the
kUlgaom of the Dead. She is central to one of the of death
and resurrection.
193
Island of Fire (Isle of Flames). The hillock or mound where
the came into and created fire
Itef-reri. Father of of
Iwn-des. A In the Eastern Desert?
Iwn-mutef. "Pillar of his Mother. of the young Horus as prc)tectc>r
of his mother. an of the
Iyty. "He is come." Pun on the function of the son. who attends on
his the now fused with Osiris.
Jubilee. The beb-sed festival renewal of the power and
.. IJ.,,, ..... ,,,"""'. ne "II'I1' first held after years on the throne and then
each three years thereafter.
Justice. Maat as the word is translated in JuClIICl,al or moral contexts. See
Truth.
with the
aeunea. tn()U2:n it seems to function as a kind of "double" of the
person, who
person in the next world.
Kagabu. A Scribe of the ueaS\Jry
short prayer to Amun
Kam. Mother of
Kamutef.
age is to be erntpnlaSllZej;;I.
as if it were for the
in which he has a
Bull of his Mother."
power of the person-
Karnak, Temple of. The at constitut-
the center of relllR:l()US from the Middle
on. Vital for two thousand years.
Kemwer. The Great Black One. The bull of Athribis in the Delta. Also an
eplltnc:!t of Osiris of Athribis.
Khakaure. Prenomen of Senusert HI
hTn !:JC!t'u 12.
Khatti. The land of the Hittites, north of ... ""I'T
Khayt. "She Who Rises in
Khenty-menutef. A celestial
of Horus.
or Golden
a name for of Truth.
who takes the deceased to Geb.
name in the of Senusert
of
,'I, ..... ,",,!.,' 12.
Khepri. The sun and creator in scarab-beetle of espe-
as the sun or as the divine beetle which the
194
Kheruef. Scribe and Steward of the Great III.
Time of III and IV in 18.
Khety. Author of the to the Nile" and other hr&lr'.:lr"u' works. A
Ramesside scribe calls him the of the writers. Lived
in 12.
who forms creatures on his
wheel. He is in the cataract of the south and regu-
lates the Nile in association with at
Phan't1ne. he also has a at Esna.
Khonsu. Moon at Thebes. Son of Amun and Mut.
Khor. name tor
King of the Sedge and the Bee. of the his
fourth name in the the Nomen or nsw-bit name.
Kush. name for the countries to the south of that
is, Nubia.
L.p.h. Abbreviation for the translation of the
follows mention of the prosper, be nec;UtrlY
Lake of Horus. Unidentified. In his to the and .,el:Uflll:! Sun"
Ani
ate the world.
as if or Horus. were out of chaos to cre-
Lake of Myrrh. \.PI,ar'ently a locale down the coast of East Africa in or
near the land of Punt.
Lake of the Two Knives. A DatUe2rC)Ufl.O in the
aeltea1tea{) Also, a lake near He:rrrlot:1011lS.
lP()DJ:US is
Land that Loves Silence. The ne,crC)PC.llS and the Afterworld.
Lesser Ennead. A second group of nine with Horus at their head.
When the Greater and the Lesser Enneads are mentioned the
entire of is meant.
Libya. As now, the land to the west of
Litany. A or prayer with a refrain at intervals.
Lord of Abydos. Osiris.
Lord of All. The supreme Re, or Amun. on
the IJ'-Jl .. 'V ......
Lord of the Sacred Land. Osiris in his caJ)aclty as
Lord of Thebes. Amun or Amun-Re.
Lower Egypt. The Delta in the north.
Maat (Ma'at]. The word for the root corlcel:n:
IHz,at1
l
on, a fusion of our corlCeptS
of the Dead.
195
Manu, Land of. The
of the dead.
sun and, extension. the realm
domas
Mehenu. A who, like Nekhbet and Buto functioned
as a uraeus to the
Mehy. Character aplpeCllnrl.2 OCCCllSl()nCllU:y in the New Kl1t1.2(jOln love songs,
or a or arbiter for
lovers.
Memphis. The first
Cairo, It was the
southwest of
Kllt1,g<lOln and extended for miles
the west bank of the Nile.
Merenptah.
Ramesses II in
the Exodus,"
Son and successor on the throne to
,'U.,." 19. With his a candidate for of
Merenre. 6.
Mery-Amun (Mer-Amun]. "Beloved of Amun." An addendum to the
Nomen of both Ramesses II and of 19.
Meryna. Members of the
Meskhaat. Celestial who assists Re in for the
arrived
Min. God of
Min-Amun. Fusion of the sexual abilities of Min with the person of the
supreme
Miscellanies. New K1fl,go,om ant:holo,gles, ,geIlercllly or
scribes in tramllng.
and of
prayers. eUlo,glles,
.,.II'r with a decided slant to
the young student's desire to enter the scribal prC)tesslon.
Mistress of Heaven. of various gOlooless,es.
and Isis.
Montu. God of war,
2040
in Thebes with the appearance of the Middle
.... " .. +" ... ",1''''''' as a lioness or cat. Consort of
Amun and mother of Npfpf'tp1"'n
function as a
Mut .. hotepet. Owner of a tUfler,ary
20.
Mysteries. Translation for
of the blue lotus. Has a
prcitector of the
sbetau. "secret ...... or "reli-
196
Nakht.
Name"An
ers think of one.
Naref. Unknown
Naunet. Female COlLln1terpalrt
the counter-heaven.
Nebmaatre. Prenomen of
and
XUfter,ary papyrus
Stg:ntl1lcallt than
or "character"; what
of 18.
Father of Akhenaton. His court was POSSl1t:>ly
Necropolis. Term for the cernetiery, "the
was indeed laid out with streets and "houses of _t-" ........ 't-...
Nefer-kheperu-re Wa .. en-re. The prenomen and nomen in the titu-
of Akhenaton
Nefer-neferu-aton. Name of Wife of
Akhenaton.
Neferhotep. Priest of Amun-Re and owner of Theban
Tomb 50 in the of Western Thebes. Time of Horemheb
6. almost one
hundred years.
Nefertili. and wife of Akhenaton of
the Amarna Period.
Nefrus. Girlfriend of the of the love poem.
Nehebu-kau. "He who awards distinction. of various divini-
ties, of the BUrl-gloa.
Nekhbet. Vulture of el-Kab. Mistress of the White Crown of
and of the
headdress or head-cloth of material
over the head and over the shoulders.
Nenet. Variant of Naunet. female of the counter-heaven.
gelrlel:an,on in the Hell0'oollltan Nephthys. :tOl102est 1!oClde:;s
and Seth. Functions rn '" f ..... I'u as a
with Isis.
An or a version
of Osiris.
Netcherkheperu. The or "Horus," name of Senusert III
of
12.
197
Netchermesut. The Ladies. name of Senusert HI
of
Nine Bows.
the
Nine Great Gods. The Ennead of He1101:JOI1S created
SUl!1-g'Oa Atum.
Nine Peoples. Those of as SuIJ1U2a1:eCl of
NN. for a proper name to be added
nC' ",ll!u in either the
Book of the Dead or the Texts.
the
He:110POJllta,n Consort to the
earth, and mother of the Osirian of
Ogdoad. The conclave of the Great Gods of Conceived
as male-female the re<:eo1ta-
tn(:1Plenlt motion. de for the cosmos, space, oalrKrless,
Orion. The constellation pelrsonitleCl astral He is obsured
the dawn and reappears at
Osiris. One of the of the resurrection
after death. His reanimation. offices of his sister/wife
Isis. after his murder and dismemberment his brother
became the to all that would. after con-
tinue existence in a eternal life in the company of Osiris himself.
Osiris, An. As as the Old the that the
at
reenact the death and resurrection of the so, he
became an osiris.
Pahery. Scribe of the and in ear-
hT .... ,"'''',.'" 18 earlier fifteenth 1""".",..' .... ", in
the fullest C::Ju''Ui,iTlnn rI,PCl"r1r\T1'.n of what life in the next
world was to be like.
Pentaweret. with the official Ameneminet.
of late thirteenthth S.C-E. Several of
the letters between the two have survived in Sallier 1.
Pepi. There were of 6 with this name,
Both had Texts
carved in their tombs.
198 and
Peqer. The of Osiris at where the was to be
buried and where his festival was celebrated.
Per .. new Shrine. with pr-nsr. the national shrine of Lower at
Buto.
Per-nezer Shrine. with pr-nw. the national shrine of Lower at
Buto.
Per-wer Shrine. The national shrine of at
Phoenix . . The benu-bird of He110POJl1taln connected to the SUI1-gOa
Re and the benben-stone in the
U ..... -LfH.U. the
itself from its thus oel:ornm,2
in the sed-festival or lut'l.lee.
there. Also identified with the
Lo:ngllvea. it reconstituted
C!u .. nn,"'ll of renewal and ............... ....
Place of Fire. Unknown; the redness of the dawn of as
fire and a of the COJlte:xt).
Place of Truth. General for but the
ne,crC)PC)l1S of western Thebes and Deir el-Medineh.
Pomegranate Tree. The sacred tree honored in
Ptah. The creator of who out and
ation into existence. A to Atum and Re of He:llO'Po.llS
self the in both cases the remainder of the
was the same. A cosmic universal but also of
crafts and craftsmen. He coalesces with Tatenen.
PtahSokar. Ptah in his identification with the necropo-
lis.
Punt. A and romantic country south on the east coast of
source of exotic commodities times. Often invoked
in the love songs.
Pyramid Texts. A series of .... ,UJ;:;.4V ... '" lflScrtP'tlOlns
prayers,
the resurrection of the dead pn.araon.
Qebehsenewef. One of the four
199
at the o.f 20. Last
name o.f the SU1"1-P'OO thJ:o.U2h mo.st o.f
Re .. Atum. Re as he co.alesces with the o.lder the
creato.r o.f He:Uo.oo.Us.
sundo.wn in his acro.ss the
Re .. Horakhty. Re as he is co.nceived o.f as the sun o.f the
co..!l1esclng with Ho.rus o.f the Two. Ho.rizo.ns.
Rebel .
site o.f the co.urt and
Saamu-plants. Unidentified
Sa .. mehyt. "So.n o.f the 1\Jr..rrt"I"'lnc1
in the Middle Klf12ao.m
o.f the
Sacred Land. nelcrC)OC,llS o.f a to.wn; but mo.re
the afterwo.rld o.r nn,;p"'l:IT'I,,.Ic1 ruled by Osiris.
Sakhmet. "The o.f Re and in the fam-
llon-fleaaelC), with the fierceness o.f the o.ften
o.f beetle which is o.ften seen
o.f the co.smic
the sun acro.ss the Cut fro.m vario.us sto.nes, the served fo.r
use as amulets and the latter o.ften with hu::ro.JlT.IVPh:LC co.mmemo.-
czurnn,"\1 for
ae.Ull1l2 with the burial o.f the
12, The
Senusert III. 12.
Serpent. The co.l)ra-2Ctaaess aOl)ealrlrll2 as the uraeus o.n the bro.w o.f the
Serpents, Two. The do.uble uraeus, oe:rn.lllOS (!U'J'ntt'lT1t"IO'
desses o.f bo.th and Lo.wer
czpr'lrtn,O' the same functio.n as the
200 and
Seth. God of confusion, the desert wastes, and lands. Son of Geb
and Osiris. Rival of Horus for rule of the
land of He is the loser the Grand Tribunal of the
Ennead, and Horus is awarded the Two Lands. Like
resents a prlLnClp.l.e
of an unknown desert beast with
tail.
llan:>J,au:::u, but some
like the shadow or
Shedeh. A kind of wine.
Sherden. A from the Mediterranean of the
ca. 1400-1200 B.C.E., from outside and later in
r .... connected with Sardinia.
Shetyt. The ore'Cln4ct of the Me:m"hl
1
te nlecr!DPCHlS.
Shezemu. A
wine and aromatic oils. on the other.
Shrine of the North. Per-nezer at Buto.
Shrine of the South. Per-wer at el-Kab.
and of
t1eUOpollltan ODsrnoJ02'V: one of the first two deities
with created Atum, the creator
SidelockWearers. Four male divinities of the eastern who aid the
in his resurrection.
Sinai. The desert east of across the Red Sea. In ph.ar'lOl'UC
times. a and site of copper mines.
Sinuhe. Title character in one of the finest ancient works of fic-
tion. A official who flees into exile under threat of
so'vel'eijt!n, Senusert I. he his life in
welcomed back into
hawk-headed. Seems to func-
syrnOOll:ZIn.2 the resurrection from death.
UC;:)1,K.U4LC;:) Seth rather than Osiris.
;:)opeiJU, a of the northeast Delta ..... """'4"" .. , in the
mid Texts, the child of Sothis and the resurrected
prc)tectln2' the embalmed internal organs of
the deceased: Duamutef. and l..leOeillsc:mewe:t.
Sothis. Goddess of Sirius, the Star. Its heliacal
of the Nile and the corn1f1t2' inundation
201
Soul. In this
cOlnponent of
the in addition to the
Souls of Heliopolis (of Iwnw). Deified
relll2'l()US center of sun wafrsrUD.
Souls of Nekhen. Deified "" .. "'.1"1" ........ , ... "" rulers of the southern KUlgclOnrl, the
ancestors as pr<)te,ctc.rs.
Souls of pe. Deified "" ... .. " .... rulers of the northern KlIlgclOnrl, the liv-
Southern Harim.
Spirit. In this
of the
Staff-of-life-plants. UC:>lXlllal.:tVn
and name.
Sunfolk. The blessed
Suty. One of the
th()Uiimt of as in the retinue of the SUil-flOG,
with owners of a stele with a
to the sun which shows some palranelS of to the Amarna
of the next Time of
Syria. lJeslglnatlon
tine
Ta..cJjeser. "The Sacred Land" or the nelcrofpol1S. \,i.,!-,\,i'-.lA.l.l of
Ta-mery. "The Beloved that is,
Ta-wer. The district or nome of This and f'\OVOI[)S.
Tatenen. An ancient of the fertile land out of the
Nile coalesces with Ptah as a creator
Tayt. Goddess of for the cloth with which to wrap the
mummified
Tefnut. Goddess of moisture; one of the first with made
the creator Atum. She and her consort are the first to ret)re;serlt
COllcepts of male and female in the cosmos.
of 6 in the Old K1I1tgdc::>m.
sen ted a at
Thebes. One of the two greatest with Mem-
... h .. "' ... ",.h," ..... the
of the
often as a baboon or an ibis. Connected with He:rrrlO}:'OlllS
and the '-""' ... ....,0."-".
Transfigured Spirits. the word the transllg-
202 and
ured or souls of the dead as
in the afterlife.
appear in all their
True of Voice. The deceased is 1--.... -- "true of voice" or "vindicated"
once he or she has tJo.o".;,."" .... the Last before
where the heart is weultted
or Truth. If the the soul is allowed to pass on
into the afterlife.
Truth. One of the words used to translate the Maat. the root con-
civilization. It is a very and funda-
cto,nt'r'lnnn a fusion of our of "truth,"
oelpell01lnS?; on the context.
djerty, which means both "kite" and "female
mourner.'" The Twin Kites are thus Isis and as mourn,
Osiris and then any other deceased person.
Two Banks. for the two sides of the Nile
River.
Two Ladies. The heraldic Nekhbet of
of Lower orc)tecct both
'Pf'1"'\pnt"c: of the double Uraeus.
seen as the union of the two klflS?:CI:OltlS of
north and south and
Two Sisters. The Ne:phth,rs prmlartly in their ca.>actlY
as mourners for the whether their brother Osiris or any
other of the dead.
Onas (Wenis). . "" ... ..:.u-' ...:. ... 'LH
carved in
Onderworld. Translation of
Opper Egypt. Southern
5 and the first
Or-god. for the of creation in the
various names at different times, but known
as Atum.
Oraeus. The on the brow of the nr,)tectl.n2: him and
Oe:strl[,)Vl0Q' his enemies.
Oser-maat-re. Here, to Ramesses II rather than Ramesses Ill. The
former 1279-1212 S.CE. 19.
Oser-maat-re Mer-Amun. Prenomen and Nomen of Ramesses III
of 20.
Oserhat. Name for the Bark of Amun.
203
Vindicated. Another translation for "true of the
deceased has the trial of the Last Juclgnlel'1lt.
Visible Form. A technical term the
manifestation or visible appearance of a an
tleetln2: or more One of the incarnations of Akhenaton's
Aton. for instance. is the sun.
Vizier. The official who in power is second to the and who in
effect administers the country.
Wadjet. of Suto in Lower also as the uraeus-
UC:;::l)lXUdUUll for ancient
the western nJ'u-f'1l'!.n
Waters, Your. A a to announce to the
To be on his waters means to be under his pf()te,etlcon.
Weary-Hearted. for the murdered inert and weary in
death to his resurrection.
WedJat. The of Horus, that is, "The One." .... 'urnnr.l_
izes health.
Weni. An official of the of
l, and Merenre. His tomb hit"'\ar!lnhv survives and nr,(,\,U'lrI .. <C;!
source of information about the later Old KUlgC10I'10.
Wennefer. "He Who Was Good" or "He Who Was Perfect." lJesu!na-
tion of Osiris.
Wennefer-re. Osiris in his fusion of power and with Re.
Wentl. The name of a here to Osiris. "The One who Exists" or
"The Inumph,ant
West.
Western Mountain.
zon and where the dead dwell.
Western Souls. The blessed dead.
Westerners. The blessed dead.
the afterlife.
setttn,g sun meets the hori-
White Wall. of ancient enclosed in white walls at the
time of its establishment founder of a united in
I.
Winding Waterway. A ge()grapluc.ill feature of the afterworld.
Yonder. the afterworld.
Indexes
(Ke:ter'enlces below are to text numr)ers, not
Advet'saI'V 33,xxx. 44
53, 55.i
Amun, XIII. 24,
3 Lviii. 33.lxx, 33Jxxx,
33.cc, 33.ccc, 55.i, 55.iii. 60.
74. 76. BO.ii
31.ix, 63
Amun of Hibis, 53
Amun-Re, IV, 25, 3Li, 3l.viii, 31.x. 32.
33.xxx. 53, 72,
ru it JlC:'L L 28.i
3Lix
Anubis, 7, 55.i, BO.ii
46
Astarte, 66
Aton, IV, VI. 30.ii, 45.i, 45.ix, 45.xi
Atum, Lii, 16, 18, 19,20.21. 23, 25,
3Uii, 3Lvi, 3Ux. 33.cc. 35, 39.ii,
41. 44,53, 66. BO.iii
1\t\lm-Horaxmy 27, 3B, 39,i, 42
Bull of heaven, 1 ,iii
Celestial 12
Chaos, 9, 11. 2B.ij, 3Lix, 33.ix, 33.lxx
Chaos of Nun. 36
Children of Atum, 23
Cow, 6
1. Deities
204
Crocodile. 33Jxx, 52,viii
33.dccc
Divine Child, 3 Li
Divine Falcon, 33.1
Divine Tribunal, 28.xi
Divine Youth, 25, 38
74
Duamutef. 17
Eastern Horus, 17, 31.viii
Easterner, 25
Easterners, 33.cc
Great Gods, 33.lxxx, 33.cc,
Elder Horus. 30ji
25, 28.vii, 40.vi
Ennead, VII. 9, 20. 23, 24,26. 28.iv.
2B.viii, 3Li. 31.viii. 33.1,33.ccc,
33.dccc, 35. 3B, 41. 48. 51.vii.
66,70.BO.i
Enneads,19,36,46
Enneads, the Greater and Lesser, 55
Enneads of the South. North. West.
and East. 34
Evil one, 40.vi
20, 3l.ii. 33.x. 41. 44
of Atum. 33.vii. 41
of Horus. 11.21
of Mut,
of Re, 33.vii, 33.x
Falcon. 4, 17,27. 30.ii, 3Lx, 35. 63
Falcon of Twin Horizons. 33.dc
Falcon 52.vii
Fashioner. 33.cc
12
Followers, 36
Followers of Horus, 34. 55.iii
Foremost of the Westerners. 26
Geb. 2.iii. 2.vii. 2.ix. 5, 11, 19. 20, 21,
23. 28.iii. 28.iv. 28.v. 28.vii. 28.viii.
28.ix. 28.xi, 29, 33.1, 43, 5l.i
God who dwells in humankind. 55.iv
God who is within you, VIII, 55,iii
Golden Goddess.
Golden One. 54
Great Ennead. 31.viii, 53
Great of 20
Great Shrieker. 33.xc
Great Wild Bull. 7
VII. 17, 3Uii. 33.vi. 33.1. 33.dc. 44,
45.x. 5U. 5Lxiii, 5Lxiv. 52.i, 52.xii,
55.iii, 55.iv. 60
Hathor, VII, 27. 38, 54. 55.i
Hel101Polita:n, 31.viii
Hidden God .. 33.cc
I-il".r!lllrht'u 13.19.22. 33.xx, 34, 35,44,
45.48
Horus. III, VII. 2.ix, 4,6, 9.19,20,21,
22, 23. 24. 28.viii. 28.ix. 29, 34. 35.
40.vi, 41,43, 58.i, 58.H, 60, 61, 62. 63
Horus of the Horizon, 17
Horus of Twin Horizons. 65
Horus of Two Horizons. 3Lvi. 40.H
Hu.
Ibis, 70, 92
Im]pertsh,abJle Stars. 18
UUy-.' ..., ... au. 1
Indestructible stars. 7, 39.i
Indestructible, stars, 40,i
!m:xtJlng:uif;hable stars, 5
Isis. III. 6. 18.23, 28.vii, 2B.viii. 3B. 41,
44, 55.i, 63
Indexes
Iwn-mutef,21
23
Kamutef. 3U, 33Jxxx, 92
53
herltyrnermte:t 5
205
9, 19,21. 30.i, 30.ii, 3Uii. 32, 34,
35, 40.ii, 5Lviii. 63
Khnum, 30.ii. 5Uii
Khonsu.92
of Heaven. 54
of Life, 3l.ix
of the Uraeus. 40.ii
Lesser Ennead, 2B.vi
Lion, 33.1, 33.d. 45.ii, 5Lxiii
Lone Star, 4
Lord of 26
Lord of AU, 9, 2B.viii, 33.vii. 33.xxx.
33.cc. 43. 5l.xiv
Lord of 27. 45.x
3l.x
Lord of the Sacred Land, 26
Lord of the Throne of the Two Lands,
3U. 3l.viii. 3l.x, 32. 55.i
Lord of the Two Lands, 30.iii. 49, 53
Lord of Truth, 3U, 3Uii, 3l.viii, 41
Lords of BO.ii
Lords of Truth, 2B.viii
Maat. VII, 24, 29. 30jii, 34, 37. 3B, 39,ii.
40jii. 40.vi, 45. 50. 52. vi. 53, 62. 63
Creator of Truth, 31
Mehenu,3Ui
Meskhaat. 17
Goddess, 56
Min,55.i
Min-Amun,3l.ii
Montu,66,91
Mut,30ji
Naunet, 25. 39.ii. 40.iv, 44
Nehebu-kau, 13
Nekhbet. 3Ui. 55.i. 55.v
Nenet,19
!\J",nhrh ", 6, 16. 18,23, 3B
206 Indexes
28.ix,51.i
Nine Great Gods, 19,24,27, 28.i. 28.vi,
33.ix, 33.xc, 51.xiv. 77
Northerners. 21
Nun, 19,25,27,32, 33.dc. 35, 36, 38.
40.iii, 40.iv, 40.v, 42, 46
Nut. 2, 2.ix, 3.4.6.12.17,19,21.23,24.
27, 28.iv, 28.v, 29, 30.ii. 34, 35, 36, 38,
42.43,44
'JJ;,.''''VQ, ... ,31.iv
Orion. 1, 16
Osiris. III. V, VII, VIII. XI, 2.i. 2.ix, 4, 6. 7,
10.11.19.23,26, 28.i, 28.xi, 29. 34.
36.37, 39.ii. 40.i. 40-iv, 40.v, 41. 42,
43,44,47, 55.i. 55.v, 78. 79. 80.iii
19.20
Osiris.
Primal 39,ii
Primeval One. 30.ii, 42
Primeval 22
Primordial God, 32
Procreator.30,i
Ptah, VII. 17,27, 32.i. 33.xc, 33.ccc. 45,
47, 5U. 5 Lviii. 53. 67
Ptah-Sokar, 44, 47, 55.i
17
of Heaven, 57
33.vii
Ram, 44
Re, II, V, VII. 2.vii. 2.ix. 8.11,13.17. 19,
22.24,25.26.27. 28.vi. 28.xi, 30.i,
3U. 31.iii, 31.ix. 33.xxx, 33.xc. 33.cc,
33.ccc, 33.dccc, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38. 39,i,
39.ii, 40.i. 40jii, 40.iv. 40.vi, 41, 42, 46.
48,49.50. 5U, 53, 55.iii, 55.v. 57,59,
61. 62. 64. 65, 66, 80.iii
Re-Atum. 19,41
l/p_J-InY!lvhru 27.30.38.42, 71
Rebel. 24
Ke;oel-serpc:mr. 39.ii. 48
Red-Crown Goddess. 57
Sun. 24
Sakhmet, 33.x. 47. 58.i, 58.iii
Seizer of Lvi
:Serperlt, 33.xxx
:SeI'oellt-cleIIllon, 31.it 35, 37, 38
41
19.21, 23
Shezemu, Lvi. 80.ii
Shu. 2.viii, 6, 7.11.19.20,23. 33.xc, 41
Sidelock-wearers, 13
Sobek. 5 Lvii
Sokar, 43, 44,50, 80.ii, 92
Sole God. 45.vii
Son of Nut. 61
Son of Isis, 28.x. 28.xi
Son of Re,
Sons of Horus, 80ji
Sothis,6, 13.16,17, 55.i
Souls of 19, 36. 53
Souls of the East. 27. 41
Souls of the West, 27
Souls of Pet 36
Souls of the Easterners, 38
Souls of the Westerners, 38
Southerners. 21
of God. 33.x
BuU. 3U. 33.1
Sunfolk. 7.19. 28.ix, 3lx. 36, 44, 45.iii,
48,55.i,64
Tatenen, 33.lxxx. 33.xc. 33.cc. 34. 41. 46
80ji
Tefnut, 2.iii. 19.23. 33.xc. 41
Thoth. VII, 6,12.23. 28.xi. 31.ix, 33.ccc,
34. 40.H. 40.vi. 41. 48. 49,53, 55.i. 63.
68,69.70
41
Tribunal of Truth. 28.viii
Twin Kites. 80.ii
Two Enneads. 7.9,19,46
Two Ladies. 2,ix. 36. 58.i
Two Sisters. 80,ii
Two conclaves. 11
Two falcon 53
Two 27
One,3Lvi
15
Uraei,31.x
Uraeus. 35, 36
Ur,leuS-j!004;]es:s, Lii
57,66
We.uV-He,uteo,78
Akhenaton, II, IV, VI. 45, 45.xii
Ameneminet, 69, 80.1i
III, II
Amenmose. III, 28
Ani. 34, 39.H. 40.i, 40.iv, 40.v
VI, 45
Ba-en-re Meramun, 64, 65
Darius, 53
Hor. IV, 30j, 30,iii
HOI:die,det, 78
Horemheb, n. 26, 27. 47, 48, 49, 50
Hunefer,37
Intef, XI, 78
h4Jo:.a.vU, 74
Khakaure, 5Ri
Kheruef. II. 24, 25. 29
51
84
Meramun, 62, 63
Merenptah,62,63,65
Merenre.19
Mutho1tepc::t.41
Nakht.38
Nebmaatre, 30.iii
Indexes
33.x
Wennefer,29,43,44
Wennefer-Re, 41
Wenti,44
Western Souls. 25
Westerners, 21. 26.50
Wicked One. 31,ix
2. Persons
Neferkcue, 23
207
Wa-en-re. 45, 45.xii
Nefer-neferu-aton Nefertiti, 45
Nefer-neferu-aton,45.xii
f"le.[erlrlOtep, XI, 80.i, 80.ii, 80.iii
Neferkcue, 23
Nptpr1rttv 45, 45.xii
VIII, 55.i. 55.ii, 55.iii. 55,iv. 55.v
Pentaweret, 69
2,11,17
35,36
Ramesses II, IV, XIII. 60, 61
Ramesses III, 46, 66
Ramesses Meramun, 60.61. 66
,;:')a-meinv 57
Senusert It 56
Senusert III. 58
Seti I. 37
IV. 30.i. 30.iii
Teti, 3. 5
II
Unas, 1.1 4, 12, 13
User-maat-re, 60
User-maat-re Meramun. 46
Weni, XIII. 90
208 Indexes
3. Places
Abu, 91
7,2B.29,35,43,44,55.i
Afterworld, I. 55.H. 79
Amarna. II, VI
Asheru. 33.x, 92
J:SaJWlon. 44
Beloved Land, 46. BO.1
41. 43, 45.x
uv,'vu!u.l.viii. 13. 16.22. 2B.iii. 31.iv. 50
Black Land. 60, 64
Busiris. 29, 43. 44, BO.ii
Buto,31.ii
of the Wall. 46
23
Delta, 52. 66
Demaa.23
EI-Kab. VIII, 55.ii
bleph'lntj,ne, 55,i
Esna, VIII
bU1Phr'ate:s, 33.vi
52.ix
Field of 50
Field of Reeds, 19. 40.v,
God's Land. 31.i, 33.vi
45.vii. 45.x.
65,66
50. 55.iii
Great Green Sea, 31.vii, 33.vi. 45.iv.
45.ix, 46, 51.x.
Hall ot Truth. 35
Hall of Two Truths. 2B.i,
Heaven, 26
Hell0pc:>l1S, VII, 11. 19,
31.viii, 31.1x, 33,xxx,
33.dccc, 43,
70.71. BO.ii
HeJrak.le01POl:LS, 2B,i, 44
2B,i, 4B. 49, 50, 69. 70
44
Hill of creation. 23
Horizon, 1, B, 31.ix, 34, 36, 39.i.
40.ii. 40,iii. 41. 45.i
House of Fire, 72
House ot Ptah. 66.
House of Ramesses Meramun, 65
House of the Benben.
House of the Ka, 33.cc(
House of the Prince, 92
House of the Ruler, 34
House of the
House of the
HUf'I.;:,"I1.;: 2B.i
Isderektiw.63
Island of Fire. !.iii
Iwn-des.44
Karnak, 3!.ii
Khatti,66
Khor. 45. vii,
Kush, 45,vii
Lake of Horus, 39.ii
Lake of 50
31.viii. 31.1x,
Lake ot the Two Knives, 24. 3B, 39,ii
Land of the Blessed, l,x
Land of the Dead.
Land of Manu, 34
61
Lower and 5 Lvi
Lower and upper heavens, 31.1
Manu, 41
Naref.44
Ne<:rolPoli$, 26, 50
Nekhen,36
Nile, VII, 33.dc, 37, 45.ix. 51. 5l.xiv, 52,
60
Nubia.5B.i
Ocean. 33.vi. 46
Palace of 23
47
Per-wer shrine. 53
Phoenicia, 66
Place of Truth, 33.dccc, 74, 79
Punt, 3U, 33.vi. 36, 40.iii, 50
Realm of the dead. 25. 27, 41
Realm under 55.v
River, 2B.ix, 31.v. 33,vi, 45.iv, 45.xi, 55.i,
5B.iii, 73, BO.ii
Rosetau, 26,41. 47. 55.i
Sacred Land, 25. 29, 40,v, 55.ii
Sacred Realm, 46
Sea of 40.vi
Shrine of the North, 22. 3U
Shrine of the South, 22, 31.i
Sinai. 5B.iii
Southern Harim. 30.iii
77
1 a-4cuelser. 43
92
l'\D,CI1U-I1s.n. 34. 35, 40.vi
Afterlife, VIII, 55.iii
to the 55.v
Ascension, 6, 7, B
Asiatics. 37, 56, 58,i
Atef crown. 27, 29, 3 Ui
Ba,43
Baboon. 3Ux. 36, 6B
Indexes
Ta-wer.39.ii
of Amun.66
of Karnak, 3U
of Ptah, 44
of Re.14
of Seth. 66
209
Thebes, 30.iii, 33.vii, 33.xxx.33.cc.
33.ccc, 33.dccc, 59. 62. 63, 66. BOji
This, 55.i
Two Banks. l.vii, 2B.iv. 2B.ix. 2B.x, 44,
5l.xiv, 52.ii. 5B,i, 58.ii, 5B,iv
Two Heavens. l.vii
Two Lands. 2.ix, 25, 27, 2B,iii, 2B.v, 29,
30.ii. 3l.v. 31.x. 32, 33Jx. 36, 3B, 40.ii,
40.v, 43, 44. 45,iiL 5l.iv. 5B.i. 5B.iv, 61.
62.64
Underworld, 25, 26. 27. 2B,iii, 29, 33.vi.
33.xx. 33.xxx. 33.lxx, 33.cc. 33.dccc.
40.ii, 41. 42, 43. 44. 45.ix, 4B, 5Ux.
55.iii
17
Waset. 33.x
West. 9. 25,26, 30Jii, 3Ux, 33.cc. 40-iv,
40.v, 41, 44, 45.xii, BO.i
Western Land. 55.ii
Western Mountain, 25, 30.1, 39,i,41,
42,BO.iii
White-Wall. 2B.i
Yonder. 25
Bark of Millions of Years, 33.xxx. 48
Bark of Re, B, 19
Bee,2.v
32, 33.x. 33.lxxx. 33.xc,
72
Benben Shrine. 23
u<::,"u, ..... VIII. 1.viii. 13, 16, 22. 2B.iii.
3Uv.50
Bird of prey, 33.d
210
Blessed 55.v
Book of the Dead. V
Book of 52.viii
Bull. 31.i, 32, 33.d, 41, 48, 52.x, 76
Bull of 61, 63
Bulti-fish. 34, 35
diem. XI
Car touche, 63
stars, 28,ii
Coffin Texts, V
,""ViIUUil};:; Forth, 34,
Communion, 1.xi
Council of the 70
Craftsman. 30.ii. 33.xl
Creation. 32, 33.xc. 33.c. 45.xi, 46
Crown. 31.v
Crown of the North. 20
Crown of the South, 20
Crown of 31.ii
Crowns of South and North. 31.ii
Bark. 17, 3l.ix, 34, 35. 39.1.
40.i, 40.v. 40.vi. 42. 48
of 80.ii
Delta Residence. 66
IX
80ji
Double Crown, 31.ii. 31.v. 43, 58,iv
Fire, 18
First Occasion. 33.c
First Time. 32
Form. 32, 33.ix. 33.xl. 45.xi
Formlessness. 31.m
Go forth into the 41
God's Father, 80.i, 80.H. 80jii
Golden Horus. 58
Golden Horuses. 2,ix
Great Staircase. 17. 55.iii
Great Throne. 6, 34, 80.ii
Greatest of Seers of Re. 92
Indexes
Hand-of-Shu.92
Harim.31.viii
songs. XI
79
Hawk. 4
Heron. 43
Priest of Thebes. 32
Horizon-dweller. 6, 27. 31.viii. 37
Incarnation, 1.iii. 33.xc, 40.iii
Incense, 18
Int-fish.40.vi
Ka,23
59,60
30.m. 51.x
and the Bee, 2.ix
of the Two Lands. 46
of and Lower 20.
31.i. 44. 45.xii. 58.i. 62
n.u"o" ... p, III. 20
Knee of Horus. 18
65.66
lazuli, 31.viii. 33Jx. 43. 51.x, 65
IV, 33
Live. prosper. be
34.59
45.i
3l.iv.31.vii,
for 67
Love. 54
Love songs. XU
31.i. 31.viii, 73
Millions of Years, 61
Mind. 3 Liii. 33.dc
Monotheist. VI
M",cct.> ... ".cc 33.cc. 41. 48. 5l.v, 80.ii
Name. Lii, 1.v. 19.21. 23. 32. 33.x, 33.1,
33.1xx. 33.cc. 33.ccc. 45.i. 51.xiii, 59,
62.80.ii
Nemes,3Lii
Bark, 17.24,26.27, 3l.ix, 34. 35,
37.38,39.1. 39.ii, 40.i. 40.v. 41, 42,48.
49
Nine Bows. 23.59, 61
Nine 58.i
NN,42
Nubians, 33.vi
Osiris, an, 34
Person. 45.iv
Pharaoh. I, IX. 59
Phoenix. 23
VI. VII
t'olnejgrana1te Tree, 28.i
Potter's wheel, 32. 5Uii
Pre-Amarna. IV
Primal waters. 38
Primeval time. 33Jxxx
Primeval waters, 11
I-"I.Tr!lmli1 Texts, I,V
Residence, 52.vi, 66
Resurrection. IX, 1
52.ix
Son. 19
Sacred Throne, 26
Sacred 49
55.ii
Scarab. 30.ii
Scribes, X
:SCllOQ,U>CIV miscellanies. X
Secular. XII. XIII
Indexes
Shade, l.xi, 80.iii
Shedeh,46
Sherden.63
47,55.i
Shrine. 33.xxx
33.xxx. 33.dccc
... "'Ii, .... ', ... ILV
211
Soul, l.xi. 22, 28.i. 32, 33.cc. 33.dc. 34.
39.ii. 40.i, 44, 47
1.xi, 13,20,23, 28,i. 32, 33.vi.
33.lc, 33.cc, 33.dc, 33.dccc, 34, 40.v,
41, 49. 55.ii
Staff-of-life 52.v
Star. 16, 33.xx, 35. 37, 44
Sun-bark. II, 14,34
Sundisk,25
Table of Osiris. 55,ii
Tale ot Sinuhe, 56, 57
ThceG):'hames. 3U. 3l.iv. 32
Time. 45.xi
Truth. 17,25.27, 28.x, 31.viii, 32.
33.dccc. 35. 41, 44, 45.xi. 49. 59
Truth. and Order, VII
Two Shrines, 27
Underworld relIgIon. III
unwe:ar'Vln.Q" stars, 28.ii. 39.i
Userhat, 33.vi
Utterance. 3 Uii
Vindicated. 36, 37, 40.i. 40.v. 41, 43, 69.
78.i, 79. 80.ii
White Crown. 3l.ii. 31.v, 43
Word,40Jii
Writings from the Ancient World
H ""[IT">C ."ro E
Letters 1990.
;:)l;'IwIJUU eOltlo:n. 1998.
1993.
Ancient Aramaic 1994.
WtIlHUT\ J. MUlrn<llne, in 1995.
1996.
Simon et
LJ""""I"""" Narrative
1997.
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