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Introduction to ME 470 Design of Machinery

Introduction

Machine Design can be generalized into two major categories:

Mechanism design (synthesis and analysis)

Machine component analysis (stress and failure)

Important foundations are:

Engineering mechanics (statics & dynamics)

Mathematics (calculus, vector analysis, linear algebra)

A parallel goal is this class to develop experience and improved proficiency with the design process.

Learning Objectives

Distinguish kinematics from kinetics in the context of engineering mechanics. Define mechanism and machine.

Define the following terms and recognize their presence in physical examples: Link, joint, kinematic pair, linkage.

Explain the concept of degree-of-freedom (DOF) by stating its definition(s).

Articulate specific and distinguishable functional steps in a design process.

Kinematics and Kinetics

Define few terms:

Kinematics is the study of motion without regard to forces.

Kinetics is the study of forces on systems in motion.

It is important to note that dynamic forces (from inertia and acceleration) often play a major role in stresses encountered, so kinematics often can not ignore kinetics.

Mechanisms and Machines

A mechanism is a system of elements arranged to transmit motion in a predetermined way.

A machine is a system of elements arranged to transmit motion and do mechanical work (force along a displacement) in a predetermined way.

Review:

r

2

r 1

Σ

F

dr

=

1

2

mv

2

2

1 2 mv

1

2

Degree of Freedom

The degree of freedom (DOF) of a system is…

In Math, the number of independent coordinates required to define its position.

In this class, the number of inputs that need to be provided in order to create a predictable output.

Also known as mobility (M).

Rigid bodies in 3-D space have 6 DOF and those constrained to a plane have 3 DOF.

Reference: Design of Machinery, 5th ed. by R. L. Norton, © 2012, McGraw-Hill

those constrained to a plane have 3 DOF. Reference: Design of Machinery , 5th ed. by

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Linkages, Links, and Joints

A link is a (sufficiently) rigid body that has at least two nodes (holes) for attachment to other links.

A joint is a connection between two or more links at their nodes, which may allow motion between the links.

Joints are also called kinematic pairs.

A linkage is an assembly of links and joints, and are the basic building blocks of all mechanisms.

joints, and are the basic building blocks of all mechanisms. Reference: Design of Machinery , 5th

Reference: Design of Machinery, 5th ed. by R. L. Norton, © 2012, McGraw-Hill

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Examples of Joints

Examples of Joints Reference: Design of Machinery , 5th ed. by R. L. Norton, © 2012,

Reference: Design of Machinery, 5th ed. by R. L. Norton, © 2012, McGraw-8ill

Steps in a Design Process

Identification of Need

Information Gathering / Background Research

Goal Statement (what to accomplish)

Performance Specifications (targets)

Ideation and Invention (Design Concepts)

Analysis & Theory Application

Selection of Design Concepts

Detailed Design

Prototyping and Testing

Transition to Production

Iterative and often running in parallel!