Sei sulla pagina 1di 35

Bachelor of Arts (Hons) Marketing and Management

Semester 3 (2012/2013)

STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP HKU ASSESSMENT


Module Code: 26243

Emotional Intelligence, Gender and Leadership

Module Leader: Sumona Mukhuty Local Tutor: Mr Anthony Yip Date of Submission: 22 July 2013 Word Court: 4952 Hull Student no.: 201200358

Table of Contents
LIST OF FIGURE LIST OF TABLES
3 3

INTRODUCTION EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND LEADERSHIP


Definition of Emotional intelligence Model of Emotional Intelligence Four Branch Model Mixed Model Relationships between EI and Leadership Relationships between EI and Transformational Leadership Relationships between EI and Transactional Leadership Emotional Intelligence and Leader-Member-Exchange Criticism of emotional intelligence and leadership

4
4 6 6-9 9-12 12-13 13-14 14-15 15-16 16-18

GENDER AND LEADERSHIP


Gender stereotypes and prejudice Role incongruity Glass Ceiling Glass Cliffs An Local Example of Gender and Leadership in Hong Kong Gender and Transformational Leadership/ Transactional Leadership Criticism of Gender on glass ceiling

19
19-20 20-21 21-22 22-23 23-24 24-26 26-27

EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND GENDER IN LEADERSHIP

28-29

CONCLUSION REFERENCES

30 31-35

LIST OF FIGURE
Figure 1 Four Branch Model (ability model of EI) Figure 2 Affective Events Theory Figure 3 Comparison of Five components of EI conception and the Five Factor Model of Personality 6 9 17

LIST OF TABLES
Table 1 Description of Four Branch Model 7

Table 2 The Five Components of Emotional Intelligence at Work Table 3 Components of Bar-Ons conception of Emotional Intelligence

11 12

INTRODUCTION

This essay will evaluate the relationships between emotional intelligence and leadership first by introducing the ability model (Mayer and Salovey, 2002) and miedx model (Goleman, 1995 and Bar-On, 2000) and the relationships between transformational leadership and transactional leadership. The gender and leadership will be discussed by several characteristics such as stereotypes, prejudice, role incongruity, glass ceiling and glass cliff. Moreover, further study will develop on emotional intelligence and gender towards transformational leadership and transactional leadership by the support of academic journals and some examples.

EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND LEADERSHIP

Definition of Emotional intelligence Emotional intelligence (EI) has been discussed by different scholars, and Salovey and Mayers first established the concept of EI in 1990. However, there are still many different versions in describing emotional intelligence.

Some traditional thinking in psychology viewed emotional as inimical to one another (Woodworth, 1940 cited by Mayer et al., 1990) and a part of a contributor to logical thought and to intelligence in general (Leeper, 1948 cited by Mayer et al., 1990).

Salovey and Mayer (1984) defined emotional intelligence as a description of the ability to appraise and express emotions and use them for the decision making purposes. This regulation of emotion adopted in some ways to enhance living.
4

EI is a type of social intelligence that involves the ability to monitor ones own and others emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use the information to guide ones think and actions (Salovey & Mayer, 1990, p.185 cited by Myers and Tucker, 2005) and EI is the ability to receive, interpret, analyze, and respond to messages, both external and internal, is regulated by ones emotional intelligence. (Myers and Tucker, 2005)

However, EI theory can provide information for leaders on improving the internal and interpersonal communication skills for doing business or managing the organization. Many enterprises are trying to improve the EI of the staffs to develop the business such as improving customer service (Cavelzani et al., 2003)

Model of Emotional Intelligence

Four Branch Model (Ability model of EI) (Mayer and Salovey, 2002)

4 3
UNDERSTANDING

MANAGEMENT

Emotional about relationships are understood, including how they might change with time and events

Thoughts promote emotional intellectual and personal growth Management encourages openness to feelings

EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE

1
FACILITATION Emotions enter the cognitive system as noticed signals and as influences on cognition

PERCPTION

Emotions are perceived and exposed Emotions are sensed; automatic influences on cognition begin

Figure 1 The process of Mayer & Salovey : Four Branch Model (ability model of EI)

Table 1 Description of Four Branch Model (as described by Mayer and Salovey, 1997)

There are additional models used to further explain the definitions and factors of EI like the Four Branch Model (Mayer and Salovey, 2002) and the Mixed Model. Figure 1 and Table 1 briefly explain the concepts of Four Branch Model and how does it works from four areas: the ability to perceive emotion, use emotion to facilitate thought, understand emotions and manage emotion.

Mayer, Salovey and Caruso (2002) constructed a series of scale to measure EI such as The Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). This is a test to measure the four branches of EI. The test contains eight tasks and two of them use to measure each of the four branches of EI. In branch 1, perception of emotion is measured by emotions in Face and Pictures. In branch 2, emotional facilitation of thinking is measured by Sensations and Facilitation. In branch 3, the understanding of emotions is measured by Changes and Blends. Emotion Management and Emotion Relationships are used to measure management of emotions.

Emotional information is very important in our daily lives since it will influence our cognition. And the feelings and therefore, influence oneself behavior and to others. Emotional intelligence ability can be adopted to different positions such as human resource and customer service by performance managing, training and selection (Ashkanasy and Daus, 2002).

Ashkanasy and Daus (2002) used the Affective Events Theory (AET) shown as below to discuss the relationships between emotions and behavior. The discussion found that experienced emotions will be affected by personal dispositions like EI or trait affect.
8

Therefore, when people perceived emotions, they will generate positive or negative emotions. Use the workplace as an example, they will have the ability to understand the emotional information such as job satisfaction or become loyalty. Theses influences will affect their decision making of the behavior like the ability to improve personal understanding of emotions.

Figure 2 Affective Events Theory (Ashkanasy and Daus, 2002)

Mixed Model Beside ability model, some scholars like Goleman (1995) and Bar-On (2000) introduced the later models include an array of non-cognitive elements such as general moods and social skills which is known as Mixed Model of EI.
9

Goleman (1995, 1998, and 2004) pointed out that EI is a learned competence that can be nurtured with the right practice. The components of EI in Golemans conception are self-awareness, self-regulation and self-motivation, empathy and social skill. Self-awareness means understand of your emotions, feelings, needs, strengths and weaknesses and people with strong self-awareness are honest. Self-regulation likes an ongoing inner conversation to manage various emotions and moods by controlling feelings and impulses. Self-regulation provides ability to one to have judgment on their emotion and influences their behavior such as seeking out information. Self-motivation enables people to remain positive and optimistic to achieve the goals.

Empathy is easily to be recognized, it is the ability to read others emotions accurately, it is important in today workplace because of the rapid growing of globalization. Interpersonal and Social skills concern the skills to build relationships with others and maintain positively. Table 2 below is the summary of the five components of emotional intelligence at work.

10

Table 2 The Five Components of Emotional Intelligence at Work (Goldman, 2004)

11

Bar-On (1997) developed the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i) to measure the emotional intelligence, for example the EIs influences of job performance Similarly to Goleman, Bar-Ons model emphasises on the personality and competency. Table 3 below shows the components of Bar-Ons conception of EI used in the further research. These different concepts and models can give different ways to measure emotional intelligence. Table 3 Components of Bar-Ons conception of EI (Bar-On, 2000) Age Problem solving Self regard Interpersonal relationships Social responsibility Independence Self-actualisation Assertiveness Flexibility Happiness Stress tolerance Impulse control Reality testing PS SR IR RE IN SA AS FL HA ST IC RT 0.21** 0.19* -0.08 0.23** 0.20* -0.03 0.16* 0.01 0.01 0.35*** 0.25** 0.29*** Gender -0.06 -0.08 0.15* -0.08 -0.01 0.08 -0.08 -0.07 0.05 -0.07* -0.15(*) -0.13 Education (years) 0.06 0.09 -0.01 -0.17* 0.01 0.15 -0.01 0.04 -0.03 -0.03 -0.06 -0.09

Relationships between EI and Leadership Leaders with higher emotional intelligence will be more committed and happier to their organisation (Abraham, 2000) and they will put more effort to achieve the goals (Miller, 1999) which may perform better in the workplace (Goleman, 1998a). Some theories have used to further examine the relationship between EI and leadership such as transformational leadership and transactional leadership. There is an example of a global company that use emotional intelligence
12

organizationally is Google. The company develop successfully by hiring the best people, not just technically, but with many of the emotional intelligence skills, such as interpersonal relationship skill-encouraging supportive co-workers or teams (Social Skill). Assertiveness-being satisfied with the work: staffs will do better if they love the job (Empathy). Independence- putting the right staff in the right place with good leadership skill (Self-Awareness). Google realizes that people with high emotional intelligence can manage themselves and require less training to get the job well done.

Google uses a policy called Innovation Time Off as a motivation technique, where Googles employees are encouraged to spend 20% of their work time to do their own projects, this can enhance the Self-regulation and motivation of emotional intelligence. These emotional intelligence skills make Google creative, innovative and success. Thus, the successful products such as Gmail, Google News, Orkut and AsSense originated from these skills. (Stein, 2009)

Relationships between EI and Transformational Leadership Bass and Avolio (1994) (cited by Mandell and Pherwani, 2003) proposed that transformational leadership consider four main dimensions were known as the Four Is. They were Idealize Influence, Inspirational Motivation, Intellectual Stimulation and Individualized Consideration.

Idealize Influence involves leaders as a role model and the followers will have confidence to trust and follow. These leaders have high standards of ethical and moral conduct. Inspirational Motivation leaders use emotional support to the followers and help them to achieve goals and future states. Intellectual Stimulation leaders show
13

support by encouraging followers to be creative and rethink their beliefs to enhance problem solving skills. Individualized Consideration showed by leaders whose show respect to the followers such as listen carefully to the needs of followers. (Lopez-Zafra et al., 2012)

Leaders with high emotional intelligence will be more likely to show transformational behaviours, because they have the ability to manage their own emotions to display self-control and act as a role model, therefore the followers trust in the leaders and show respect on the leaders. The leaders who have ability to understand others emotions would be ideally placed to realize the content of followers expectations. Leaders whose emphasis on empathy and have the ability to manage relationships can understand followers needs and interact accordingly. (Barling et al., 2000)

Therefore, transformational leadership is an ability to enhance subordinates satisfaction and trust by spreading out the own sense of confidence and competence of the leaders. The followers will be more imaginative that benefits the organizations (Barling et al., 2000).

Relationships between EI and Transactional Leadership Transactional leadership only concern on exchange things of value with subordinates to further boths agendas. Leaders with transactional leadership do not focus on the needs of follower and their personal development. Transactional leadership consists of Contingent Reward and Management-By-Exception and Laissez faire management. Contingent Reward is shown by leaders who give tangible or intangible reward to followers in order to exchange their efforts and performance. The effort paid by
14

followers is exchanged for specified rewards such as money, promotion. Management By Exception involves leaders by monitoring performance and taking corrective action. These actions can be active or passive such as watching followers closely to identify the problems whereas intervene only after situation get worse or standards have not been met.

In Barling et al. (2000) discussion, the contingent reward involves positive behaviors when compared with transformational leaderships. The factors such as provide feedback, achieve goals and give reward are all task-oriented and similar to transformational leadership. But still there are differences between transactional leadership and transformational leadership. For example, transactional leadership focus on daily activities and manage by exception and correct deviation while transformational leadership emphasises on vision and strategy, inspire staff to transcend self-interest, activate higher level of needs.

There is a third component named as laissez-faire leadership (Yammarino et al., 1993) The style of this leadership is do nothing which creates a negative relationship between leadership and followers performance.

Emotional Intelligence and Leader-Member-Exchange Some researches have consistently shown that emotional intelligence has a positive effect on work attitudes and performance for employees on jobs to manage their emotions. Social skills are important for service workers to develop relationships with customers. Emotional intelligence is the abilities to build relationships and to show empathy, leaders with higher emotional intelligence tend to have better interpersonal
15

skills and abilities to manage emotional pressure, they will not have emotional exhaustion and burnout easily. These people have the ability to exhibit higher levels of work performance. Therefore EI may moderate the effect between Leader-Member-Exchange and work performance (Huang et al., 2010).

Criticism of emotional intelligence and leadership However, there are still some arguments between the relationships of EI and transformational leadership and the relationships of EI and transactional leadership. For example, in Lindebaum and Cartwright (2010) research, it was found that there was no relationship between EI and transformational leadership and the research of Gardner and Stough (2001) pointed out that there was no relationship between transactional leadership and emotional intelligence measured by The Swinburne University Emotional Intelligence Test (SUEIT) which is a measurement of workplace emotional intelligence developed by Palmer and Stough (2001)

16

When compare the five components of EI conception (Goleman, 2004) with the Five Factor Model of Personality (Costa, Somerfield,& McCrae, 1996), we can found that there are some relationships between EI and personality from Figure 3 below

Self-Regulation

Empathy

Self-Awareness

Motivation

Social Skill

Strong relationship

less relationship

Figure 3 Comparison of Five components of EI conception and the Five Factor Model of Personality

17

On the other hand, when compare the five components of EI and the transformational leadership, we found that the self-regulation is relate to the idealized influence, empathy is relate to inspirational motivation, motivation is related to intellectual simulation and social skill is relate to individualized consideration. Leaders with high emotional intelligence may affect their behaviors positively and therefore, leaders with high EI also associate with the transformational leadership. Lowe and Kroeck (1996) pointed out that any given leader with high emotional intelligence would be both transformational and transactional. The transformational leader has self awareness and interest in the organisation, will increase the confidence of individuals or groups. These leaders are creative with intellectual simulation and seek new ways of working.

18

GENDER AND LEADERSHIP

Gender stereotypes and prejudice Gender stereotypes and prejudice is a perception of gender role sustained by people. The perception can be influenced by with different impact of culture, traditional viewpoints in different countries and egos (Zafra and Rocio, 2011). Males and females perceive their social roles by the natural and fair perception of the maintenance of gender inequality (Jost & Hamilton, 2005, cited by Zafra and Rocio, 2011). Base on the social role theory (Eagly, Wood, & Diekman, 2000), roles are the basis elements influencing gender stereotypes. Gender roles may change as societies change over time, these changes may affect the perceptions of in gender between men and women. Because the social may change over time, women assume masculine roles and men female roles which to form a non-traditional roles. Different countries have their own culture, some beliefs in men have agentic characteristics self-assertive and dominant such as the leadership in high positions or women are expected to be kind and supportive with communal characteristics, like taking care of others (Zafra and Rocio, 2011). These masculine and feminine roles are affected by different cultures.

Eagly and Sczesny (2009) pointed out that the equality of men and women to have the opportunities to access leadership positions is still far from present, even women in western societies who have more opportunities to access the high positions. Zafra and Rocio (2011) used an example of Spain and Germany to explain the discrepancy in the number of male and female leaders in the upper echelons among the culture and social evolution. For example, the percentage of female managers in leadership
19

positions in Germany is higher than in Spain (36% vs 30%, United Nations Statistics Division, 2010)), it also means that the men in top management positions in these two countries are discrepancy. Therefore, the culture, social history and economy also affect the gender stereotype.

Role incongruity A role incongruity of stereotypes and prejudice toward female leaderships perceived between role and leadership leads to two forms of prejudice. Firstly, people perceive women less favorable than men as occupants of leadership roles. Secondly, people evaluate behavior that appropriate the prescriptions of leader roles less favourably toward women when compared with men (Eagly and Karau, 2002).

Although the equality of some developed countries such as the United State, 46% of all workers are female and women make up 45% in executive and manager positions From Catalyst (2000) research, in the five highest earning officers in Fortune 500 companies, women constitute 4% of those leaders and 0.4 of the CEOs. This research showed that women in leadership roles evaluated form traditional concepts that women are lack of qualified, womens family responsibilities and women show fewer of the traits and motivations which are necessary in achieve success on top management positions.

However, prejudice is one of the causes of role in incongruity and prejudice can arise from peoples perception of the characteristics of male and female in a social group. Role incongruity exists when people hold a stereotype about a social group that are thought to be potential for success in social roles. Role incongruity is affected by
20

social role of the content of gender roles and leadership roles, from the inherent concepts, people typically have the dissimilarity to the expectations about leaders (Eagly and Karau, 2002).

Since the incongruity between the female gender role and the leader role is more likely to be more extreme at the higher levels of leadership. Eagly and Karau (2002) suggested that the masculinity of leader role can reduce the incongruity between female gender role and leader role arise from the perception of women as less qualified for leadership by spontaneously categorizing women as leaders or potential leaders.

Glass Ceiling Glass ceiling is a description of the imaginary barrier that stop a women or groups from progressing to a higher position in an organization. In the hierarchy, the disadvantages of gender become stronger from lower level to the top and the disadvantages get worse later in ones career (Cotter et al., 2001).

From a human capital point of view, some countries have different cultures in societies, such as Chinese people have a traditional culture that female should work at home and male tend to have more opportunities to have their education in some of the middle-east countries.

By the stereotypes, biased perceptions, biased evaluations of top leader who is male, glass ceiling is presented to block womens progress to higher corporate levels from remain them at lower levels. Moreover, glass ceiling is a type of gender inequality
21

cannot use the job characteristics of the employee to explain. The outcome of glass ceiling inequality is greater at higher level than lower level and the glass ceiling inequality will increase over the course of a career.

Perhaps there are different corporate cultures or different clienteles within an organization in a specific industry that may attract greater supply on female employees, but the glass ceiling is a barrier to block them to the top level. To overcome the demand-side barriers, Matsa and Miller (2011) suggested a potential role that women serve in a top leader position helping other women advance to higher level positions. In their research, companies with more women on board tend to hire more female top management employees and greater supply of female managers. It is because women may have some skills that are difference from men which are more valuable in different environments.

One example by Cotter et al. (2011) is the CEO of Hewlett-Packard, named Carleton Fiorina. She was the first female chief executive officer of a Fortune 500 company. Her appointment was heralded as no need to focus on the gender that glass ceiling no longer exists. The accomplishments of women in different industries demonstrate that there is not a glass ceiling.

Glass Cliffs Glass cliff is a description of the tendency for womens leadership positions to be more unstable than those positions occupied by men and to be linked with greater risk of failure and criticism (Ryan and Haslam, 2009)Furthermore, women managers seem to receive greater scrutiny and criticism than men. When women perform the
22

same leadership roles as men, they are still be evaluated less favorably than men managers. This reflects the differences between male and female of symptom barriers that women encounter once they have broken through the glass ceiling.

Eagly and Karau (2002) argued that when compared to men, less favorable evaluation will be taken on the potential of women and the bebavior of women will be evaluated less favorable consistently. In this situation, women leaders are often in a disadvantage and cause of glass cliffs. Women can be seen as a management leader who better suited to crisis than men. Women are better to deal with emotional challenges when crises presented which men may not be suited to. On the other hand, men are better in deal with task demands success which women are people oriented that may not be suited to.

An Local Example of Gender and Leadership in Hong Kong Dr Margaret Chan- the Director-General of World Health Organization (WHO) who was the first female in China appointed by the world health Assembly in 2006 Before joining to WHO, she was the Direct of Health in Hong Kong (1994-2003). During her work as director in Hong Kong, she confronted the first human outbreak of H5N1 avian influence in 1997 and she successfully defeated the spate of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in Hong Kong in 2003(World Health Organization, 2013). In the cases, she showed the effective masculine leadership role to make the decision of eliminating all the poultries which have suffered from illness to stop the SARS to spread out and this method is adopted by many countries to prevent the SARS nowadays.

23

In these cases, she showed a high level of leadership in handle risky challenges such as empathy and social skills to communicate with citizens and media. As a Chinese woman, she broke the traditional social culture as in China that men perform better in a leadership role. She demonstrated that women in different industries can show effective leadership. Therefore, glass ceiling does not exist in some ways.

Gender and Transformational Leadership/ Transactional Leadership The relationship between transformational leadership and gender become more important in the fast changing and competitive of the globalized economic environment. Reuvers et al. (2008) pointed out that the effect of transformational leadership on innovative work behavior is stronger for male leaders than female leaders. Furthermore, superior levels of innovative work behavior will be exhibited when employees in same gender superior followers dyads. The research found that transformational leadership by men managers has a higher level of innovative work behavior when compared to women managers.

In most cultures in different countries, masculine men are perceived as quintessentially leaders who are decisive, assertive and independent what it means to be a leader. On the other hand, women are evaluated as friendly, unselfish, taking care to others, but lack of qualities for the potential success in leadership roles. In Asian, people typically think women as passive, lack in ambition and overemotional. These characteristics are associated with disqualify of women in leaderships. Women in leadership performance aggressive or not aggressive enough will be thought by men that they are abrasive, arrogant or self-promoting. For example, African American women are easy to associate with such stereotypes and risk.
24

Traditionally, when women perform man role will be seen as conforming to feminine stereotypes and they will not be respected (Ely et al., 2011). The research of Eisner (2013) found that from the transformational aspect, both male and female most used idealized influence in their leadership roles. While inspirational motivation is less used by both male and female leaders. Moreover, women are more likely than men to use individual consideration, this can associate with the caretaking characteristic of women. Moreover, Eagly et al. (1995) pointed out that overall men and women were equally effective leaders, they were more effective in leadership roles congruent with their gender and women were less effective to the extent that leader role was masculinised. Women were less effective than men in military positions while they were performed better in education, government and social service organizations. Furthermore, Eagly et al. (2003) found that women tend to use more transformational leadership than men and they engage in more contingent reward behaviors than men.

Gender and Transformational Leadership/ Transactional Leadership Cont According to different cultures in different organizations, women are trying to show an effective leadership style from getting to higher level. Therefore some forms of masculinity and hegemonic forms in particular. These forms appropriate in different genders. If men act as a femininity leadership role that makes them to be a more caring manager, they are rewarded. Whereas women use femininity leadership role as men do , they are just seen to be reached what they are expected to do or even unqualified (White and Ozkanl, 2011).

Eagly et al. (2003) discussed that transformational, transactional and laissez-faire


25

styles of men and female may difference in some extension. Because of role incongruity such as the influence of gender role on behavior by means of the spillover and internalization of difference gender norms. Women tend to more favor with transformational leadership because it can help them to overcome the dilemma of role incongruity. On the other hand, if organizations do not emphasis on hierarchical roles, a command-and-control leadership or transformational leadership. Thus, transactional leadership for women can be an effective leadership that encompasses some behaviors that are similar with the female gender roles demand caretaking, supportive and considerate behaviors. Contingent reward behaviors, involving noticing and admiring followers good performance, may also develop positive, supportive work relationships. In summary, transformational leadership as well as the contingent reward aspects of transactional leadership also provide a particularly congenial context for womens enactment of competent leadership

Criticism of Gender on glass ceiling The ranking on United Nations Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) and the Gender-related Development Index (GDI) shows that countries ranked high on the indices are those western countries such as Canada, USA and the UK. Countries that ranked on medium to low are some eastern countries like Iran and Turkey (Ghorbani and Tung, 2007). By and large, many studies on gender has been confined to research in high GDI countries, there is a virtual absence of studies on gender research in medium and low GDI countries. Because women in those medium and low GDI countries are oppressed and prevented their opportunities in the labor force as professional and executives in the higher level of management.

26

There are some existed forms of glass ceiling for Iran that Ghorbani and Tung had mentioned that include: women are less employ in the professional or top management positions; women are less opportunity to have higher education; women must wear the chador (a heavy veil and cloak that covers the person from head to toe while leaving the face clear) in public, women are segregated from men and they have limitation in interact with others and activities in society; legislation by government and society discriminate against women and Islam is biased against non-Muslims.

Compared with other Islamic countries such as Turkey, the educational levwl has been growth rapidly in the past 20 years. Based on the foundation of Turkish universities reforms introduced by Atatrk in 1923 which established the Turkish Republic, women had the equal opportunities with men by adopting secularism, unifying education and enshrining the principle of equality in the constitution. Therefore, glass ceiling is affected by the government, social cultures, history of the country, education level. To provide the equal opportunities for women, government should promote equality between male and female by replacing the legislations which against women; eliminate discrimination on the basis of sex, marital status and respect to dismissals, family responsibilities; prevent violence against women and sexual harassment at work, in educational institution.

27

EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND GENDER IN LEADERSHIP

In Mandell and Pherwani (2003) research found that differences in gender have an effect of differences in the emotional intelligence and the differences in the leadership styles. Moreover, the emotional intelligence will affect the leadership style such as transformational leadership, it is one of the most effective leadership to lead people. Beside, social and emotional skills need to be developed to face the fast moving and challenges economy and society. To develop such important skills, emotional intelligence is one of the most effective ways for the best-trained managers to be a great leader. Goleman (1995) described the subcomponents of emotional intelligence as empathy, motivation, self-awareness and self-confidence which a transformational leader always exhibits. Bass (1990) established that trust in the major component of transformational leadership style. Transformation leaders are able to gain respect from the followers and give confidence for them to trust. Another component linked with the transformational leadership and EI is motivation. Transformational leaders use motivation to communicate with followers to achieve high expectation goals. The essential components of emotional intelligence include self-confidence, self-control, conviction, ability to handle conflict (Bass, 1990b). These characteristics also are associated with transformational leadership and EI.

Transformational leaders with high emotional intelligence show their leadership from the senses of confidence and competence, motivate people to be more creative and innovative. Goleman (1995) pointed out that these components of transformational leadership are also essential components of emotional intelligence.
28

In Mandell and Pherwani (2003) research, no significant interaction between gender and EI was found when associated with transformational leadership. As a result, it can establish that significant impact in the relationship between transformational leadership style and emotional intelligence for men and women. This can further explain that the interaction between gender and emotional intelligence would have no effect on transformational leadership from emotional intelligence.

The research also found that women are better on managing their emotions and the emotions of the others when compared with men. Moreover, there were no gender differences between men and women managers on transformational leadership while some researchers found that females are more transformational than male (Carless, 1998)

The positive relationship between transformational leadership and emotional intelligence can benefit the organizations by hiring and promoting employees to leadership positions. Organizations with transformational leaders can be developed more effective and profitable. If emotional intelligence is considered as most need ability for effective leadership, female may have better interpersonal skills than male. As a result, the research suggested that female may have better performance such as empathy and social when evaluating emotional intelligence, and male are better on motivation and self regulation Mandell and Pherwani (2003). Furthermore, women are more supportive and affective when involved in the transformational leadership of emotional intelligence. In general, women perceived as more emotional intelligence.

29

CONCLUSION

On this essay, we have discussed the relationship between emotional intelligence and leadership by comparing the model of emotional intelligence- the ability model and the mixed model. People who have the ability to manage their emotions will have higher emotion intelligence. These characteristics of the components in emotional intelligence can be associated with the characteristics of the components in transformational leadership which means that there are relationship existed between emotional intelligence and transformational leadership. In the criticism part, we can also see that there are particulars relationship between the personality and emotional intelligence which when someone perceived the emotions, will have the ability to manage and influence the behavior.

From the gender, there are further research can be hold on the eastern countries, to discuss whether the gender is affected by the social cultures or traditional point of view, and the glass ceiling and glass cliff can be reduced by the government, education or change of organization. Examples used to show that glass ceiling may not exist in some industries and organizations. Finally, from the available academic journals, we can found that the emotional intelligence is more likely to associate with transformational leadership and there is relationship exist whereas gender has less relationship affecting the transformational leadership.

30

REFERENCES Abraham, R. (2000), The role of job control as a moderator of emotional dissonance and emotional intelligence- outcome relationships, The journal of Psychology, Vol. 134, p169-184 Ashkanasy, Neal M.; Daus, Catherine S. (2002) Emotion in the workplace: The new challenge for managers. Academy of Management Executive. Vol. 16 Issue 1, p76-86. Barling, J., Slater, F. and Kelloway, E. K. (2000). Transformational leadership and emotional intelligence: an exploratory study. Leadership and Organisation Development Journal, Vol. 21 Issue 3, p15761. Bar-On, R. (1997). Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i): Technical manual. Toronto, Canada: Multi-Health Systems. Bar-On, R. (2000). Emotional and social intelligence: Insights from the Emotional Quotient Inventory. In J. D. A. Parker (Ed.), The handbook of emotional intelligence (pp. 363390). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Bar-On, R., Brown, J.M., Kirkcaldy, B.D. and Thorne, E.P. (2000). Emotional expression and implications for occupational stress: an application of the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i). Personality and Individual Differences, Vol. 28 Issue 6, 1107 1118.

Bass, B. M. (1990a) Bass & Stogdills handbook of leadership: Theory, research, and managerial applications. (3rd ed.). New York: Free Press. Bass, B. M. (1990b). From transactional-transformational leadership: Learning to share the vision. Organizational Dynamics, Vol. 18, p19-31. Bass, B. M. & Avolio, B. J. (1994) Improving organizational effectiveness through transformational leadership. Thousand Oaks, Ca: Sage. Carless, S. A. (1998). Gender differences in transformational leadership: An examination of superior, leader, and subordinate perspectives. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, Vol. 39 p887-897.
31

Caruso, David R.; Mayer, John D.; Salovey, Peter. (2002) Relation of an Ability Measure of Emotional Intelligence to Personality Journal of Personality Assessment. Vol. 79 Issue 2, p306-320. 15p. 5 Charts. Cavelzani, A.S., Lee, I.A., Locatelli, V., Monti, G. and Villamira, M.A. (2003). Emotional intelligence and tourist services: the tour operator as a mediator between tourists and residents. International Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Administration. Vol.4 Issue 4, p124. Costa, P. T., Jr., Somerfield, M. R., & McCrae, R. R. (1996). Personality and coping: A reconceptualization. In M. Zeidner & N. S. Endler (Eds.), Handbook of coping: Theory, research, applications (pp. 4461). New York: Wiley. Cotter, David A.; Hermsen, Joan M.; Ovadia, Seth; Vanneman, Reeve.(2001) The Glass Ceiling Effect Social Forces (University of North Carolina Press). Vol. 80 Issue 2, p655-681 Eagly, A. H., Karau, S. J., & Makhijani, M. G. (1995). Gender and the effectiveness of leaders: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 117, 125145. Eagly, A. H., Wood, W., & Diekman, A. B. (2000). Social role theory of sex differences and similarities:Acurrent appraisal. In T. Eckes, & H. M. Trautner (Eds.), The developmental social psychology of gender (pp. 123174). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Eagly, A. H., & Karau, S. J. (2002). Role congruity theory of prejudice toward female leaders. Psychological Review, Vol. 109 Issue 3, p573598. Eagly, A., Johannesen-Schmidt, M., & Van Engen, M. (2003). Transformational, transactional, and laisse-faire leadership styles: A meta-analysis comparing women and men. Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 129 Issue 4, 569591. Eisner, Susan. (2013) Leadership: Gender and Executive Style SAM Advanced Management Journal (07497075). Vol. 78 Issue 1, p26-41. Ely, Robin J.; Ibarra, Herminia; Kolb, Deborah M. (2011) Taking Gender Into Account: Theory and Design for Womens Leadership Development Programs
32

Academy of Management Learning & Education. Vol. 10 Issue 3, p474-493. Gardner, L. and Stough, C. (2002). Examining the relationship between leadership and emotional intelligence in senior level managers. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, Vol. 23 Issue 2, p6878. Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam Goleman, D. (1998). Working with emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam Goleman, D. (1998a), Working with Emotional Intelligence, Bloomsbury Publishing, London. Goleman, Daniel. (2004) What Makes a Leader? Harvard Business Review. Vol. 82 Issue 1, p82-91. Ghorbani, Majid; Tung, Rosalie L. (2007) Behind the veil: an exploratory study of the myths and realities of women in the Iranian workforce Human Resource Management Journal. Vol. 17 Issue 4, p376-392. Jost, J. T., & Hamilton, D. L. (2005). Stereotypes in our culture. In J. F. Dovidio, P. Glick, & L. A. Rudman (Eds.), On the nature of prejudice: Fifty years after Allport (pp. 208224). Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing Julian Barling, Frank Slater, E. Kevin Kelloway (2000) Transformational leadership and emotional intelligence: an exploratory study Leadership & Organization Development Journal, Vol. 21 Issue 3, p157-161 Leeper, R. W. (1948). A motivational theory of emotions to replace emotions as disorganized response. Psychological Review, Vol. 55 p5-21. Lindebaum, Dirk; Cartwright, Susan. (2010) A Critical Examination of the Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Transformational Leadership Journal of Management Studies. Vol. 47 Issue 7, p1317-1342

Lopez-Zafra, Esther; Garcia-Retamero, Rocio; Berrios Martos, M. Pilar. (2012) The Relationship Between Transformational Leadership And Emotional Intelligence From
33

A Gendered Approach Psychological Record. Vol. 62 Issue 1, p97-114. Lowe, K. B. and Kroeck, K. G. (1996), Effectiveness correlates of transformational and transactional leadership: a meta-analytic review", Leadership Quarterly, Vol. 7 p385-426

Mandell, Barbara; Pherwani, Shilpa. (2003) Relationship Between Emotional Intelligence And Transformational Leadership Style: A Gender Comparison Journal of Business and Psychology Vol 17. Issue 3, p387-404. Matsa, David A; Miller, Amalia R. (2011) Chipping away at the Glass Ceiling: Gender Spillovers in Corporate Leadership. American Economic Review. Vol. 101 Issue 3, p635-639. Mayer, John D.; DiPaolo, Maria; Salovey, Peter. (1990) Perceiving Affective Content in Ambiguous Visual Stimuli: A Component of Emotional Intelligence Journal of Personality Assessment. Vol. 54 Issue 3/4, p772-781. Mayer, J.D. and Salovey, P. (1997). What is emotional intelligence? In Salovey, P. and Sluyter, D. (eds), Emotional Development and Emotional Intelligence: Implications for Educators. New York: Basic Books. Mayer, John D.; Caruso, David. (2002) The effective leader: Understanding and applying emotional intelligence Ivey Business Journal. Vol. 67 Issue 2, p1-5. Miller, M. (1999), Emotional intelligence helps managers succeed, Credit Union Magazine, Vol. 65, p25-26 Myers, Laura L.; Tucker, Mary L. (2005) Increasing Awareness of Emotional Intelligence in a Business Curriculum Business Communication Quarterly. Vol. 68 Issue 1, p44-51 Palmer, B., Walls, M., Burgess, Z. and Stough, C. (2001). Emotional intelligence and effective leadership. Leadership and Organisation Development, Vol. 22, p510. Reuvers, Mark; van Engen, Marloes L.; Vinkenburg, Claartje J.; Wilson-Evered, Elisabeth. (2008) Transformational Leadership and Innovative Work Behaviour:
34

Exploring the Relevance of Gender Differences Creativity & Innovation Management. Vol. 17 Issue 3, p227-244 Ryan, M. K. and S. A. Haslam (2009) Glass Cliffs Are Not So Easily Scaled: On the Precariousness of Female CEOs Positions British Journal of Management, Vol. 20 p13-16 Salovey, P., & Mayer, J. D. (1990). Emotional intelligence. Imagination, Cognition, and Personality,Vol. 9 Issue 3, 185-211 Steven J. Stein (2009) Emotional Intelligence For Dummies, Wiley, John & Sons, Incorporated, Chichester. United Nations Statistics Division. (2010). Statistics and indicators on women and men. Retrieved May 15, 2010, from http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/ products/indwm/tab5c.htm [accessed 19-7-2013] White, Kate; Ozkanl, Ozlem. (2011) A comparative study of perceptions of gender and leadership in Australian and Turkish universities, Journal of Higher Education Policy & Management. Vol. 33 Issue 1, p3-16. 14p. Woodworth, R. S. (1940). Psychology (4th ed.). New York: Henry Holt World Health Organization (2013), Programmes and projects, Director-General, from http://www.who.int/dg/en/index.html [assessed 21-7-2013] Xu Huang; Simon C. H. Chan; Wing Lam; Xinsheng Nan. (2010) The joint effect of leadermember exchange and emotional intelligence on burnout and work performance in call centers in China International Journal of Human Resource Management. Jun2010, Vol. 21 Issue 7, p1124-1144 Yammarino, F. J., Spangler, W. D. and Bass, B. M. (1993) Transformational leadership and performance: a longitudinal investigation, Leadership Quarterly, Vol. 4 p81-102 Zafra, Esther Lopez; Garcia-Retamero, Rocio (2011). The impact of nontraditionalism on the malleability of gender stereotypes in Spain and Germany International Journal of Psychology. Vol. 46 Issue 4, p249-258
35