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Chapter12 TheDiffractionGrating

LectureNotesforModernOpticsbasedon Pedrotti&Pedrotti&Pedrotti Instructor:NayerEradat Spring2009

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TheDiffractionGrating

Diffractiongrating
Gratingequation Freespectralrangeofagrating Dispersionofagrating Resolutionofagrating Typesofgrating Blazedgratings Gratingreplicas Gratinginstruments

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TheDiffractionGrating

Diffractionfrommanyslits
For N slits of width b and pitch a the diffraction pattern has the following form sin sin I = I0 sin


2 Diffraction by a single slit Interference between N slits 2

Secondary y maxima

with = (1/ 2 ) kb sin and = (1/ 2 ) ka sin The pattern consists of series of sharp maxima that we call principal maxima. I principal maxima N 2 cantered at values = 0, , 2 , 3 ,... Between successive peaks there are N 2 secondary peaks. The full irradiance is p product of the diffraction p pattern and interference pattern.
Principal maxima

Limiting diffraction envelope

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FraunhoferDiffraction

Thegratingequation
In many-slit problem in chapter 11 the plane of the incident wavefronts was parallel to the plane of the t e slits. s ts. Here e e we assume assu e plane p a e of o the t e incident c de t wavefront wave o t makes a es an a angle a g e i with w t the t e plane p a e of o the t e grating. The net path difference between the successive slits is: = 1 + 2 = a sin i + a sin m Sign convention: when i and m are on the same side of the normal to the grating, grating m > 0 when the diffracted rays on the opposite side of the normal to the grating, m < 0 The grating equation is then: a ( sin i i + sin i m ) = m where h m = 0, 0 1, 1 2,... 2 For each value of the m different wavelengts will be enhanced at different angles excpt for m = 0 that all wavelengths will be enhanced at m = i

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TheDiffractionGrating

Diffractiongratingandmanyslit
1) Maxima for different wavelengths occur at different positions 2) Higher number of slits result narrower principal maxima in diffraction pattern. A diffraction grating is a periodic multiple-slit device that is designed to take advantage of the sensitivity of its diffraction pattern to the wavelength of the incident light. invented by Fraunhofer transmission There are two kinds of grating: reflection grating Slits are called lines or rulings Grating spacing is the distance between rulings Question: Where is the first order maxima for red compared to blue on the screen? a ( sin i + sin m ) = m where m = 0, 1, 2,... For a given m and i the longest wavelength has the smallest deviation angle m . Thi is This i opposit it of f the th prism i deviation d i ti that th t the th largest l t deviation d i ti occur of f the th largest l t .
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Freespectralrangeofagrating
Example: Visible spectrum is spread between 400 & 700 nm. Find the angular width of the first order visible spectrum produced by a plane grating with 600 slits per millimeter when white light falls normally on the grating. Do the first and second order spectrum overlap? What about second and third order spectra? Does your answer depend on the grating spacing? No a ( sin i + sin m ) = m where m = 0, 1, 2,...

i = 0, a = 1103 / 600 = 1.67 106


700 109 a sin 1r = r sin 1r = 1r = 24.770 6 1.67 10 400 109 a sin i 1b = b sin i 1b = 1b = 13.88 13 880 6 1.67 10 1 = 10.57 0 sin 2 r = sin 1r / 2 2 r = 12.0970 Th 1st The 1 t and d 2nd 2 d order d do d not t overlap, l the th 2nd 2 d and d3 3rd d overlap. l Free spectral range ( fsr ) for a diffraction grating: the non-overlapping wavelength range in a particular order is called the free spectral range. range 1 shortest wavelength in the spectrum, and 2 longest wavelength

fsr for order m is determined by coinciding the 2 in order m with 1 in order m + 1


m2 = ( m + 1) 1 fsr = 2 1 = Note fsr is different for different orders. orders m = 200 yes there will be overlap, fsr3 = 133, only 133 nm is not overlaping.
TheDiffractionGrating 6

fsr1 = 400, fsr2


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Dispersionofagrating
Higher diffraction orders become less intense under the envelope of the single slit diffraction. Within an order the wavelengths g spead p better for higher g orders. The angular dispersion defined as D d m d is the angular separation per unit wavelength.

The grating equation: a ( sin i + sin m ) = m For normal incidene: a ( sin m ) = m cos m d m = Angular dispersion D d m m = d a cos m m d a

Linear dispersion on a screen a at t the focal point of a lens with focal length of f : Linear dispersion d dy = f m = fD d d

Example : =500nm, =500nm normal incidence on a grating 5000 grooves/cm used with a lens of focal length 0.5m. What is the angular and linear dispersion in first order? a=2 10-4 cm; asin =m gives the diffraction angle m=1 and 1 = 14.50 ; then the angular dispersion: D= m = 5165rad / cm = 0.02960 / nm; the linear dispersion fD = 0.258mm / nm a cos m
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Resolutionofagrating
High resolution with diffraction gratings is not achhieved by high disppersion. Like the Fabry-Perot cavity we define the resolution fo a grating as:

( )min

with this definition each wavelength peack appear narrower for high-resolution gratings. min i is the minimum wavelength interval of two spectral components that are just resolvable by Rayleigh criteron. For normal incidence the angle of principal maximum of order m is: a sin m = m ( + ) With Rayleigh's criterion this peak coincides with the first minimum of the neighboring wavelength W a sin m W W sin m where N= a sin m = ( m + 1/ N ) m ( + ) = ( m + 1/ N ) = mN = = a a

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TheDiffractionGrating