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Chapter 19 1. How is the heart positioned in the mediastinum? Ans: pg.

692 It rests on the diaphragm, near the midline of the thoracic cavity with about two-thirds of the mass lying to the left of the bodys midline. 2. Which layer of the pericardium is both a part of the pericardium and a part of the heart wall? Ans: pg. 692 serous pericardium 3. What is the function of pericardial fluid? Ans: pg. 692 reduces friction between the membranes as the heart moves 4. From most superficial to deepest, what are the layers of the pericardium and heart wall? Ans: pg. 692 fibrous pericardium, serous pericardium, epicardium, myocardium, endocardium 5. The coronary sulcus forms a boundary between which chambers of the heart? Ans: pg. 695 - superior atria and inferior ventricles 6. The anterior interventricular sulcus forms a boundary between which chambers of the heart? Ans: pg. 695 right and left ventricles 7. Which functions do the auricles serve? Ans: pg. 695 slightly increases the capacity of the atria so that they can hold a greater volume of blood 8. Which structure separates the atria? The ventricles? Ans: pg. 695-697 a) interatrial septum, b) interventricular septum 9. From which vessels do each of the four chambers of the heart receive blood? Into which vessels do each of the four chambers eject blood? Ans: pg. 695-697 The right atrium receives blood from the vena cava and sends it to the right ventricle through the tricuspid valve. The right ventricle sends the blood into the pulmonary trunk through the pulmonary valve. The left atrium receives blood from the pulmonary veins and sends blood into the left ventricle through the bicuspid valve. The left ventricle sends blood from the left atrium into the aorta through the aortic valve. 10. Which chamber has the thickest wall? Why? Ans: pg. 698 the left ventricle because it pumps blood to all other parts of the body 11. What is the main force that causes blood to flow through the heart and the heart valves to open and to close?

Ans: pg. 700 the blood flowing from areas of higher blood pressure to areas of lower blood pressure 12. As the ventricles contract, what prevents the atrioventricular valves from swinging upward into the atria? Ans: pg. 700 pressure of the ventricular blood driving the cusps upward until the valve are closed 13. Why does blood ejected into the pulmonary trunk or aorta normally not flow back through the semilunar valve? Ans: pg. 700 back-flowing blood in the ventricles force the semilunar valves to close 14. In correct sequence, which heart chambers, heart valves, and blood vessels would a drop of blood encounter from the time it flows into the right atrium until it reaches the aorta? Ans: pg. 703 superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, coronary sinus right atrium tricuspid valve right ventricle pulmonary valve pulmonary trunk and pulmonary arteries lungs pulmonary veins left atrium bicuspid valve left ventricle aortic valve aorta 15. Which blood vessels that enter and exit the heart carry oxygenated blood? Which carry deoxygenated blood? Ans: pg. 703 pulmonary veins and the aorta carry oxygenated blood; superior and inferior vena cava, coronary sinus and pulmonary arteries carry deoxygenated blood 16. Why is it that blood flowing through the chambers within the heart cannot supply sufficient oxygen or remove enough carbon dioxide from the myocardium? Ans: pg. 704 oxygen and carbon dioxide are not able to diffuse quickly enough from the blood in the chambers 17. Which blood vessel supplies blood to the coronary arteries? Ans: pg. 704 ascending aorta 18. Which coronary blood vessel delivers oxygenated blood to the myocardium of the left atrium and left ventricle? Which drains deoxygenated blood from the myocardium of the left atrium and left ventricle? Which drains deoxygenated blood from the myocardium of the right atrium and right ventricle? Ans: pg. 704, 705 a) circumflex branch, b) great cardiac vein, c) small cardiac vein 19. What are autorhythmic cells? What are their two functions? Ans: pg. 707 specialized cardiac muscle fibers that are self-excitable and repeatedly and rhythmically generate action potentials that trigger heart

contractions. They act as a pacemaker and form the conduction system throughout the heart 20. Which component of the conduction system provides the only route for action potentials to conduct between the atria and the ventricles? Ans: pg. 707 atrioventricular node 21. What is the path of an action potential through the conduction system of the heart? Ans: pg. 707 sinoatrial node atrioventricular node atrioventricular bundle (bundle of His) right and left bundle branches Purkinje fibers 22. Which component of the conduction system sets the pace of contraction in a normal heart? Ans: pg. 708 sinoatrial node 23. What is an electrocardiogram? Ans: pg. 709 a recording of the electrical changes that accompany the heartbeat 24. How does each ECG wave relate to the phases of an action potential? Ans: pg. 709 P wave = atrial depolarization; QRS complex = onset of ventricular depolarization; T wave = ventricular repolarization 25. What is the diagnostic significance of the ECG? Ans: pg. 709 - useful in diagnosing abnormal cardiac rhythms and conduction patterns and in following the course of recovery from a heart attack 26. How does each ECG wave relate to contraction and relaxation of the atria and ventricles? Ans: pg. 709 first wave: represents atrial depolarization which causes contraction of the atria; second wave: QRS complex which represents the onset of ventricular depolarization when ventricles contract; third wave: T wave which indicates ventricular repolarization and occurs just before the ventricles start to relax; relaxation of the atria is not usually evident in the ECG 27. Which term is used for the contraction phase of the cardiac cycle? The relaxation phase? Ans: pg. 709 a) systole, b) diastole 28. Which phase of the cardiac cycle are the atria in during ventricular systole? Ans: pg. 712 diastole 29. What is the status of the four heart valves during ventricular filling? Ans: pg. 712 all four valves are closed

30. Which events cause the AV valves to open and shut? Which events make the SL valves open and shut? Ans: pg. 712 AV valves: open during atrial systole, shut during ventricular systole; SL valves: open during ventricular systole, shut during atrial systole 31. Why must ventricular pressure be greater than arterial pressure during ventricular ejection? Ans: pg. 712 to open the SL valves and eject blood from the heart 32. What is the volume of blood called that remains in each ventricle at the end of ventricular diastole? What is the volume of blood called that remains in each ventricle at the end of ventricular systole? Ans: pg. 712 a) end-diastolic volume, b) end-systolic volume 33. During which phase of the cardiac cycle is atrial pressure the greatest? In which phase is ventricular pressure the greatest? Ans: pg. 712 atrial systole, ventricular systole 34. Which events produce the four normal heart sounds? Which ones can usually be heard through a stethoscope? Ans: pg. 714 a) blood turbulence from the AV valves closing after ventricular systole begins (lubb), blood turbulence associated with the SL valves closing at the end of ventricular systole (dupp), blood turbulence during rapid ventricular filling, blood turbulence during atrial systole; b) lubb and dupp sounds (valves closing) 35. What is cardiac output and how is it calculated? Ans: pg. 715 volume of blood ejected each minute from the left ventricle into the aorta; equals the stroke volume (mL/beat) times heart rate (beats/min) 36. What is stroke volume? Which factors regulate stroke volume? Ans: pg. 715 a) volume of blood ejected by the ventricle during each contraction, b) factors that change cardiac output, such as exercise 37. Will the stroke volume increase or decrease in each of the following situations? a. Your blood pressure rises when youre angry. b. An anesthetic decreases the strength of contraction of your ventricles. c. When you are exercising, contraction of skeletal muscles returns more blood to the heart. Ans: pg. 715 a) increase, b) decrease, c) increase 38. Where in the central nervous system is heart rate adjusted? Ans: pg. 716 cardiovascular center in the medulla oblongata 39. Which sensory receptors provide feedback to the cardiovascular center? Which specific input does each receptor provide?

Ans: pg. 716 a) proprioceptors, chemoreceptors, baroreceptors, b) proprioceptors: physical activity, chemoreceptors: chemical changes in the blood, baroreceptors: changes in blood pressure 40. How does the cardiovascular center speed up or slow down heart rate? Ans: pg. 716 sympathetic neurons extending from the cardiovascular center to the heart cause impulses in the cardiac accelerator nerves to trigger the release of norepinephrine to speed up the heart and parasympathetic neurons from the cardiovascular center to the heart cause impulses in the vagus nerves to affect the SA node, releasing acetylcholine to decrease heart rate 41. How do hormones alter heart activity? Ans: pg. 717 they can increase the hearts pumping effectiveness (heart rate and contractility)