Tulapurkara
Chapter1
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
1
Chapter 1
Introduction
(Lectures 1, 2 and 3)
Keywords: Definition and importance of flight dynamics; forces acting on an
airplane; degrees of freedom for a rigid airplane; subdivisions of flight dynamics;
simplified treatment of performance analysis; course outline.
Topics
1.1 Opening remarks
1.1.1 Definition and importance of the subject
1.1.2 Recapitulation of the names of the major components of the airplane
1.1.3 Approach in flight dynamics
1.1.4 Forces acting on an airplane in flight
1.1.5 Body axes system for an airplane
1.1.6 Special features of flight dynamics
1.2 A note on gravitational force
1.2.1 Flat earth and spherical earth models
1.3 Frames of reference
1.3.1 Frame of reference attached to earth
1.4 Equilibrium of airplane
1.5 Number of equations of motion for airplane in flight
1.5.1 Degrees of freedom
1.5.2 Degrees of freedom for a rigid airplane
1.6 Subdivisions of flight dynamics
1.6.1 Performance analysis
1.6.2 Stability and control analysis
1.7 Additional definitions
1.7.1 Attitude of the airplane
1.7.2 Flight path
1.7.3 Angle of attack and side slip
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1.8 Simplified treatment of performance analysis
1.9 Course outline
1.10 Background expected
References
Exercises
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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Chapter 1
Lecture 1
Introduction 1
Topics
1.1 Opening remarks
1.1.1 Definition and importance of the subject
1.1.2 Recapitulation of the names of the major components of the airplane
1.1.3 Approach in flight dynamics
1.1.4 Forces acting on an airplane in flight
1.1.5 Body axes system for an airplane
1.1.6 Special features of flight dynamics
1.2 A note on gravitational force
1.2.1 Flat earth and spherical earth models
1.3 Frames of reference
1.3.1 Frame of reference attached to earth
1.1 Opening remarks
At the beginning of the study of any subject, it is helpful to know its definition,
scope and special features. It is also useful to know the benefits of the study of
the subject, background expected, approach, which also indicates the limitations,
and the way the subject is being developed. In this chapter these aspects are
dealt with.
1.1.1 Definition and importance of the subject
The normal operation of a civil transport airplane involves takeoff, climb to
cruise altitude, cruising, descent, loiter and landing (Fig.1.1). In addition, the
airplane may also carry out glide (which is descent with power off), turning
motion in horizontal and vertical planes and other motions involving
accelerations.
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Fig.1.1 Typical flight path of a passenger airplane
Apart from the motion during controlled operations, an airplane may also
be subjected to disturbances which may cause changes in its flight path and
produce rotations about its axes.
The study of these motions of the airplane either intended by the pilot or
those following a disturbance forms the subject of Flight dynamics.
Flight dynamics: It is a branch of dynamics dealing with the motion of an object
moving in the earths atmosphere.
The study of flight dynamics will enable us to (a) obtain the performance of the
airplane which is described by items like maximum speed, minimum speed,
maximum rate of climb, distance covered with a given amount of fuel, radius of
turn, takeoff distance, landing distance etc., (b) estimate the loads on the
airplane, (c) estimate the power required or thrust required for desired
performance, (d) determine the stability of the airplane i.e. whether the airplane
returns to steady flight conditions after being disturbed and (e) examine the
control of the airplane.
Flight dynamics is a basic subject for an aerospace engineer and its
knowledge is essential for proper design of an airplane.
Some basic ideas regarding this subject are presented in this chapter. The topics
covered herein are listed in the beginning of this chapter.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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In this course, attention is focused on the motion of the airplane. Helicopters,
rockets and missiles are not covered.
1.1.2 Recapitulation of the names of the major components of the airplane
At this stage it may be helpful to recapitulate the names of the major
components of the airplane. Figures 1.2a, b and c show the threeview drawings
of three different airplanes.
Fig.1.2a Major components of a piston engined airplane
(Based on drawing of HANSA3 supplied by
National Aerospace Laboratories, Bangalore, India)
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Fig.1.2b Major components of an airplane with turboprop engine
(Based on drawing of SARAS airplane supplied by
National Aerospace Laboratories, Bangalore, India)
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Fig.1.2c Major components of an airplane with jet engine
(Note: The airplane shown has many features, all of which may not be there in a
single airplane).
1.1.3 Approach
The approach used in flight mechanics is to apply Newtons laws to the
motion of objects in flight. Let us recall these laws:
Newtons first law states that every object at rest or in uniform motion
continues to be in that state unless acted upon by an external force.
The second law states that the force acting on a body is equal to the time
rate of change of its linear momentum.
The third law states that to every action, there is an equal and opposite
reaction.
Newtons second law can be written as:
F = ma ; a = dV / dt ; V = dr / dt (1.1)
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Where F = sum of all forces acting on the body, m = mass, a = acceleration,
V = velocity, r = the position vector of the object and t = time
(Note: quantities in bold are vectors).
Acceleration is the rate of change of velocity and velocity is the rate of
change of position vector.
To prescribe the position vector, requires a coordinate system with
reference to which the position vector/displacement is measured.
1.1.4 Forces acting on an airplane
During the analysis of its motion the airplane will be considered as a rigid
body. The forces acting on an object in flight are:
Gravitational force
Aerodynamic forces and
Propulsive force.
The gravitational force is the weight (W) of the airplane.
The aerodynamic forces and moments arise due to the motion of the
airplane relative to air. Figure 1.3 shows the aerodynamic forces viz. the drag
(D), the lift (L) and the side force (Y).
The propulsive force is the thrust(T) produced by the engine or the engine
propeller combination.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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Fig.1.3 Forces on an airplane
1.1.5 Body axes system of an airplane
To formulate and solve a problem in dynamics requires a system of axes.
To define such a system it is noted that an airplane is nearly symmetric, in
geometry and mass distribution, about a plane which is called the Plane of
symmetry (Fig.1.4a). This plane is used for defining the body axes system.
Figure 1.4b shows a system of axes (OX
b
Y
b
Z
b
) fixed on the airplane which
moves with the airplane and hence is called Body axes system. The origin O of
the body axes system is the center of gravity (c.g.) of the body which, by
assumption of symmetry, lies in the plane of symmetry. The axis OX
b
is taken
positive in the forward direction. The axis OZ
b
is perpendicular to OX
b
in the
plane of symmetry, positive downwards. The axis OY
b
is perpendicular to the
plane of symmetry such that OX
b
Y
b
Z
b
is a right handed system.
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Fig.1.4a Plane of symmetry and body axis system
Fig.1.4b The forces and moments acting on an airplane and the components of
linear and angular velocities with reference to the body axes system
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Figure 1.4b also shows the forces and moments acting on the airplane
and the components of linear and angular velocities. The quantity V is the
velocity vector. The quantities X, Y, Z are the components of the resultant
aerodynamic force, along OX
b
, OY
b
and OZ
b
axes respectively. L, M, N are the
rolling moment, pitching moment and yawing moment respectively about OX
b
,
OY
b
and OZ
b
axes; the rolling moment is denoted by L to distinguish it from lift
(L). u,v,w are respectively the components, along OX
b
, OY
b
and OZ
b
, of the
velocity vector (V). The angular velocity components are indicated by p, q, and r.
1.1.6 Special features of Flight Dynamics
The features that make flight dynamics a separate subject are:
i)During its motion an airplane in flight, can move along three axes and can
rotate about three axes. This is more complicated than the motions of machinery
and mechanisms which are restrained by kinematic constraints, or those of land
based or water based vehicles which are confined to move on a surface.
ii)The special nature of the forces, like aerodynamic forces, acting on the
airplane(Fig.1.3). The magnitude and direction of these forces change with the
orientation of the airplane, relative to its flight path.
iii)The system of aerodynamic controls used in flight (aileron, elevator, rudder).
1.2 A note on gravitational force
In the case of an airplane, the gravitational force is mainly due to the
attraction of the earth. The magnitude of the gravitational force is the weight of
the airplane (in Newtons).
W = mg; where W is the gravitational force, m is the mass of the airplane and g
is the acceleration due to gravity.
The line of action of the gravitational force is along the line joining the
centre of gravity (c.g.) of the airplane and the center of the earth. It is directed
towards the center of earth.
The magnitude of the acceleration due to gravity (g) decreases with
increase in altitude (h). It can be calculated based on its value at sea level (g
o
),
and using the following formula.
(g / g
0
) = [R / (R + h)]
2
(1.2)
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where R is the radius of the earth,
R = 6400 km (approx.) and g
0
= 9.81ms
2
However, for typical airplane flights (h < 20 km), g is generally taken to be
constant.
1.2.1 Flat earth and spherical earth models
In flight mechanics, there are two ways of dealing with the gravitational
force, namely the flat earth model and the spherical earth model.
In the flat earth model, the gravitational acceleration is taken to act
vertically downwards (Fig 1.5).
When the distance over which the flight takes place is small, the flat earth
model is adequate. Reference 1.1, chapter 4 may be referred to for details.
Fig.1.5 Flat earth model
In the spherical earth model, the gravitational force is taken to act along
the line joining the center of earth and the c.g. of the airplane. It is directed
towards the center of the earth (Fig.1.6).
The spherical earth model is used for accurate analysis of flights involving
very long distances.
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Fig.1.6. Spherical earth model
Remarks:
In this course the flat earth model is used. This is adequate for the
following reasons.
i) The distances involved in flights with acceleration are small and the
gravitational force can be considered in the vertical direction by proper choice of
axes.
ii) In unaccelerated flights like level flight, the forces at the chosen instant of time
are considered and the distance covered etc. are obtained by integration. This
procedure is accurate as long as it is understood that the altitude means height
of the airplane above the surface of the earth and the distance is measured on a
sphere of radius equal to the sum of the radius of earth plus the altitude of
airplane.
iii) As mentioned in section 1.1.4, the forces acting on the airplane are the
gravitational force, the aerodynamic forces and the propulsive force. The first one
has been discussed in this section.The discussion on aerodynamic forces will be
covered in chapter 3 and that on propulsive force in chapter 4.
1.3 Frame of reference
A frame of reference (coordinate system) in which Newtons laws of
motion are valid is known as a Newtonian frame of reference.
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Since Newtons laws deal with acceleration, a frame of reference moving
with uniform velocity with respect to a Newtonian frame is also a Newtonian
frame or inertial frame.
However, if the reference frame is rotating with an angular velocity (),
then, additional accelerations like centripetal acceleration { x ( x r)} and
Coriolis acceleration (V x ) will come into picture.
Reference 1.2,chapter 13 may be referred to for further details on nonNewtonian
reference frame.
1.3.1 Frame of reference attached to earth
In flight dynamics, a coordinate system attached to the earth is taken to
approximate a Newtonian frame (Fig.1.7).
The effects of the rotation of earth around itself and around the sun on this
approximation can be estimated as follows.
It is noted that the earth rotates around itself once per day. Hence
= 2 / (3600x24) = 7.27x10
5
s
1
;
Since r roughly equals 6400 km; the maximum centripetal acceleration (
2
r)
equals 0.034 ms
2
.
The earth also goes around the sun and completes one orbit in approximately
365 days. Hence in this case,
= 2 / (365 x 3600 x 24) = 1.99x10
7
s
1
;
Further, in this case, the radius would be roughly the mean distance between the
sun and the earth which is 1.5x10
11
m. Consequently,
2
r = 0.006 ms
2
.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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Fig.1.7 Earth fixed and body fixed coordinate systems
Thus, it is observed that the centripetal accelerations due to rotation of earth
about itself and around the sun are small as compared to the acceleration due to
gravity.
These rotational motions would also bring about Coriolis acceleration
(V x ). However, its magnitude, which depends on the flight velocity, would be
much smaller than the acceleration due to gravity in flights up to Mach number of
3. Hence, the influence can be neglected.
Thus, taking a reference frame attached to the surface of the earth as a
Newtonian frame is adequate for the analysis of airplane flight. Figure 1.7 shows
such a coordinate system.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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Chapter 1
Lecture 2
Introduction 2
Topics
1.4 Equilibrium of airplane
1.5 Number of equations of motion for airplane in flight
1.5.1 Degrees of freedom
1.5.2 Degrees of freedom for a rigid airplane
1.6 Subdivisions of flight dynamics
1.6.1 Performance analysis
1.6.2 Stability and control analysis
1.7 Additional definitions
1.7.1 Attitude of the airplane
1.7.2 Flight path
1.7.3 Angle of attack and side slip
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1.4 Equilibrium
The above three types of forces (aerodynamic, propulsive and
gravitational) and the moments due to them govern the motion of an airplane in
flight.
If the sums of all these forces and moments are zero, then the airplane is
said to be in equilibrium and will move along a straight line with constant velocity
(see Newton's first law). If any of the forces is unbalanced, then the airplane will
have a linear acceleration in the direction of the unbalanced force. If any of the
moments is unbalanced, then the airplane will have an angular acceleration
about the axis of the unbalanced moment.
The relationship between the unbalanced forces and the linear
accelerations and those between unbalanced moments and angular
accelerations are provided by Newtons second law of motion. These
relationships are called equations of motion.
1.5 Number of equations of motion for an airplane in flight
To derive the equations of motion, the acceleration of a particle on the
body needs to be known. The acceleration is the rate of change of velocity and
the velocity is the rate of change of position vector with respect to the chosen
frame of reference.
1.5.1 Degrees of freedom
The minimum number of coordinates required to prescribe the motion is
called the number of degrees of freedom. The number of equations governing
the motion equals the degrees of freedom. As an example, it may be recalled
that the motion of a particle moving in a plane is prescribed by the x and y
coordinates of the particle at various instants of time and this motion is described
by two equations.
Similarly, the position of any point on a rigid pendulum is describe by just
one coordinate namely the angular position () of the pendulum (Fig.1.8). In this
case only one equation is sufficient to describe the motion. In yet another
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example, if a particle is constrained to move on a sphere, then its position is
completely prescribed by the longitude and the latitude. Hence, this motion has
only two degrees of freedom.
From the discussion in this subsection it is clear that the coordinates needed to
prescribe the motion could be lengths and/or angles.
Note : The bobs in the figure are circular in shape. Please adjust the resolution of
your monitor so that they look circular.
Fig.1.8 Motion of a single degree of freedom system
1.5.2 Degrees of freedom for a rigid airplane
To describe its motion, the airplane is treated as a rigid body. It may be
recalled that in a rigid body the distance between any two points is fixed. Thus
the distance r in Fig. 1.9 does not change during the motion. To decide the
minimum number of coordinates needed to prescribe the position of a point on a
rigid body which is translating and rotating, one may proceed as follows.
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Fig 1.9 Position of a point on a rigid airplane
A rigid body with N particles may appear to have 3N degrees of freedom,
but the constraint of rigidity reduces this number. To arrive at the minimum
number of coordinates, let us approach the problem in a different way. Following
Ref.1.3, it can be stated that to fix the location of a point on a rigid body one does
not need to prescribe its distance from all the points, but only needs to prescribe
its distance from three points which do not lie on the same line (points 1, 2 and 3
in Fig.1.10a). Thus, if the positions of these three points are prescribed with
respect to a reference frame, then the position of any point on the body is known.
This may indicate nine degrees of freedom. This number is reduced to six
because the distances s
12
, s
23
and s
13
in Fig.1.10a are constants.
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Fig 1.10a Position of a point with respect to three reference points
Another way of looking at the problem is to consider that the three
coordinates of point 1 with respect to the reference frame are prescribed. Now
the point 2 is constrained, because of rigid body assumption, to move on a
sphere centered on point 1 and needs only two coordinates to prescribe its
motion. Once the points 1 and 2 are determined, the point 3 is constrained, again
due to rigid body assumption, to move on a circle about the axis joining points 1
and 2. Hence, only one independent coordinate is needed to prescribe the
position of point 3. Thus, the number of independent coordinates is six (3+2+1).
Or a rigid airplane has six degrees of freedom.
In dynamics the six degrees of freedom associated with a rigid body,
consist of the three coordinates of the origin of the body with respect to the
chosen frame of reference and the three angles which describe the angular
position of a coordinate system fixed on the body (OX
b
Y
b
Z
b
) with respect to the
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fixed frame of reference (EX
e
Y
e
Z
e
) as shown in Fig.1.10b. These angles are
known as Eulerian angles. These are discussed in ch.7 of flight dynamics II. See
also Ch.4 of Ref.1.3.
Fig 1.10b Coordinates of a point (P) on a rigid body
Remarks:
i) The derivation of the equations of motions in a general case with six degrees of
freedom (see chapter 7 of Flight dynamicsII or Ref 1.4 chapter 10, pt.3 or
Ref.1.5, chapter 10) is rather involved and would be out of place here.
ii) Here, various cases are considered separately and the equations of motion
are written down in each case.
1.6 Subdivisions of flight dynamics
The subject of flight dynamics is generally divided into two main branches viz.
(i) Performance analysis and (ii) Stability and control
1.6.1 Performance Analysis
In performance analysis, only the equilibrium of forces is generally
considered. It is assumed that by proper deflections of the controls, the moments
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can be made zero and that the changes in aerodynamic forces due to deflection
of controls are small. The motions considered in performance analysis are steady
and accelerations, when involved, do not change rapidly with time.
The following motions are considered in performance analysis
 Unaccelerated flights,
Steady level flight
Climb, glide and descent
 Accelerated flights,
Accelerated level flight and climb
Loop, turn, and other motions along curved paths which are
called manoeuvres
Takeoff and landing.
1.6.2 Stability and control analyses
Roughly speaking, the stability analysis is concerned with the motion of
the airplane, from the equilibrium position, following a disturbance. Stability
analysis tells us whether an airplane, after being disturbed, will return to its
original flight path or not.
Control analysis deals with the forces that the deflection of the controls
must produce to bring to zero the three moments (rolling, pitching and yawing)
and achieve a desired flight condition. It also deals with design of control
surfaces and the forces on control wheel/stick /pedals. Stability and control are
linked together and are generally studied under a common heading.
Flight dynamics  I deals with performance analysis. By carrying out this
analysis one can obtain various performance characteristics such as maximum
level speed, minimum level speed, rate of climb, angle of climb, distance covered
with a given amount of fuel called Range, time elapsed during flight called
Endurance, minimum radius of turn, maximum rate of turn, takeoff distance,
landing distance etc. The effect of flight conditions namely the weight, altitude
and flight velocity of the airplane can also be examined. This study would also
help in solving design problems of deciding the power required, thrust required,
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fuel required etc. for given design specifications like maximum speed, maximum
rate of climb, range, endurance etc.
Remark:
Alternatively, the performance analysis can be considered as the analysis
of the motion of flight vehicle considered as a point mass, moving under the
influence of applied forces (aerodynamic, propulsive and gravitational forces).
The stability analysis similarly can be considered as motion of a vehicle of finite
size, under the influence of applied forces and moments.
1.7 Additional definitions
1.7.1 Attitude:
As mentioned in section 1.5.2 the instantaneous position of the airplane,
with respect to the earth fixed axes system (EX
e
Y
e
Z
e
), is given by the
coordinates of the c.g. at that instant of time. The attitude of the airplane is
described by the angular orientation of the OX
b
Y
b
Z
b
system with respect to
OX
e
Y
e
Z
e
system or the Euler angles. Reference 1.4, chapter 10 may be referred
to for details. Let us consider simpler cases. When an airplane climbs along a
straight line its attitude is given by the angle between the axis OX
b
and the
horizontal (Fig.1.11a). When an airplane executes a turn, the projection of OX
b
axis, in the horizontal plane, makes an angle with reference to a fixed
horizontal axis (Fig.1.11b). When an airplane is banked the axis OY
b
makes an
angle with respect to the horizontal (Fig.1.11c) and the axis OZ
b
makes an
angle with respect to the vertical.
Fig 1.11a Airplane in a climb
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Note : The flight path is circular. Please adjust the resolution of your monitor
so that the flight path looks circular
Fig 1.11b Airplane in a turn  view from top
Fig 1.11c Angle of bank ( )
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1.7.2 Flight path:
In the subsequent sections, the flight path, also called the trajectory,
means the path or the line along which the c.g. of the airplane moves. The
tangent to this curve at a point gives the direction of flight velocity at that point on
the flight path. The relative wind is in a direction opposite to that of the flight
velocity.
1.7.3. Angle of attack and side slip
While discussing the forces acting on an airfoil, the chord of the airfoil is
taken as the reference line and the angle between the chord line and the relative
wind is the angle of attack (). The aerodynamic forces viz. lift (L) and drag (D) ,
produced by the airfoil, depend on the angle of attack () and are respectively
perpendicular and parallel to relative wind direction (Fig.1.11 d).
Fig 1.11d Angle of attack and forces on a airfoil
In the case of an airplane the flight path, as mentioned earlier, is the line along
which c.g. of the airplane moves. The tangent to the flight path is the direction of
flight velocity (V). The relative wind is in a direction opposite to the flight velocity.
If the flight path is confined to the plane of symmetry, then the angle of attack
would be the angle between the relative wind direction and the fuselage
reference line (FRL) or OX
b
axis (see Fig.1.11e). However, in a general case the
velocity vector (V) will have components both along and perpendicular to the
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plane of symmetry. The component perpendicular to the plane of symmetry is
denoted by v. The projection of the velocity vector in the plane of symmetry
would have components u and w along OX
b
and OZ
b
axes (Fig.1.11f). With this
background the angle of sideslip and the angle of attack are defined as follows.
Fig 1.11e Flight path in the plane of symmetry
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Fig 1.11f Velocity components in a general case and definition of angle of attack
and sideslip
The angle of sideslip () is the angle between the velocity vector (V) and the
plane of symmetry i.e.
= sin
1
(v/ V); where V is the magnitude of V.
The angle of attack () is the angle between the projection of velocity vector (V)
in the X
b
 Z
b
plane and the OX
b
axis or
1 1 1
2 2 2 2
w w w
= tan = sin = sin
u
  v u +w V
Remarks:
i) It is easy to show that, if V denotes magnitude of velocity (V), then
u = V cos cos , v = V sin ; w = V sin cos .
ii) By definition, the drag (D) is parallel to the relative wind direction. The lift force
lies in the plane of symmetry of the airplane and is perpendicular to the direction
of flight velocity.
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Chapter 1
Lecture 3
Introduction 3
Topics
1.8 Simplified treatment of performance analysis
1.9 Course outline
1.10 Background expected
1.8 Simplified treatment in performance analysis
In a steady flight, there is no acceleration along the flight path and in a
level flight; the altitude of the flight remains constant. A steady, straight and level
flight generally means a flight along a straight line at a constant velocity and
constant altitude.
Sometimes, this flight is also referred to as unaccelerated level flight. To illustrate
the simplified treatment in performance analysis, the case of unaccelerated level
flight is considered below.
The forces acting on an airplane in unaccelerated level flight are shown in the
Fig.1.12.
They are: Lift (L), Thrust (T), Drag (D) and Weight (W) of the airplane.
It may be noted that the point of action of the thrust and its direction depend on
the engine location. However, the direction of the thrust can be taken parallel to
the airplane reference axis.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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Fig.1.12 Forces acting in steady level flight
The lift and drag, being perpendicular to the relative wind, are in the
vertical and horizontal directions respectively, in this flight. The weight acts at the
c.g. in a vertically downward direction.
In an unaccelerated level flight, the components of acceleration in the
horizontal and vertical directions are zero.
Hence, the sums of the components of all the forces in these directions
are zero. Resolving the forces along and perpendicular to the flight path (see
Fig.1.12.), gives the following equations of force equilibrium.
T cos D = 0 (1.3)
T sin + L W = 0 (1.4)
Apart from these equations, equilibrium demands that the moment about
the yaxis to be zero, i.e.,
M
cg
= 0
Unless the moment condition is satisfied, the airplane will begin to rotate
about the c.g.
Let us now examine how the moment is balanced in an airplane. The
contributions to M
cg
come from all the components of the airplane. As regards the
wing, the point where the resultant vector of the lift and drag intersects the plane
of symmetry is known as the centre of pressure. This resultant force produces a
moment about the c.g. However, the location of the center of pressure depends
on the lift coefficient and hence the moment contribution of wing changes with
the angle of attack as the lift coefficient depends on the angle of attack. For
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convenience, the lift and the drag are transferred to the aerodynamic center
along with a moment (M
ac
). Recall, that moment coefficient about the a.c. (C
mac
)
is, by definition, constant with change in angle of attack.
Similarly, the moment contributions of the fuselage and the horizontal tail
change with the angle of attack. The engine thrust also produces a moment
about the c.g. which depends on the thrust required.
Hence, the sum of the moments about the c.g. contributed by the wing,
fuselage, horizontal tail and engine changes with the angle of attack. By
appropriate choice of the horizontal tail setting (i.e. incidence of horizontal tail
with respect to fuselage central line), one may be able to make the sum of these
moments to be zero in a certain flight condition, which is generally the cruise
flight condition. Under other flight conditions, generation of corrective
aerodynamic moment is facilitated by suitable deflection of elevator (See
Fig.1.2a, b and c for location of elevator). By deflecting the elevator, the lift on the
horizontal tail surface can be varied and the moment produced by the horizontal
tail balances the moments produced by all other components.
The above points are illustrated with the help of an example.
Example 1.1
A jet aircraft weighing 60,000 N has its line of thrust 0.15 m below the line
of drag. When flying at a certain speed, the thrust required is 6000 N and the
center of pressure of the wing lift is 0.45 m aft of the airplane c.g. What is the lift
on the wing and the load on the tail plane whose center of pressure is 7.5 m
behind the c.g.? Assume unaccelerated level flight and the angle of attack to be
small during the flight.
Solution:
The various forces and dimensions are presented in Fig.1.13. The lift on
the wing is L
W
and the lift on the tail is L
T
. Since the angle of attack () is small, it
may be considered that cos = 1 and sin = 0. Thus, the force equilibrium (Eqs.
1.3 and 1.4), yields :
T D = 0
L
W
+ L
T
W = 0
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i.e. D = T = 6000 N and L
T
+ L
W
= 60000 N
From Fig. 1.13., the moment equilibrium about the c.g. gives:
M
cg
= T (z
d
+ 0.15) D.z
d
0.45.L
W
7.5.L
T
= 0 where z
d
is the distance of drag
below the c.g; not shown in figure as it is of no significance in the present
context.
Fig.1.13 Forces acting on an airplane in steady level flight
Solving these equations, gives :
L
W
= 63702.13 N and L
T
= 3702.13 N
Following observations can be made.
A) The lift on the wing is about 63.7 kN. The lift on the tail is only 3.7 kN and is in
the downward direction.
B) The contribution of tail to the total lift is thus small, in this case, about 6% and
negative. This negative contribution necessitates the wing lift to be more than the
weight of the airplane. This increase in the lift results in additional drag called trim
drag.
C) The distance z
d
is of no significance in this problem as the drag and thrust
form a couple whose moment is equal to the thrust multiplied by the distance
between them.
D) Generally, the angle of attack () is small. Hence, sin is small and cos is
nearly equal to unity. Thus, the equations of force equilibrium reduce to
T D = 0 and L W = 0.
E) It is assumed that the pitching moment equilibrium i.e. M
cg
= 0 is achieved
by appropriate deflection of the elevator. The changes in the lift and drag due to
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5
elevator deflections are generally small and in performance analysis, as stated
earlier, these changes are ignored and the simplified picture as shown in Fig.1.14
is considered adequate.
Fig.1.14. Simplified picture of the forces acting on an airplane in level flight.
1.9 Course outline
Let us consider the background material required to carryout the
performance analysis. It is known that :
L = (1/2) V
2
S C
L
D = (1/2) V
2
S C
D
where C
L
and C
D
are the lift and drag coefficients; S is the area of the wing.
The quantities C
L
and C
D
depend on , Mach number (M = V / a) and Reynolds
number (R
e
= V l /); where l is the reference length. Thus
C
D
= f (C
L
, M, R
e
) (1.6)
The relation between C
L
and C
D
at given M and R
e
is known as the drag
polar of the airplane. This has to be known for carrying the performance
analysis. The density of air () depends on the flight altitude. Further the Mach
number depends on the speed of sound, which in turn depends on the ambient
air temperature. Thus, performance analysis requires the knowledge of the
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variations of pressure, temperature, density, viscosity etc. with altitude in earths
atmosphere.
The evaluation of performance also requires the knowledge of the engine
characteristics such as, variations of thrust (or power) and fuel consumption with
the flight speed and altitude.
Keeping these aspects in view, following will be the contents of this course.
Earths atmosphere (chapter 2)
Drag polar (chapter 3)
Engine characteristics (chapter 4)
Performance analysis. ( chapters 5 to 10)
These topics will be taken up in the subsequent chapters.
The Appendices A and B present the performance analyses of pistonengined
and jet airplane respectively.
1.10 Back ground expected
The student is expected to have undergone courses on (a) Vectors (b)
Rigid body dynamics (c) Aerodynamics and (d) Aircraft engines.
Remark: References 1.5 to 1.14 are some of the books dealing with airplane
performance. They can be consulted for additional information.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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Chapter 1
Exercises
1. Sketch the three views of an airplane and show its axes systems.
2. Define, with neat sketches, the following terms.
(a) flight path
(b) flight velocity
(c) body axes system
(d) angle of attack
(e) angle of slide slip and
(f) bank angle.
3.Janes All the World Aircraft (Ref.1.15) is a book published annually and
contains details of airplanes currently in production in various countries. Refer to
this book and study the three view drawings, geometrical details and
performance parameters of different types of airplanes.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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Chapter 1
References
1.1 Miele, A. Flight mechanics Vol I Addison Wesley (1962).
1.2 Shames, I.H. and Krishna Mohana Rao, G. Engineering mechanics statics
and dynamics, 4
th
Edition, Dorling Kindersley (India), licensees of Pearson
Education (2006).
1.3 Goldstein H. Classical mechanics Second edition Addison Wesley (1980).
1.4 Davies, M. (Editor) The standard handbook for aeronautical and
astronautical engineers McGraw Hill (2003).
1.5 Perkins, C.D. and Hage, R. E. Airplance performance, stability and
control John Wiley (1963).
1.6 Dommasch, D.O. Sherby, S.S. and Connolly, T.F. Airplane
aerodynamics Pitman (1967).
1.7 Houghton E.L. and Carruthers N.B. Aerodynamics for engineering
students, Edward Arnold (1982).
1.8 Hale, F.J. Introduction to aircraft performance, selection and design,
John Wiley (1984).
1.9 McCormick B.W. Aerodynamics, aeronautics and flight mechanics, John
Wiley (1995).
1.10 Anderson, Jr. J.D. Aircraft performance and design McGraw Hill
International edition (1999).
1.11 Eshelby, M.E. Aircraft performancetheory and practice, Butterworth
Heinemann, Oxford, U.K., (2001).
1.12 Pamadi, B. Performance, stability, dynamics and control of an
airplane, AIAA (2004).
1.13 Anderson, Jr. J.D. Introduction to flight Fifth edition, McGrawHill,
(2005).
1.14 Phillips, W.F. Mechanics of flight 2
nd
Edition John Wiley (2010).
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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1.15 Jackson, P. (Editor) Janes all the worlds aircraft Published annually
by Janes information group Ltd., Surrey, U.K..
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Chapter 2
Earths atmosphere (Lectures 4 and 5)
Keywords: Earths atmosphere; International standard atmosphere;
geopotential altitude; stability of atmosphere.
Topics
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Earths atmosphere
2.2.1 The troposphere
2.2.2 The stratosphere
2.2.3 The mesosphere
2.2.4 The ionosphere or thermosphere
2.2.5 The exosphere
2.3 International standard atmosphere (ISA)
2.3.1 Need for ISA and agency prescribing it.
2.3.2 Features of ISA
2.4 Variations of properties with altitude in ISA
2.4.1 Variations of pressure and density with altitude
2.4.2 Variations with altitude of pressure ratio, density ratio speed of
sound, coefficient of viscosity and kinematic viscosity.
2.5 Geopotential altitude
2.6 General remarks
2.6.1 Atmospheric properties in cases other than ISA
2.6.2 Stability of atmosphere
References
Exercises
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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Chapter 2
Lecture 4
Earths atmosphere 1
Topics
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Earths atmosphere
2.2.1 The troposphere
2.2.2 The stratosphere
2.2.3 The mesosphere
2.2.4 The ionosphere or thermosphere
2.2.5 The exosphere
2.3 International standard atmosphere (ISA)
2.3.1 Need for ISA and agency prescribing it.
2.3.2 Features of ISA
2.1 Introduction
Airplanes fly in the earths atmosphere and therefore, it is necessary to
know the properties of this atmosphere.
This chapter, deals with the average characteristics of the earths
atmosphere in various regions and the International Standard Atmosphere (ISA)
which is used for calculation of airplane performance.
2.2 Earths atmosphere
The earths atmosphere is a gaseous blanket around the earth which is
divided into the five regions based on certain intrinsic features (see Fig.2.1).
These five regions are: (i) Troposphere, (ii) Stratosphere, (iii) Mesosphere,
(iv) Ionosphere or Thermosphere and (v) Exosphere. There is no sharp
distinction between these regions and each region gradually merges with the
neighbouring regions.
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Fig.2.1 Typical variations of temperature and pressure in the earths atmosphere
2.2.1 The troposphere
This is the region closest to the earths surface. It is characterized by
turbulent conditions of air. The temperature decreases linearly at an approximate
rate of 6.5 K / km. The highest point of the troposphere is called tropopause. The
height of the tropopause varies from about 9 km at the poles to about 16 km at
the equator.
2.2.2 The stratosphere
This extends from the tropopause to about 50 km. High velocity winds
may be encountered in this region, but they are not gusty. Temperature remains
constant up to about 25 km and then increases. The highest point of the
stratosphere is called the stratopause.
2.2.3 The mesosphere
The mesosphere extends from the stratopause to about 80 km. The
temperature decreases to about 90
0
C in this region. In the mesosphere, the
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pressure and density of air are very low, but the air still retains its composition as
at sea level. The highest point of the mesosphere is called the mesopause.
2.2.4 The ionosphere or thermosphere
This region extends from the mesopause to about 1000 km. It is
characterized by the presence of ions and free electrons. The temperature
increases to about 0
0
C at 110 km, to about 1000
0
C at 150 km and peak of about
1780
0
C at 700 km (Ref.2.1). Some electrical phenomena like the aurora borealis
occur in this region.
2.2.5 The exosphere
This is the outer fringe of the earths atmosphere. Very few molecules are
found in this region. The region gradually merges into the interplanetary space.
2.3 International Standard Atmosphere (ISA)
2.3.1 Need for ISA and agency prescribing it
The properties of earths atmosphere like pressure, temperature and
density vary not only with height above the earths surface but also with the
location on earth, from day to day and even during the day. As mentioned in
section 1.9, the performance of an airplane is dependent on the physical
properties of the earths atmosphere. Hence, for the purpose of comparing
(a) the performance of different airplanes and (b) the performance of the same
airplane measured in flight tests on different days, a set of values for atmospheric
properties have been agreed upon, which represent average conditions
prevailing for most of the year, in Europe and North America. Though the agreed
values do not represent the actual conditions anywhere at any given time, they
are useful as a reference. This set of values called the International Standard
Atmosphere (ISA) is prescribed by ICAO (International Civil Aviation
Organization). It is defined by the pressure and temperature at mean sea level,
and the variation of temperature with altitude up to 32 km (Ref.1.11, chapter 2).
With these values being prescribed, it is possible to find the required physical
characteristics (pressure, temperature, density etc) at any chosen altitude.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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Remark:
The actual performance of an airplane is measured in flight tests under
prevailing conditions of temperature, pressure and density. Methods are
available to deduce, from the flight test data, the performance of the airplane
under ISA conditions. When this procedure is applied to various airplanes and
performance presented under ISA conditions, then comparison among different
airplanes is possible.
2.3.2 Features of ISA
The main features of the ISA are the standard sea level values and the
variation of temperature with altitude. The air is assumed as dry perfect gas.
The standard sea level conditions are as follows:
Temperature (T
0
) = 288.15 K = 15
0
C
Pressure (p
0
) = 101325 N/m
2
= 760 mm of Hg
Rate of change of temperature:
=  6.5 K/km upto 11 km
= 0 K/km from 11 to 20 km
= 1 K/km from 20 to 32 km
The region of ISA from 0 to 11 km is referred to as troposphere. That
between 11 to 20 km is the lower stratosphere and between 20 to 32 km is the
middle stratosphere (Ref.1.11, chapter 2).
Note: Using the values of T
0
and p
0 ,
and the equation of state, p = RT, gives the
sea level density (
0
) as 1.225 kg/m
3
.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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Chapter 2
Lecture 5
Earths atmosphere 2
Topics
2.4 Variations of properties with altitude in ISA
2.4.1 Variations of pressure and density with altitude
2.4.2 Variations with altitude of pressure ratio, density ratio speed of
sound, coefficient of viscosity and kinematic viscosity.
2.5 Geopotential altitude
2.6 General remarks
2.6.1 Atmospheric properties in cases other than ISA
2.6.2 Stability of atmosphere
Atmospheric properties of ISA (Table 2.1)
2.4 Variations of properties with altitude in ISA
For calculation of the variations of pressure, temperature and density with
altitude, the following equations are used.
The equation of state p = R T (2.1)
The hydrostatic equation dp/dh =  g (2.2)
Remark:
The hydrostatic equation can be easily derived by considering the balance of
forces on a small fluid element.
Consider a cylindrical fluid element of area A and height h as shown in Fig.2.2.
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Fig.2.2 Equilibrium of a fluid element.
The forces acting in the vertical direction on the element are the pressure forces
and the weight of the element.
For vertical equilibrium of the element,
pA {p + (dp /dh) h} A g A h = 0
Simplifying, dp /dh =  g
2.4.1 Variations of pressure and density with altitude
Substituting for from the Eq.(2.1) in Eq.(2.2) gives:
dp / dh = (p/RT) g
Or (dp/p) = g dh/RT (2.3)
Equation (2.3) is solved separately in troposphere and stratosphere, taking into
account the temperature variations in each region. For example, in the
troposphere, the variation of temperature with altitude is given by the equation
T = T
0
h (2.4)
where T
0
is the sea level temperature, T is the temperature at the altitude h and
is the temperature lapse rate in the troposphere.
Substituting from Eq.(2.4) in Eq.(2.3) gives:
(dp /p) =  gdh /R (T
0
h) (2.5)
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Taking g as constant, Eq.(2.5) can be integrated between two altitudes h
1
and
h
2
. Taking h
1
as sea level and h
2
as the desired altitude (h), the integration gives
the following equation, the intermediate steps are left as an exercise.
(p/p
0
) = (T/T
0
)
(g/R)
(2.6)
where T is the temperature at the desired altitude (h) given by Eq.(2.4).
Equation (2.6) gives the variation of pressure with altitude.
The variation of density with altitude can be obtained using Eq.(2.6) and
the equation of state. The resulting variation of density with temperature in the
troposphere is given by:
(/
0
) = (T/T
0
)
(g/R)1
(2.7)
Thus, both the pressure and density variations are obtained once the
temperature variation is known.
As per the ISA, R = 287.05287 m
2
sec
2
K and g = 9.80665 m/s
2
.
Using these and = 0.0065 K/m in the troposphere yields (g/R) as 5.25588.
Thus, in the troposphere, the pressure and density variations are :
(p/p
0
) = (T/T
0
)
5.25588
(2.8)
(/
0
) = (T/T
0
)
4.25588
(2.9)
Note: T= 288.15  0.0065 h; h in m and T in K.
In order to obtain the variations of properties in the lower stratosphere (11
to 20 km altitude), the previous analysis needs to be carriedout afresh with = 0
i.e., T having a constant value equal to the temperature at 11 km (T = 216.65 K).
From this analysis the pressure and density variations in the lower stratosphere
are obtained as :
(p / p
11
) = ( /
11
) = exp { g (h  11000) / RT
11
} (2.10)
where p
11
,
11
and T
11
are the pressure, density and temperature respectively at
11 km altitude.
In the middle stratosphere (20 to 32 km altitude), it can be shown that (note in
this case = 0.001 K / m):
(p / p
20
) = (T / T
20
)
 34.1632
(2.11)
( /
20
) = (T/ T
20
)
 35.1632
(2.12)
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where p
20
,
20
and T
20
are pressure, density and temperature respectively at
20 km altitude.
Thus, the pressure and density variations have been worked out in the
troposphere and the stratosphere of ISA. Table 2.1 presents these values.
Remark:
Using Eqs.(2.1) and (2.2) the variations of pressure and density can be worked
out for other variations of temperature with height (see exercise 2.1).
2.4.2. Variations with altitude of pressure ratio, density ratio, speed of
sound, coefficient of viscosity and kinematic viscosity
The ratio (p/p
0
) is called pressure ratio and is denoted by . Its value in ISA can
be obtained by using Eqs.(2.8),(2.10) and (2.11). Table 2.1 includes these
values.
The ratio ( /
0
) is called density ratio and is denoted by . Its values in ISA can
be obtained using Eqs.(2.9),(2.10) and (2.12). Table 2.1 includes these values.
The speed of sound in air, denoted by a, depends only on the temperature and
is given by:
a = ( RT)
0.5
(2.13)
where is the ratio of specific heats; for air = 1.4. The values of a in ISA can
be obtained by using appropriate values of temperature. Table 2.1 includes these
values.
The kinematic viscosity (v ) is given by:
v = / where is the coefficient of viscosity.
The coefficient of viscosity of air () depends only on temperature. Its variation
with temperature is given by the following Sutherland formula.
3/2
6
T
= 1.458X10 [ ]
T+110.4
, where T is in Kelvin and is in kg m
1
s
1
(2.14)
Table 2.1 includes the variation of kinematic viscosity with altitude.
Example 2.1
Calculate the temperature (T), pressure (p), density ( ), pressure ratio
( ) , density ratio ( ), speed of sound (a) , coefficient of viscosity ( ) and
kinematic viscosity (v ) in ISA at altitudes of 8 km, 16 km and 24 km.
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Solution:
It may be noted that the three altitudes specified in this example, viz.
8 km, 16 km and 24 km, lie in troposphere, lower stratosphere and middle
stratosphere regions of ISA respectively.
(a) h = 8 km
Let the quantities at 8 km altitude be denoted by the suffix 8.
In troposphere:
0
T = T  h
where, T
0
= 288.15 K, = 0.0065 K/ m
Hence,
8
T = 288.15  0.0065 8000 = 236.15K
From Eq.(2.8)
( ) ( )
5.25588 5.25588
8
8 0
0
p
= = T/T = 236.15/288.15 = 0.35134
p
 

\ .
Or
2
8
p = 0.35134 101325 = 35599.5 N/m
( )
3
8 8 8
35599.5
= p / RT = = 0.52516 kg/m
287.05287236.15
8 8 0
= / = 0.52516/1.225 = 0.42870
a
8
= ( RT
8
)
0.5
( )
0.5
= 1.4287.05287236.15 = 308.06 m/s
From Eq.(2.14):
1.5 1.5
6 6 5 1 1 8
8
8
T 236.15
= 1.45810 = 1.45810 = 1.526810 kg m s
T +110.4 236.15+110.4
( (
( (
5 5 2
8 8 8
= / = 1.526810 / 0.52516 = 2.907210 m /s v
Remarks:
(i) The values calculated above and those in Table 2.1 may differ from each
other in the last significant digit. This is due to the roundoff errors in the
calculations.
(ii) Consider an airplane flying at 8 km altitude at a flight speed of 220 m/s.
The Mach number of this flight would be: 220/308.06 = 0.714
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(iii) Further if the reference chord of the wing (c
ref
) of this airplane be 3.9 m,
the Reynolds number in this flight, based on c
ref
, would be:
6 ref
e 5
Vc 2203.9
R = = = 29.5110
2.907210 v
(iv) For calculation of values at 16 km altitude, the values of temperature,
pressure and density are needed at the tropopause viz. at h=11 km.
Now
11
T = 288.150.006511000 = 216.65 K
( )
5.25588
2
11
p = 101325 216.65/288.15 = 22632 N/m
( )
3
11
= 22632/ 287.05287216.65 = 0.36392 kg/m
(b) h = 16 km
In lower stratosphere Eq.(2.10) gives :
( ) { }
11
11 11
p
= = exp g h11000 /RT
p
Consequently,
( ) ( ) { }
16 16
11 11
p
= = exp 9.80665 1600011000 / 287.05287216.65 = 0.45455
p
Or
2
16
p = 226320.45455 = 10287 N/m
3
16
= 0.363920.45455 = 0.16541kg/m
16
= 10287/101325 = 0.10153
16
= 0.16541/1.225 = 0.13503
( )
0.5
16
a = 1.4287.05287216.65 = 295.07m/s
1.5
6 5 1 1
16
216.65
= 1.45810 = 1.421610 kg m s
216.65+110.4
(
(
5 5 2
16
= 1.421610 / 0.16541= 8.59410 m /s v
Remark :
To calculate the required values at 24 km altitude, the values of T and p are
needed at h = 20 km. These values are :
T
20
= 216.65
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( ) ( ) { }
20
11
p
= exp 9.80665 2000011000 / 287.05287216.65 = 0.24191
p
Or
2
20
p = 22632 0.24191= 5474.9 N/m
(c) h = 24 km
( )
24
T = 216.65+0.001 24000 20000 = 220.65K
From Eq.(2.11):
( )
34.1632
24
24 20
20
p
= T /T
p
Or ( )
34.1632
2
24
p = 5474.9 220.65/216.65 = 2930.5N/m
( )
24
= 2930.5/ 287.05287220.65 = 0.04627
Hence,
24
= 2930.5/101325 = 0.02892
and
24
= 0.04627/1.225 = 0.03777
( )
0.5
24
a = 1.4287.05287220.65 = 297.78 m/s
1.5
6 5 1 1
24
220.65
= 1.45810 = 1.443510 kg m s
220.65+110.4
(
(
5 4 2
24
= 1.443510 / 0.04627 = 3.1210 m /s v
Answers:
h (km) 8 16 24
T (K) 236.15 216.65 220.65
p (N/m
2
) 35599.5 10287.0 2930.5
0
= p/p 0.35134 0.10153 0.02892
( )
3
kg/m
0.52516 0.16541 0.04627
0
= / 0.42870 0.13503 0.03777
a (m/s) 308.06 295.07 297.78
( )
1 1
kg m s
1.5268 x 10
5
1.4216 x 10
5
1.4435 x 10
5
( )
2
m /s v
2.9072 x 10
5
8.594 x 10
5
3.12 x 10
4
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter2
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
8
2.5 Geopotential altitude
The variations of pressure, temperature and density in the atmosphere
were obtained by using the hydrostatic equation (Eq.2.2). In this equation g is
assumed to be constant. However, it is known that g decreases with altitude.
Equation (1.1) gives the variation as:
0
G
R
g = g ( )
R+h
where R is the radius of earth and h
G
is the geometric altitude above earths
surface.
Thus, the values of p and obtained by assuming g =
0
g are at an
altitude slightly different from the geometrical altitude (h
G
). This altitude is called
geopotential altitude, which for convenience is denoted by h. Following Ref.1,
the geopotential altitude can be defined as the height above earths surface in
units, proportional to the potential energy of unit mass (geopotential), relative to
sea level. It can be shown that the geopotential altitude (h) is given, in terms of
geometric altitude (h
G
), by the following relation. Reference 1.13, chapter 3 may
be referred to for derivation.
G
R
h = h
Rh
It may be remarked that the actual difference between h and h
G
is small
for altitudes involved in flight dynamics; for h of 20 km, h
G
would be 20.0627 km.
Hence, the difference is ignored in performance analysis.
2.6 General remarks:
2.6.1 Atmospheric properties in cases other than ISA
It will be evident from chapters 4 to 10 that the engine characteristics and
the airplane performance depend on atmospheric characteristics. Noting that ISA
only represents average atmospheric conditions, other atmospheric models have
been proposed as guidelines for extreme conditions in arctic and tropical regions.
Figure 2.3 shows the temperature variations with altitude in arctic and tropical
atmospheres along with ISA. It is seen that the arctic minimum atmosphere has
the following features. (a) The sea level temperature is 50
0
C (b) The
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter2
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
9
temperature increases at the rate of 10 K per km up to 1500 m altitude. (c) The
temperature remains constant at 35
0
C up to 3000 m altitude. (d) Then the
temperature decreases at the rate of 4.72 K per km up to 15.5 km altitude (e)
The tropopause in this case is at 15.5 km and the temperature there is 94
0
c.
The features of the tropical maximum atmosphere are as follows.
(a) Sea level temperature is 45
0
C.
(b) The temperature decreases at the rate of 6.5 K per km up to 11.54 km
and then remains constant at 30
0
C.
Fig.2.3 Temperature variations in arctic minimum, ISA and tropical maximum
atmospheres (Reproduced from Ref.1.7, Chapter 3 with permission of author)
Note:
(a) The local temperature varies with latitude but the sea level pressure (p
0
)
depends on the weight of air above and is taken same at all the places i.e.
101325 N/m
2
. Knowing p
0
and T
0
, and the temperature lapse rates, the pressure,
temperature and density in tropospheres of arctic minimum and tropical
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter2
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
10
maximum can be obtained using Eqs. (2.4), (2.6) and (2.7). (see also exercise
2.1).
(b) Some airlines/ air forces may prescribe intermediate values of sea level
temperature e.g. ISA +15
0
C or ISA +20
0
C. The variations of pressure,
temperature and density with altitude in these cases can also be worked out from
the aforesaid equations.
2.6.2 Stability of atmosphere
It is generally assumed that the air mass is stationary. However, some
packets of air mass may acquire motion due to local changes. For example, due
to absorption of solar radiation by the earths surface, an air mass adjacent to the
surface may become lighter and buoyancy may cause it to rise. If the
atmosphere is stable, a rising packet of air must come back to its original
position. On the other hand, if the air packet remains in the disturbed position,
then the atmosphere is neutrally stable. If the rising packet continues to move up
then the atmosphere is unstable.
Reference 1.7, chapter 3 analyses the problem of atmospheric stability
and concludes that if the temperature lapse rate is less than 9.75 K per km, then
the atmosphere is stable. It is seen that the three atmospheres, representing
different conditions, shown in Fig.2.3 are stable.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter2
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
11
Altit
ude
(m)
Tempe
rature
(K)
Pressure
(N/m
2
)
(p/p
o
)
Density
(kg/m
3
)
(/
o
)
speed
of
sound
(m/s)
Kinematic
viscosity
(m
2
/s)
0 288.15 101325.0 1.00000 1.22500 1.00000 340.29 1.4607E005
200 286.85 98945.3 0.97651 1.20165 0.98094 339.53 1.4839E005
400 285.55 96611.0 0.95348 1.17864 0.96216 338.76 1.5075E005
600 284.25 94321.6 0.93088 1.15598 0.94365 337.98 1.5316E005
800 282.95 92076.3 0.90872 1.13364 0.92542 337.21 1.5562E005
1000 281.65 89874.4 0.88699 1.11164 0.90746 336.43 1.5813E005
1200 280.35 87715.4 0.86568 1.08997 0.88977 335.66 1.6069E005
1400 279.05 85598.6 0.84479 1.06862 0.87234 334.88 1.6331E005
1600 277.75 83523.3 0.82431 1.04759 0.85518 334.10 1.6598E005
1800 276.45 81489.0 0.80423 1.02688 0.83827 333.31 1.6870E005
2000 275.15 79494.9 0.78455 1.00649 0.82162 332.53 1.7148E005
2200 273.85 77540.6 0.76527 0.98640 0.80523 331.74 1.7432E005
2400 272.55 75625.4 0.74636 0.96663 0.78908 330.95 1.7723E005
2600 271.25 73748.6 0.72784 0.94716 0.77319 330.16 1.8019E005
2800 269.95 71909.7 0.70969 0.92799 0.75754 329.37 1.8321E005
3000 268.65 70108.2 0.69191 0.90912 0.74214 328.58 1.8630E005
3200 267.35 68343.3 0.67450 0.89054 0.72697 327.78 1.8946E005
3400 266.05 66614.6 0.65744 0.87226 0.71205 326.98 1.9269E005
3600 264.75 64921.5 0.64073 0.85426 0.69736 326.18 1.9598E005
3800 263.45 63263.4 0.62436 0.83655 0.68290 325.38 1.9935E005
4000 262.15 61639.8 0.60834 0.81912 0.66867 324.58 2.0279E005
4200 260.85 60050.0 0.59265 0.80197 0.65467 323.77 2.0631E005
4400 259.55 58493.7 0.57729 0.78510 0.64090 322.97 2.0990E005
4600 258.25 56970.1 0.56225 0.76850 0.62735 322.16 2.1358E005
4800 256.95 55478.9 0.54753 0.75217 0.61402 321.34 2.1734E005
Table 2.1 Atmospheric properties in ISA (Cont..)
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter2
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
12
5000 255.65 54019.4 0.53313 0.73611 0.60091 320.53 2.2118E005
5200 254.35 52591.2 0.51903 0.72031 0.58801 319.71 2.2511E005
5400 253.05 51193.7 0.50524 0.70477 0.57532 318.90 2.2913E005
5600 251.75 49826.4 0.49175 0.68949 0.56285 318.08 2.3324E005
5800 250.45 48488.8 0.47855 0.67446 0.55058 317.25 2.3744E005
6000 249.15 47180.5 0.46564 0.65969 0.53852 316.43 2.4174E005
6200 247.85 45900.9 0.45301 0.64516 0.52666 315.60 2.4614E005
6400 246.55 44649.5 0.44066 0.63088 0.51501 314.77 2.5064E005
6600 245.25 43425.9 0.42858 0.61685 0.50355 313.94 2.5525E005
6800 243.95 42229.6 0.41677 0.60305 0.49229 313.11 2.5997E005
7000 242.65 41060.2 0.40523 0.58949 0.48122 312.27 2.6480E005
7200 241.35 39917.1 0.39395 0.57617 0.47034 311.44 2.6974E005
7400 240.05 38799.9 0.38292 0.56308 0.45965 310.60 2.7480E005
7600 238.75 37708.1 0.37215 0.55021 0.44915 309.75 2.7998E005
7800 237.45 36641.4 0.36162 0.53757 0.43884 308.91 2.8529E005
8000 236.15 35599.2 0.35134 0.52516 0.42870 308.06 2.9073E005
8200 234.85 34581.2 0.34129 0.51296 0.41875 307.21 2.9629E005
8400 233.55 33586.9 0.33148 0.50099 0.40897 306.36 3.0200E005
8600 232.25 32615.8 0.32189 0.48923 0.39937 305.51 3.0784E005
8800 230.95 31667.6 0.31254 0.47768 0.38994 304.65 3.1383E005
9000 229.65 30741.9 0.30340 0.46634 0.38069 303.79 3.1997E005
9200 228.35 29838.2 0.29448 0.45521 0.37160 302.93 3.2627E005
9400 227.05 28956.1 0.28577 0.44428 0.36268 302.07 3.3272E005
9600 225.75 28095.2 0.27728 0.43355 0.35392 301.20 3.3933E005
9800 224.45 27255.2 0.26899 0.42303 0.34533 300.33 3.4611E005
10000 223.15 26435.7 0.26090 0.41270 0.33690 299.46 3.5307E005
10200 221.85 25636.2 0.25301 0.40256 0.32862 298.59 3.6020E005
10400 220.55 24856.4 0.24531 0.39262 0.32050 297.71 3.6752E005
10600 219.25 24096.0 0.23781 0.38286 0.31254 296.83 3.7503E005
Table 2.1 Atmospheric properties in ISA (Cont..)
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter2
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
13
10800 217.95 23354.4 0.23049 0.37329 0.30473 295.95 3.8274E005
11000 216.65 22631.5 0.22336 0.36391 0.29707 295.07 3.9065E005
11200 216.65 21929.4 0.21643 0.35262 0.28785 295.07 4.0316E005
11400 216.65 21248.6 0.20971 0.34167 0.27892 295.07 4.1608E005
11600 216.65 20588.9 0.20320 0.33106 0.27026 295.07 4.2941E005
11800 216.65 19949.7 0.19689 0.32079 0.26187 295.07 4.4317E005
12000 216.65 19330.4 0.19078 0.31083 0.25374 295.07 4.5736E005
12200 216.65 18730.2 0.18485 0.30118 0.24586 295.07 4.7202E005
12400 216.65 18148.7 0.17911 0.29183 0.23823 295.07 4.8714E005
12600 216.65 17585.3 0.17355 0.28277 0.23083 295.07 5.0275E005
12800 216.65 17039.4 0.16817 0.27399 0.22366 295.07 5.1886E005
13000 216.65 16510.4 0.16294 0.26548 0.21672 295.07 5.3548E005
13200 216.65 15997.8 0.15789 0.25724 0.20999 295.07 5.5264E005
13400 216.65 15501.1 0.15298 0.24925 0.20347 295.07 5.7035E005
13600 216.65 15019.9 0.14823 0.24152 0.19716 295.07 5.8862E005
13800 216.65 14553.6 0.14363 0.23402 0.19104 295.07 6.0748E005
14000 216.65 14101.8 0.13917 0.22675 0.18510 295.07 6.2694E005
14200 216.65 13664.0 0.13485 0.21971 0.17936 295.07 6.4703E005
14400 216.65 13239.8 0.13067 0.21289 0.17379 295.07 6.6776E005
14600 216.65 12828.7 0.12661 0.20628 0.16839 295.07 6.8916E005
14800 216.65 12430.5 0.12268 0.19988 0.16317 295.07 7.1124E005
15000 216.65 12044.6 0.11887 0.19367 0.15810 295.07 7.3403E005
15200 216.65 11670.6 0.11518 0.18766 0.15319 295.07 7.5754E005
15400 216.65 11308.3 0.11160 0.18183 0.14844 295.07 7.8182E005
15600 216.65 10957.2 0.10814 0.17619 0.14383 295.07 8.0687E005
15800 216.65 10617.1 0.10478 0.17072 0.13936 295.07 8.3272E005
16000 216.65 10287.5 0.10153 0.16542 0.13504 295.07 8.5940E005
16200 216.65 9968.1 0.09838 0.16028 0.13084 295.07 8.8693E005
16400 216.65 9658.6 0.09532 0.15531 0.12678 295.07 9.1535E005
Table 2.1 Atmospheric properties in ISA (Cont..)
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter2
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
14
16600 216.65 9358.8 0.09236 0.15049 0.12285 295.07 9.4468E005
16800 216.65 9068.2 0.08950 0.14581 0.11903 295.07 9.7495E005
17000 216.65 8786.7 0.08672 0.14129 0.11534 295.07 1.0062E004
17200 216.65 8513.9 0.08403 0.13690 0.11176 295.07 1.0384E004
17400 216.65 8249.6 0.08142 0.13265 0.10829 295.07 1.0717E004
17600 216.65 7993.5 0.07889 0.12853 0.10492 295.07 1.1060E004
17800 216.65 7745.3 0.07644 0.12454 0.10167 295.07 1.1415E004
18000 216.65 7504.8 0.07407 0.12068 0.09851 295.07 1.1780E004
18200 216.65 7271.9 0.07177 0.11693 0.09545 295.07 1.2158E004
18400 216.65 7046.1 0.06954 0.11330 0.09249 295.07 1.2547E004
18600 216.65 6827.3 0.06738 0.10978 0.08962 295.07 1.2949E004
18800 216.65 6615.4 0.06529 0.10637 0.08684 295.07 1.3364E004
19000 216.65 6410.0 0.06326 0.10307 0.08414 295.07 1.3793E004
19200 216.65 6211.0 0.06130 0.09987 0.08153 295.07 1.4234E004
19400 216.65 6018.2 0.05939 0.09677 0.07900 295.07 1.4690E004
19600 216.65 5831.3 0.05755 0.09377 0.07654 295.07 1.5161E004
19800 216.65 5650.3 0.05576 0.09086 0.07417 295.07 1.5647E004
20000 216.65 5474.9 0.05403 0.08803 0.07187 295.07 1.6148E004
20200 216.85 5305.0 0.05236 0.08522 0.06957 295.21 1.6694E004
20400 217.05 5140.5 0.05073 0.08251 0.06735 295.34 1.7257E004
20600 217.25 4981.3 0.04916 0.07988 0.06521 295.48 1.7839E004
20800 217.45 4827.1 0.04764 0.07733 0.06313 295.61 1.8440E004
21000 217.65 4677.9 0.04617 0.07487 0.06112 295.75 1.9060E004
21200 217.85 4533.3 0.04474 0.07249 0.05918 295.89 1.9701E004
21400 218.05 4393.4 0.04336 0.07019 0.05730 296.02 2.0363E004
21600 218.25 4257.9 0.04202 0.06796 0.05548 296.16 2.1046E004
21800 218.45 4126.8 0.04073 0.06581 0.05372 296.29 2.1752E004
22000 218.65 3999.7 0.03947 0.06373 0.05202 296.43 2.2480E004
22200 218.85 3876.7 0.03826 0.06171 0.05038 296.56 2.3232E004
Table 2.1 Atmospheric properties in ISA (Cont..)
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter2
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
15
22400 219.05 3757.6 0.03708 0.05976 0.04878 296.70 2.4009E004
22600 219.25 3642.3 0.03595 0.05787 0.04724 296.83 2.4811E004
22800 219.45 3530.5 0.03484 0.05605 0.04575 296.97 2.5639E004
23000 219.65 3422.4 0.03378 0.05428 0.04431 297.11 2.6494E004
23200 219.85 3317.6 0.03274 0.05257 0.04291 297.24 2.7376E004
23400 220.05 3216.1 0.03174 0.05091 0.04156 297.38 2.8287E004
23600 220.25 3117.8 0.03077 0.04931 0.04026 297.51 2.9228E004
23800 220.45 3022.6 0.02983 0.04776 0.03899 297.65 3.0198E004
24000 220.65 2930.4 0.02892 0.04627 0.03777 297.78 3.1200E004
24200 220.85 2841.1 0.02804 0.04482 0.03658 297.92 3.2235E004
24400 221.05 2754.6 0.02719 0.04341 0.03544 298.05 3.3302E004
24600 221.25 2670.8 0.02636 0.04205 0.03433 298.19 3.4404E004
24800 221.45 2589.6 0.02556 0.04074 0.03325 298.32 3.5542E004
25000 221.65 2510.9 0.02478 0.03946 0.03222 298.45 3.6716E004
25200 221.85 2434.7 0.02403 0.03823 0.03121 298.59 3.7927E004
25400 222.05 2360.9 0.02330 0.03704 0.03024 298.72 3.9178E004
25600 222.25 2289.4 0.02259 0.03589 0.02929 298.86 4.0468E004
25800 222.45 2220.1 0.02191 0.03477 0.02838 298.99 4.1800E004
26000 222.65 2153.0 0.02125 0.03369 0.02750 299.13 4.3174E004
26200 222.85 2087.9 0.02061 0.03264 0.02664 299.26 4.4593E004
26400 223.05 2024.9 0.01998 0.03163 0.02582 299.40 4.6056E004
26600 223.25 1963.9 0.01938 0.03064 0.02502 299.53 4.7566E004
26800 223.45 1904.7 0.01880 0.02969 0.02424 299.66 4.9124E004
27000 223.65 1847.3 0.01823 0.02878 0.02349 299.80 5.0732E004
27200 223.85 1791.8 0.01768 0.02788 0.02276 299.93 5.2391E004
27400 224.05 1737.9 0.01715 0.02702 0.02206 300.07 5.4102E004
27600 224.25 1685.8 0.01664 0.02619 0.02138 300.20 5.5868E004
27800 224.45 1635.2 0.01614 0.02538 0.02072 300.33 5.7690E004
28000 224.65 1586.2 0.01565 0.02460 0.02008 300.47 5.9569E004
Table 2.1 Atmospheric properties in ISA (Cont)
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter2
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
16
28200 224.85 1538.7 0.01519 0.02384 0.01946 300.60 6.1508E004
28400 225.05 1492.6 0.01473 0.02311 0.01886 300.74 6.3508E004
28600 225.25 1448.0 0.01429 0.02239 0.01828 300.87 6.5572E004
28800 225.45 1404.8 0.01386 0.02171 0.01772 301.00 6.7700E004
29000 225.65 1362.9 0.01345 0.02104 0.01718 301.14 6.9896E004
29200 225.85 1322.2 0.01305 0.02040 0.01665 301.27 7.2161E004
29400 226.05 1282.8 0.01266 0.01977 0.01614 301.40 7.4497E004
29600 226.25 1244.7 0.01228 0.01916 0.01564 301.54 7.6906E004
29800 226.45 1207.6 0.01192 0.01858 0.01517 301.67 7.9391E004
30000 226.65 1171.8 0.01156 0.01801 0.01470 301.80 8.1954E004
30200 226.85 1137.0 0.01122 0.01746 0.01425 301.94 8.4598E004
30400 227.05 1103.3 0.01089 0.01693 0.01382 302.07 8.7324E004
30600 227.25 1070.6 0.01057 0.01641 0.01340 302.20 9.0136E004
30800 227.45 1038.9 0.01025 0.01591 0.01299 302.33 9.3035E004
31000 227.65 1008.1 0.00995 0.01543 0.01259 302.47 9.6026E004
31200 227.85 978.3 0.00966 0.01496 0.01221 302.60 9.9109E004
31400 228.05 949.5 0.00937 0.01450 0.01184 302.73 1.0229E003
31600 228.25 921.4 0.00909 0.01406 0.01148 302.87 1.0557E003
31800 228.45 894.3 0.00883 0.01364 0.01113 303.00 1.0895E003
32000 228.65 867.9 0.00857 0.01322 0.01079 303.13 1.1243E003
Table 2.1 Atmospheric properties in ISA
Note: Following values / expressions have been used while preparing ISA table.
2 2
2
R=287.05287m sec K
g= 9.80665m/s
Sutherland formula for viscosity:
3/2
6
T
= 1.458X10 [ ]
T+110.4
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter2
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
17
In troposphere (h = 0 to 11000 m): T= 288.15  0.0065 h.
p = 101325 [10.000022588h]
5.25588
= 1.225 [10.000022588h]
4.25588
.
In lower stratosphere (h = 11000 to 20000 km): T=216.65 K.
p = 22632 exp {0.000157688 (h11000)}
= 0.36391 exp {0.000157688 (h11000)}
In middle stratosphere (h = 20000 to 32000 km):
T = 216.65 + 0.001h
p = 5474.9 [1+0.000004616(h20000)]
34.1632
= 0.08803 [1+0.000004616(h20000)]
35.1632
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter2
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
1
Chapter 2
Table 2.1 Atmospheric properties in ISA
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter2
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
2
Altit
ude
(m)
Tempe
rature
(K)
Pressure
(N/m
2
)
(p/p
o
)
Density
(kg/m
3
)
(/
o
)
speed
of
sound
(m/s)
Kinematic
viscosity
(m
2
/s)
0 288.15 101325.0 1.00000 1.22500 1.00000 340.29 1.4607E005
200 286.85 98945.3 0.97651 1.20165 0.98094 339.53 1.4839E005
400 285.55 96611.0 0.95348 1.17864 0.96216 338.76 1.5075E005
600 284.25 94321.6 0.93088 1.15598 0.94365 337.98 1.5316E005
800 282.95 92076.3 0.90872 1.13364 0.92542 337.21 1.5562E005
1000 281.65 89874.4 0.88699 1.11164 0.90746 336.43 1.5813E005
1200 280.35 87715.4 0.86568 1.08997 0.88977 335.66 1.6069E005
1400 279.05 85598.6 0.84479 1.06862 0.87234 334.88 1.6331E005
1600 277.75 83523.3 0.82431 1.04759 0.85518 334.10 1.6598E005
1800 276.45 81489.0 0.80423 1.02688 0.83827 333.31 1.6870E005
2000 275.15 79494.9 0.78455 1.00649 0.82162 332.53 1.7148E005
2200 273.85 77540.6 0.76527 0.98640 0.80523 331.74 1.7432E005
2400 272.55 75625.4 0.74636 0.96663 0.78908 330.95 1.7723E005
2600 271.25 73748.6 0.72784 0.94716 0.77319 330.16 1.8019E005
2800 269.95 71909.7 0.70969 0.92799 0.75754 329.37 1.8321E005
3000 268.65 70108.2 0.69191 0.90912 0.74214 328.58 1.8630E005
3200 267.35 68343.3 0.67450 0.89054 0.72697 327.78 1.8946E005
3400 266.05 66614.6 0.65744 0.87226 0.71205 326.98 1.9269E005
3600 264.75 64921.5 0.64073 0.85426 0.69736 326.18 1.9598E005
3800 263.45 63263.4 0.62436 0.83655 0.68290 325.38 1.9935E005
4000 262.15 61639.8 0.60834 0.81912 0.66867 324.58 2.0279E005
4200 260.85 60050.0 0.59265 0.80197 0.65467 323.77 2.0631E005
4400 259.55 58493.7 0.57729 0.78510 0.64090 322.97 2.0990E005
4600 258.25 56970.1 0.56225 0.76850 0.62735 322.16 2.1358E005
Table 2.1 Atmospheric properties in ISA (Cont..)
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter2
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
3
4800 256.95 55478.9 0.54753 0.75217 0.61402 321.34 2.1734E005
5000 255.65 54019.4 0.53313 0.73611 0.60091 320.53 2.2118E005
5200 254.35 52591.2 0.51903 0.72031 0.58801 319.71 2.2511E005
5400 253.05 51193.7 0.50524 0.70477 0.57532 318.90 2.2913E005
5600 251.75 49826.4 0.49175 0.68949 0.56285 318.08 2.3324E005
5800 250.45 48488.8 0.47855 0.67446 0.55058 317.25 2.3744E005
6000 249.15 47180.5 0.46564 0.65969 0.53852 316.43 2.4174E005
6200 247.85 45900.9 0.45301 0.64516 0.52666 315.60 2.4614E005
6400 246.55 44649.5 0.44066 0.63088 0.51501 314.77 2.5064E005
6600 245.25 43425.9 0.42858 0.61685 0.50355 313.94 2.5525E005
6800 243.95 42229.6 0.41677 0.60305 0.49229 313.11 2.5997E005
7000 242.65 41060.2 0.40523 0.58949 0.48122 312.27 2.6480E005
7200 241.35 39917.1 0.39395 0.57617 0.47034 311.44 2.6974E005
7400 240.05 38799.9 0.38292 0.56308 0.45965 310.60 2.7480E005
7600 238.75 37708.1 0.37215 0.55021 0.44915 309.75 2.7998E005
7800 237.45 36641.4 0.36162 0.53757 0.43884 308.91 2.8529E005
8000 236.15 35599.2 0.35134 0.52516 0.42870 308.06 2.9073E005
8200 234.85 34581.2 0.34129 0.51296 0.41875 307.21 2.9629E005
8400 233.55 33586.9 0.33148 0.50099 0.40897 306.36 3.0200E005
8600 232.25 32615.8 0.32189 0.48923 0.39937 305.51 3.0784E005
8800 230.95 31667.6 0.31254 0.47768 0.38994 304.65 3.1383E005
9000 229.65 30741.9 0.30340 0.46634 0.38069 303.79 3.1997E005
9200 228.35 29838.2 0.29448 0.45521 0.37160 302.93 3.2627E005
9400 227.05 28956.1 0.28577 0.44428 0.36268 302.07 3.3272E005
9600 225.75 28095.2 0.27728 0.43355 0.35392 301.20 3.3933E005
9800 224.45 27255.2 0.26899 0.42303 0.34533 300.33 3.4611E005
10000 223.15 26435.7 0.26090 0.41270 0.33690 299.46 3.5307E005
10200 221.85 25636.2 0.25301 0.40256 0.32862 298.59 3.6020E005
10400 220.55 24856.4 0.24531 0.39262 0.32050 297.71 3.6752E005
Table 2.1 Atmospheric properties in ISA (Cont..)
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter2
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
4
10600 219.25 24096.0 0.23781 0.38286 0.31254 296.83 3.7503E005
10800 217.95 23354.4 0.23049 0.37329 0.30473 295.95 3.8274E005
11000 216.65 22631.5 0.22336 0.36391 0.29707 295.07 3.9065E005
11200 216.65 21929.4 0.21643 0.35262 0.28785 295.07 4.0316E005
11400 216.65 21248.6 0.20971 0.34167 0.27892 295.07 4.1608E005
11600 216.65 20588.9 0.20320 0.33106 0.27026 295.07 4.2941E005
11800 216.65 19949.7 0.19689 0.32079 0.26187 295.07 4.4317E005
12000 216.65 19330.4 0.19078 0.31083 0.25374 295.07 4.5736E005
12200 216.65 18730.2 0.18485 0.30118 0.24586 295.07 4.7202E005
12400 216.65 18148.7 0.17911 0.29183 0.23823 295.07 4.8714E005
12600 216.65 17585.3 0.17355 0.28277 0.23083 295.07 5.0275E005
12800 216.65 17039.4 0.16817 0.27399 0.22366 295.07 5.1886E005
13000 216.65 16510.4 0.16294 0.26548 0.21672 295.07 5.3548E005
13200 216.65 15997.8 0.15789 0.25724 0.20999 295.07 5.5264E005
13400 216.65 15501.1 0.15298 0.24925 0.20347 295.07 5.7035E005
13600 216.65 15019.9 0.14823 0.24152 0.19716 295.07 5.8862E005
13800 216.65 14553.6 0.14363 0.23402 0.19104 295.07 6.0748E005
14000 216.65 14101.8 0.13917 0.22675 0.18510 295.07 6.2694E005
14200 216.65 13664.0 0.13485 0.21971 0.17936 295.07 6.4703E005
14400 216.65 13239.8 0.13067 0.21289 0.17379 295.07 6.6776E005
14600 216.65 12828.7 0.12661 0.20628 0.16839 295.07 6.8916E005
14800 216.65 12430.5 0.12268 0.19988 0.16317 295.07 7.1124E005
15000 216.65 12044.6 0.11887 0.19367 0.15810 295.07 7.3403E005
15200 216.65 11670.6 0.11518 0.18766 0.15319 295.07 7.5754E005
15400 216.65 11308.3 0.11160 0.18183 0.14844 295.07 7.8182E005
15600 216.65 10957.2 0.10814 0.17619 0.14383 295.07 8.0687E005
15800 216.65 10617.1 0.10478 0.17072 0.13936 295.07 8.3272E005
16000 216.65 10287.5 0.10153 0.16542 0.13504 295.07 8.5940E005
16200 216.65 9968.1 0.09838 0.16028 0.13084 295.07 8.8693E005
Table 2.1 Atmospheric properties in ISA (Cont..)
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter2
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
5
16400 216.65 9658.6 0.09532 0.15531 0.12678 295.07 9.1535E005
16600 216.65 9358.8 0.09236 0.15049 0.12285 295.07 9.4468E005
16800 216.65 9068.2 0.08950 0.14581 0.11903 295.07 9.7495E005
17000 216.65 8786.7 0.08672 0.14129 0.11534 295.07 1.0062E004
17200 216.65 8513.9 0.08403 0.13690 0.11176 295.07 1.0384E004
17400 216.65 8249.6 0.08142 0.13265 0.10829 295.07 1.0717E004
17600 216.65 7993.5 0.07889 0.12853 0.10492 295.07 1.1060E004
17800 216.65 7745.3 0.07644 0.12454 0.10167 295.07 1.1415E004
18000 216.65 7504.8 0.07407 0.12068 0.09851 295.07 1.1780E004
18200 216.65 7271.9 0.07177 0.11693 0.09545 295.07 1.2158E004
18400 216.65 7046.1 0.06954 0.11330 0.09249 295.07 1.2547E004
18600 216.65 6827.3 0.06738 0.10978 0.08962 295.07 1.2949E004
18800 216.65 6615.4 0.06529 0.10637 0.08684 295.07 1.3364E004
19000 216.65 6410.0 0.06326 0.10307 0.08414 295.07 1.3793E004
19200 216.65 6211.0 0.06130 0.09987 0.08153 295.07 1.4234E004
19400 216.65 6018.2 0.05939 0.09677 0.07900 295.07 1.4690E004
19600 216.65 5831.3 0.05755 0.09377 0.07654 295.07 1.5161E004
19800 216.65 5650.3 0.05576 0.09086 0.07417 295.07 1.5647E004
20000 216.65 5474.9 0.05403 0.08803 0.07187 295.07 1.6148E004
20200 216.85 5305.0 0.05236 0.08522 0.06957 295.21 1.6694E004
20400 217.05 5140.5 0.05073 0.08251 0.06735 295.34 1.7257E004
20600 217.25 4981.3 0.04916 0.07988 0.06521 295.48 1.7839E004
20800 217.45 4827.1 0.04764 0.07733 0.06313 295.61 1.8440E004
21000 217.65 4677.9 0.04617 0.07487 0.06112 295.75 1.9060E004
21200 217.85 4533.3 0.04474 0.07249 0.05918 295.89 1.9701E004
21400 218.05 4393.4 0.04336 0.07019 0.05730 296.02 2.0363E004
21600 218.25 4257.9 0.04202 0.06796 0.05548 296.16 2.1046E004
21800 218.45 4126.8 0.04073 0.06581 0.05372 296.29 2.1752E004
22000 218.65 3999.7 0.03947 0.06373 0.05202 296.43 2.2480E004
Table 2.1 Atmospheric properties in ISA (Cont..)
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter2
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
6
22200 218.85 3876.7 0.03826 0.06171 0.05038 296.56 2.3232E004
22400 219.05 3757.6 0.03708 0.05976 0.04878 296.70 2.4009E004
22600 219.25 3642.3 0.03595 0.05787 0.04724 296.83 2.4811E004
22800 219.45 3530.5 0.03484 0.05605 0.04575 296.97 2.5639E004
23000 219.65 3422.4 0.03378 0.05428 0.04431 297.11 2.6494E004
23200 219.85 3317.6 0.03274 0.05257 0.04291 297.24 2.7376E004
23400 220.05 3216.1 0.03174 0.05091 0.04156 297.38 2.8287E004
23600 220.25 3117.8 0.03077 0.04931 0.04026 297.51 2.9228E004
23800 220.45 3022.6 0.02983 0.04776 0.03899 297.65 3.0198E004
24000 220.65 2930.4 0.02892 0.04627 0.03777 297.78 3.1200E004
24200 220.85 2841.1 0.02804 0.04482 0.03658 297.92 3.2235E004
24400 221.05 2754.6 0.02719 0.04341 0.03544 298.05 3.3302E004
24600 221.25 2670.8 0.02636 0.04205 0.03433 298.19 3.4404E004
24800 221.45 2589.6 0.02556 0.04074 0.03325 298.32 3.5542E004
25000 221.65 2510.9 0.02478 0.03946 0.03222 298.45 3.6716E004
25200 221.85 2434.7 0.02403 0.03823 0.03121 298.59 3.7927E004
25400 222.05 2360.9 0.02330 0.03704 0.03024 298.72 3.9178E004
25600 222.25 2289.4 0.02259 0.03589 0.02929 298.86 4.0468E004
25800 222.45 2220.1 0.02191 0.03477 0.02838 298.99 4.1800E004
26000 222.65 2153.0 0.02125 0.03369 0.02750 299.13 4.3174E004
26200 222.85 2087.9 0.02061 0.03264 0.02664 299.26 4.4593E004
26400 223.05 2024.9 0.01998 0.03163 0.02582 299.40 4.6056E004
26600 223.25 1963.9 0.01938 0.03064 0.02502 299.53 4.7566E004
26800 223.45 1904.7 0.01880 0.02969 0.02424 299.66 4.9124E004
27000 223.65 1847.3 0.01823 0.02878 0.02349 299.80 5.0732E004
27200 223.85 1791.8 0.01768 0.02788 0.02276 299.93 5.2391E004
27400 224.05 1737.9 0.01715 0.02702 0.02206 300.07 5.4102E004
27600 224.25 1685.8 0.01664 0.02619 0.02138 300.20 5.5868E004
27800 224.45 1635.2 0.01614 0.02538 0.02072 300.33 5.7690E004
Table 2.1 Atmospheric properties in ISA (Cont..)
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter2
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
7
28000 224.65 1586.2 0.01565 0.02460 0.02008 300.47 5.9569E004
28200 224.85 1538.7 0.01519 0.02384 0.01946 300.60 6.1508E004
28400 225.05 1492.6 0.01473 0.02311 0.01886 300.74 6.3508E004
28600 225.25 1448.0 0.01429 0.02239 0.01828 300.87 6.5572E004
28800 225.45 1404.8 0.01386 0.02171 0.01772 301.00 6.7700E004
29000 225.65 1362.9 0.01345 0.02104 0.01718 301.14 6.9896E004
29200 225.85 1322.2 0.01305 0.02040 0.01665 301.27 7.2161E004
29400 226.05 1282.8 0.01266 0.01977 0.01614 301.40 7.4497E004
29600 226.25 1244.7 0.01228 0.01916 0.01564 301.54 7.6906E004
29800 226.45 1207.6 0.01192 0.01858 0.01517 301.67 7.9391E004
30000 226.65 1171.8 0.01156 0.01801 0.01470 301.80 8.1954E004
30200 226.85 1137.0 0.01122 0.01746 0.01425 301.94 8.4598E004
30400 227.05 1103.3 0.01089 0.01693 0.01382 302.07 8.7324E004
30600 227.25 1070.6 0.01057 0.01641 0.01340 302.20 9.0136E004
30800 227.45 1038.9 0.01025 0.01591 0.01299 302.33 9.3035E004
31000 227.65 1008.1 0.00995 0.01543 0.01259 302.47 9.6026E004
31200 227.85 978.3 0.00966 0.01496 0.01221 302.60 9.9109E004
31400 228.05 949.5 0.00937 0.01450 0.01184 302.73 1.0229E003
31600 228.25 921.4 0.00909 0.01406 0.01148 302.87 1.0557E003
31800 228.45 894.3 0.00883 0.01364 0.01113 303.00 1.0895E003
32000 228.65 867.9 0.00857 0.01322 0.01079 303.13 1.1243E003
Table 2.1 Atmospheric properties in ISA
Note: Following values / expressions have been used while preparing ISA table.
2 2
2
R=287.05287m sec K
g= 9.80665m/s
Sutherland formula for viscosity:
3/2
6
T
= 1.458X10 [ ]
T+110.4
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter2
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
8
In troposphere (h = 0 to 11000 m): T= 288.15  0.0065 h.
p = 101325 [10.000022588h]
5.25588
= 1.225 [10.000022588h]
4.25588
.
In lower stratosphere (h = 11000 to 20000 km): T=216.65 K.
p = 22632 exp {0.000157688 (h11000)}
= 0.36391 exp {0.000157688 (h11000)}
In middle stratosphere (h = 20000 to 32000 km):
T = 216.65 + 0.001h
p = 5474.9 [1+0.000004616(h20000)]
34.1632
= 0.08803 [1+0.000004616(h20000)]
35.1632
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter2
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
1
Chapter 2
Exercises
2.1 On a certain day the pressure at sea level is 758 mm of mercury
(101059 N / m
2
) and the temperature is 25
o
C. The temperature is found to fall
linearly with height to 55
o
C at 12km and after that it remains constant upto
20 km. Calculate the pressure, density and kinematic viscosity at 8km and 16km
altitude.
(Hint : When the temperature variation is linear, Eqs. (2.6) and (2.7) can be used
to obtain the pressure and density at a chosen altitude by using appropriate
values of p
0
, T
0
,
0
and . As regards the constant temperature region, an
equation similar to Eq (2.10) can be used; note that, in this exercise, the
tropopause is at 12 km altitude)
[Answers:
p
8
= 36,812 N/m
2
,
8
= 0.5238 kg/m
3
,
8
= 3.002 x 10
5
m
2
/sec,
p
16
= 10897 N/m
2
,
16
= 0.1740 kg/m
3
,
16
= 8.218 x 10
5
m
2
/sec]
Remark : Due to round off errors in calculations, the student may get the
numerical values which are slightly different from those given as answers. Values
within 0.5% of those given as answers can be regarded as correct.
2.2 If the altimeter in an airplane reads 5000m, on the day described in exercise
2.1, what is the altitude of airplane above mean sea level? What would be the
indicated altitude after landing on aerodrome at sea level?
(Hint: An altimeter is an instrument which senses the ambient pressure and
indicates height in ISA corresponding to that pressure. It does not read the
correct altitude when the atmospheric conditions differ from ISA.
To solve this exercise, obtain the pressure corresponding to 5000 m altitude in
ISA. Then find the altitude corresponding to this pressure in the atmospheric
conditions prevailing as in exercise 2.1. As regards the second part of this
exercise, the pressure at the sea level on that day is 101059 N/m
2
. When the
airplane lands at sea level, the altimeter would indicate altitude, in ISA,
corresponding to this pressure. In actual practice, the air traffic control would
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter2
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
2
inform the pilot about the local ambient pressure and the pilot would adjust zero
reading of his altimeter.)
[Answers: 5152 m, 22.3 m].
2.3 An altimeter calibrated according to ISA reads an altitude of 3,600 m. If the
ambient temperature is 6
0
C, calculate the ambient density.
[Answer: 0.847 kg/m
3
].
2.4 During a flight test for climb performance, the following readings were
observed at two altitudes:
Record Number 1 2
Indicate altitude (m) 1,300 1,600
Ambient temperature (
0
C) 16 14
The altimeter is calibrated according to ISA. Obtain the true difference of height
between the two indicated altitudes.
(Hint: Note that the ambient temperatures are different from those in ISA at 1300
and 1600 m altitudes. Hence the actual altitudes are different from the indicated
altitudes. To get the difference between these two altitudes (h), obtain
pressures at 1300 and 1600 m heights in ISA. Let the difference in pressures be
p. Calculate density at the two altitudes using corresponding pressures and
temperature. Take average of the two densities (
avg
). Using Eq. (2.2) :
h p / {
avg
x g} )
[Answer: 311 m]
Remark:
The difference between the actual altitudes (311 m) and the indicated
altitudes (300 m) is small. Since altimeters of all the airplanes are calibrated
using ISA, the difference between indicated altitudes and actual altitudes of two
airplanes will be small. To take care of any uncertainty, the flight paths of two
airplanes are separated by several hundred meters. However, with the
availability of Global Positioning System (GPS) the separation between two
airplanes can be reduced.
2.5 A light airplane is flying at a speed of 220 kmph at an altitude of 3.2 km.
Assuming ISA conditions and the mean chord of the wing to be 1.5 m, obtain the
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter2
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
3
Reynolds number, based on wing mean chord, and the Mach number in this
flight.
[Answers: R
e
= 4.83 x 10
6
, M = 0.186]
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter2
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
1
Chapter 2
Reference
2.1 Gunston, B, The Cambridge aerospace dictionary Cambridge University
Press (2004).
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter3
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
1
Chapter 3
Drag polar
(Lectures 6 to 12)
Keywords: Various types of drags; streamlined body and bluff body; boundary
layers; airfoil characteristics and designations; drags of airplane components;
drag polars at subsonic, transonic, supersonic and hypersonic speeds; high lift
devices
Topics
3.1. Introduction Need and definition of drag polar
3.1.1 Contributions to airplane drag
3.1.2 Interference drag
3.1.3 Contributions to airplane lift
3.1.4 Contributions to airplane pitching moment
3.1.5 Drag coefficient, lift coefficient and pitching moment coefficient of the
airplane
3.1.6 Categorization of airplane components
3.2 Estimation of drag polar at low subsonic speeds
3.2.1 Angle of attack of airplane, wing incidence and tail incidence
3.2.2 Skin friction drag, pressure drag and profile drag of an airfoil
3.2.3 Summary of lift coefficient, drag coefficient, pitching moment
coefficient, centre of pressure and aerodynamic centre of an airfoil
3.2.4 Examples of pressure coefficient distributions
3.2.5 Introduction to boundary layer theory
3.2.6 Boundary layer over a flat plate height of boundary layer,
displacement thickness and skin friction drag
3.2.7 Boundary layer separation, adverse pressure gradient and
favourable pressure gradient
3.2.8 Boundary layer transition
3.2.9 Turbulent boundary layer over a flat plate
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter3
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
2
3.2.10 General remarks on boundary layers
3.2.11 Presentation of aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils
3.2.12 Geometric characteristics of airfoils
3.2.13 Airfoil nomenclature\designation
3.2.14 Induced drag of wing
3.2.15 Drag coefficient of fuselage
3.2.16 Drag coefficients of other components
3.2.17 Parabolic drag polar, parasite drag, induced drag and Oswald
efficiency factor
3.2.18 Parasite drag area and equivalent skin friction coefficient
3.2.19 A note on estimation of minimum drag coefficients of wings and
bodies
3.2.20 Typical values of C
DO
, A, e and subsonic drag polar
3.2.21 Winglets and their effect on induced drag
3.3 Drag polar at high subsonic, transonic and supersonic speeds
3.3.1 Some aspects of supersonic flow  shock wave, expansion fan
and bow shock
3.3.2 Drag at supersonic speeds
3.3.3 Transonic flow regime  critical Mach number and drag
divergence Mach number of airfoils, wings and fuselage.
3.3.4 Parabolic drag polar at high speeds
3.3.5 Guidelines for variations of C
Do
and K for subsonic jet transport
airplanes
3.3.6 Variations of C
Do
and K for a fighter airplane
3.3.7 Area ruling
3.4 Drag polar at hypersonic speeds
3.5 Lift to drag ratio
3.6 Other types of drags
3.6.1 Cooling drag
3.6.2 Base drag
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter3
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
3
3.6.3 External stores drag
3.6.4 Leakage drag
3.6.5 Trim drag
3.7 High lift devices
3.7.1 Need for increasing maximum lift coefficient (C
Lmax
)
3.7.2 Factors limiting maximum lift coefficient
3.7.3 Ways to increase maximum lift coefficient viz. increase in camber,
boundary layer control and increase in area
3.7.4 Guidelines for values of maximum lift coefficients of wings with
various high lift devices
References
Exercises
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter3
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
4
Chapter 3
Lecture 6
Drag polar 1
Topics
3.1. Introduction Need and definition of drag polar
3.1.1 Contributions to airplane drag
3.1.2 Interference drag
3.1.3 Contributions to airplane lift
3.1.4 Contributions to airplane pitching moment
3.1.5 Drag coefficient, lift coefficient and pitching moment coefficient of the
airplane
3.1.6 Categorization of airplane components
3.2 Estimation of drag polar at low subsonic speeds
3.2.1 Angle of attack of airplane, wing incidence and tail incidence
3.2.2 Skin friction drag, pressure drag and profile drag of an airfoil
3.1.1 Introduction need and definition of drag polar
As mentioned in section 1.9, to obtain the performance of an airplane
requires the value of the drag coefficient of the airplane (C
D
) when the lift
coefficient (C
L
) and Mach number (M) are given. The relationship between the
drag coefficient and the lift coefficient is called Drag polar. It may be pointed out
that aerodynamics generally deals with the drag, lift and pitching moment of
individual components like wing, fuselage etc. Whereas, for the estimation of the
airplane performance the knowledge of the drag, lift and pitching moment of the
entire airplane is required.
Equation (1.6) indicates that the drag coefficient is a function of lift
coefficient (C
L
), Mach number (M) and Reynolds number (R
e
). However, for a
given airplane a single drag polar can be used for flights upto critical Mach
number (Ref. 1.4 section 10.14); see sections 3.3.3 to 3.3.5 for details of critical
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Mach number. For airplanes flying at transonic and supersonic speeds, the drag
polar depends on Mach number. Hence, the usual practice is to obtain the drag
polar of subsonic airplanes at a suitable flight speed (generally the cruising
speed) and for a high speed airplane, the drag polars are obtained at suitable
values of Mach numbers spread over the range of operating Mach numbers.
In this chapter the estimation of the drag polar at subsonic, transonic and
supersonic speeds is discussed. The topic of drag polar at hypersonic speed is
also touched up on.
3.1.1 Contributions to airplane drag
The usual method to estimate the drag of an airplane is to add the drags
of the major components of the airplane and then apply correction for the
interference effects.
The major components of the airplane which contribute to drag are wing,
fuselage, horizontal tail, vertical tail, nacelle(s) and landing gear.
Thus,
D = D
wing
+ D
fuse
+ D
ht
+ D
vt
+ D
nac
+ D
lg
+ D
etc
+ D
int
(3.1)
where D
wing
, D
fuse
, D
ht
, D
vt
, D
nac
and D
lg
denote drag due to wing, fuselage,
horizontal tail, vertical tail , nacelle(s) and landing gear respectively.
D
etc
includes the drag of items like external fuel tanks, bombs, struts etc.
D
int
is the drag due to interference which is described in the next section.
3.1.2 Intereference drag
While presenting the data on the drag of wing or fuselage or any other
component of the airplane, the data generally refers to the drag of that
component when it is alone in the airstream and free from the influence of any
other component. Whereas, in an airplane, the wing, the fuselage and the tails
are present in close proximity of each other and the flow past one component is
influenced by the others. As a result, the drag of the airplane as a combination of
different components is different from the sum of the drags of individual
components. To appreciate this, let us consider the case examined in Ref. 3.1.
Flow past a rather thick airfoil section, shown in Fig 3.1a, is examined at a
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Reynolds number of 420,000. The maximum thickness and the chord of the
airfoil are denoted respectively by d and c. The thickness ratio (d/c) for the
airfoil in Fig 3.1a is 33.3%.
The drag coefficient is defined as :
d
2
1
2
D
C =
V cb
; b = span of the airfoil model
The drag coefficient (C
d
) is found to be 0.0247.
Subsequently, another identical airfoil is placed side by side with a spacing(s)
as shown in Fig.3.1b. The tests were carried out for different values of s/d. It is
found that for large values of s/d, say s/d > 5, the flows past the two sections do
not interfere and the total drag coefficient of the combination is equal to the sum
of the drags of each airfoil namely (C
d
)
combination
= 0.0494
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(a) Single airfoil
(b) Configuration with airfoils placed side by side as seen in plan view
(c) Circular cylinder with splitter plate at rear
Note : The cylinder is circular in shape. Please adjust the resolution of your
monitor so that the cylinder looks circular.
Fig 3.1 Interference effects
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However, at closer spacings the results presented in table 3.1 are obtained.
s/d 1.16 1.4 1.8 2.0 2.6 4 5
(C
d
)
combination
0.1727 0.1194 0.0824 0.0761 0.0627 0.0527 0.0494
C
dint
0.2233 0.070 0.033 0.0267 0.0133 0.0033 0.0
Table 3.1 Interference drag coefficient for different spacings between two airfoils
Note:
(C
d
)
combination
= (C
d
)
airfoil1
+ (C
d
)
airfoil2
+ C
dint
It is evident that C
dint
depends on the relative positions and could be very large.
Remarks:
(i)The drag coefficient of the individual airfoil in this example is large as the airfoil
is thick and Reynolds number is rather low. Airfoils used on airplanes would have
thickness ratio (t/c) of 12 to 18% and the values of C
d
, for Reynolds number of
6 x 10
6
, would be around 0.006.
(ii) Ways to reduce interference drag
A large number of studies have been carried out on interference drag and
it is found that D
int
can be brought down to 5 to 10% of the sum of the drags of all
components, by giving proper fillets at the junctions of wing and fuselage and
tails and fuselage ( Fig 3.2 ).
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Fig 3.2 Reduction of interference drag using fillets
(iii) Favorable interference effect
The interference effects need not always increase the drag. As an
example the drag of a circular cylinder with a splitter plate (Fig 3.1c) is lower than
the drag of a cylinder without it at certain Reynolds numbers (Ref 3.2). In an
another example, the birds flying in formation flight experience lower drag than
when flying individually.
(iv) Chapter VIII of Ref. 3.3 can be consulted for additional information on
interference drag.
3.1.3 Contributions to airplane lift
The main contribution to the lift comes from wingfuselage combination
and a small contribution from the horizontal tail i.e.
L = L
wing
+ fuselage
+ L
ht
(3.2)
For airplanes with wings having aspect ratio greater than six, the lift due to the
wingfuselage combination is roughly equal to the lift produced by the gross wing
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area. The gross wing area (S) is the planform area of the wing, extended into the
fuselage, up to the plane of the symmetry.
3.1.4 Contributions to airplane pitching moment
The pitching moment of the airplane is taken about its center of gravity
and denoted by M
cg
.
Main contributions to M
cg
are from wing, fuselage, nacelle(s) and
horizontal tail i.e.
M
cg
= M
wing
+ M
fuselage
+ M
nac
+ M
ht
(3.3)
3.1.5 Drag coefficient, lift coefficient and pitching moment coefficient of the
airplane
To obtain the nondimensional quantities namely drag coefficient (C
D
), lift
coefficient (C
L
) and pitching moment coefficient (C
mcg
) of the airplane, the
reference quantities are the free stream dynamic pressure (
2
V
), the gross
wing area (S) and the mean aerodynamic chord of the wing ( c ). Consequently,
cg
D L mcg
2 2 2
1 1 1
2 2 2
M
D L
C = ; C = ; C =
V S V S V Sc
(3.4)
However, the drag coefficient and lift coefficient of the individual
components are based on their own reference areas as given below.
(a) For wing, horizontal tail and vertical tail the reference area is their planform
area.
(b)For fuselage, nacelle, fuel tanks, bombs and such other bodies the reference
area is either the wetted area or the frontal area. The wetted area is the area of
the surface of the body in contact with the fluid. The frontal area is the maximum
crosssectional area of the body.
(c) For other components like landing gear the reference area is given along with
the definition of C
D
.
Remarks:
(i)The reference area, on which the C
D
and C
L
of an individual component is
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based, is also called proper area and denoted by S
is denoted by C
D
.
(ii)The reference areas for different components are different for the following
reasons. The aim of using nondimensional quantities like C
D
is to be able to
predict the characteristics of many similar shapes by carrying out computations
or tests on a few models. For this to be effective, the phenomena causing the
drag must be taken into account while specifying the reference qualities. In this
context the drag of streamline shapes like wing and slender bodies is mainly due
to the skin friction and depends on the wetted area. Whereas, the drag of bluff
bodies like the fuselage of a pistonengined airplane, is mainly the pressure drag
and depends on the frontal area. It may be added that for wings, the usual
practice is to take the reference area as the planform area because it (planform
area) is proportional to the wetted area.
(iii)At this stage the reader is advised to the revise the background on
aerodynamics (see for examples References 1.9, 1.10 and 1.12).
(iv) Following the above remarks, the total drag of the airplane can be expressed
as:
(3.5)
2 2 2 2
Dwing fuse Dfuse nac Dnac ht Dht
2 2 2
vt Dvt lg Dlg etc Detc int
1 1 1 1
D = V SC + V S C + V S C + V S C
2 2 2 2
1 1 1
+ V S C + V S C + V S C +D
2 2 2
It may be recalled that S
etc
and C
Detc
refer to areas and drag coefficients of other
items like external fuel tanks, bombs, struts etc..
Or
D
2
1
2
D
C =
V S
lg
fuse ht vt nac etc
Dwing Dfuse Dht Dvt Dnac Dlg Detc Dint
S
S S S S S
= C + C +C + C +C +C +C +C (3.6)
S S S S S S
The data on drag, lift and pitching moment, compiled from various sources, is
available in references 1.9, 1.10, 1.12 and 3.3 to 3.9.
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3.1.6 Categorization of airplane components
During the discussion in the previous section it was mentioned that (a) for
wing, horizontal tail and vertical tail, the planform area is taken as the reference
area, (b) for fuselage, the wetted area or the frontal area is taken as the
reference area. The reason for these specifications lies in the fact that in
aerodynamics the airplane components are categorised as (a) wing type
surfaces, (b) bodies and (c) others. This categorisation, described below, is
based on common geometrical features of certain airplane components.
Figure 3.3 shows the geometric parameters of a wing. It is observed that the
span (b) of the wing is much larger than the chord (c) of the wing section (or the
airfoil) and in turn the chord is much larger than the thickness (t) of the airfoil. For
wings of subsonic airplanes the ratio (b/c) is between 5 to 12 and the ratio (t/c)
for the commonly used profiles is 0.10 to 0.18 or 0.1 t/c and 0.1 c/b . This
separation of sizes ( or scales in more technical terms) enables the simplification
that the flow past a wing can be analysed as a study of flow past an airfoil and
then applying correction for the effect of finite wing span. It may be recalled that
in aerodynamics an airfoil is treated as a wing of infinite span or a two
dimensional problem.
Fig.3.3 Geometric parameters of a wing
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Hence, subsections 3.2.2 to 3.2.13 deal with various aspects of flow past airfoils
which are relevant to the estimation of drag polar. The subsequent subsection
deals with the induced drag which is the result of finite span. It may be added
that in aerodynamics, the quantity finite aspect ratio (A) is employed instead of
the finite span. The aspect ratio is defined as :
A = b
2
/S; b = wing span, S = wing planform area
Remarks :
(i)When the aspect ratio is less than about 5, which is characteristic of wings of
high speed airplanes, the flow past the wing has to be treated as three
dimensional.
(ii) Horizontal tail, vertical tail and streamlined struts, seen on some low speed
airplanes, come under the category of wing type surfaces.
Fig 3.4a shows the fuselage of a jet airplane. Here the length (l
f
) is much
larger than the height (h) and width (w), but h and w are generally not very
different in their dimensions. Hence, the flow past a fuselage cannot be
considered as twodimensional. However, for jet airplanes, l
f
/h is around 6 to 10
and the analysis of flow past fuselage can be simplified by assuming the fuselage
to be a slender/streamlined body.
Fig.3.4 Fuselage parameters
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Figure 3.4 b shows the fuselage of a low speed airplane. Here l
f
/h is rather low
and the fuselage is treated as a bluff body.
Precise definitions of the streamlined body and bluff body are given in the
subsequent sections.
Remarks:
(i) As regards the analysis of flow is concerned, the fuselage, nacelle, external
fuel tanks, bombs, and antenna masts have common geometric features and are
categorised as bodies.
(ii) Components of airplane like landing gear, which do not fall under the above
two categories, are designated as others.
3.2. Estimation of drag polar at low subsonic speeds
As mentioned in the previous section, the drag polar of an airplane can be
obtained by summingup the drags of individual components and then adding 5
to 10% for the interference drag. As the drag coefficient depends on the angle of
attack, this exercise has to be carriedout at different angles of attack. The
definition of the angle of attack of the airplane and brief descriptions of the drag
coefficients of the airplane components are presented before discussing the drag
polar.
3.2.1 Angles of attack of the airplane, wing incidence and tail incidence
For defining the angle of attack of an airplane, the fuselage reference
line(FRL) is taken as the airplane reference line (Figs. 1.9 and 3.5).The angle
between the free stream velocity and FRL is the angle of attack of the airplane.
However, the angles of attack of the wing and tail are not the same as that of the
fuselage.
The wing is fixed on the fuselage such that it makes an angle, i
w
, to the
fuselage reference line (Fig 3.5). This angle is called wing incidence. The angle
i
w
is generally chosen such that during the cruising flight the wing can produce
enough lift when fuselage is at zero angle of attack. This is done because the
fuselage produces least drag when it is at zero angle of attack and that is ideal
during the cruising flight. In other words, during cruise the wing produces the lift
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required to balance the weight whereas the fuselage, being at zero angle of
attack, produces least drag.
The horizontal tail is set on fuselage at an angle i
t
(Fig. 3.5). This angle is
called tail incidence. It is generally chosen in a manner that during cruise the lift
required from the tail, to make the airplane pitching moment zero, is produced by
the tail without elevator deflection. This is because, the drag, at low angles of
attack, is least when the required lift is produced without elevator deflection.
Remark :
The angles i
w
and i
t
are measured clockwise from FRL. The angle i
w
is
positive but the angle i
t
is generally negative.
Fig.3.5 Wing incidence (i
w
) and tail incidence (i
t
)
3.2.2 Skin friction drag, pressure drag and, profile drag of an airfoil
The drag coefficient of a wing consist of the (i) the profile drag due to
airfoil (C
d
) and (ii) the induced drag due to the finite aspect ratio of the wing (C
Di
).
The symbols
d
C and C
l
with lower case suffices refer to the drag coefficient and
lift coefficient of the airfoil. The profile drag of the airfoil consists of the skin
friction drag and the pressure drag. It may be added that an element on the
surface of an airfoil, kept in a flow, experiences shear stress tangential to the
surface and pressure (p) normal to it (Fig.3.6). The shear stress multiplied by the
area of the element gives the tangential force. The component of this tangential
force in the free stream direction when integrated over the profile gives the skin
friction drag. Similarly, the pressure distribution results in normal force on the
element whose component in the free stream direction, integrated over the profile
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Fig.3.6 Shear stress ( ) and pressure(p) on an airfoil
gives the pressure drag. The pressure drag is also called Form drag. The sum
of the skin friction drag and the pressure drag is called Profile drag. The profile
drag depends on the airfoil shape, Reynolds number, angle of attack and surface
roughness.
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Chapter 3
Lecture 7
Drag polar 2
Topics
3.2.3 Summary of lift coefficient, drag coefficient, pitching moment
coefficient, centre of pressure and aerodynamic centre of an airfoil
3.2.4 Examples of pressure coefficient distributions
3.2.5 Introduction to boundary layer theory
3.2.6 Boundary layer over a flat plate height of boundary layer,
displacement thickness and skin friction drag
3.2.3 Summary of the lift coefficient, drag coefficient, pressure coefficient,
pitching moment coefficient, centre of pressure and aerodynamic centre of
an airfoil
In order to understand the dependence of pressure drag and skin friction
drag on various factors, it is appropriate, at this stage, to present brief
discussions on (I) generation of lift, drag and pitching moment from the
distributions of pressure (p) and shear stress (t ) and (II) outline of boundary
layer theory. These and the related topics are covered in this subsection and in
the subsections 3.2.4 to 3.2.10. In subsections 3.2.11 to 3.2.13 the airfoil
characteristics and their nomenclature are dealt with. Subsequently, the
estimation of the drags of wing, fuselage and the entire airplane at subsonic
speeds are discussed(sections 3.2.14 to 3.2.21).
Figure 3.7 shows an airfoil at an angle of attack ( )kept in a stream of
velocity V
2
L
C =
1
V c
2
(3.14)
and
d
2
D
C =
1
V c
2
(3.15)
It may be pointed out, that integration of a constant pressure, say
p ,
around the body would not give any resultant force i.e.
p ds = 0
}
(3.16)
Hence, instead of p the quantity ( )
(3.17)
skin friction drag coefficient :
t
f
2
c =
1
V
2
(3.18)
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:
)
n
2
c
2
le
mle
2 2
N
Normal forcecoefficient C =
1
V c
2
C
Chordwiseor axial forcecoefficient: C = (3.19)
1
V c
2
M
Pitchingmoment coefficient: C =
1
V c
2
It may be noted that dx = ds cos and dy = ds sin , where ds is an
elemental length around a point P on the surface and is the angle between the
normal to the element and the vertical (Fig.3.8). Note that is measured positive
in the clockwise sense. It can be shown that :
( )
( )
(
(
(
`
(
(
(
)
} } }
} } }
n p pu fu f
0 upper surface lower surface
c
c fu f pu p
0 upper surface lower surface
c
1
C = C  C dx + c dy + c dy
c
(3.20)
1
C = c +c dx + C dy  C dy
c
l l
l l
Following section 10.2 of Ref.1.4, the expressions for C
n
, C
c
and C
mle
can be
rewritten as:
( )
( )
( )
2
1
1
1
(
 
( 
\ .
(
 
( 
\ .
(
 
( 
\ .
 
+

\ .
} }
} }
} }
} }
u
n p pu fu f
0 0
u
c pu p fu f
0 0
u
mle pu p fu f
0 0
u
pu fu u p 2
0 0
c c
c c
c c
c c
dy dy
C = C  C dx+ c +c dx
c dx dx
dy dy 1
C = C  C dx + c  c dx
c dx dx
dy dy
C = C  C xdx C +c xdx
c dx dx
dy d
+ C +c y dx+  C
c dx
l
l l
l
l l
l
l l
l
(
 
( 
\ .
)
f
(3.21)
y
+c y dx
dx
l
l l
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Remarks:
(i) From C
n
and C
c
the lift coefficient ( C
l
) and drag coefficient (C
d
) are obtained
as :
n c
C = C cos  C sin
l
(3.22 )
d n c
C = C sin + C cos (3.23)
(ii) Centre of pressure : The point on the airfoil chord through which the
resultant aerodynamic force passes is the centre of pressure. The aerodynamic
moment about this point is zero. It may be noted that the location of centre of
pressure depends on the angle of attack or the lift coefficient.
(iii) Aerodynamic centre: As the location of the centre of pressure depends on
lift coefficient ( C
l
) the pitching moment coefficient about leading edge (C
mle
) also
changes with C
l
. However, it is found that there is a point on the airfoil chord
about which the pitching moment coefficient is independent of the lift coefficient.
This point is called Aerodynamic centre. For incompressible flow this point is
close to the quarter chord point of the airfoil.
(iv) If the distributions of C
p
and c
f
are obtained by analytical or computational
methods, then the pressure drag coefficient (C
dp
) and the skin friction drag
coefficient(C
df
) can be evaluated.
In experimental work the pressure distribution on an airfoil at different angles of
attack can be easily measured. However, measurement of shear stress ( ) t on
an airfoil surface is difficult.The profile drag coefficient (C
d
) of airfoil, which is the
sum of pressure drag coefficient and skin friction drag coefficient, is measured in
experiments by Wake survey technique which is described in Chapter 9, section
f of Ref.3.10. In this technique, the momentum loss due to the presence of the
airfoil is calculated and equated to the drag (refer section 7.5.1 of Ref.3.11 for
derivation).
3.2.4 Examples of pressure coefficient distributions
Though the expression for lift coefficient ( C
l
) involves both the pressure
coefficient (C
p
) and the skin friction drag coefficient (c
f
), the contribution of the
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former i.e. C
p
is predominant to decide C
l
. On the other hand, the pressure drag
coefficient (C
dp
) is determined by the distribution of C
p
and the skin friction drag
coefficient (C
df
) is decided by the distribution of shear stress( ) t .
In this subsection the distributions of C
P
in typical cases and their implications for
C
l
and C
dp
are discussed.
The distribution of the pressure coefficient is generally plotted on the outer side
of the surface of the body (Fig.3.9a). The length of the arrow indicates the
magnitude of C
p
. As regards the sign convention, an arrow pointing towards the
surface indicates that C
p
is positive or local pressure is more than the free stream
pressure ( )
p .
(a) Ideal fluid flow (b) Real fluid flow
Fig.3.9 Distribution of C
p
around a circular cylinder
Figure 3.9 shows distributions of C
p
in ideal fluid flow and real fluid flow past a
circular cylinder. It may be recalled that an ideal fluid is inviscid and
incompressible whereas a real fluid is viscous and compressible. From the
distribution of C
p
in ideal fluid flow (Fig.3.9a) it is seen that the distribution is
symmetric about Xaxis and Yaxis. It is evident that in this case, the net forces in
vertical and horizontal directions are zero. This results in C
l
= 0, C
dp
= 0. These
results are available in books on fluid mechanics and aerodynamics. In the real
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fluid flow case, shown in Fig.3.9b, it is seen that the flow separates from the body
(see description on boundary layer separation in section 3.2.7) and the pressure
coefficient behind the cylinder is negative and nearly constant. However, the
distribution is still symmetric about horizontal axis. Thus in this case C
l
= 0 but
dp
C > 0.
The distributions of C
p
over symmetrical and unsymmetrical foils at C
l
= 0
and C
l
> 0 are shown in Figs.3.10 a to d. Note also the locations of centre
pressure and the production of pitching moment for the unsymmetrical airfoil.
Flow visualization pictures at three angles of attack( ) are shown in Figs.3.36 a,
b and c. An attached flow is seen at low angle of attack. Some separated flow is
seen at moderate angle of attack and large separated flow region is seen near
close to the stalling angle (
stall
). It may be pointed out that theoretical calculation
of skin friction drag using boundary layer theory can be done, when flow is
attached. This topic is discussed in the next subsection.
(a)Distribution of pressure coefficient on symmetrical airfoil at C
l
= 0 and = 0
Note : L
u
= L
l
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(b) Distribution of pressure coefficient on symmetrical airfoil at C
l
> 0 and > 0
(c) Distribution of pressure coefficient on cambered airfoil at C
l
= 0, < 0 ;
Note: L
u
and L
l
form a couple; centre of pressure is at infinity, C
mac
< 0,
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10
(d) Distribution of pressure coefficient on cambered airfoil at C
l
> 0, > 0
Note : C
mac
same as in Fig.(c)
Fig.3.10 Distributions of pressure coefficient on symmetrical and unsymmetric
airfoils at C
l
= 0 and C
l
> 0
3.2.5 Introduction to boundary layer theory
Under conditions of normal temperature and pressure a fluid satisfies the
No slip condition i.e. on the surface of a solid body the relative velocity between
the fluid and the solid wall is zero. Thus, when the body is at rest the velocity of
the fluid layer on the body is zero. In this and the subsequent subsections, the
body is considered to be at rest and the fluid moving past it. Though the velocity
is zero at the surface, a velocity of the order of free stream velocity is reached in
a very thin layer called Boundary layer. The velocity gradient normal to the
surface
  c

c
\ .
U
y
is very high in the boundary layer. Hence even if the coefficient of
viscosity( ) is small, the shear stress,
  c

c
\ .
U
y
,in the boundary layer may be
large or comparable to other stresses like pressure. Outside the boundary layer
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter3
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11
the gradient ( ) / c c U y is very small and viscous stress can be ignored and flow
treated as inviscid. It may be recalled from text books on fluid mechanics, that in
an inviscid flow the Bernoullis equation is valid.
Features of the boundary layer over the surface of a streamlined body are shown
in Fig.3.11a. On the surface of a bluff body the boundary layer develops upto a
certain extent and then separates (Fig.3.11b). The definitions of the streamlined
body and bluff body are presented at the end of this subsection.
(a) boundary layer over a streamlined body
(b) Boundary layer over a bluff body
Fig.3.11 Boundary layer over different shapes (not to scale)
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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12
The features of the flow are as follows.
1.Near the leading edge (or the nose) of the body the flow is brought to rest.This
point is called the Stagnation point. A laminar boundary layer develops on the
surface starting from that point. It may be recalled, from topics on fluid
mechanics, that in a steady laminar flow the fluid particles move downstream in
smooth and regular trajectories; the streamlines are invariant and the fluid
properties like velocity, pressure and temperature at a point remain the same
with time. In an unsteady laminar flow the fluid properties at a point may vary but
are known functions of time. In a turbulent flow, on the other hand, the fluid
properties at a point are random functions of time. However, the motion is
organized in such a way that statistical averages can be taken. In a laminar
boundary layer the parameter which mainly influence its development is the
Reynolds number ( )
x e
R = U x/ ; x being distance along the surface, from the
stagnation point.
2.Depending on the Reynolds number (R
X
), the pressure gradient and other
parameters, the boundary layer may separate or become turbulent after
undergoing transition. The turbulent boundary layer may continue till the trailing
edge of the body (Fig.3.11a) or may separate from the surface of the body (point
S in Fig 3.11b). It may be added that the static pressure across the boundary
layer at a station x, is nearly constant with y. Hence the pressure gradient
referred here is the gradient (dp/dx) in the flow outside the boundary layer.
3.Nature of boundary layer decides the drag and the heat transfer from the body.
If the boundary layer is separated, the pressure in the rear portion of the body
does not reach the freestream value resulting in a large pressure drag (Fig.3.9b).
Incidently a streamlined body is one in which the major portion of drag is skin
friction drag. For a bluff body the major portion of drag is pressure drag. A
circular cylinder is a bluff body. An airfoil at low angle of attack is a streamlined
shape. But, an airfoil at high angle of attack like
stall
is a bluff body.
Remark:
General discussion on boundary layer is a specialised topic and the
interested reader may consult Ref.3.11 for more information. Here, the features
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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of the laminar and turbulent boundary layers on a flat plate are briefly described.
While discussing separation, the boundary layer over a curved surface is
considered.
3.2.6 Laminar boundary layer over flat plate height of boundary layer,
displacement thickness and skin friction drag
The equations of motion governing the flow of a viscous fluid are called
NavierStokes (NS) equations. For derivation of these equations refer to
chapter 15 of Ref.3.12. Taking into account the thinness of the boundary layer,
Prandtl simplified the NS equations in 1904. These equations are called
Boundary layer equations (Chapter 16 of Ref.3.12). Solution of these equations,
for laminar boundary layer over a flat plate with uniform external stream, was
obtained by Blasius in 1908. Subsequently many others obtained the solution.
The numerical solution by Howarth, presented in Ref.3.10, chapter 7, is given in
Table 3.2. In this table U is the local velocity, U
e
is the external velocity (which in
this particular case is V
 

\ .
}
(3.26)
The local skin friction coefficient (
f
C' or c
f
)is defined as :
wall
f f wall wall
2
y=0
e
u
C = c = ; = ;Note: is a function of 'x'.
1
y
U
2
t
t t
  c
'

c
\ .
(3.27)
If the length of the plate is L, then the skin friction drag per unit span of the
plate (D
f
) is :
f wall
0
L
D = dx t
}
Hence, skin friction drag coefficient C
df
is given by:
f
df
2
D
C =
1
V L
2
(3.28)
From the boundary layer profile (table 3.2) it can be shown that for a flat
plate of length, L, the expressions for
1
and C
df
are:
1
L
1.721
=
L R
(3.29)
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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df L
L
V L 1.328
C = ; R =
R v
(3.30)
Remark :
Reference 1.11, chapter 6 may be consulted for additional boundary
layer parameters like momentum thickness (
2
), shape parameter (H =
1
/
2
)
and energy thickness (
3
) of a boundary layer.
Example 3.1
Consider a flat plate of length 500 mm kept in an air stream of velocity 15 m/s.
Obtain (a) the boundary layer thickness ( )
0.99
and the displacement thickness
( )
1
at the end of the plate (b) the skin drag coefficient. Assume
6 2
= 1510 m /s v
and the boundary layer to be laminar.
Solution:
L = 0.5 m, V = 15 m/s
,
6 2
= 1510 m /s v
Hence,
5
L 6
0.515
R = = 510
1510
Consequently, from Eq.(3.25):
3 0.99
5
L
5 5
= = = 7.0710
L R
510
Or
3 3
0.99
= 7.0710 0.5 = 3.5410 m = 3.54mm
From Eq.(3.29):
3 1
5
L
1.721 1.721
= = = 2.43410
L R
510
Or
5 3
1
= 2.43410 0.5 = 1.21710 m = 1.217 mm
From Eq.(3.30):
df
5
L
1.328 1.328
C = = = 0.00188
R
510
Remark:
( )
0.99
/ L is found to be 7.07 x 10
3
. Hence the assumption of the thinness of
boundary layer is confirmed by the results.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter3
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Chapter 3
Lecture 8
Drag polar 3
Topics
3.2.7 Boundary layer separation, adverse pressure gradient and
favourable pressure gradient
3.2.8 Boundary layer transition
3.2.9 Turbulent boundary layer over a flat plate
3.2.10 General remarks on boundary layers
3.2.7 Boundary layer separation, adverse pressure gradient and favourable
pressure gradient
When the flow takes place around airfoils and curved surfaces, the velocity
outside the boundary layer is not constant. From Bernoullis equation it can be
deduced that when the velocity decreases the pressure increases and vice
versa. When the velocity is decreasing i.e. dp/dx is positive, the pressure
gradient is called Adverse pressure gradient. When dp/dx is negative it is called
Favourable pressure gradient.
Figure 3.14 shows the development of a boundary layer in an external stream
with adverse pressure gradient (dp/dx > 0). Such a flow may occur on the upper
surface of an airfoil beyond the point of maximum thickness. Since the static
pressure at a station remains almost constant across the boundary layer, the
pressure inside the boundary layer at stations separated by distance x also
increases in the downstream direction.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter3
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Fig.3.14 Flow in boundary layer before and after point of separation (not to
scale)
Figure 3.14 also shows a small element ABCD in the boundary layer. The
pressure on the face AD is p whereas that on the face BC is ( ) p+ dp/dx x (
.
Since dp/dx is positive in this case, the net effect causes a deceleration of the
flow, in addition to that due to viscosity. The effect is more pronounced near the
surface and the velocity profile changes as shown in Fig.3.14. Finally at point S
the slope of the velocity profile at the wall, ( )
wall
U/ y c c , becomes zero. Besides
the change in shape, the boundary layer also thickens rapidly in the presence of
adverse pressure gradient. Downstream of the point S, there is a reversal of the
flow direction in the region adjacent to the wall. A line can be drawn (indicated as
dotted line in Fig.3.14) in such a way that the mass flow above this line is the
same as that ahead of point S. Below the dotted line, there is a region of
recirculating flow and the value of the stream function ( ) for the dotted line is
zero. However, ahead of the point S, the = 0 line is the surface of the body.
Thus, after the point S, it is observed that between the main flow (i.e. region
above = 0 line) and the body surface lies a region of recirculating flow. When
this happens the flow is said to be Separated and S is referred to as the Point
of separation. Due to separation, the pressure recovery, which would have taken
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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place in an unseparated flow, does not take place and the pressure drag of the
body increases.
Remarks:
(i) If the adverse pressure gradient is very gradual then separation may
not take place (Refer to Ch. 8 of Ref.3.11 for dp/dx needed for
separation).
(ii) Separation does not take place when the pressure gradient is
favourable.
(iii) In the twodimensional case shown in Fig.3.14 the gradient / c c U y is
zero at the point of separation. Hence c
f
is zero at this point. This
behaviour is used in computations to determine the location of the
separation point.
3.2.8 Boundary layer transition
In a laminar boundary layer, either the flow variables at a point have
constant values or their values show a definite variation with time. However, as
Reynolds number increases, it is found that the flow variables inside the
boundary layer show chaotic variation with time. Such a boundary layer is called
Turbulent boundary layer. The change over from laminar to turbulent boundary
layer is called Transition and takes place over a distance called Transition
length.
Initiation of transition in a boundary layer, can be studied as an instability
phenomenon. In this study, the flow is perturbed by giving a small disturbance
and then examining whether the disturbance grows. Details of the analysis are
available in chapter 15 of Ref.3.11 and chapter 5 of Ref.3.13. The salient
features can be summarized as follows.
1. In a boundary layer on a flat plate with uniform external subsonic stream (U
e
=
constant), the flow becomes sensitive to some disturbances as R
x
exceeds
5 x 10
5
. This is called Critical Reynolds number (R
crit
). For boundary layers in
other cases, R
crit
depends on Mach number, surface curvature, pressure gradient
in external stream and heat transfer from wall.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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2. After R
crit
is exceeded, some disturbances grow. These are called Tollmien
Schlichting (TS) waves.
3. The TS waves lead to threedimensional unstable waves and formation of
isolated large scale vortical structures called turbulent spots.
4. The turbulent spots grow and coalesce to form fully turbulent flow.
Remarks:
(i) As R
crit
is exceeded only some disturbances grow and hence in flows with very
low free stream turbulence level, R
crit
as high as 2.8 x 10
6
has been observed in
experiments. It may be recalled from fluid mechanics that the flow in pipe can
become turbulent when Reynolds number, based on pipe diameter (R
ed
),
exceeds 2000. But laminar flow has been observed, in very smooth pipes, even
at R
ed
= 40,000.
(ii) Transition process takes place over a length called transition length.
Reference 3.11, chapter 15 gives some guidelines for estimating this length.
Surface roughness reduces this length.
(iii) In flows with external pressure gradient, the transition is hastened by adverse
pressure gradient. It is generally assumed that transition does not take place in
favourable pressure gradient.
3.2.9 Turbulent boundary layer over a flat plate
When the flow is turbulent, one of its dominant features is that the velocity at
a point is a random function of time(Fig.3.15). When a quantity varies in a
random manner, one cannot say as to what the value would be at a chosen time,
though the values may lie within certain limits. In such a situation, the flow
features are described in terms of statistical averages. For example, the average
Uof a fluctuating quantity U is given by :
( )
0
0
T +T
0
T T
1
U T = Udt
2T
}
(3.31)
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter3
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Fig.3.15 Typical turbulence signal
If the quantity U is independent of T
0
then the phenomenon is called Stationary
random phenomenon. The discussion here is confined to this type of flow. In
such a case, the instantaneous value, ( ) U t , is expressed as :
( ) ( ) U t = U+u t ; u = UU ' ' .
By definition u = 0 ' . Hence, to distinguish different turbulent flows the root mean
square (r.m.s.) of the fluctuating quantity is used.
( )
2
rms
u =
2
u' =
T
2
 T
1
u dt
2T
'
}
(3.32)
T
r.m.s. value of u' is
2
u'
Another feature of turbulent flows is that even if the mean flow is only in one
direction, the fluctuations are in all three directions i.e. the instantaneous velocity
vector ( V ) at a point would be
V
( )
= U+u i +v j +w k; u ,v andw ' ' ' ' ' ' are the components of the
fluctuating velocity along x, y and z directions.
Because of the random fluctuations, the transfer of heat, mass and momentum is
many times faster in turbulent flows than in laminar flows. However, the part of
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the kinetic energy of the mean motion which gets converted into the random
fluctuations is finally dissipated into heat and as such losses are higher when the
flow is turbulent.
Characteristics of turbulent boundary layer:
Analysis of turbulent boundary layer is more complicated than that of laminar
boundary layer. Reference 3.11, chapters 16 to 22 can be referred to for details.
A few results are presented below.
Velocity profile:
Velocity profile of a turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate with zero
pressure gradient is also shown in Fig.3.12. The profile can be approximated by
a power law like:
( )
1/7
5 7
e
U
= y/ ; 510 < Re < 10
U
(3.33)
This approximation is called 1/7
th
power law profile.
Boundary layer thickness ( )
0.99
:
Though the velocity gradient
( )
c c U/ y near the wall is much higher for
turbulent boundary layer than for the laminar case, the gradient is lower away
from the wall and
0.99
is much higher for a turbulent boundary layer. Reference
3.13, chapter 6, gives the following expression for
0.99
.
( )
0.99
turb
1/7
x
0.16
=
x R
(3.34)
Skin friction:
The value of ( ) c c
wall
U/ y is higher for turbulent boundary layer than for
laminar boundary layer (Fig.3.12). Hence, the skin friction drag for turbulent
boundary layer is much higher than that for a laminar boundary layer. Reference
3.13, chapter 6 gives the following expression for
df
C .
df 1/7
L
0.031
C =
R
(3.35)
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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Remarks:
(i) In Eqs.(3.34) and (3.35) it is assumed that the boundary layer is turbulent
from the leading edge. Corrections to these expressions can be applied by
taking the start of the transition region as the origin of the turbulent boundary
layer. However, at the values of R
L
obtained in actual airplanes the error in C
df
,
by ignoring the laminar region is small.
(ii) In certain references following expressions are found for
0.99
and C
df.
( )
1
5
/ 0.37 /
0.99 x
x = R and
1
5
0.072 /
df L
C = R .
However, Ref.3.13 chapter 6 shows that Eqs. (3.34) and (3.35) are more
accurate.
(iii) For the 1/7
th
power law profile of the turbulent boundary layer (Eq.3.33),
it can be shown using Eqs.(3.26) and (3.33) that :
1
=
8
for turbulent boundary layer (3.36)
Example 3.2
Consider a case with L = 0.5 m, V = 30m/s
,
6 2
= 1510 m /s u which gives
R
L
= 10
6
. Obtain the values of
0.99
,
1
and C
df
in the following cases.
(i) Assume that the boundary layer is laminar throughout even at R
L
= 10
6
(ii) Assume that the boundary layer is turbulent from landing edge of plate.
Solution:
(i) Laminar flow
0.99
6
L
5 5
= = = 0.005
L R
10
or
0.99
= 2.5 mm
1
6
L
1.721 1.721
= = = 0.001721
L R
10
or
1
= 0.86 mm
df
6
L
1.328 1.328
C = = = 0.001328
R
10
(ii) Turbulent flow
0.99
1/7
L
0.16
= = 0.02223
L R
or
0.99
= 11.12 mm
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter3
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1
= 1.39 mm
8
~
df 1/7
6 7
L
0.031 0.031
C = = = 0.00431
R
10
Remark :
The comparison of the above results points out that the values of
0.99
and
1
are
larger when the boundary layer is turbulent than when it is laminar. The value of
C
df
in the former case is nearly three times of that in the later case.
3.2.10 General remarks on boundary layers
In this subsection the following four topics are briefly touched upon.
(i) Calculation of boundary layer, (ii) Separation of turbulent boundary layer,
(iii) Laminar flow airfoil and (iv) Effect of roughness on transition and skin friction
(i) Calculation of boundary layer
To calculate the boundary layer over an airfoil the first step is to obtain the
velocity distribution using potential flow theory. It may be recalled from
aerodynamics, that in potential flow analysis the velocity on the surface of the
body is not zero. It is assumed that this velocity distribution, given by potential
flow, would roughly be the distribution of velocity outside the boundary layer (U
e
).
From this velocity distribution and using Bernoullis equation, the first estimate of
dp/dx is obtained. Based on this data the growth of laminar boundary layer and
the location of transition point are determined. After the transition, the growth of
turbulent boundary layer is calculated. After obtaining the boundary layers the
displacement thickness ( )
1
is added to the airfoil shape and calculations are
repeated till the displacement thickness assumed at the beginning of an iteration
is almost same as that obtained after calculation of the boundary layer.
Subsequently, the skin friction drag can be calculated. Section 18.4 of Ref.3.11
may be consulted for details. Presently, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is
used for these calculations.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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(ii) Separation of turbulent boundary layer
A turbulent boundary layer may also separate from the surface when it is
subjected to adverse pressure gradient. However, due to turbulent mixing the
value of ( )
w
U/ y c c for separation to take place is much higher than that in the
case of laminar boundary layer. Hence, a turbulent boundary layer has a higher
resistance to separation. This behaviour is used in bluff bodies to delay the
separation and reduce their pressure drag. For example, in the case of a circular
cylinder the laminar boundary layer separates at around 80
0
leaving a large
Fig.3.16 Schematic of flow past circular cylinder (a) Laminar
separation (b) Turbulent separation
separated region (Fig.3.16a). However, if the transition to turbulent flow takes
place before separation of laminar boundary layer, the separation is delayed. A
turbulent layer separates at around
o
108 , giving a smaller separated region
(Fig.3.16b). Since the drag of a bluff body is mainly pressure drag, the total drag
decreases significantly when the flow is turbulent before separation.
For example, the drag coefficient of a circular cylinder is around 1 when the
separation is laminar and it is 0.3 when the separation is turbulent (Refer chapter
1 of Ref.3.11)
(iii) Laminar flow airfoils
For a streamlined body, like an airfoil at low angle of attack, the drag is mainly
skin friction drag. Figure 3.17 and Eqs.(3.30) and (3.35) indicate that C
df
is much
higher when boundary layer is turbulent. Hence, to reduce the drag of the airfoil,
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter3
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its shape is designed in such a way that the transition to turbulence is delayed
and the flow remains laminar over a longer portion of the airfoil.
These airfoils are called Laminar flow or low drag airfoils. Presently, efforts are
in progress to delay the transition by boundary layer control (see remark in
section 3.7.2).
Fig.3.17 Skin friction drag coefficient at various Reynolds numbers and
levels of roughness
(iv) Effect of roughness on transition
It was mentioned that the critical Reynolds number (R
crit
) depends on factors like
pressure gradient, Mach number, surface curvature and heat transfer. However,
the onset of transition may be delayed when disturbance like free stream
turbulence is low. However, if the surface is rough, this delay may not be
observed when roughness exceeds a certain value (see chapter 15 of Ref.3.11)
(v) Effect of roughness on skin friction in turbulent boundary layer
Equation (3.35) indicates that C
df
is proportional to
1/ 7
L
R i.e. C
df
decreases with
R
L
. However, when the surface is rough it is observed that the decrease in C
df
stops after a certain Reynolds number(Fig.3.17). This Reynolds number is called
Cutoff Reynolds number and is denoted by (Re)
cutoff
.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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The roughness is quantified by the parameter ( l /k), where
l = characteristic length e.g. the length (L) in case of a flat plate and chord (c) in
case of an airfoil.
k = height of roughness referred to as equivalent sand roughness.
Following Ref.3.6, chapter 3, typical values of k are given in table 3.3.
Type of surface Equivalent sand roughness (m)
Natural sheet metal 4.06 x 10
6
Smooth paint 6.35 x 10
6
Standard camouflage paint 1.02 x 10
5
Mass production paint 3.048 x 10
5
Table 3.3 Equivalent sand roughness for typical surfaces
Based on Ref.3.11, chapter 18, Fig.3.17 shows typical plots of C
df
vs Re for
turbulent boundary layer with l /k as parameter. For example, when l /k = 10
5
, C
df
remains almost constant at 0.0032 beyond Re = 7 x 10
6
. Reference 3.6 section
3.1 may be seen for plot of (Re)
cutoff
vs ( l /k) with Mach number as parameter.
These plots are based on section 4.1.5, of Ref.3.5.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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Chapter 3
Lecture 9
Drag polar 4
Topics
3.2.11 Presentation of aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils
3.2.12 Geometric characteristics of airfoils
3.2.13 Airfoil nomenclature\designation
3.2.14 Induced drag of wing
3.2.15 Drag coefficient of fuselage
3.2.16 Drag coefficients of other components
3.2.17 Parabolic drag polar, parasite drag, induced drag and Oswald
efficiency factor
3.2.11. Presentation of aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils
As mentioned in the beginning of subsection 3.2.3, the ways of presenting
the aerodynamic and geometric characteristics of the airfoils and the
nomenclature of the airfoils are discussed in this and the next two subsections.
Figure 3.18 shows typical experimental characteristics of an aerofoil. The
features of the three plots in this figure can be briefly described as follows.
(I) Lift coefficient ( C
l
) vs angle of attack (). This curve, shown in Fig.3.18a, has
four important features viz. (a) angle of zero lift (
0
l
), (b) slope of the lift curve
denoted by dC
l
/ d or a
0
or
C
l
, (c) maximum lift coefficient (
max
C
l
) and (d)
angle of attack (
stall
) corresponding to
max
C
l
.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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Fig.3.18 Aerodynamic characteristics of an airfoil
(a)
C
l
vs (b) C
l
vs C
d
(c) C
mc/4
vs
(II) Drag coefficient (C
d
) vs C
l
. This curve, shown in Fig.3.18b, has two
important features viz. (a) minimum drag coefficient (C
dmin
) and (b) lift coefficient
(
opt
C
l
) corresponding to C
dmin
. In some airfoils, called laminar flow airfoils or low
drag airfoils, the minimum drag coefficient extends over a range of lift coefficients
(Fig.3.18b). This feature is called Drag bucket. The extent of the drag bucket
and the lift coefficient at the middle of this region are also characteristic features
of the airfoil. It may be added that the camber decides
opt
C
l
and thickness ratio
decides the extent of the drag bucket.
(III) Pitching moment coefficient about quarterchord C
mc/4
vs . This curve is
shown in Fig.3.18c. Sometimes this curve is also plotted as C
mc/4
vs C
l
. From
this curve, the location of the aerodynamic center (a.c.) and the moment about it
(C
mac
) can be worked out. It may be recalled that a.c. is the point on the chord
about which the moment coefficient is independent of C
l
.
(IV) Stall pattern : Variation of the lift coefficient with angle of attack near the stall
is an indication of the stall pattern. A gradual pattern as shown in Fig.3.18a is a
desirable feature. Some airfoils display abrupt decrease in C
l
after stall. This
behaviour is undesirable as pilot does not get adequate warning regarding
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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3
impending loss of lift. Airfoils with thickness ratio between 6 10% generally
display abrupt stall while those with t/c more than 14% display a gradual stall. It
may be added that the stall patterns on the wing and on the airfoil are directly
related only for high aspect ratio (A > 6) unswept wings. For low aspect ratio
highly swept wings threedimensional effects may dominate.
3.2.12 Geometrical characteristics of airfoils
To describe the geometrical characteristics of airfoils, the procedure given in
chapter 6 of Ref.3.14 is followed. In this procedure, the camber line or the mean
line is the basic line for definition of the aerofoil shape (Fig.3.19a). The line
joining the extremities of the camber line is the chord. The leading and trailing
edges are defined as the forward and rearward extremities, respectively, of the
mean line. Various camber line shapes have been suggested and they
characterize various families of airfoils. The maximum camber as a fraction of the
chord length (y
cmax
/c) and its location as a fraction of chord (x
ycmax
/c) are the
important parameters of the camber line.
Various thickness distributions have been suggested and they characterize
different families of airfoils Fig.3.19b. The maximum ordinate of the thickness
distribution as fraction of chord (y
tmax
/c) and its location as fraction of chord
(x
ytmax
/c) are the important parameters of the thickness distribution.
Airfoil shape and ordinates:
The aerofoil shape (Fig.3.19c) is obtained by combining the camber line
and the thickness distribution in the following manner.
a) Draw the camber line shape and draw lines perpendicular to it at various
locations along the chord (Fig.3.19c).
b) Lay off the thickness distribution along the lines drawn perpendicular to the
mean line (Fig.3.19c).
c) The coordinates of the upper surface (x
u
, y
u
) and lower surface (x
l
, y
l
) of the
airfoil are given as :
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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4
( )
u t
u c t
l t
l c t
x = x  y sin
y = y + y cos
x = x + y sin
y = y  y cos
)
3.37
where y
c
and y
t
are the ordinates, at location x, of the camber line and the
thickness distribution respectively; tan is the slope of the camber line at
location x (see also Fig.3.19d).
d) The leading edge radius is also prescribed for the aerofoil. The center of the
leading edge radius is located along the tangent to the mean line at the
leading edge (Fig.3.19c).
e) Depending on the thickness distribution, the trailing edge angle may be zero
or have a finite value. In some cases, thickness may be nonzero at the
trailing edge.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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5
Fig.3.19 Airfoil geometry
3.2.13 Airfoil nomenclature/designation
Early airfoils were designed by trial and error. Royal Aircraft
Establishment (RAE), UK and Gottingen laboratory of German establishment
which is now called DLR(Deutsches Zentrum fr Luftund Raumfahrt German
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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6
Centre for Aviation and Space Flight) were pioneers in airfoil design. Clark Y
airfoil shown in Fig.3.20a is an example of a 12% thick airfoil with almost flat
bottom surface which has been used on propeller blades.
Taking advantage of the developments in airfoil theory and boundary
layer theory, NACA (National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics) of USA
systematically designed and tested a large number of airfoils in 1930s. These
are designated as NACA airfoils. In 1958 NACA was superseded by NASA
(National Aeronautic and Space Administration). This organization has
developed airfoils for special purposes. These are designated as NASA airfoils.
Though the large airplane companies like Boeing and Airbus, design their own
airfoils the NACA and NASA airfoils are generally employed by others. A brief
description of their nomenclature is presented below. The description of NACA
airfoils is based on chapter 6 of Ref.3.14.
NACA fourdigit series airfoils
Earliest NACA airfoils were designated as fourdigit series. The thickness
distribution was based on successful RAE & Gottigen airfoils. It is given as :
2 3 4
t
t
y = 0.2969 x  0.1260x  0.3516x +0.2843x  0.1015x
20
(
(3.38)
where t = maximum thickness as fraction of chord.
The leading radius is : r
t
= 1.1019 t
2
Appendix I of Ref.3.14 contains ordinates for thickness ratios of 6%, 9%, 10%,
12%, 15%, 18%, 21% and 24%. The thickness distributions are denoted as
NACA 0006, NACA 0009,..,NACA 0024. Figure 3.20b shows the shape of
NACA 0009 airfoil. It is a symmetrical airfoil by design. The maximum thickness
of all fourdigit airfoils occurs at 30% of chord. In the designation of these airfoils
the first two digits indicate that the camber is zero and the last two digits indicate
the thickness ratio as percentage of chord.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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a) Clark Y Airfoil with flat bottom surface, used on propeller blades
b) NACA 0009 Symmetrical airfoil used on control surfaces
c) NACA 23012 Airfoil with high C
lmax
, used on low speed airplanes
d) NACA 66
2
215 Laminar flow or low drag airfoil
e) NASA GA(W) 1 or LS(1)  0417 Airfoil specially designed for general
aviation airplanes
f) NASA SC(2)0714 Supercritical airfoil with high critical Mach number,
specially designed for high subsonic airplanes
Fig.3.20 Typical airfoils
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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The camber line for the fourdigit series airfoils consists of two parabolic arcs
tangent at the point of maximum ordinate. The expressions for camber(y
c
) are :
( )
( )
( )
( )
(
)
2
c ycmax 2
2
ycmax 2
m
y = 2px x ; x x
p
3.39
m
= 12p +2px x ; x > x
1p
m = maximum ordinate of camber line as fraction of chord
p = chordwise position of maximum camber as fraction of chord
The camber lines obtained by using different values of m & p are denoted by two
digits, e.g. NACA 64 indicates a mean line of 6% camber with maximum camber
occuring at 40% of the chord. Appendix II of Ref.3.14 gives ordinates for NACA
61 to NACA 67 mean lines. The ordinates of other meanlines are obtained by
suitable scaling. For example, NACA 24 mean lines is obtained by multiplying the
ordinates of NACA 64 mean line by (2/6).
A cambered airfoil of fourdigit series is obtained by combining meanline and
the thickness distribution as described in the previous subsection. For example,
NACA 2412 airfoil is obtained by combining NACA 24 meanline and NACA 0012
thickness distribution. This airfoil has (a) maximum camber of 2% occurring at
40% chord and (b) maximum thickness ratio of 12%.
Refer appendix III of Ref.3.14, for ordinates of the upper and lower surfaces of
several fourdigit series airfoils. Appendix IV of the same reference presents the
low speed aerodynamic characteristics at M = 0.17 and various Reynolds
numbers. Chapter 7 of the same reference gives details of experimental
conditions and comments on the effects of parameters like camber, thickness
ratio, Reynolds number and roughness on aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils.
NACA fivedigit series airfoils
During certain tests it was observed that
max
C
l
of the airfoil could be
increased by shifting forward the location of the maximum camber. This finding
led to development of fivedigit series airfoils. The new camber lines for the five
digit series airfoils are designated by three digits. The same thickness distribution
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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9
was retained as that for NACA fourdigit series airfoils. The camber line shape is
given as :
( )
 
3 2 2
c 1
3
1
1
y = k x  3mx +m 3m x , 0 < x m
6
(3.40)
1
= k m 1 x ; m<x<1
6
( s
)
The value of m decides the location of the maximum camber and that of k
1
the
design lift coefficient(
i
C
l
or
opt
C
l
). A combination of m = 0.2025 and k
1
= 15.957
gives
i
C
l
= 0.3 and maximum camber at 15% of chord. This meanline is
designated as NACA 230. The first digit 2 indicates that
i
C
l
= 0.3 and the
subsequent two digits (30) indicate that the maximum camber occurs at 15% of
chord.
A typical fivedigit cambered airfoil is NACA 23012. Its shape is shown in
Fig.3.20c. The digits signify :
First digit(2) indicates that
i
C
l
= 0.3.
Second & third digits (30) indicate that maximum camber occurs at 15% of chord.
Last two digits (12) indicate that the maximum thickness ratio is 12%.
Remarks:
(i) Refer Appendices II, III and IV of Ref.3.14 for camber line shape,
ordinates and aerodynamic characteristics of fivedigit series airfoils.
(ii) Modified four and five digit series airfoils were obtained when leading
edge radius and position of maximum thickness were altered. For
details Ref.3.14, chapter 6 may be consulted.
Six series airfoils
As a background to the development of these airfoils the following points may
be mentioned.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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(i) In 1931 T.Theodorsen presented Theory of wing sections of arbitrary
shape NACA TR 411 which enabled calculation flow past airfoils of
general shape .
(ii) Around the same time the studies of Tollmien and Schlichting on
boundary layer transition, indicated that the transition process, which
causes laminar boundary layer to become turbulent, depends
predominantly on the pressure gradient in the flow around the airfoil.
(iii) A turbulent boundary layer results in a higher skin friction drag
coefficient as compared to when the boundary layer is laminar. Hence,
maintaining a laminar boundary layer over a longer portion of the airfoil
would result in a lower drag coefficient.
(iv) Inverse methods, which could permit design of meanline shapes and
thickness distributions, for prescribed pressure distributions were also
available.
Taking advantage of these developments, new series of airfoils called low drag
airfoils or laminar flow airfoils were designed. These airfoils are designated as
1series, 2series,.,7series. Among these the six series airfoils are
commonly used airfoils. Refer Ref.3.14, chapter 6 for more details.
When the airfoil surface is smooth. These airfoils have a C
dmin
which is lower
than that for fourand fivedigit series airfoils of the same thickness ratio. Further,
the minimum drag coefficient extends over a range of lift coefficient. This extent
is called drag bucket (see Fig.3.18b).
The thickness distributions for these airfoils are obtained by calculations which
give a desired pressure distribution. Analytical expressions for these distributions
are not available. Appendix I of Ref.3.14 gives symmetrical thickness
distributions for t/c between 6 to 21%.
The camber lines are designated as : a = 0, 0.1, 0.2 ., 0.9 and 1.0. For
example, the camber line shape with a = 0.4 gives a uniform pressure distribution
from x/c = 0 to 0.4 and then linearly decreasing to zero at x/c = 1.0. If the camber
line designation is not mentioned, a equal to unity is implied.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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An airfoil with a designation as NACA 66
2
215 is shown in Fig.3.20d. It is
obtained by combining NACA 66
2
015 thickness distribution and a = 1.0 mean
line. The digits signify :
1
st
digit 6 indicates that it is a 6 series airfoil
2
nd
digit 6 denotes the chordwise position of the minimum pressure in tenths of
chord for the symmetrical airfoil at C
l
= 0. i.e. the symmetrical section
(NACA 66
2
 015) would have the minimum pressure at x/c = 0.6 when producing
zero lift.
The suffix 2 indicates that the drag bucket extends 0.2around
opt
C
l
.
The digit 2 after the dash indicates that
opt
C
l
is 0.2. Thus in this case, drag
bucket extends for C
l
= 0.0 to 0.4.
The last two digits 15 indicate that the thickness ratio is 15%.
Since the value of a is not explicitly mentioned, the camber line shape
corresponds to a = 1.0.
Remarks:
(i) Refer appendices I, II, III and IV of Ref.3.14 for details of thickness
distribution, camber distribution, ordinates and aerodynamic
characteristics of various six series airfoils.
(ii) The lift coefficient at the centre of the drag bucket (
opt
C
l
) depends on
the camber. The extent of drag bucket depends on the thickness ratio
and the Reynolds number. The value given in the designation of the
airfoil is at R
e
= 9 x 10
6
. The extent is about 0.1 for t/c of 12%, 0.2
for t/c of 15% and 0.3 for t/c of 18%. When the extent of the drag
bucket is less than 0.1 , the subscript in the designation of the airfoil
is omitted, e.g. NACA 66210
NASA airfoils
NASA has developed airfoil shapes for special applications. For
example GA(W) series airfoils were designed for general aviation airplanes. The
LS series of airfoils among these are for low speed airplanes. A typical airfoil of
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this category is designated as LS(1)0417. In this designation, the digit 1 refers
to first series, the digits 04 indicate
opt
C
l
of 0.4 and the digits 17 indicate the
thickness ratio of 17%. Figure 3.20c shows the shape of this airfoil. For the
airfoils in this series, specifically designed for medium speed airplanes, the
letters LS are replaced by MS.
NASA NLF series airfoils are Natural Laminar Flow airfoils.
NASA SC series airfoils are called Supercritical airfoils. These airfoils have a
higher critical Mach number. Figure 3.20f shows an airfoil of this category.
Chapter 3 of Ref.1.9 may be referred to for further details.
Remarks:
(i)Besides NACA & NASA airfoils, some researchers have designed airfoils for
specialized applications like (a) low Reynolds number airfoils for micro air
vehicles, (b) wind mills, (c) hydrofoils etc. These include those by Lissaman,
Liebeck, Eppler and Drela. Reference 3.9, chapter 4, and internet
(www.google.com) may be consulted for details.
(ii)The coordinates of NACA, NASA and many other airfoils are available on the
website entitled UIUC airfoil data base.
3.2.14 Induced drag of wing
In the beginning of section 3.2.2 it was mentioned that the drag of the
wing consists of (i) the profile drag coefficient due to airfoil (C
d
) and (ii) the
induced drag coefficient (C
Di
) due to finite aspect ratio of the wing. Subsections
3.2.3 to 3.2.13 covered various aspects of profile drag. In this subsection the
induced drag of the wing is briefly discussed.
For details regarding the production of induced drag and derivation of the
expression for the induced drag coefficient, the books on aerodynamics can be
consulted e.g. Ref.3.12, chapter 5. Following is a brief description of the induced
drag.
Consider a wing kept at a positive angle of attack in an air stream. In this
configuration, the wing produces a positive lift. At the wing root, the average
pressure on the upper surface is lower than the free stream pressure ( ) p
and
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13
the average pressure on the lower surface is higher than p
t
k
 



\ .
(3.43)
LW
C = slope of lift curve of wing in radians
A = aspect ratio of wing
R = a factor which depends on (a) Reynolds number based on leading
edge radius, (b) leading edge sweep (
LE
A ), (c) Mach number (M), (d) wing
aspect ratio (A) and (e) taper ratio ( ).
2
= 1M
1/ 2
A = sweep of semichord line
k = ratio of the slope of lift curve of the airfoil used on wing divided by 2t .
It is generally taken as unity.
Remarks:
(i)Example 3.3 illustrates the estimation of e
wing
for an unswept wing. Section 2.5
of Appendix B illustrates the steps for estimating e
wing
of a jet airplane.
(ii) When a flap is deflected, there will be increments in lift coefficient and also in
profile drag coefficient and induced drag coefficient. Refer section 2.9 of
Appendix A.
(iii) The drags of horizontal and vertical tails, can be estimated by following a
procedure similar to that for the wing. However, contributions to induced drag
from the tail surfaces are generally neglected.
3.2.15 Drag coefficient of fuselage
The drag coefficient of a fuselage (C
Df
) consists of (a)the drag of the fuselage at
zero angle of attack (C
Do
)
f
plus (b) the drag due to angle of attack. Following
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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Ref.3.7, section 19.3 it can be expressed as:
2
(3.44)
Df Dof
C = C 1+K
15
where is the angle of attack of fuselage in degrees.
o
 
`

\ .
)
For a streamlined body (C
Do
)
f
is mainly skin friction drag and depends on
(i) Reynolds number, based on length of fuselage (
f
l ), (ii) surface roughness
and (iii) fineness ratio (A
f
). The fineness ratio is defined as:
A
f
=
f
l /d
e
(3.44a)
d
e
is the equivalent diameter given by:
(t /4)d
e
2
= A
fmax
where A
fmax
equals the area of the maximum crosssection of the fuselage.
When the fineness ratio of the fuselage is small, for example, in case of
general aviation airplanes, the fuselage may be treated as a bluff body. In such a
case the term C
Dof
is mainly pressure drag and the drag coefficient is based on
the frontal area (A
fmax
). However, the expression for (C
D0
)
f
given in Ref.3.6,
section 3.1.1 includes the effect of pressure drag and is also valid for general
aviation airplanes (refer section 2 of Appendix A).
The quantity K in Eq.(3.44) has a value of 1 for a circular fuselage and 4 to 6 for
a rectangular fuselage. However, the general practice is to include the increase
in drag of fuselage, due to angle of attack, by adding a term
fuselage
1
e
 


\ .
to
wing
1
e
 


\ .
.
Remark:
The drag coefficients of other bodies like engine nacelle, external fuel tanks and
bombs suspended from the wing, can also be estimated in a manner similar to
that of fuselage.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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3.2.16 Drag coefficients of other components
The drag coefficients of other components like landing gear are based on
areas specific to those components. They should be obtained from the sources
of drag data mentioned earlier. The change in drag of these components, with
angle of attack, is included by adding a term
other
1
e
 


\ .
to (
fuselage
1
e
+
wing
1
e
) i.e.
for the entire airplane,
wing fuselage other
1 1 1 1
= + +
e e e e
(3.44b)
Reference 3.6, section 3.2 recommends
other
1
e
 


\ .
as 0.05.
3.2.17 Parabolic drag polar, parasite drag, induced drag and Oswald
efficiency factor
It was mentioned earlier that the drag polar can be obtained by adding the
drag coefficients of individual components at corresponding angles of attack.
This procedure needs a large amount of detailed data about the airplane
geometry and drag coefficients. A typical drag polar obtained by such a
procedure or by experiments on a model of the airplane has the shape as shown
in Fig.3.21a. When this curve is replotted as C
D
vs C
L
2
(Fig.3.21b), it is found
that over a wide range of
2
L
C the curve is a straight line and one could write:
C
D
= C
D0
+ KC
L
2
(3.45)
C
D0
is the intercept of this straight line and is called zero lift drag coefficient or
parasite drag coefficient (Fig.3.21b).
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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17
Fig.3.21a Typical drag polar of a piston engined airplane
Fig.3.21b Drag polar replotted as C
D
vrs.
2
L
C
The term
2
L
KC
is called induced drag coefficient or more appropriately lift
dependent drag coefficient. K is written as:
1
K =
Ae t
(3.46)
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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The quantity e in Eq.(3.46) is called Oswald efficiency factor. It includes the
changes in drag due to angle of attack of the wing, the fuselage and other
components as expressed by Eq.(3.44b). It may be added that in the original
definition of Oswald efficiency factor, only the contribution of the wing was
included. However, the expression given by Eq.(3.44b) is commonly
employed(Ref.1.12, Chapter 2 and Ref.3.6, Chapter 2).
The drag polar expressed by Eq.(3.45) is called Parabolic drag polar.
Remarks:
i) A parabolic expression like Eq.(3.45) fits the drag polar because the major
contributions to the lift dependent drag are from the wing and the fuselage and
these contributions are proportional to the square of the angle of attack or C
L
.
ii) Rough estimate of C
Do
:
Based on the description in Ref.1.9, chapter 4 and Ref.3.7, chapter 14, the
parasite drag (D
parasite
or D
0
)
of an airplane can be approximately estimated as the
sum of the minimum drags of various components of the airplane plus the
correction for the effect of interference.
Modifying Eq.(3.1), the parasite drag can be expressed as:
D
parasite
= D
0
= (D
min
)
wing
+ (D
min
)
fuse
+ (D
min
)
ht
+ (D
min
)
vt
+ (D
min
)
nac
+ (D
min
)
lg
+
(D
min
)
etc
+ D
int
(3.46a)
Modifying Eq.(3.5), the above equation can be rewritten as :
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
0 Dmin fuse Dmin nac Dmin
wing fuse nac
2 2
ht Dmin vt Dmin
ht vt
2 2
lg Dmin etc Dmin int
lg etc
1 1 1
D = V S C + V S C + V S C +
2 2 2
1 1
V S C + V S C +
2 2
1 1
V S C + V S C +D 3.46b
2 2
Dividing Eq.(3.46b) by
2
1
V S
2
yields:
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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19
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
fuse nac
D0 Dmin Dmin Dmin
wing fuse nac
lg
ht vt
Dmin Dmin Dmin
ht vt lg
etc
Dmin Dint
etc
S S S
C = C + C + C +
S S S
S
S S
C + C + C +
S S S
S
C +C 3.46c
S
To simplify Eq.(3.46c) the minimum drag coefficient of each component is
denoted by C
Dt
and the area on which it is based is called Proper drag area and
denoted by S
t
. Thus, when the contribution of fuselage to C
Do
is implied, then
C
Dt
refers to ( )
Dmin
fuse
C and S
t
refers to
fuse
S . With these notations Eq.(3.46c)
simplifies to :
D0
C =
Dint D
1
C S + C
S
t t
 

\ .
(3.46d)
The product ( )
D0
C S is called Parasite drag area.
Note :
1)See example 3.3 for estimation of
D0
C of a low speed airplane.
2) In Appendices A and B the parasite drag coefficient (
D0
C ) is estimated using
the procedure given in Ref.3.6, chapter 3, which in turn is based on Ref.3.5,
section 4.5.3.1. In this procedure the contributions of the wing and fuselage to
D0
C are estimated togather as wing body combination and denoted by
D0WB
C
iii) The parabolic polar is an approximation. It is inaccurate near C
L
= 0 and
C
L
= C
Lmax
(Fig.3.21b). It should not be used beyond C
Lmax
.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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Chapter 3
Lecture 10
Drag polar 5
Topics
3.2.18 Parasite drag area and equivalent skin friction coefficient
3.2.19 A note on estimation of minimum drag coefficients of wings and
bodies
3.2.20 Typical values of C
DO
, A, e and subsonic drag polar
3.2.21 Winglets and their effect on induced drag
3.3 Drag polar at high subsonic, transonic and supersonic speeds
3.3.1 Some aspects of supersonic flow  shock wave, expansion fan
and bow shock
3.3.2 Drag at supersonic speeds
3.3.3 Transonic flow regime  critical Mach number and drag
divergence Mach number of airfoils, wings and fuselage
3.2.18 Parasite drag area and equivalent skin friction coefficient
As mentioned in remark (ii) of the previous subsection, the product C
Do
x S is
called the parasite drag area. For a streamlined airplane the parasite drag is
mostly skin friction drag. Further, the skin friction drag depends on the wetted
area which is the area of surface in contact with the fluid. The wetted area of the
entire airplane is denoted by S
wet
. In this background the term Equivalent skin
friction coefficient (C
fe
) is defined as:
C
Do
x S = C
fe
x S
wet
Hence, C
fe =
C
Do
x
wet
S
S
and
wet
DO f e
S
C = C
S
(3.47)
Reference 3.9, Chapter 12 gives values of C
fe
for different types of airplanes.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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Example 3. 3
A quick estimate of the drag polar of a subsonic airplane is presented in this
example which is based Ref.3.7, section 14.8. However, modifications have been
incorporated, keeping in view the present treatment of the drag polar.
An airplane has a wing of planform area 51.22 m
2
and span 20 m. It has a
fuselage of frontal area 3.72 m
2
and two nacelles having a total frontal area of
3.25 m
2
. The total planform area of horizontal and vertical tails is 18.6 m
2
. Obtain
a rough estimate of the drag polar in a flight at a speed of 430 kmph at sea level,
when the landing gear is in retracted position.
Solution:
Flight speed is 430 kmph = 119.5 m/s.
Average chord of wing(
wing
c ) = S / b = 51.22/20 = 2.566 m.
The value of kinematic viscosity (v ) at sea level =
6
14.6 10 m
2
Reynolds number (R
e
) based on average chord is:
6
6
119.5 2.566
= 21 10
14.6 10
It is assumed that NACA 23012 airfoil is used on the wing. From Ref.3.14,
Appendix IV, the minimum drag coefficient, (C
d
)
min
, of this airfoil at Re = 9 x 10
6
is
0.006. However, the value of drag coefficient is required at Re =
6
21 10 .
Assuming the flow to be turbulent (C
d
)
min
can be taken proportional to
1

7
e
R (Eq.
3.35). Thus, C
dmin
at
w
Re = 21 x 10
6
would roughly be equal to:
( ) ( )
6 6
1 1
7 7
0.006 21 10 / 9 10
= 0.0053
As regards the fuselage and nacelle, the frontal areas are specified. Hence, they
are treated as a bluff bodies. The value of (C
Dmin
)
fuselage
can be taken as 0.08
(Ref.3.4). The nacelle generally has a lower fineness ratio and (C
Dmin
)
nac
can be
taken as 0.10.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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As regards the horizontal and vertical tails, the Reynolds number based on their
average chords (Re
tail
) can be calculated if the areas and spans of these were
given. The following is suggested to obtain a rough estimate of Re
tail
.
2
ht vt
S S 18.6/2 9.3 m ~ ~ ~ . Then
tail tail
wing wing
c S
c S
~
and
tail
w
tail
wing
c Re 9.3
= 0.426
Re c 51.22
~ ~
Hence, Re
tail
6 6 6
2110 0.426 = 8.9510 910 ~ ~
At this Reynolds number (C
dmin
)
tail
can be assumed to be 0.006
The calculation of the parasite drag coefficient (C
Do
) is presented in Table E 3.3.
Part
S
t
(m
2
)
C
Dt
C
Dt
S
t
(m
2
)
Wing 51.22 0.0053 0.271
Fuselage 3.72 0.080 0.298
Nacelles 3.25 0.1 0.325
Tail surfaces 18.6 0.006 0.112
Total 1.006
Table E3.3 Rough estimate of C
Do
Adding 10% for interference effects, the total parasite drag area (C
Dt
S
t
) is:
1.006 + 0.1006 = 1.1066 m
2
.
Hence, C
D0
= 1.1066/51.22 = 0.0216
Wing aspect ratio is 20
2
/ 51.22 = 7.8
To obtain Oswald efficiency factor for the airplane (e) , the quantities e
wing
,
e
fuselage
and e
other
are obtained below.
Equations (3.42) and (3.43) give :
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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( )
( )
LW
Wing
LW
1.1 C /A
e =
C
R + 1R
A
t
 

\ .
2
2
2 4
LW
1
2 2
2
2 A
C =
tan2
A
1+ +
t
k
 

+


\ .
Here
A = 7.8, M = V/a = 119.5/340 = 0.351
Hence,
2 2
= 1M = 1 0.351 = 0.936
For the purpose of calculating e
wing
, the taper ratio ( ), the quarter chord
sweep (
1
4
A ) and the quantity k , are taken as 0.4, 0 and 1 respectively.
Consequently,
o
LE
= 3.14
Hence,
L
2 2
2 7.8
C = = 5.121rad
7.8 0.936
2+ +4
1
t
1
From Ref.3.14, chapter 6, the leading edge radius, as a fraction of chord, for
NACA 23012 airfoil is :
1.109 t
2
= 1.019 x 0.12
2
= 0.016
R
le
= 0.016 x c = 0.016 x 2.566 = 0.041 m
Reynolds number, based leading edge radius (
eLER
R ), is :
eLER
5
6
0.041119.5
R = = 3.3510
1410
Hence,
2
eLER LE LE
R cot 1M cos
5 2
= 3.3510 18.22 1 0.351 0.998
= 57.16 x 10
5
Further,
LE
A 7.80.4
= = 3.13
cos 0.998
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Corresponding to the above values of (
2
eLER LE LE
R cot 1M cos ) and
(
LE
A
cos
), Fig 3.14 of Ref.3.6, gives R = 0.95.
Hence,
( )
wing
1.1 5.121/7.8
e = = 0.925
0.95 5.121 / 7.8 + 0.05t
To obtain e
fuselage
, it is assumed that the fuselage has a round cross section.
In this case, Fig.2.5 of Ref 3.6 gives:
( )
fuselage
fuselage
1
/ S /S
e
 


\ .
= 0.75 when A = 7.8.
Consequently,
fuselage
1
= 0.753.72/51.22 = 0.054
e
others
1
e
is recommended as 0.05(Ref.3.6, section 2.2)
Thus,
wing fuselage other
1 1 1 1
= + +
e e e e
=
1
+0.054+0.05 = 1.185
0.925
Or e = 0.844
Hence,
1 1
= = 0.0484
Ae 7.8 0.844 t t
Hence, a rough estimate of the drag polar is:
2
L D
C = 0.0216+0.0484C
Answer: A rough estimate of the drag polar is :
2
L D
C = 0.0216+0.0484C
Remark:
i) A detailed estimation of the drag polar of Piper Cherokee airplane is
presented in appendix A.
3.2.19 Note on estimation of minimum drag coefficients of wings and
bodies
Remark (ii) of section 3.2.17 mentions that the parasite drag coefficient of
an airplane (C
D0
) is given by :
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6
D0
C =
Dint D
1
C S + C
S
t t
 

\ .
where the values of
D
C
t
represent the minimum drag coefficients of various
components of the airplane.
In example 3.3 the minimum drag coefficients of wing, fuselage, nacelle,
horizontal tail and vertical tail were estimated using experimental data. However,
the minimum drag coefficients of shapes like the wing, the horizontal tail, the
vertical tail and the streamlined bodies can be estimated using the background
presented in subsections 3.2.5 to 3.2.10. The procedure for such estimation are
available in Ref.3.6 which in turn is based on Ref.3.5. The basis of this procedure
is that the minimum drag coefficient of a streamlined shape can be taken as the
skin friction drag coefficient of a flat plate of appropriate characteristic length,
roughness and area.
With these aspects in view, the procedure to estimate the minimum drag
coefficient of the wing can be summerised as follows. It is also illustrated in the
sections on drag polar in Appendices A & B.
(a) The reference length ( l ) is the mean aerodynamic chord of the exposed wing
i.e. the portion of wing outside the fuselage. This chord is denoted by
e
c . Obtain
roughness parameter ( l /k) with
e
c as l and value of k from Table 3.3.
(b) The flow is assumed to be turbulent over the entire wing.
(c)Choose the flight condition. Generally this is the cruising speed (V
cr
) and the
cruising altitude (h
cr
). Obtain the Reynolds number (Re) based on V
cr
, kinematic
viscosity ( )
cr
v at h
cr
and the reference length as
e
c i.e.
e cr
cr
c V
Re =
v
.
Obtain (Re)
cutoff
corresponding to ( l /k) using Fig.3.2 of Ref.3.6. Obtain C
df
corresponding to lower of Re and (Re)
cutoff
. Following Ref.3.6 this value is
denoted by C
fw
in Appendices A & B.
(d) Apply correction to C
fw
for type of airfoil and its thickness ratio. Multiply this
value by (S
wet
/S
ref
), where S
wet
is the wetted area of the exposed wing and S
ref
is
the reference area of the wing. Refer to section 3.1 of Ref.3.6 for estimation of
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S
wet
and correction for airfoil shape. When the shape of the airfoil changes along
the wingspan, a representative section is taken for estimation of S
wet
.
Similar procedure can be used to estimate the minimum drag coefficients of the
horizontal tail and vertical tail.
As regards estimation of the minimum drag coefficient of fuselage, the reference
length is taken as the length of fuselage (
f
l ) and the roughness factor is taken as
(
f
l /k). Correction is applied for fineness ratio (
f
l /d
e
) of the fuselage. Where d
e
is
the equivalent diameter of the fuselage (see section 3.2.15). The wetted area in
this case is the wetted area of the fuselage.
Finally, correction is applied for wingbody interference effect (see Appendices A
& B for details).
Similar procedure can be used to estimate the minimum drag coefficients of
bodies like nacelle, external fuel tanks, bombs etc.
3.2.20 Typical values of C
DO
, A, e and subsonic drag polar.
Based on the data in Ref.3.9, chapter 4 , Ref.3.18 vol. VI , chapter 5 and
Ref.3.15 , chapter 6, the typical values of C
D0
, A, e and the drag polar for
subsonic airplanes are given in Table 3.4.
Type of
airplane
C
D0
A
e
Typical polar
Low speed
(M <0.3)
0.025 to
0.04
6 to 8
0.75 to
0.85
0.025 + 0.06C
L
2
Medium speed
(M around 0.5)
0.02 to
0.024
10 to 12
0.75 to
0.85
0.022 + 0.04C
L
2
High subsonic
(M around 0.8,
Swept wing)
0.014 to
0.017
6 to 9
0.65 to
0.75
0.016 +0.045C
L
2
Table 3.4 Typical values of C
D0
, A, e and subsonic drag polar
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Remarks:
(i) Table 3.4 shows that C
D0
for low speed airplanes is higher than other
airplanes. This is because these airplanes have exposed landing gear, bluff
fuselage (see Fig.1.2a) and struts when a high wing configuration is used. The
C
D0
for high subsonic airplanes is low due to smooth surfaces, thin wings and
slender fuselage. It may be added that during the design process, the values of
airfoil thickness ratio, aspect ratio and angle of sweep for the wing are obtained
from considerations of optimum performance.
(ii) The low speed airplanes have a value of K (=1/ Ae t ) higher than the other
airplanes. One of the reasons for this is that these airplanes have only a
moderate aspect ratio (6 to 8) so that the wingspan is not large and the hanger
space needed for parking the plane is not excessive.
(iii) See section 2 of Appendix A for estimation of the drag polar of a subsonic
airplane in cruise and takeoff conditions.
3.2.21 Winglets and their effect on induced drag
According to Ref.2.1, a Winglet is an upturned wing tip or added axialliary airfoil
above and / or below the wing tips. Figure 1.2c shows one type of winglets at
wing tips. The winglets alter the spanwise distribution of lift and reduce the
induced drag. Reference 1.9, chapter 4 can be referred for a simplified analysis
of the effect of winglets. However, along with reduction in induced drag, the
winglets increase the weight of the wing and also the parasite drag. After trade
off studies which take into account the favourable and unfavourable effects of the
winglets, the following approximate dimensions are arrived at for the winglets.
Root chord of about 0.65 c
t
, tip chord of about 0.2 c
t
and height of about c
t
;
where c
t
is the tip chord of the wing. As regards the effect on induced drag,
Ref.3.15, chapter 5 suggest that the effect of winglets can be approximately
accounted for by increasing the wing span by an amount equal to half the height
of the winglet. The procedure is illustrated in example 3.4
Example 3.4
Consider a wing, with the following features. Area (S) = 111.63 m
2
,
Aspect ratio (A) = 9.3, span (b) = 32.22 m, root chord (c
r
) = 5.59 m,
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tip chord (c
t
) = 1.34 m
Further, the airplane has (a) parasite drag coefficient (C
DO
) = 0.0159 ; (b) Oswald
efficiency factor (e) = 0.8064 (c) lift coefficient during cruise (C
Lcr
)=0.512.
Examine the benefits of fitting winglets to this wing.
Solution :
The drag polar of the existing airplane is :
C
D
=
2 2
L L
1
0.0159+ C = 0.0159+0.04244C
9.30.8064
When C
L
= 0.512, C
D
= 0.0159 + 0.04244 x 0.512
2
= 0.02703
With winglets, the wing span effectively increases to :
t
e
c 1.34
b = b+ = 32.22+ = 32.89 m
2 2
Hence, the effective aspect ratio (A
e
) =
2 2
e
b 32.89
= = 9.691
S 111.63
Consequently, the drag polar approximately changes to :
2 2
L L
1
0.0159+ C = 0.0159+0.0407C
9.6910.8064 t
At C
L
= 0.512, the C
D
of the wing with winglet is :
0.0159 + 0.04074 x 0.512
2
= 0.02658
Reduction in drag coefficient is 0.02703 0.02658 = 0.00045 or 1.7%
Note :
(C
L
/C
D
)existing wing = 0.512/0.02703 = 18.94
(C
L
/C
D
)modified wing = 0.512/0.02658 = 19.26
3.3 Drag polar at high subsonic, transonic and supersonic speeds
At this stage, the reader is advised to revise background on compressible
aerodynamics and gas dynamics. References.1.9 & 1.10 may be consulted.
Before discussing the drag polar at high subsonic, transonic and supersonic
speeds, the relevant features of supersonic and transonic flows are briefly
recapitulated in the following subsections.
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3.3.1 Some aspects of supersonic flow shock wave, expansion fan and
bow shock
When the free stream Mach number roughly exceeds a value of 0.3, the
changes in the fluid density, within the flow field, become significant and the flow
needs to be treated as compressible. In a compressible flow, the changes of
temperature in the flow field may be large and hence the speed of sound
(a = RT ) may vary from point to point. When the free stream Mach number
exceeds unity, the flow is called supersonic. When a supersonic flow
decelerates, shock waves occur. The pressure, temperature, density and Mach
number change discontinuously across the shock. The shocks may be normal or
oblique. The Mach number behind a normal shock is subsonic; behind an oblique
shock it may be subsonic or supersonic. When supersonic flow encounters a
concave corner, as shown in Fig.3.22a, the flow changes the direction across a
shock. When such a flow encounters a convex corner, as shown in Fig.3.22b, the
flow expands across a series of Mach waves called expansion fan. A typical flow
past a diamond airfoil at supersonic Mach number is shown in Fig.3.23. If the
free stream Mach number is low supersonic (i.e. only slightly higher than unity)
and the angle , as shown in Fig.3.23, is high then instead of the attached shock
waves at the leading edge, a bow shock wave may occur ahead of the airfoil. A
bluntnosed airfoil can be thought of an airfoil with large value of at the leading
edge and will have a bow shock at the leading edge as shown in Fig.3.24.
Behind a bow shock there is a region of subsonic flow (Fig.3.24).
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(a) (b)
Fig.3.22 Supersonic flow at corners
(a) Concave corner (b) Convex corner
Fig.3.23 Supersonic flow past a diamond airfoil
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Fig.3.24 Bow shock ahead of bluntnosed airfoil
3.3.2 Drag at supersonic speeds
At supersonic Mach numbers also the drag of a wing can be expressed as
sum of the profile drag of the wing section plus the drag due to effect of finite
aspect ratio. The profile drag consists of pressure drag plus the skin friction drag.
The pressure drag results from the pressure distribution caused by the shock
waves and expansion waves (Fig.3.23) and hence is called Wave drag.
It is denoted by C
dw
. Figures 3.25a and b show the distributions of pressure
coefficients (C
p
) on an airfoil at angles of attack ( ) of 0
0
and 2
0
.
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(b)
o
= 2
Fig.3.25 Pressure distributions over a diamond airfoil (a)
o
= 0 (b)
o
= 2
From the distributions of
p
C at
o
= 0 , on various faces of the diamond airfoil, it is
observed that the distributions are symmetric about the Xaxis but not symmetric
about the Yaxis. This indicates C
l
= 0 but C
dw
> 0. From the distributions of C
p
at
o
= 2 , it is seen that the distributions are unsymmetric about both X and
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14
Yaxes. Thus in this case, C
l
> 0 and C
dw
> 0. It may be added that a leading
edge total angle of 10
(3.48)
where = angle of attack in radians and
t / c = thickness ratio of the airfoil
The wave drag of a finite wing at supersonic speeds can also be expressed as
KC
L
2
(refer Ref.1.9, chapter 5 for details). However, in this case K depends on
the free stream Mach number (M
). The ratio (V
max
/V
) is greater than
unity and depends on (a) the shape of airfoil (b) the thickness ratio (t/c) and
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( c ) the angle of attack (). As (V
max
/ V
) is greater than unity, the ratio of the
maximum Mach number on the airfoil ( M
max
) and free stream Mach number
(M
s ) to supersonic (M > 1
exceeds M
crit
, a region of supersonic flow occurs which is
terminated by a shock wave. The changes in flow pattern are shown in
Figs.3.26b and c.
(C) As free stream Mach number increases further the region of supersonic flow
enlarges and this region occurs on both the upper and lower surfaces of the
airfoil (Figs.3.26c, d & e).
(D) At a free stream Mach number slightly higher than unity, a bow shock is seen
near the leading edge of the airfoil (Fig.3.26f).
(E) At a still higher Mach numbers, the bow shock approaches the leading edge
and if the leading edge is sharp, then the shock waves attach to the leading edge
as shown in Fig.3.23.
Fig.3.26 (a) Mach number subsonic everywhere
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Fig.3.26 (b) M
only slightly higher than M
crit
;
shock waves are not discernible
Fig.3.26 (c) M
greater than M
crit
;
shock wave seen on the upper surface
Fig.3.26 (d) M
greater than M
crit
; shock waves seen on both the upper and
lower surfaces
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Fig.3.26 (e) M
greater than M
crit
;
shock waves seen on both the upper
and lower surfaces at the trailing edge
Fig.3.26 (f) M
greater than unity; bow shock wave seen ahead of the airfoil;
shock waves also seen at the trailing edge on both upper and lower surfaces
Fig.3.26 Flow past airfoil in transonic range at =2
0
(Adapted from Ref.3.16, chapter 9 with permission from author). The angle of
attack () being 2
0
is mentioned in Ref.3.17 chapter 4.
(IV) Transonic flow regime
When M
is less than M
crit
the flow every where i.e. in the free stream,
and on the body and behind it, is subsonic. It is seen that when M
crit
< M
< 1,
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the free stream Mach number is subsonic but there are regions of supersonic
flow on the airfoil (Figs.3.26c, d & e). Further, when M
< M
crit
).
(b) Transonic regime  when the regions of both subsonic and supersonic flow
are seen within the flow field.
(c) Supersonic regime  when the Mach number in the free stream as well as
on the body is supersonic.
The extent of the transonic regime is commonly stated as between 0.8 to
1.2. However, the actual extent of this regime is between M
crit
and the Mach
number at which the flow becomes supersonic everywhere. The extent depends
on the shape of the airfoil and the angle of attack. In the transonic regime the lift
coefficient and drag coefficient undergo rapid changes with Mach number
(Figs.3.27a, b and c). It may be recalled that C
d
and C
l
refer to the drag
coefficient and lift coefficient of an airfoil respectively.
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19
Fig.3.27a Variation of lift coefficient ( C
l
) in transonic range for the airfoil in
Fig.3.26 (=2
0
). (Adapted from Ref. 3.16, chapter 9 with permission from author)
Note: The points A, B, C, D, E and F corresponds to those in Figs.3.26a, b, c, d,
e and f respectively.
Fig.3.27b Typical variations of drag coefficient (C
d
) in transonic region for
airfoils of different thickness ratios (Adapted from Ref.3.17,
chapter 4 with, permission of McGrawHill book company)
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Figure 3.27a shows the variation of the lift coefficient ( C
l
) with Mach number at a
constant value of angle of attack. It is seen that at sub critical Mach numbers, C
l
increases with Mach number. This is due to the effect of compressibility on
pressure distribution. However, as the critical Mach number is exceeded the
formation of shocks changes the pressure distributions on the upper and lower
surfaces of the airfoil and the lift coefficient decreases (points C & D in
Fig.3.27a). This phenomenon of decrease in lift due to formation of shocks is
called Shock stall. For a chosen angle of attack the drag coefficient begins to
increase near M
crit
and reaches a peak around M
= 1 (Fig.3.27b).
(V) Drag divergence Mach number (M
D
)
The critical Mach number (M
crit
) of an airfoil has been defined in statement (II) of
this subsection. It is the free stream Mach number (M
. Consequently, the
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fuselage will also have critical Mach number (M
critf
) and drag divergence Mach
number. These Mach numbers depend on the fineness ratio of the fuselage. For
the slender fuselage, typical of high subsonic jet airplanes, M
critf
could be around
0.9. When M
critf
is exceeded the drag of the fuselage will be a function of Mach
number in addition to the angle of attack.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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Chapter 3
Lecture 11
Drag polar 6
Topics
3.3.4 Parabolic drag polar at high speeds
3.3.5 Guidelines for variations of C
Do
and K for subsonic jet transport
airplanes
3.3.6 Variations of C
Do
and K for a fighter airplane
3.3.7 Area ruling
3.4 Drag polar at hypersonic speeds
3.5 Lift to drag ratio
3.6 Other types of drags
3.6.1 Cooling drag
3.6.2 Base drag
3.6.3 External stores drag
3.6.4 Leakage drag
3.6.5 Trim drag
3.3.4 Parabolic drag polar at high speeds
The foregoing sections indicate that the drag coefficients of major airplane
components change as the Mach number changes from subsonic to supersonic.
Consequently, the drag polar of an airplane, being the sum of the drag
coefficients of major components, will also undergo changes as Mach number
changes from subsonic to supersonic. However, it is observed that the
approximation of parabolic polar is still valid at transonic and supersonic speeds,
with C
D0
and K becoming functions of Mach number i.e.:
C
D
= C
D0
(M) + K (M)C
L
2
(3.49)
Detailed estimation of the drag polar of a subsonic jet airplane is presented in
section 2 of Appendix B.
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3.3.5 Guidelines for variations of C
Do
and K for subsonic jet transport
airplanes
Subsonic jet airplanes are generally designed in a manner that there is no
significant wave drag up to the cruise Mach number (M
cruise
). Further, the drag
polar of the airplane for Mach numbers upto M
cruise
can be estimated, using the
methods for subsonic airplanes. Section 2 of Appendix B illustrates the
procedure for estimation of such a polar. However, to calculate the maximum
speed in level flight (V
max
) or the maximum Mach number M
max
, guidelines are
needed for the increase in C
D0
and K beyond M
cruise.
Such guidelines are
obtained in this subsection by using the data on drag polars of B727100 airplane
at Mach numbers between 0.7 to 0.88.
Reference 3.18 part VI, chapter 5, gives drag polars of B727100 at M = 0.7,
0.76, 0.82, 0.84, 0.86 and 0.88. Values of C
D
and C
L
corresponding to various
Mach numbers were recorded and are shown in Fig.3.29 by symbols. Following
the parabolic approximation, these polars were fitted with Eq.(3.49) and C
D0
and
K were obtained using least square technique. The fitted polars are shown as
curves in Fig.3.29. The values of C
D0
and K are given in Table 3.5 and presented
in Figs.3.30 a & b.
Fig.3.29 Drag polars at different Mach numbers for B727100
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M C
D0
K
0.7
0.76
0.82
0.84
0.86
0.88
0.01631
0.01634
0.01668
0.01695
0.01733
0.01792
0.04969
0.05257
0.06101
0.06807
0.08183
0.103
Table 3.5 Variations of C
D0
and K with Mach number
Fig.3.30a Parameters of drag polar  C
D0
for B727100
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Fig.3.30b Parameters of drag polar  K for B727100
It is seen that the drag polar and hence C
D0
and K are almost constant up to
M = 0.76. The variations of C
D0
and K between M = 0.76 and 0.86, when fitted
with polynomial curves, give the following equations (see also Figs.3.30 a & b).
C
D0
= 0.01634
0.001( M0.76)+0.11 (M0.76)
2 (3.50)
K= 0.05257+ (M0.76)
2
+ 20.0 (M0.76)
3 (3.51)
Note: For M 0.76, C
D0
= 0.01634, K = 0.05257
Based on these trends, the variations of C
D0
and K beyond M
cruise
but upto
M
cruise
+ 0.1
are expressed by the following two equations.
C
D
=
DOcr
C  0.001 ( MM
cruise
) + 0.11 (MM
cruise
)
2
(3.50 a)
K = K
cr
+ (MM
cruise
)
2
+ 20.0 (MM
cruise
)
3
(3.51 a)
where
DOcr
C and K
cr
are the values of C
D0
and K at cruise Mach number for the
airplane whose V
max
or M
max
is required to be calculated. It may be pointed out
that the value of 0.01634 in Eq.(3.50) has been replaced by
DOcr
C in Eq.(3.50a).
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This has been done to permit the use of Eq.(3.50a) for different types of
airplanes which may have their own values of
DOcr
C (see section 4.2 of Appendix
B). For the same reason the value of 0.05257 in Eq.(3.51) has been replaced by
K
cr
in Eq.(3.51a).
Section 4.2 of Appendix B illustrates the application of the guidelines given in this
subsection.
3.3.6 Variations of C
D0
and K for a fighter airplane
Reference 1.10, chapter 2 has given drag polars of F15 fighter airplane at
M = 0.8, 0.95, 1.2, 1.4 and 2.2.These are shown in Fig.3.31. These drag polars
were also fitted with Eq.(3.49) and C
D0
and K were calculated. The variations of
C
D0
and K are shown in Figs.3.32a & b. It is interesting to note that C
D0
has a
peak and then decreases, whereas K increases monotonically with Mach
number. It may be recalled that the Mach number, at which C
D0
has the peak
value, depends mainly on the sweep of the wing.
Fig.3.31 Drag polars at different Mach numbers for F15 (Reproduced from
Ref.1.10, chapter 2 with permission from McGrawHill book company)
Please note: The origins for polars corresponding to different Mach numbers are
shifted.
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Fig.3.32a Typical variations of C
D0
with Mach number for a fighter airplane
Fig.3.32b Typical variations of K with Mach number for a fighter airplane
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3.3.7 Area ruling
The plan view of supersonic airplanes indicates that the area of cross section
of fuselage is decreased in the region where wing is located. This is called area
ruling. A brief note on this topic is presented below.
It was observed that the transonic wave drag of an airplane is reduced when the
distribution of the area of cross section of the airplane, in planes perpendicular to
the flow direction, has a smooth variation. In this context, it may be added that
the area of cross section of the fuselage generally varies smoothly. However,
when the wing is encountered there is an abrupt change in the cross sectional
area. This abrupt change is alleviated by reduction in the area of cross section of
fuselage in the region where the wing is located. Such a fuselage shape is called
Cokebottle shape. Figure 3.33c illustrates such a modification of fuselage
shape.
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Fig.3.33 Design for low transonic wave drag
(a) Abrupt change in cross sectional area at wing fuselage junction
(b) Cokebottle shape
Figure 3.34, based on data in Ref.1.9 , chapter 5, indicates the maximum wave
drag coefficient, in transonic range, for three configurations viz (i) a body of
revolution (ii) a wingbody combination without area ruling and (iii) a wingbody
combination with area ruling (Ref.1.9, chapter 5 may be referred to for further
details). Substantial decrease in wave drag coefficient is observed as a result of
area ruling. Figure 3.35. presents a practical application of this principle.
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C
DWave
= 0.0035 0.008 0.0045
Fig.3.34 Maximum transonic wave drag coefficient of three different shapes
(a) body of revolution (b) wingbody combination without area ruling (c) wing
body combination with area ruling
Fig.3.35 An example of area ruling  SAAB VIGGEN
(Adapted from http://upload.wikimedia.org)
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3.4 Drag polar at hypersonic speeds
When the free stream Mach number is more than five, the changes in
temperature and pressure behind the shock waves are large and the treatment of
the flow has to be different from that at lower Mach numbers. Hence, the flows
with Mach number greater than five are termed hypersonic flows. Reference 3.19
may be referred to for details. For the purpose of flight mechanics it may be
mentioned that the drag polar at hypersonic speeds is given by the following
modified expression (Ref.1.1, chapter 6).
C
D
= C
D0
(M) + K (M)C
L
3/2
(3.52)
Note that the exponent of the C
L
term is 1.5 and not 2.0.
3.5 Lift to drag ratio
The ratio C
L
/ C
D
is called lift to drag ratio. It is an indicator of the aerodynamic
efficiency of the design of the airplane. For a parabolic drag polar C
L
/ C
D
can be
worked out as follows.
C
D
= C
D0
+KC
L
2
Hence, C
D
/ C
L
= (C
D0
/ C
L
) +KC
L
(3.53)
Differentiating Eq.(3.53) with C
L
and equating to zero gives C
Lmd
which
corresponds to minimum of (C
D
/ C
L
) or maximum of (C
L
/ C
D
).
C
Lmd
= (C
D0
/ K)
1/2
(3.54)
C
Dmd
= C
D0
+ K (C
Lmd
)
2
= 2 C
D0
(3.55)
(L/D)
max
= (C
Lmd
/ C
Dmd
) =
D0
1
2 C K
(3.56)
Note:
To show that C
Lmd
corresponds to minimum of (C
D
/ C
L
), take the second
derivative of the right hand side of Eq.(3.53) and verify that it is greater than zero.
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3.6 Other types of drag
Subsections 3.1.1, 3.2.2, 3.2.14, 3.2.17 and 3.3.2. dealt with the skin
friction drag, pressure drag (or form drag), profile drag , interference drag ,
parasite drag, induced drag, lift dependent drag and wave drag. Following
additional types of drags are mentioned briefly to conclude the discussion on this
topic.
3.6.1Cooling drag
The piston engines used in airplanes are air cooled engines. In such engines, a
part of free stream air passes over the cooling fins and accessories. This causes
some loss of momentum and results in a drag called cooling drag.
3.6.2 Base drag
If the rear end of a body terminates abruptly, the area at the rear is called a
base. An abrupt ending causes flow to separate and a low pressure region exists
over the base. This causes a pressure drag called base drag.
3.6.3 External stores drag
Presence of external fuel tank, bombs, missiles etc. causes additional parasite
drag which is called external stores drag. Antennas, lights etc. also cause
parasite drag which is called protuberance drag.
3.6.4 Leakage drag
Air leaking into and out of gaps and holes in the airplane surface causes
increase in parasite drag called leakage drag.
3.6.5 Trim drag
In example 1.1 it was shown that to balance the pitching moment about c.g.
(M
cg
), the horizontal tail which is located behind the wing produces a lift ( L
T
) in
the downward direction. To compensate for this, the wing needs to produce a lift
(L
W
) equal to the weight of the airplane plus the downward load on the tail i.e. L
W
=
W + L
T
. Hence, the induced drag of the wing, which depends on L
w
, would be
more than that when the lift equals weight. This additional drag is called trim drag
as the action of making M
cg
equal to zero is referred to as trimming the airplane.
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It may be added that a canard surface is located ahead of the wing and the lift on
it, to make M
cg
equal to zero, is in upward direction. Consequently, the lift
produced by the wing is less than the weight of the airplane. SAAB Viggen
shown in Fig.3.35, is an example of an airplane with canard. Reference1.15 and
internet (www.google.com) may be consulted for details of this airplane.
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Chapter 3
Lecture 12
Drag polar 7
Topics
3.7 High lift devices
3.7.1 Need for increasing maximum lift coefficient (C
Lmax
)
3.7.2 Factors limiting maximum lift coefficient
3.7.3 Ways to increase maximum lift coefficient viz. increase in camber,
boundary layer control and increase in area
3.7.4 Guidelines for values of maximum lift coefficients of wings with
various high lift devices
3.7 High lift devices
3.7.1 Need for increasing maximum lift coefficient (C
Lmax
)
An airplane, by definition, is a fixed wing aircraft. Its wings can produce lift only
when there is a relative velocity between the airplane and the air. The lift (L)
produced can be expressed as :
2
L
1
L= V SC
2
(3.57)
In order that an airplane is airborne, the lift produced by the airplane must be
atleast equal to the weight of the airplane i.e.
2
L
1
L = W = V S C
2
(3.58)
Or
L
2W
V =
SC
(3.59)
However, C
L
has a maximum value, called
Lmax
C , and a speed called Stalling
speed (V
s
) is defined as :
s
Lmax
2W
V =
SC
(3.59a)
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The speed at which the airplane takesoff (
T0
V ) is actually higher than the
stalling speed.
It is easy to imagine that the takeoff distance would be proportional
2
T0
V and in
turn to
2
S
V . From Eq.(3.59a) it is observed that to reduce the takeoff distance (a)
the wing loading (W/S) should be low or (b) the C
Lmax
should be high. Generally,
the wing loading of the airplane is decided by considerations like minimum fuel
consumed during cruise. Hence, it is desirable that C
Lmax
should be as high as
possible to reduce the takeoff and landing distances. The devices to increase
the C
Lmax
are called high lift devices.
3.7.2 Factors limiting maximum lift coefficient
Consider an airfoil at low angle of attack (). Figure 3.36a shows a flow
visualization picture of the flow field. Boundary layers are seen on the upper and
lower surfaces. As the pressure gradients on the upper and lower surfaces of the
airfoil are low at the angle of attack under consideration, the boundary layers on
these surfaces are attached. The lift coefficient is nearly zero. Now consider the
same airfoil at slightly higher angle of attack (Fig.3.36b). The velocity on the
upper surface is higher than that on the lower surface and consequently the
pressure is lower on the upper surface as compared to that on the lower surface.
The airfoil develops higher lift coefficient as compared to that in Fig.3.36a.
However the pressure gradient is also higher on the upper surface and the
boundary layer separates ahead of the trailing edge (Fig.3.36b). As the angle of
attack approaches about 15
o
the separation point approaches the leading edge
of the airfoil (Fig.3.36c). Subsequently, the lift coefficient begins to decrease
(Fig.3.36d) and the airfoil is said to be stalled. The value of for which C
l
equals
max
C
l
is called stalling angle (
stall
). Based on the above observations, the stalling
should be delayed to increase
max
C
l
.
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Fig.3.36a Flow past an airfoil at low angle of attack. Note: The flow is from left to
right (Adapted from Ref.3.20, chapter 6 with permission of editor)
Fig.3.36b Flow past an airfoil at moderate angle of attack.
Note: The flow is from right to left
(Adapted from Ref. 3.21, part 3 section II B Fig.200 with permission from
McGrawHill book company)
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Fig.3.36c Flow past an airfoil at angle of attack near stall. Note: The flow is from
left to right (Adapted from Ref.3.12, chapter 6 with permission of editor)
Fig.3.36d Typical C
l
vrs curve
Remark:
Since stalling is due to separation of boundary layer, many methods have
been suggested for boundary layer control. In the suction method, the airfoil
surface is made porous and boundary layer is sucked (Fig.3.37a). In the blowing
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method, fluid is blown tangential to the surface and the low energy fluid in the
boundary layer is energized (Fig.3.37b). Blowing and suction require supply of
energy and are referred to as active methods of control. The energizing of the
boundary layer can be achieved in a passive manner by a leading edge slot
(Fig.3.37c) and a slotted flap which are described in section 3.7.3. Reference
3.11, chapter 11 may be referred for other methods of boundary layer control and
for further details.
a. Suction
b. Blowing
c. Blowing achieved in a passive manner
Fig.3.37 Boundary layer control with suction and blowing
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3.7.3. Ways to increase maximum lift coefficient viz. increase in camber,
boundary layer control and increase in area
Beside the boundary layer control, there are two other ways to increase
the maximum lift coefficient of an airfoil (
max
C
l
) viz. increase of camber and
increase of wing area. These methods are briefly described below.
I) Increase in maximum lift coefficient due to change of camber
It may be recalled that when camber of an airfoil increases, the zero lift
angle (
0
l
) decreases and the C
l
vs curve shifts to the left (Fig.3.38). It is
observed that
stall
does not decrease significantly due to the increase of
camber and a higher
max
C
l
is realized (Fig.3.38). However, the camber of the
airfoil used on the wing is chosen from the consideration that the minimum drag
coefficient occurs near the lift coefficient corresponding to the lift coefficient
during cruise. One of the ways to achieve a temporary increase in the camber
during takeoff and landing is to use flaps. Some configurations of flaps are
shown in Fig.3.39. In a plain flap the rear portion of the airfoil is hinged and is
deflected when
max
C
l
is required to be increased (Fig.3.39a). In a split flap only
the lower half of the airfoil is moved down (Fig.3.39b). To observe the change in
camber brought about by a flap deflection, draw a line inbetween the upper and
lower surfaces of the airfoil with flap deflected. This line is approximately the
camber line of the flapped airfoil. The line joining the ends of the camber line is
the new chord line. The difference between the ordinates of the camber line and
the chord line is a measure of the camber.
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Fig.3.38 Increase in C
lmax
due to increase of camber
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Fig.3.39 Flaps, slot and slat
II) Increase in maximum lift coefficient due to boundary layer control
In a slotted flap (Fig.3.39c) the effects of camber change and the
boundary layer control (see remark at the end of section 3.7.2) are brought
together. In this case, the deflection of flap creates a gap between the main
surface and the flap (Fig.3.39c). As the pressure on the lower side of airfoil is
more than that on the upper side, the air from the lower side of the airfoil rushes
to the upper side and energizes the boundary layer on the upper surface. This
way, the separation is delayed and
max
C
l
increases (Fig.3.40). The slot is
referred to as a passive boundary layer control, as no blowing by external source
is involved in this device. After the success of single slotted flap, the double
slotted and triple slotted flaps were developed (Figs.3.39d and e).
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Fig.3.40 Effects of camber change and boundary layer control on
max
C
l
III) Increase in C
lmax
due to change in wing area
Equation (3.57) shows that the lift can be increased when the wing area
(S) is increased. An increase in wing area can be achieved if the flap, in addition
to being deflected, also moves outwards and effectively increases the wing area.
This is achieved in a Fowler flap (Fig.3.39f). Thus a Fowler flap incorporates
three methods to increase
max
C
l
viz. change of camber, boundary layer control
and increase of wing area. It may be added that while defining the
max
C
l
,
in case
of Fowler flap, the reference area is the original area of the wing and not that of
the extended wing.
A zap flap is a split flap where the lower portion also moves outwards as
the flap is deflected.
IV) Leading edge devices
High lift devices are also used near the leading edge of the wing. A slot
near the leading edge (Fig.3.39g) also permits passive way of energizing the
boundary layer. However, a permanent slot, in addition to increasing the lift, also
increases the drag and consequently has adverse effects during cruise. Hence, a
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deployable leading edge device called Slat as shown in Fig.3.39h is used. When
a slat is deployed it produces a slot and increases
max
C
l
by delaying separation.
On high subsonic speed airplanes, both leading edge and trailing edge
devices are used to increase
max
C
l
(Fig.1.2c).
Remarks:
i) References 1.9, 1.10, 1.12 and 3.9 may be referred for other types of high
lift devices like Kruger flap, leading edge extension, blown flap etc.
ii) Reference1.10, chapter 1 may be referred for historical development of
flaps.
3.7.4 Guide lines for values of maximum lift coefficients of wings with
various high lift devices
An estimate of the maximum lift coefficient of a wing is needed to calculate
the stalling speed of the airplane. It may be added that the maximum lift
coefficient of an airplane depends on (a) wing parameters (aspect ratio, taper
ratio and sweep) (b) airfoil shape, (c) type of high lift device(s), (d) Reynolds
number , (e) surface finish , (f) the ratio of the area of the flap to the area of wing
and (g) interference from nacelle and fuselage.
Table 3.6 presents the values of C
Lmax
which are based on (a) Ref.1.10,
chapter 5, (b) Ref.3.9 chapter 5 and (c) Ref.3.15 chapter 5. These values can be
used for initial estimate of C
Lmax
for subsonic airplanes with unswept wings of
aspect ratio greater than 5.
The quarter chord sweep(
1/4
) has a predominant effect on C
Lmax
. This effect,
can be roughly accounted for by the following, cosine relationship:
(C
Lmax
)
= (C
Lmax
)
=o
cos
1/4
For example, when the unswept wing without flap has C
Lmax
of 1.5, the same
wing with 30
o
sweep would have a C
Lmax
of 1.5 x cos 30
o
or 1.3. Similarly, an
unswept wing with Fowler flap has C
Lmax
of 2.5. The same wing with 30
o
sweep
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would have C
Lmax
of 2.5 x cos 30
o
or 2.17. With addition of leading edge slat, this
can go upto 2.43.
Type of flap Guideline for C
Lmax
in landing configuration
No flap 1.5
Plain flap 1.8
Single slotted flap 2.2
Double slotted flap 2.7
Double slotted flap with slat 3.0
Triple slotted flap 3.1
Triple slotted flap with slat 3.4
Fowler flap 2.5
Fowler flap with slat 2.8
Table 3.6 Guidelines for C
Lmax
of subsonic airplanes with unswept wings of
moderate aspect ratio
Figure 3.41 shows C
Lmax
for some passenger airplanes. The solid lines
correspond to the cosine relation given above.
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Fig.3.41 Maximum lift coefficient of passenger airplanes operating at high
subsonic Mach numbers
(Adapted from Ref.3.22, Chapter 8 with permission of authors)
Remarks:
i) The value of C
Lmax
shown in Table 3.6 can be used in landing configuration.
The flap setting during takeoff is lower than that while landing. The maximum lift
coefficient during takeoff can be taken approximately as 80% of that during
landing.
ii) The values given in Table 3.6 should not be used for supersonic airplanes
which have low aspect ratio wings and airfoil sections of small thickness ratio.
Reference 3.5, section 4.1.3.4 may be referred to for estimating C
Lmax
in these
cases.
iii) As the Mach number (M) increases beyond 0.5, the
max
C
l
of the airfoil section
decreases due to the phenomena of shock stall (see item IV in section 3.3.3).
Hence C
Lmax
of the wing also decreases for M > 0.5. The following relationship
between C
Lmax
at M between 0.5 to 0.9, in terms of C
Lmax
at M = 0.5, can be
derived based on the plots of C
Lmax
vs M in Ref.3.23, chapter 9, and Ref.3.9
chapter 12.
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Lmax M
Lmax M=0.5
(C )
=  0.418M + 1.209 , 0.5 M 0.9
(C )
For example at M = 0.9, C
Lmax
would be about 0.833 of C
Lmax
at M = 0.5.
Note: The maximum lift coefficient (C
Lmax
) in transonic Mach number range is not
likely to be monotonic as seen in Fig.3.27a. At transonic and supersonic Mach
numbers, C
Lmax
must be estimated at each Mach number. Reference 3.5,
section 4.1.3.4 may be consulted for this estimation.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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Chapter 3
Exercises
3.1 Following data relate to a light airplane.
W =11000 N
Wing: S = 15 m
2
,
C
D0
= 0.007, A.R. = 6.5, taper ratio () = 1.0, e = 0.9.
Fuselage: Has a drag of 136N at V = 160 km/hr at sea level when the angle of
attack is zero.
Horizontal tail: C
D0
= 0.006, S
t
= 2.4 m
2
Vertical tail: C
D0
= 0.006, S
v
= 2.1 m
2
Other components: C
D0
based on wing area = 0.003
Estimate the drag polar of the airplane assuming the contribution of the fuselage
to the lift dependent drag as small.
[Answer: C
D
= 0.0193 + 0.0544 C
L
2
]
[Remark : The C
DO
of wing in this exercise appears higher than C
DO
of tails. It is
likely that the airfoil section used on Wing may be thicker (say 15 to 18%) and
that on tail be thinner (say 9%).]
3.2 A drag polar is given as:
C
D
= C
D0
+ KC
L
n
Show that:
C
Lmd
=
1/n D0
C
{ }
K(n1)
, C
Dmd
=
n
n1
C
D0
(C
L
/C
D
)
max = (n1)/n 1/n
1/n
D0
1 1
{ }
n
C K
(n1)
n1
Verify that when n = 2, the above expressions reduced to those given by
Eqs. (3.54),(3.55) and (3.56).
3.3 Based on data in Ref.1.1, chapter 6, the drag polar of a hypersonic glider is
given in the table below.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter3
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
2
C
L
0
0.05
0.1
0.15 0.2
C
D
0.028 0.0364 0.05 0.07 0.0907
Fit Eq.(3.52) to this data and obtain C
D0
and K. Also obtain C
Lmd
, C
Dmd
and
(C
L
/C
D
)
max
. The expressions mentioned in exercise 3.2 can be used.
[Answers: C
D0
= 0.0283, K = 0.703, C
D
= 0.0283+0.0703 C
L
3/2
C
Lmd
= 0.1865, C
Dmd
= 0.0849, (C
L
/C
D
)
max
= 2.197].
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter3
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
1
Chapter 3
References
3.1 Biermann, D. and Herrnitein Jr., W.H.The interference between struts in
various combinations NACA TR 468, (1934). Note: This report can be
downloaded from the site NASA Technical Report Server(NTRS).
3.2 Apelt, C.J. and West, G.S. The effects of wake splitter plates on bluff body
flow in the range of 10
4
< Re < 5 x 10
4
part2 J.Fluid Mech. Vol.71, pp 145160,
(1975).
3.3. Hoerner, S.F. Fluid dynamic drag Published by author (1965).
3.4. Royal Aeronautical Society data sheets Now known as Engineering
Sciences Data Unit (ESDU).
3.5. Hoak, D.E. et al. USAF stability and control DATCOM, Air Force Wright
Aeronautical Laboratories Technical Report 833048, October 1960. (Revised
April 1978). Note: USAF Digital DATCOM can be accessed from net.
3.6 Roskam, J. Methods for estimating drag polars of subsonic airplanes
Roskam aviation and engineering (1973).
3.7. Wood K.D. Aerospace vehicle design Vol.I Johnson Publishing Co.,
Boulder, Colarado (1966).
3.8. Torenbeek, E. Synthesis of subsonic airplane design Delft University Press
(1982).
3.9. Raymer D.P.Aircraft design: A conceptual approach AIAA Educational
Series, Fourth Edition (2006).
3.10 Schlichting,H. Boundary layer theory McGrawHill (1968).
3.11 Schlichting, H. and Gersten , K. Boundary layer theory 8
th
Edition,
SpingerVerlag, (2000).
3.12 Anderson,Jr. J.D. Fundamentals of aerodynamics McGrawHill,
International Edition (1988).
3.13 White,F.M. Viscous fluid flow 2
nd
Edition, McGrawHill (1991).
3.14 Abbott, I.H and Von Doenhoff, A.E. Theory of wing sections Dover (1959).
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter3
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
2
3.15 Howe, D. Aircraft conceptual design synthesis Professional Engineering
Publishing Limited, London (2000).
3.16 Duncan, W.J., Thom, A.S., and Young, A.D. Mechanics of fluids E.L.B.S.
and Edward Arnold, (1975).
3.17 Schlichting, H.and Truckenbrodt, E.D. Aerodynamics of the airplane
translated by H.J. Ramm, McGraw Hill, (1979).
3.18 Roskam, J Airplane design volume IVIII Roskam Aviation and
engineering (1990).
3.19 Anderson, Jr, J.D. Hypersonic and high temperature gas dynamics
McGraw Hill (1989).
3.20 Oertel, H. (Editor) Prandtls essentials of fluid mechanics Second edition
SpringerVerlag,(2004).
3.21 Kaufmann, W. Fluid mechanics McGraw Hill ,(1963).
3.22 Jenkinson L. R., Simpkin P. and Rhodes D. Civil jet aircraft design Arnold,
(1999).
3.23 Huenecke. K, Combat aircraft design Airlife Pub. Co. (1987).
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G.Tulapurkara
Chapter IV
Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 1
Chapter 4
Engine characteristics
(Lectures 13 to 16)
Keywords: Engines for airplane applications; piston engine; propeller
characteristics; turboprop, turbofan and turbojet engines; choice of engine for
different applications.
Topics
4.1 Introduction
4.1.1 Engines considered for airplane applications
4.2 Piston enginepropeller combination
4.2.1 Operating principle of a piston engine
4.2.2 Effect of flight speed on the output of a piston engine
4.2.3 Effect of altitude on the output of a piston engine
4.2.4 Specific fuel consumption (SFC)
4.2.5 The propeller
4.2.6 Propeller efficiency
4.2.7 Momentum theory of propeller
4.2.8 Parameters for describing propeller performance and typical
propeller characteristics
4.2.9 Selection of propeller diameter for chosen application
4.2.10 Procedure for obtaining propeller efficiency for given h,V, BHP
and N
4.2.11 Variations of THP and BSFC with flight velocity and altitude
4.2.12 Loss of propeller efficiency at high speeds
4.3 Gas turbine engines
4.3.1 Propulsive efficiency
4.3.2 Why turboprop, turbo fan and turbojet engines?
4.3.3 Characteristics of a typical turboprop engine
4.3.4 Characteristics of a typical turbofan engine
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G.Tulapurkara
Chapter IV
Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 2
4.3.5 Characteristics of a typical turbojet engines
4.4 Deducing output and SFC of engines where these characteristics are
not available directly
4.5 A note on choice of engines for different range of flight speeds
References
Excercises
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G.Tulapurkara
Chapter IV
Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 3
Chapter 4
Lecture 13
Engine characteristics 1
Topics
4.1 Introduction
4.1.1 Engines considered for airplane applications
4.2 Piston enginepropeller combination
4.2.1 Operating principle of a piston engine
4.2.2 Effect of flight speed on the output of a piston engine
4.2.3 Effect of altitude on the output of a piston engine
4.2.4 Specific fuel consumption (SFC)
4.2.5 The propeller
4.2.6 Propeller efficiency
4.2.7 Momentum theory of propeller
4.1. Introduction
To evaluate the performance of an airplane we need to know the
atmospheric characteristics, the drag polar and the engine characteristics like
variations of thrust (or power) output and specific fuel consumption with flight
speed and altitude. In this chapter the engine characteristics are briefly reviewed.
4.1.1 Engines considered for airplane applications
Following power plants are considered for airplane applications.
(a) Piston enginepropeller combination.
(b) Gas turbine engines  turboprop, turbofan and turbojet.
(c) Ramjets.
(d) Rockets.
(e) Combination power plants like ramrocket and turboramjet.
At present, piston enginepropeller combination and gas turbine engines are the
power plants used on airplanes. Ramjets offer simplicity of construction and have
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G.Tulapurkara
Chapter IV
Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 4
been proposed for hypersonic airplanes. However, a ramjet cannot produce any
thrust when flight speed is zero. Hence, it is proposed to use a rocket or turbojet
engine to bring it (ramjet) to a flight speed corresponding to Mach number (M) of
2 or 3 and then the ramjet engine would take over. Consequently, the
combination power plants viz. ramrocket or turboramjet have been proposed.
Rockets have sometimes been used on airplanes as boosters to increase
the thrust for a short duration e.g. during takeoff.
4.2 Piston enginepropeller combination
In this case the output of the engine viz. brake horse power (BHP) is
available at the engine shaft and is converted into thrust by the propeller.
4.2.1 Operating principle of a piston engine
A few relevant facts about the operation of piston engines, used on
airplanes, are mentioned here. In these engines a certain amount for fuelair
mixture is taken in, it is compressed, then ignition, due to a spark, takes place
which is followed by the power stroke and the exhaust stroke (Fig.4.1).
Remarks:
i ) The piston engine in which the ignition is caused by a spark from the spark
plug is called a sparkignition engine. There are other types of piston engines in
which the pressure and temperature at the end of the compression stroke are
high enough to cause spontaneous ignition. Such engines do not need a spark
plug and are known as compressionignition engines.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G.Tulapurkara
Chapter IV
Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 5
Fig.4.1 Four stroke cycle of a sparkignition engine
ii) The volume of the airfuel mixture taken in, is almost equal to the swept
volume i.e., product of the area of crosssection of the engine cylinder and the
length of the piston stroke. The mass of fuel taken in per power stroke is thus
approximately equal to:
(swept volume) X (density of air) / (airfuel ratio).
4.2.2 Effect of flight speed on the output of a piston engine
For a given altitude and r.p.m. (N) the power output changes only slightly
with flight speed. This is because the piston engines are generally used at low
speeds (M < 0.3) and at these low Mach numbers, the increase in manifold
pressure due to the deceleration of air in the engine manifold is negligible. Hence
power output increases only slightly with flight speed. This increase is generally
ignored.
4.2.3 Effect of altitude on the output of a piston engine
To understand the effect of altitude on the output of the piston engine, the
following three facts need to be noted. (a) As stated at the end of the subsection
4.2.1, the mass of fuel taken in per stroke is equal to the product of swept volume
and density of air divided by airfuel ratio. (b) For complete combustion of fuel,
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G.Tulapurkara
Chapter IV
Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 6
the airfuel ratio has a definite value (around 15, the stoichiometric ratio). (c) As
the flight altitude increases, the density of air decreases.
Thus, for a given engine r.p.m. and airfuel ratio, the mass of air and
consequently, that of the fuel taken in decreases as the altitude increases. Since,
the power output of the engine depends on the mass of the fuel taken in, it
(power output) decreases with altitude. The change in power output (P) with
altitude is roughly given as (Ref.3.7,Appendix 1 A5 and Ref.4.3, chapter 14):
(P / P
0
) =1.13 0.13 (4.1)
where P
0
is the power output at sea level under ISA conditions and is the
density ratio.
Remark:
(i) Reference 3.15, chapter 3, gives the following alternate relationship for
decrease of power output with altitude :
(P / P
0
) =
1.1
(4.1a)
(ii) Figure 4.2 shows the performance for a typical piston engine. To prepare
such a performance chart, the engine manufacturer carries out certain tests, on
each new engine. During these tests the engine is run at a chosen RPM and
different loads are applied. The throttle setting is adjusted to get steady
conditions. The quantities like (a) engine RPM(N), (b) torque developed, (c)
manifold air pressure(MAP) and (d) the fuel consumed in a specific interval of
time, are measured.These tests are conducted at different RPMs. From these
test data the power output and the fuel flow rate per hour are calculated. The
data are also corrected for any difference between the ambient conditions during
the test, and the sea level standard conditions. The left side of Fig.4.2 presents
the sea level performance of a Lycoming engine. The upper part of the figure
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G.Tulapurkara
Chapter IV
Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 7
Fig.4.2 Typical piston engine performance (Lycoming 0360A)
(with permission from Lycoming aircraft engines )
shows the power output at different MAPs with RPM as parameter. The lower
part of the figure shows the fuel flow rate in US gallons per hour.
To obtain the effect of altitude on the engine output, the power output is
measured at different RPMs and MAPs during flight tests at different altitudes.
Typical altitude performance of Lycoming engine is presented in the right side of
Fig.4.2.
From such a chart, the output of the engine and the fuel flow rate can be
obtained for a chosen combination of altitude, RPM, MAP and ambient
temperature. The steps to obtain these are explained with the help of examples
4.1 and 4.2
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G.Tulapurkara
Chapter IV
Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 8
It may be added that the units used in Fig.4.2, which is reproduced from
manufacturers catalogue, are in FPS system. However, SI units are used in this
and the subsequent chapters.
4.2.4 Specific fuel consumption (SFC)
In engine performance charts, the fuel consumption is presented as fuel
flow rate per hour. However, in engineering practice the fuel consumption is
expressed as specific fuel consumption (SFC). It is defined as :
Fuel flow rate in Newton per hour
SFC =
BHP in kW
(4.1b)
Remarks :
(i) The output of a piston engine or turboprop engine is available as power at the
engine shaft. It is called BHP and measured in HP when FPS system is used. In
SI units the output is measured in kW. On the other hand, the output of a
turbofan or a turbojet engine is available as thrust, which is measured in lb in
FPS system and in Newton in SI units.
The specific fuel consumption of a jet engine is defined as:
SFC
Fuel flow rate in Newton per hour
=
Thrust in Newton
(4.1c)
(ii) To distinguish the specific fuel consumption of a piston or a turboprop engine,
from that of a jet engine, the SFC defined by Eq.(4.1b), is denoted as BSFC i.e.
Fuel flow rate in Newton per hour
BSFC =
BHP in kw
with units of N/kWhr (4.1d)
The specific fuel consumption of a turbofan or a turbojet engine is denoted by
TSFC i.e.
Fuel flow rate in Newton per hour
TSFC =
Thrust in Newton
with units of hr
1
(4.1e)
(iii) BSFC in metric units is also expressed as mg/Ws
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G.Tulapurkara
Chapter IV
Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 9
Example 4.1
Obtain the power output and BSFC for the Lycoming engine when
operating at sea level at an RPM(N) of 2400 and MAP of 24'' of mercury (Hg).
Solution :
From plots in the left side of Fig.4.2, for N = 2400 and MAP = 24'' of Hg
the power output is 136 HP and the fuel flow rate is 10.7 US gallons/hr.
Taking 1 US gallon = 3.78 litre and density of petrol as 0.76 kg/m
3
gives:
1 gallon per hour of petrol = 3.78 x 0.76 kg/hr
= 3.78 x 0.76 x 9.81 N/hr
= 28.18 N/hr of petrol
Hence, the fuel flow rate in the case under study is :
10.7 x 28.18 = 301.5 N/hr.
Noting that 1 lb/hr = 4.45 N/hr, The fuel flow rate in this case is 67.75 lbs/hr.
Further, 1 HP is 0.7457 kW. Hence, power output of 136 HP equals 101.4 kW.
Hence, BSFC in SI units is: 301.5/101.4 = 2.973 N/kWhr
In FPS units it is: 67.75/136 = 0.498 lb/HPhr
Answers:
For the given engine, the power output, fuel flow rate and BSFC at N = 2400 and
MAP = 24'' of Hg under sea level standard conditions are :
(i)Power output = 101.4 kW = 136 HP, (ii) Fuel flow rate = 10.7 US gallons/hr
or 301.5 N/hr or 67.75 lb/hr of petrol (iii) BSFC = 2.973 N/kWhr = 0.498 lb/HPhr
Example 4.2
Obtain the power output and BSFC for the Lycoming engine when
operating at 8000' altitude, RPM (N) of 2200 and MAP of 20'' of Hg.
Solution :
Reference 1.9 chapter 6, gives the following procedure to obtain the
output and fuel flow rate using left and right sides of Fig.4.2.
(i)At sea level for N = 2200 and MAP of 20'' of Hg the output would be 97.5 BHP.
This is indicated by point B in the left hand side of Fig.4.2. This side of the
diagram is also called sea level performance.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G.Tulapurkara
Chapter IV
Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 10
(ii)Transfer this point to the right hand side of Fig.4.2 at sea level which is
indicated by point C. The right side of the diagram is also called altitude
performance.
(iii)Locate a point on the altitude curve corresponding to N = 2200 and MAP of
20'' of Hg. This point is indicated by A.
(iv)Join points C and A by a dotted line. The value at 8000' on this line (the point
D) is the output at h = 8000' corresponding to N = 2200 and MAP = 20'' of Hg.
It is seen that the value is 107 HP.
(v)To get the fuel flow rate, mark a point F on the sea level performance at 107
HP and N = 2200. The MAP at this point is observed to be 21.2'' of Hg. The fuel
flow rate corresponding to N = 2200 and MAP of 21.2'' of Hg, from the lower part
of figure in the left side is 8.25 gallons per hour. This point is indicated by G
Hence, at h = 8000' , N = 2200 and MAP of 20'' . The output is 107 HP (79.79
kW) and the fuel flow rate is 8.25 gallons / hr (232.5 N/hr or 52.2 lbs/hr of petrol).
Consequently, BSFC =
232.5
= 2.914 N/kWhr
79.79
or in FPS units, BSFC =
52.2
= 0.488 lb/ HPhr
107
Answers :
At h = 8000' , N = 2200 and MAP = 20'' of Hg :
Output = 79.79 kW =107 HP and BSFC =2.914 N/kWhr = 0.488 lb/BHPhr
Note : Reference 1.9, chapter 6 may be referred to obtain the correction to the
output if the ambient temperature is different from that in ISA.
4.2.5 The propeller
The output of the engine is converted into thrust by the propeller. A typical
engine with a two bladed propeller is shown in Fig.4.3. Depending on the engine
power and the operating conditions, the propeller may have two to four blades.
Special propellers with five or six blades have also been used in practice when
required.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G.Tulapurkara
Chapter IV
Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 11
Fig.4.3 Typical enginepropeller combination
(Source: www.flickr.com)
The propeller blade, as seen in Fig.4.3, is like a wing with significant amount of
twist. Refer Fig.3.3 for geometric parameters of a wing. The geometry of the
propeller is defined by the following features. (a) The variation of the chord,
shape and thickness of the airfoil section (also called blade element) over the
span of the blade. (b) The angle between the chord of the blade element and the
plane of rotation. This is also one of the definitions of the pitch angle ().
The pitch angle () varies along the span of the blade for the following reason.
Since the propeller blade moves forward as it rotates, the blade element has a
forward velocity of V
= THP / BHP = TV
equals the
forward speed of the airplane on which the propeller is mounted. A stream tube
enclosing the disc is also shown in Fig.4.4. As the stream approaches the front
face of the disc the fluid velocity reaches a value V
1
at the disc. As the flow is
assumed to be inviscid and incompressible, Bernoullis equation is valid till the
front face of the disc and the pressure decreases, to a value p
1
. At the disc,
energy is added in the form of increase in pressure by an amount p while the
velocity remains the same as V
1
through the disc (Fig.4.4a). After the disc the
pressure gradually returns to the atmospheric value of p
. Bernoullis equation is
again valid behind the disc and the fluid velocity increases to a value V
j
. The
changes in pressure and velocity are shown in Fig.4.4a.
Applying Bernoullis equation ahead and behind the disc gives :
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G.Tulapurkara
Chapter IV
Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 14
Total head ahead of disc = H =
1
2 2
1
1 1
p + V = p + V
2 2
(4.3)
Total head behind the disc = H
1
= ( )
2 2
1 1 j
1 1
p +p + V = p + V
2 2
(4.4)
Consequently,
( )
2 2
1 1
2 2
2 2
1 j j
1
p = H  H = p V p V = V  V
2
+ + (4.5)
Since p is the change in pressure over the disc, the thrust acting on the disc is:
( )
2 2
j
T = Ap=A V  V
2
(4.6)
where, A = area of disc =
2
d
4
t
; d = diameter of the propeller
Alternatively, the thrust produced can also be obtained as the rate of change of
momentum of the stream i.e.
( )
j
T = m V  V (4.7)
where,
(4.9)
Equating Eqs.(4.6) and (4.9) yields :
( ) ( )
2 2
1 j j
AV V  V = A V  V
2
Or
j
1
V + V
V =
2
(4.10)
Thus, the momentum theory shows that the velocity at the disc (V
1
) is the
average of V
j
&
(4.11)
The power input is the energy imparted to the fluid stream. This is the energy of
the stream far behind the disc minus the energy of the stream far ahead of the
disc. i.e.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G.Tulapurkara
Chapter IV
Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 15
Power input =
2 2
j
1 1
mV  mV
2 2
(4.12)
Hence, propeller efficiency is:
( )
( )
2
2
1
j
p
2
j
j
j
mV V V
2V power output
= = = =
m V
energy input V V
V V
2
V
(4.13)
Remarks:
(i)Equation (4.13) gives the propeller efficiency under ideal conditions and
represents an upper limit on efficiency obtainable. In practical situations, the
efficiency would be lower due to losses associated with (a) profile drag of blades,
(b) swirl in slip stream and (c) the pressure at the blade tips being the same
ahead and behind the disc.
(ii)For production of thrust, V
j
must be greater than
j
m V  V
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G.Tulapurkara
Chapter IV
Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 16
j 2
V +V
m = d
4 2
t
 

\ .
Hence,
( )
j 2
j
V +55.56
2070 = 1.225 1.8 V  55.56
4 2
t  

\ .
Or 1328.1 =
2 2
j
V  55.56
Or
j
V = 66.45 m/s
Ideal propeller efficiency =
j
2 2
= = 0.9107 = 91.07 %
V 66.45
1+
1+
55.56
V
Answers :
Velocity of slip stream far behind propeller = 66.45 m/s = 239.22 kmph
Ideal propeller efficiency = 91.07 %
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G.Tulapurkara
Chapter IV
Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 1
Chapter 4
Lecture 14
Engine characteristics 2
Topics
4.2.8 Parameters for describing propeller performance and typical
propeller characteristics
4.2.9 Selection of propeller diameter for chosen application
4.2.8 Parameters for describing propeller performance and typical propeller
characteristics
As pointed out at the end of the previous subsection, the momentum
theory of propeller has limitations. Though the refined theories are helpful in
design of propeller blades, the propeller characteristics obtained from the wind
tunnel tests are used for estimation of airplane performance. These
characteristics are presented in terms of certain parameters. First these
parameters are defined and then typical characteristics of propellers are
presented. The procedures for (a) selection of the propeller diameter and (b)
obtaining the propeller efficiency for given h, v, BHP and N, are given in the next
two subsections.
Following Ref.4.1 and Ref.3.7 chapter 16, the propeller performance is
expressed in terms of the following coefficients. It may be pointed out that FPS
units are used in these references whereas SI units are used here.
Advance ratio : J = V/nd (4.14)
Power coefficient:
P
C = P/n
3
d
5
; P in Watts (4.15)
Thrust coefficient: C
T
= T/n
2
d
4
(4.16)
Speed power coefficient: C
s
= V (/ Pn
2
)
1/5
=
5
P
J/ C (4.17)
Propeller efficiency:
p
=TV / P; P in Watts
= J (C
T
/
P
C ) (4.18)
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G.Tulapurkara
Chapter IV
Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 2
Torque coefficient:
2 5
Q
Q
=
n d
C (4.19)
Torque speed coefficient:
3
S Q
Q = J/ C = V d /Q (4.20)
Where, P = Power in watts, T = thrust (N); V = flight velocity (m/s), n = rotational
speed (rev/s),
d = diameter of propeller (m)
Q = Torque (Nm) = P/ 2 n
In FPS units:
T = thrust (lbs); P = power (ft lbs/s) = 550 BHP
V = velocity (ft / s), BHP = brake horse power
The performance of a propeller is indicated by thrust coefficient (C
T
), power
coefficient (
P
C ) and efficiency (
p
). These quantities depend on advance ratio
(J) and pitch angle . Based on Ref.4.1, the experimental characteristics of a
two bladed propeller are presented in Figs. 4.5a to d.
Figure 4.5a presents the variation of
p
vs J with as parameter. It is seen that
p
is zero when V is zero; J is also zero in this case by virtue of its
definition(Eq.4.14). Equation (4.2) also indicates that
p
is zero when V is zero.
This is because even though the engine is working and producing thrust, no
useful work is done when V is zero. This is like a person pressing an immovable
wall. He spends muscular energy to push the wall but the output and hence the
efficiency is zero as the wall does not move and no useful work is done.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G.Tulapurkara
Chapter IV
Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 3
Fig 4.5a Propeller efficiency (
p
) vs advance ratio (J) with pitch angle () as
parameter.
For a chosen value of , the efficiency (
p
) increases as J increases. It reaches
a maximum for a certain value of J and then decreases (Fig. 4.5a). The
maximum value of
p
is seen to be around 80 to 85%. However, the value of J at
which the maximum of
p
occurs, depends on the pitch angle . This indicates
that for a single pitch or fixed pitch propeller, the efficiency is high (80 to 85%)
only over a narrow range of flight speeds (Fig. 4.5a). Keeping this behaviour in
view, the commercial airplanes use a variable pitch propeller. In such a propeller
the entire blade is rotated through a chosen angle during the flight and the pitch
of all blade elements changes. Such propellers have high efficiency over a wide
range of speeds. However, propellers with variable pitch arrangements are
expensive and heavy. Hence, personal airplanes, where cost of the airplane is an
important consideration, employ a fixed pitch propeller. As a compromise, in
some designs, propellers with two or three pitch settings are employed.
Figure 4.5b presents the variation of power coefficient (
P
C ) vs J with and C
T
as parameters. This chart is useful to obtain
p
for given values of altitude,
velocity, RPM and BHP (see subsection 4.2.10).
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G.Tulapurkara
Chapter IV
Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 4
Fig 4.5b Power coefficient (
P
C ) vs advance ratio (J) with pitch angle () and
thrust coefficient (C
T
) as parameters.
Figure 4.5c presents the variations of C
S
vs J and C
S
vs
p
with as parameter.
This figure is designated as Design chart and is used for selection of the
diameter of the propeller. A brief explanatory note on this topic is as follows.
Using defintions of J and
P
C , the parameter
s
C , defined below, is obtained. It is
observed that this parameter does not involve the diameter (d) of the propeller.
2 1/5
1/5
P
s
J
C = = V (/ Pn )
C
(4.21)
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G.Tulapurkara
Chapter IV
Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 5
It is also observed that the parameter
s
C depends on V, , P and N.
Consequently, this parameter can be evaluated when the power output (P),
engine RPM(N) and flight condition viz. V and h are specified.
The design problem involves obtaining the value of J which would give the
maximum value of
p
for a specified value of
s
C . This is arrived at in the
following manner.
Fig 4.5c Design chart
Using the data in Figs 4.5b & a , the values of
s
C can be obtained for constant
values of J or . For example, for = 15
o
the values given in table 4.1 are
obtained.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G.Tulapurkara
Chapter IV
Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 6
J
P
C
From Fig 4.5b
s
C
From Eq.(4.21)
p
From Fig 4.5a
0 0.04 0 0
0.2 0.04 0.381 0.43
0.4 0.037 0.773 0.69
0.6 0.025 1.255 0.805
0.8 0.005 3.685 0.35
Table 4.1 variation of
s
C with J for =
o
15
Similar calculations at , , ,
o o o o o o
= 20 25 30 ,35 40 and 45 yield additional values.
From these values the curves for
s
C vs
p
and
s
C vs J at different values of
can be plotted. These are shown in the upper and lower parts of Fig.4.5c. Based
on these plots, the dotted line in the lower part of Fig.4.5c gives the values of J
and which would give maximum
p
. This line is designated as Line of
maximum efficiency for
s
C . For example, corresponding to a value of
s
C = 1.4,
the dotted line gives J = 0.74 and =
o
20 . The upper part of the Fig.4.5c gives
p
= 82% for the chosen value of
s
C = 1.4.
From the value of J, the propeller diameter is obtained as d = V/(nJ) ; note that
the values of V and n are already known. Subsection 4.2.9 gives additional
details and example 4.4 illustrates the procedure to select the propeller diameter.
Figure 4.5d presents the variation of thrust coefficient (C
T
) vs J with as
parameter. It is observed that when J is zero, C
T
is not zero as the propeller
produces thrust, even when V is zero. The curves in Fig.4.5d are useful to
estimate the thrust developed by the propeller especially during the takeoff flight.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G.Tulapurkara
Chapter IV
Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 7
4.5d Thrust coefficient (C
T
) vs advance ratio (J) with pitch angle as
parameter.
Fig 4.5 Typical characteristics of a two bladed propeller
(Adapted from Ref 4.1)
Remark :
Reference 4.1 contains information on propellers with three and four
blades. Reference 3.7 chapter 16 contains information on six bladed propellers.
Additional information can be obtained from Ref 4.2 which is cited in chapter 17
of Ref. 4.3.
4.2.9 Selection of propeller diameter for chosen application
A propeller is selected to give the best efficiency during a chosen flight
condition which is generally the cruising flight for transport airplanes. Some
companies may design their own propellers but it is an involved task. Hence, the
general practice is to use the standard propellers and the charts corresponding to
them. As a first step, the number of blades of the propeller is decided depending
on the amount of power to be absorbed by the propeller.
The designer of a new airplane generally chooses the diameter of the propeller
using the design chart (e.g. Fig.4.5c) appropriate to the propeller. Let us consider
a two bladed propeller. Following steps are used to select the diameter of a
propeller.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G.Tulapurkara
Chapter IV
Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 8
(a) Choose a level flight condition i.e. altitude (
c
h ) and speed (
c
V ).
(b) Obtain lift coefficient (C
L
) in this flight using :
C
L
= W/
2
c
0.5V S . Obtain the corresponding C
D
from the drag polar of the
airplane.
(c) Obtain THP required during the flight using : THP =
3
D C
0.5V SC /1000
(d) Assume
p
= 0.8.
(e) Obtain BHP = THP/0.8. Then RPM (N) which will give this power output at the
chosen h
c
with low BSFC is known from the engine curves e.g. Fig.4.2.
Calculate n = N/60.
(f) Calculate
2
1/5
S
C = V / Pn .
(g) From the design chart like Fig. 4.5c, obtain the value of J on the dotted line,
corresponding to the value of C
S
in step (f). Also obtain the value of from the
same curve. Obtain the value of
p
from the upper part of the design chart.
(h) Since V, n and J are known, obtain propeller diameter (d) using : d = V/n J
(i) If the value of
p
obtained in step (g) is significantly different from the value of
0.8 assumed in step (d), then iterate by using the value of
p
obtained in step (g).
Finally roundoff the propeller diameter to nearby standard value.
Remark :
The choice of the parameters of the propeller like, diameter, pitch, blade
size are also influenced by factors like noise level of the propeller, ground
clearance, and natural frequency of the blade. Refer chapter 6 of Ref. 1.9.
Example 4.4
Consider the case of Piper Cherokee airplane dealt with in Appendix A
and obtain the diameter of the propeller for this airplane. According to chapter 6
of Ref.1.9, the chosen speed and altitude for propeller design are 132 mph
(212.4 kmph or 59 m/s) and sea level standard conditions respectively. The
engine operates at 75% of the maximum power at an RPM of 2500.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G.Tulapurkara
Chapter IV
Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 9
Solution :
From Appendix A the following data are obtained on Piper Cherokee
airplane.
Weight of airplane = W = 10673.28 N
Drag polar : C
D
= 0.0349 + 0.0755
2
L
C
Wing area = S = 14.864 m
2
.
At sea level = 1.225 kg/m
3
C
L
under chosen flight condition is =
1.
2
10673.28
= 0.3368
1
225 59 14.864
2
C
D
= 0.0349 + 0.0755 x 0.3368
2
= 0.04346
Hence, thrust horse power required (THP
r
) is :
THP
r
=
3
1
1.225 59 14.864 0.04346
2
= 81.26 kW
1000
As a first step, assume
p
= 0.8.
Consequently, the required BHP is :
BHP
r
= 81.26/0.8 = 101.6 kW = 101600 W
Noting that at sea level the maximum power is 135 kW, the BHP
r
of 101.6 kW is
close to 75% of that value which is prescribed in the exercise.
N = 2500. Hence, n = revolutions per second = 2500/60 = 41.67
Consequently, C
S
= V
1
1/5
2 2 5
/ pn = 59 1.225/101600 41.67 = 1.38
The airplane has a two bladed propeller of standard design and hence Fig 4.5c is
applicable. From this figure, corresponding to C
S
of 1.38, the dotted line gives
J = 0.74,
o
= 20 ,
p
= 0.83.
Consequently, the first estimate of propeller diameter is :
V 59
d = = = 1.91m
nJ 41.670.74
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G.Tulapurkara
Chapter IV
Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 10
Since, the value of
p
obtained is somewhat different from the value of 0.8
assumed earlier, the steps are repeated with
p
= 0.83.
BHP
r
= 81.26/0.83 = 97.90 kW = 97900 W
C
S
= 59 (1.225/97960 x 41.47
2
)
1/5
= 1.390
From Fig. 4.5c corresponding to C
S
of 1.39, the dotted line gives:
J = 0.75 and
o
= 20 and
p
= 0.83.
Consequently, the second estimate of propeller diameter is :
d =
59
= 1.89 m
41.670.75
Since the latest value of
p
is same as the value with which the steps were
repeated, the propeller diameter is taken as 1.89 m.
Remark:
The value of the propeller diameter obtained above is very close to the value of
1.88 m in the actual airplane.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G.Tulapurkara
Chapter IV
Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 1
Chapter 4
Lecture 15
Engine characteristics 3
Topics
4.2.10 Procedure for obtaining propeller efficiency for given h,V, BHP
and N
4.2.11 Variations of THP and BSFC with flight velocity and altitude
4.2.12 Loss of propeller efficiency at high speeds
4.3 Gas turbine engines
4.3.1 Propulsive efficiency
4.3.2 Why turboprop, turbo fan and turbojet engines?
4.2.10 Procedure for obtaining THP for given h, V, BHP and N
For calculating the performance of the airplane, the thrust horse power (THP)
is needed at different values of engine RPM(N), break horse power (BHP), flight
speed (V) and flight altitude (h). In this context the following may be noted.
(a) The engine output (BHP) depends on the altitude, the RPM (N) and the
manifold air pressure (MAP).
(b) The propeller absorbs the engine power and delivers THP;
p
THP = BHP
(c) The propeller efficiency depends, in general, on BHP, V, N and .
(d) The three quantities viz. d, V and n can be combined as advance ratio
(J = V/nd).
(e) Once
p
is known :
THP =
p
x BHP and T = THP1000/ V.
The steps required to obtain
p
depend on the type of propeller viz. variable pitch
propeller, constant speed propeller and fixed pitch propeller. The steps in the
three cases are presented below.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G.Tulapurkara
Chapter IV
Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 2
I) Variable pitch propeller
In this type of propeller the pitch of the propeller is changed during the flight
so that the maximum value of
p
is obtained in various phases of flight. The steps
are as follows.
(a) Obtain the ambient density for the chosen altitude. Also obtain engine
BHP at chosen V and N.
(b) Obtain
3 5
P
C = P/ n d ; P is BHP in watts
(c) Obtain J = V/nd
(d) Calculate
1/5
P S
C = J/C
(e) From the design chart for the chosen propeller (e.g. Fig 4.5c for a two
bladed propeller), obtain which will give maximum efficiency. Obtain
corresponding
p
. Consequently,
THP =
p
x BHP and T = THP x 1000 / V ; note V 0
(f) To get the thrust (T) at V = 0, obtain BHP of the engine at V = 0 at the
chosen altitude and RPM. Calculate
P
C . From
P
C vs J plot (e.g. Fig 4.5b for
a two bladed propeller) obtain C
T
and at this value of
P
C and J = 0. Having
known C
T
, the thrust(T) is given by :
T =
2
T
4
n d C
II) Constant speed propeller
The variable pitch propellers were introduced in 1930s. However, it was
noticed that as the pilot changed the pitch of the propeller, the engine torque
changed and consequently the engine RPM deviated from its optimum value.
This rendered, the performance of the enginepropeller combination,
somewhat suboptimal. To overcome this problem, the constant speed
propeller was introduced. In this case, a governor mechanism alters the fuel
flow rate so that the required THP is obtained even as rpm remains same.
The value of is adjusted to give maximum possible
p
.
The steps to obtain
p
are the same as mentioned in the previous case.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G.Tulapurkara
Chapter IV
Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 3
III) Fixed pitch propeller
From Fig 4.5b it is observed that a fixed pitch propeller has a definite
value of C
P
for a chosen value of advance ratio (J). Consequently, the
propeller can absorb only a certain amount of power for a given value of J.
Thus when the flight speed changes, the power absorbed by the propeller
also changes. However, for the enginepropeller combination to be in
equilibrium i.e. run at a constant r.p.m, the power absorbed by the propeller
and that produced by the engine must be the same. This would render the
problem of determining power output as a trial and error procedure. However,
it is observed that the fixed pitch propellers are used in light airplanes which
use piston engines. The torque of such an engine remains nearly constant
over a wide range of r.p.ms. Using this fact, the torque coefficient (C
Q
) and
torque speed coefficient (Q
s
) are deduced in Ref. 3.7, chapter 16, from the
data on C
P
& C
T
. Further a procedure is suggested therein to obtain
p
at
different flight speeds.
Herein, the procedure suggested in the Appendix of Ref 4.1 is presented. It is
also illustrated with the help of example 4.5.
It is assumed that the propeller is designed for a certain speed, altitude, rpm
and power absorbed.
Let, V
0
= design speed (m/s)
N
0
= design rpm ; n
0
= N
0
/ 60
BHP
0
= BHP of the engine under design condition (kW)
d = diameter of propeller (m)
J
0
= Advance ratios under design condition = V
0
/ n
0
d
0
= design blade angle; this angle is fixed
0
= efficiency of propeller under design condition
The steps, to obtain the THP at different flight speeds, are as follows.
1. Obtain from propeller charts, C
T
and C
P
corresponding to J
0
and
0
.
These values are denoted by C
TO
and C
PO
.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G.Tulapurkara
Chapter IV
Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 4
2. Choose values of J from 0 to a suitable value at regular intervals. Obtain
from the relevant propeller charts, the values of C
T
and C
P
at these values
of Js and the constant value of
0
.
3. Calculate J/J
0
, C
T
/C
P
and C
P0
/C
P
from values obtained in step 2.
4. Calculate:
T
0
=
0 0 0
BHP 1000/ V and (4.22)
0 0 PO TO
K = T C /C (4.23)
5. The assumption of constant torque (Q
0
) gives that N and P are related.
Note:
0 0 0
Q = P / 2n
This yields:
3 (4.24)
0
0 0
J N
V = V
J N
(4.25)
and
P0 T T
0 0
T0 P P
C C C
T = T = K
C C C
(4.26)
Consequently, THP = TV/1000 and BHP = THP/
p
The procedure is illustrated with the help of example 4.5.
Example 4.5
Obtain the thrust and the thrust horse power at sea level for V upto 60 m/s
for the propeller engine combination of example 4.4
Solution:
From example 4.4 it is noted that the propeller is designed to absorb
97.9 kW at 2500 rpm at V = 59 m/s.The propeller diameter is 1.88 m and = 20
o
.
Hence, V
0
= 59 m/s, N
0
= 2500, n
0
= 41.67,
0
= 20
o
BHP
0
= 97.9 kW,
0
= 0.83
0
0
0
V 59
J = = = 0.753
n d 41.671.88
From Fig 4.5d, C
TO
= 0.046
From Fig 4.5b, C
PO
= 0.041
Hence, C
TO
/C
PO
= 0.046/0.041 = 1.122
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G.Tulapurkara
Chapter IV
Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 5
0
97.910000.83
T = = 1377.24N
59
PO
0
TO
C 0.041
K = T = 1377.24 = 1227.54
C 0.046
The remaining calculations are presented in Table E 4.5
J
J/J
0
C
T
*
P
C
$
T
P
C
C
C
P0
/C
P
N/N
0
V
T
(N)
N
#
p
**
THP
$$
BHP
0 0 0.104 0.066 1.576 0.621 0.788 0 1927 1971 0 0 
0.1 0.133 0.104 0.065 1.589 0.629 0.793 6.21 1951 1983 0.17 12.15 71.23
0.2 0.266 0.104 0.065 1.606 0.636 0.792 12.49 1971 1993 0.33 24.61 74.60
0.3 0.398 0.102 0.062 1.631 0.657 0.811 19.05 2002 2027 0.49 38.14 77.83
0.4 0.531 0.093 0.060 1.545 0.683 0.827 25.91 1897 2067 0.62 49.15 79.28
0.5 0.664 0.082 0.058 1.420 0.712 0.844 33.05 1743 2109 0.70 57.61 82.29
0.6 0.797 0.070 0.059 1.306 0.765 0.875 41.12 1603 2187 0.77 65.91 85.60
0.7 0.930 0.055 0.046 1.185 0.884 0.900 51.55 1455 2350 0.81 75.00 92.60
0.8 1.062 0.040 0.036 1.099 1.126 1.061 66.50 1349 2653 0.83 89.71 108.1
*From Fig 4.5d ;
$
From Fig 4.5b; From Eq.(4.24); From Eq (4.25);
From Eq.(4.26); # N = (N/N
0
)x N
0
; ** From Fig 4.5a; $$ THP = TV/1000 ;
BHP = THP/
p
Table E4.5 Thrust and power output of an enginepropeller combination with
fixed pitch propeller
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G.Tulapurkara
Chapter IV
Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 6
The results are shown in Figs E4.5a and b
Fig. E 4.5 Variations of thrust (T) and thrust horse power (THP) with velocity(V)
(a) T vs V (b) THP vs V
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G.Tulapurkara
Chapter IV
Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 7
Answers :
The variations of T and THP with V are given in table below.
V(m/s) 0 6.21 12.49 19.05 25.91 33.05 41.12 51.55 66.50
T (N) 1927 1951 1971 2002 1897 1743 1603 1455 1349
THP(kW) 0 12.15 24.61 38.14 49.15 57.61 65.91 75.00 89.71
BHP(kW)  71.23 74.10 77.83 79.28 82.29 85.60 92.60 108.1
N (RPM) 1971 1983 1993 2027 2067 2109 2187 2350 2653
4.2.11 Variations of THP and BSFC with flight velocity and altitude
As mentioned earlier,THP equals
p
BHP. Thus, the variations of THP with V
and h depends on variations of
p
and BHP with V and h. In this context, the
following may be recalled.
(i)At a given altitude and RPM, the engine output (BHP) is almost constant with
flight velocity. (ii) BHP decreases with altitude as given by Eqs (4.1) or (4.1a).
(iii) The propeller efficiency
p
depends on BHP, h, V, n and . For a variable
pitch propeller
p
remains nearly constant over a wide range of flight speeds.
Thus for an airplane with variable pitch propeller, the THP vs V curve for a
chosen RPM and h remains flat over a wide range of flight speeds. A typical
variations of THP with V, at chosen RPM(N) and with h as parameter are
shown in Fig 4.6.
From the engine charts the fuel flow rate and BSFC are known at chosen
MAP & N. From these values the BSFC at the chosen MAP & N, can be
calculated using Eq.(4.1d) . See section 6 of Appendix A for typical calculations.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G.Tulapurkara
Chapter IV
Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 8
Fig 4.6 Schematic variation of THP with flight speed for an enginepropeller
combination with variable pitch propeller
4.2.12 Loss of propeller efficiency at high speeds
As noted earlier, the propeller blade is like a rotating wing with forward
motion. The resultant velocity at the propeller tip (V
Rtip
) would be the highest. It is
equal to:
V
Rtip
= { V
2
+ (2 n R)
2
}
1/2
, where R is the radius of the propeller.
When the Mach number corresponding to V
Rtip
exceeds the critical Mach
number for the airfoil used on the propeller, the drag coefficient of the airfoil
would increase and the lift coefficient would decrease (see subsection 3.3.3).
Consequently, the efficiency of the propeller would decrease. This loss of
efficiency can be delayed to higher flight Mach numbers by use of advanced
propellers. These propellers have swept blades and are being used on turboprop
airplanes up to flight Mach number of 0.7. Figure 4.7a shows one such propeller
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G.Tulapurkara
Chapter IV
Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 9
placed in a wind tunnel and fig 4.7b shows another propeller mounted on ATR 72
airplane.
Fig 4.7a Advanced propeller being tested in a Wind tunnel
(Adapted from Ref 4.4)
Fig. 4.7b Advanced propeller mounted on ATR72 airplane
(Source : www.fspilotshop.com)
Fig 4.7 Features of an advanced propeller
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G.Tulapurkara
Chapter IV
Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 10
4.3 Gas Turbine Engines
A gas turbine engine consists of a diffuser to decelerate the air stream
entering the engine, a compressor, a combustion chamber, a turbine and a
nozzle (Fig. 4.8a). In some turbojet engines, an afterburner is incorporated
between the exit of the turbine and the entry of the nozzle (Fig 4.8b).The hot
gases leaving the combustion chamber expand partly in the turbine and partly in
the nozzle. The need for three variants of gas turbine engines viz. turboprop,
turbofan & turbojet can be explained by considering their propulsive efficiencies.
Fig 4.8 Turbojet engine
(Source : http://www.aerospaceweb.org)
4.3.1 Propulsive efficiency
Propulsive efficiency is the ratio of useful work done by the air stream and
the energy supplied to it.
In a gas turbine engine, the velocity of the air stream ( V
) is augmented
to V
j
,the velocity of the jet stream, thereby imparting kinetic energy at the rate of :
(m/2) [ V
j
2
 V
2
] (4.27)
where m is the mass flow rate.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G.Tulapurkara
Chapter IV
Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 11
The engine develops a thrust T and hence results in a useful work of T V
.
Noting that:
T = m (V
j
 V
), (4.28)
the propulsive efficiency (
propulsive
) is:
m(V V )(V )
2 j
= =
propulsive
m V
2 2
j
(V V )
1+
j
2
V
(4.29)
4.3.2 Why turboprop, turbofan and turbojet engines?
The overall efficiency of a gas turbine engine is the product of items like
cycle efficiency, combustion efficiency, mechanical efficiency and propulsive
efficiency. The cycle efficiency depends on the engine cycle and in turn on the
maximum temperature / pressure in the engine. The combustion efficiency and
mechanical efficiency are generally of the order of 95%. Thus propulsive
efficiency finally decides the overall efficiency of a gas turbine engine as a
propulsive system.
Remark:
The action of a propeller is also similar to that of a jet engine i.e. it also enhances
velocity of the free stream from V
to V
j
, In this case, V
j
is the velocity of the
stream far behind the propeller(see subsection 4.2.7). Hence, the propulsive
efficiency of a propeller which was called ideal efficiency of propeller, is also
given by Eq. (4.29), which is same as given by Eq.(4.13).
The variation of propulsive efficiency with flight speed provides the reason for
use of turboprop, turbofan and turbojet engines in airplanes operating at different
range of flight speeds.Consider the variation of propulsive efficiency with flight
speed. For this purpose, a subsonic jet engine with convergent nozzle is
considered. In this case, the Mach number at the exit, would be unity and the
temperature of the exhaust gases would be around 600 K. Under these
conditions, V
j
, the velocity of jet exhaust would be around 500 m/s. Using
Eq.(4.29), the values of propulsive efficiency obtained at different flight speeds (
V
(m/s) 100 125 166.7 250 333.3 400
V
j
/ V
5 4 3 2 1.5 1.25
/1000) (4.30)
where SHP = shaft horse power available at propeller shaft in kW,
p
= propeller
efficiency and T
j
= jet thrust
The total output of a turboprop engine, also called Equivalent shaft horse
power (ESHP), is defined as :
ESHP = SHP + {T
j
V
/ (0.8x1000) } (4.31)
Note : (i) For the purpose of defining ESHP, the value of
is taken as 0.8 in
Eq.(4.31). The ESHP and SHP are in kW.
(ii) Equation (4.31) would not be able to account for the contribution, to ESHP, of
the thrust produced when the flight velocity (V) is zero or the static condition. For
this case and when V < 100 knots (or 185 kmph), the convention is to define
ESHP as follows (Ref.4.3, chapter 14).
ESHP = SHP + (T
j
/ 14.92) (4.31a)
where ESHP and SHP are in kW and T
j
is in N.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G.Tulapurkara
Chapter IV
Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 2
For example a turboprop engine developing SHP of 746 kW and jet thrust of
503 N, under sea level static condition, would have :
ESHP = 746 + (503/14.92) = 780 kW.
Characteristics of a typical turboprop engine are shown in Fig.4.11. It is
observed that the power output increases with flight speed. This increase is due
to two factors viz. (a) the mass flow through the engine ( ;
i i
m = A V
A
i
and V
i
being the area of intake, and the velocity at the intake) increases with flight
speed and (b) the pressure rise due to the deceleration of the flow in the inlet
diffuser also increases with flight Mach number.
Figure 4.11 also shows the influence of ambient temperature on power output. It
is observed that there is a significant fall in ESHP as the ambient temperature
rises.
From the curves regarding fuel flow rate in Fig.4.11, the BSFC can be obtained
at various speeds and altitudes as:
BSFC = (Fuel flow/hr) / ESHP
Remark:
Reference 3.9 Appendix E.3 gives performance curves for a large turboprop
engine with sea level static power of 6500 HP. It may be noted that the Sea level
static power is the engine output at sea level at zero velocity. Reference 1.9,
chapter 6 gives characteristics of an engine of around 1700 HP.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G.Tulapurkara
Chapter IV
Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 3
Fig.4.11 Characteristics of PT6A25 turboprop engine
(Adapted from Brochure of Pratt & Whitney Canada Corp. 1000, MarieVictorin,
Longueuil Quebec J4G 1A1, Canada Pratt & Whitney Canada Corp.
Reproduced with permission)
4.3.4 Characterisitcs of typical turbofan engine
In the early turbofan engines the thrust output used to remain fairly
constant with flight speed. In the modern turbofan engines the performance at
low speeds and low altitudes (up to about 5 km) has been improved so that the
ratio of the sea level static thrust and that (thrust) in high speedhigh altitude
flight is much higher than the early turbofan engines. The Sea level static thrust
is the engine output at M=0 at sea level. Higher sea level static thrust helps in
reducing the distance required for takeoff. Figure 4.12 shows the variations of
thrust with Mach number at different altitudes for an engine with bypass ratio of
4.9. The figure also shows the values of the specific fuel consumption (TSFC).
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G.Tulapurkara
Chapter IV
Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 4
Remark:
Chapter 9 of Ref.3.22 gives the performance, in terms of nondimensional
parameters, for engines with bypass ratios of 3, 6.5, 8 and 13. The curves are
also presented for takeoff rating, climb rating and cruise rating. It may be added
that the Takeoff rating is the engine output which can be availed for about 5
min. The engine can be run at Climb rating for about half an hour and at Cruise
rating for long periods.
Fig.4.12 Characteristics of Pratt and Whitney PW4056 turbofan engine 
maximum cruise thrust
(With permission from Pratt and Whitney, East Hartford)
4.3.5 Characterisitcs of typical turbojet engine
The characteristics of a supersonic turbojet engine are shown in Figs.4.13a to d.
It is observed that at subsonic speeds the thrust is fairly constant, but it increases
considerably at supersonic speeds. This rise is due to increased ram pressure
in the intake, as a result of the deceleration of the supersonic flow. The Mach
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G.Tulapurkara
Chapter IV
Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 5
number at which the peak value of thrust occurs depends on the design of the
engine.
Fig.4.13a Characteristics of Pratt and Whitney
JT4A3 turbojet engine (estimated thrust, TSFC, and airflow) under standard
atmospheric condition and 100% RAM recovery. h = sea level
(With permission from Pratt and Whitney, East Hartford)
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G.Tulapurkara
Chapter IV
Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 6
Fig.4.13b Characteristics of engine in Fig.4.13a, h = 15000 ft
(With permission from Pratt and Whitney, East Hartford)
Fig.4.13c Characteristics of engine in Fig.4.13a, h = 30000 ft
(With permission from Pratt and Whitney, East Hartford)
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G.Tulapurkara
Chapter IV
Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 7
Fig.4.13d Characteristics of engine in Fig.4.13a, h = 45000 ft
(With permission from Pratt and Whitney, East Hartford)
Remarks:
i)In Fig.4.13a to d the true airspeed is given in knots;one knot is equal to
1.852 kmph. Further, the speed of sound at h = 0, 15000 , 30000 and 45000 is
respectively 661, 627, 589 and 574 knots.
ii) Bypass supersonic turbofan engines are also being considered for supersonic
flight. Reference 3.9, gives, in Appendix E, typical curves for an engine with sea
level static thrust of 30000 lb (133 kN). Similarly Ref.4.5, chapter 8 also presents
curves for an engine with 33000 lb (146.3 kN) sea level static thrust. Figures 4.13
a to d also indicate the values of specific fuel consumption (TSFC) and the air
flow rate.
iii) Figure 4.8b shows an afterburner duct between the turbine exit and the entry
of the nozzle. The same figure also shows the fuel spray bars and the flame
holder. An afterburner is used to increase the thrust output for a short duration.
When the fuel is burnt in the afterburner, the temperature of the gases goes up
and the thrust increases when these gases subsequently expand in the nozzle.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G.Tulapurkara
Chapter IV
Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 8
However, the specific fuel consumption also goes up considerably and the
afterburner operation is resorted to only for a short duration like during takeoff or
transonic acceleration.
4.4 Deducing output and SFC of engines where these characteristics are
not available directly
The detailed information about engine performance (i.e. variations with
altitude and flight velocity of the thrust (or power) and TSFC (or BSFC) is
generally available only in a limited number of cases. To get the performance of
an engine with other rating, scaling of the available data is carried out. For this
purpose, the values of thrust(or power) of the engine, whose characteristics are
known, are multiplied by a suitable factor which will bring the output of the
existing engine equal to the output of the desired engine. It is assumed that the
SFC values will be the same for the two engines. This kind of scaling is generally
applicable for outputs within 25% of the output of the known engine (Ref.4.5,
chapter 8).
4.5 A note on choice of engines for different range of flight speeds
The topic of choice of engine for different types of airplanes is generally covered
in airplane design. Here some salient points are mentioned to conclude the
discussion on engines.
The following five criteria are used to select a power plant for a specific
application.
1.Overall efficiency
0
: This quantity is the product of (a) thermodynamic
cycle efficiency
t
(b) Combustion efficiency
c
(c) mechanical efficiency
m
and (d) propulsive efficiency
p
. The thermodynamic efficiency depends
on the thermodynamic cycle on which the engine operates. The details regarding
estimation of
t
are available in books on thermodynamics. However, it is of the
order of 40 to 50%. The combustion efficiency and mechanical efficiency would
be around 95%. The propulsive efficiency of the propeller and gas turbine
engines have been described in subsections 4.2.7, 4.2.8 and 4.3.2. It has been
pointed out there that
p
depends on flight speed or Mach number.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G.Tulapurkara
Chapter IV
Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 9
The specific fuel consumption (SFC) is an indication of the overall efficiency.
Based on Ref.3.9 chapter 3, it can be mentioned that the piston enginepropeller
combination would have lowest SFC for Mach number (M) upto about 0.3. The
turboprop engine would have lowest SFC in the range of Mach number from 0.3
to 0.6 which may extend to M 0.7 with the use of a transonic propeller. The
high bypass ratio turbofans have lowest SFC between for M 0.7 to 1.0 and the
low bypass ratio ones between M 1 to1.6 . Turbojets are more suited for
1 M .6 to about 3.5 and ramjets later upto M 8 . It may be recapitulated that a
ramjet engine requires another powerplant to bring it to Mach number of about
1.5.
2. Variation of thrust (or power) with flight speed and altitude:
The shaft horse powers of piston engine and turboprop engine do not change
significantly with flight speed. Consequently, the thrust outputs of these engines
decrease significantly with flight speed or Mach number. The output of a turbofan
engine decreases with Mach number, especially at low altitudes (Fig.4.12). The
thrust of a jet engine is fairly constant at subsonic speeds but increases
considerably at supersonic speeds (Fig.4.13 c & d). As regards the effect of flight
altitude Eq.(4.1a) shows that for a piston engine
1.1
sl
P/ P = where is the
density ratio and the suffix sl denotes a quantity at sea level.
For a turboprop engine (from Ref 1.10 chapter 3),
0.7
sl
P/P . From
Ref.3.15, chapter 3, (T/T
sl
) for turbofan and turbojet engines is also roughly
proportional to
0.7
3. Weight of the engine:
The weight of the engine contributes to the gross weight of the airplane and
hence it should be as low as possible.This quantity is indicated by the ratio W
pp
/T
or W
pp
/BHP, where W
PP
is the weight of the power plant. This ratio depends on
the type of engine and the engine rating; it (ratio) decreases as the rating
increases. Based on data in Ref.1.15, it can be mentioned that the weight per
unit BHP for a piston engine is around 9N/kW for an engine with a rating of
around 150 kW and about 6N/kW for a rating of around 500 kW. For a turboprop
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G.Tulapurkara
Chapter IV
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engine W
PP
/ESHP is around 2.9 N/kW for rating of 500 kW, 2.3 N/kW for a rating
of 2500 kW and 1.4 N/kW for a rating of 7500 kW. For a turbofan engines the
ratio W
PP
/T could be around 0.25 N/N for a rating of around 100 kN and about
0.15 N/N for a rating of about 250 kN.
4. Frontal area:
The frontal area of an engine contributes to the parasite drag of the airplane.
Hence, a lower frontal area is a desirable feature of the engine. For a given
output the piston enginepropeller combination generally has the highest frontal
area. Turboprop, turbofan and turbojet follow in the decreasing order of the
frontal area.
5.Other considerations :
Gas turbine engines have mechanical simplicity as compared to a piston
engine. However, gas turbine engines are costlier than the piston engines as
some of the components of the gas turbine engines operate at higher
temperature and RPM. This requires special materials and fabrication
techniques.
Keeping these factors in view the different types of engine are used in
the speed range/application as given in Table 4.3
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G.Tulapurkara
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Type of engine Speed / Mach number
range
Application airplanes
in the following
categories
Piston enginepropeller
combination
Upto 300 kmph
General aviation, trainer,
agricultural and sports.
Turboprop
250 to 600 kmph;
upto 750 kmph with
advanced propeller
Short and medium range
transport/cargo, aerial
survey, feeder liner and
executive transport.
Turbofan
M from 0.7 to 1.0
Medium and long range
transports, cargo,
maritime patrol, executive
transport, jet trainer.
Turbojet
M from 1 to 3
Trainers, supersonic
transport, fighter,
interceptor, bomber.
Ramjet
M from 2 to 8
Intended for hypersonic
transport.
Table 4.3 Speed range and applications of different types of engines
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G.Tulapurkara
Chapter IV
Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 1
Chapter 4
Exercises
4.1) What are the different types of engines used on airplanes? State the
speed/Mach number range in which they are used.
4.2) Sketch a typical BHP vrs altitude curve for a piston engine. Why does the
power output of a piston engine decrease rapidly with altitude? Supercharger is
needed to delay this loss of power to higher altitudes. Look for information on
supercharger from books (e.g. Ref.1.9) and internet (www.google.com).
4.3) What are the essential differences between turboprop, turbofan and turbojet
engines? Derive an expression for the propulsive efficiency and justify the range
of flight Mach numbers in which these engines are used.
4.4) A propeller of 2 m diameter is mounted on an airplane flying at a speed of
216 kmph. If the velocity of air far behind the propeller be 81 m/s, calculate the
propulsive efficiency and the thrust developed by the propeller.
[Answers:
p
= 85.1%, T = 5695 N]
4.5) Neatly sketch the following:
(a) variation of propeller efficiency vs flight velocity with propeller pitch angle as
parameter.
(b) Variation of thrust vs. Mach number with altitude as parameter for a
turbofan engine.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G.Tulapurkara
Chapter IV
Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 1
Chapter 4
References
4.1 Hartman, E.P. and Biermann, D. The Aerodynamic characteristics of full
scale propellers having 2, 3, and 4 blades of clark Y and R.A.F. 6 airfoil sections
NACA TR 640, Nov.1937. This report can be downloaded from the site NASA
Technical Report Server (NTRS).
4.2 Generalized method for propeller performance estimation Hamilton
Standard Division, Hamilton Standard Publication PDB6101A, United Aircraft
Corp., 1963.
4.3 Nicholai, L.M. and Carichner, G.E Fundamentals of aircraft and airship
design Vol I Aircraft design AIAA educational series (2010).
4.4 Mikkelson D.C. and Mitchell G.A. High speed turboprop for executive aircraft
potential and recent test results NASA TM 31482, Jan 1980. This report can
be downloaded from the site NASA Technical Report Server (NTRS).
4.5 Jenkinson L.R., Marchman III J.F. Aircraft design projects Butterworth
Heinemann (2003).
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter5
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1
Chapter 5
Performance analysis I Steady level flight
(Lectures 17 to 20)
Keywords: Steady level flight equations of motion, minimum power required,
minimum thrust required, minimum speed, maximum speed; stalling speed;
equivalent airspeed.
Topics
5.1 Introduction
5.1.1 Subdivisions of performance analysis
5.1.2 Importance of performance analysis
5.1.3 Approach in performance analysis
5.2 Equations of motion for steady level flight
5.3 Stalling speed
5.4 Equivalent airspeed
5.4.1 Airspeed indicator
5.5 Thrust and power required in steady level flight general case
5.6 Thrust and power required in steady level flight when drag
polar is independent of Mach number
5.7 Thrust and power required in steady level flight consideration of
parabolic polar
5.8 Influence of level flight analysis on airplane design
5.9 Steady level flight performance with a given engine
5.10 Steady level flight performance with a given engine and parabolic
polar
5.10.1 Airplane with jet engine
5.10.2 Parameters influencing V
max
of a jet airplane
5.10.3 Airplane with enginepropeller combination
5.11 Special feature of steady level flight at supersonic speeds
References
Exercises
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter5
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
2
Chapter 5
Lecture 17
Performance analysis I Steady level flight 1
Topics
5.1 Introduction
5.1.1 Subdivisions of performance analysis
5.1.2 Importance of performance analysis
5.1.3 Approach in performance analysis
5.2 Equations of motion for steady level flight
5.3 Stalling speed
5.4 Equivalent airspeed
5.4.1 Airspeed indicator
5.5 Thrust and power required in steady level flight general case
5.1 Introduction:
During its normal operation an airplane takes off, climbs to the cruising
altitude, cruises at almost constant altitude, descends and lands. It may also fly
along curved paths like turns, loops etc. The flights along curved paths are also
called manoeuvres. Analyses of various flights are the topics under the
performance analysis. A revision of section 1.6 would be helpful at this stage.
5.1.1 Subdivisions of performance analysis
Performance analysis covers the following aspects.
I) Unaccelerated flights:
(a) In a steady level flight an airplane moves with constant velocity at a constant
altitude. This analysis would give information on the maximum level speed and
minimum level speed at different altitudes.
(b) In a steady climb an airplane climbs at constant velocity. This analysis would
provide information on the maximum rate of climb, maximum angle of climb and
maximum attainable altitude (ceiling).
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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(c) In a steady descent an airplane descends with constant velocity. A glide is a
descent with zero thrust. This analysis would give the minimum rate of sink and
time to descend from an altitude.
(d) Range is the horizontal distance covered, with respect to a given point on the
ground, with a given amount of fuel. Endurance is the time for which an airplane
can remain in air with a given amount of fuel.
II) Accelerated flights:
(a) In an accelerated level flight an airplane moves along a straight line at
constant altitude and undergoes change in flight speed. This analysis provides
information about the time required and distance covered during acceleration
over a specified velocity range.
(b) In an accelerated climb, an airplane climbs along a straight line accompanied
by a change in flight speed. This analysis gives information about the change in
the rate of climb in an accelerated flight as compared to that in a steady climb.
(c) Loop is a flight along a curved path in a vertical plane whereas a turn is a
flight along a curved path in a horizontal plane. This analysis would give
information about the maximum rate of turn and minimum radius of turn. These
items indicate the maneuverability of an airplane.
(d) During a takeoff flight an airplane starts from rest and attains a specified
height above the ground.This analysis would give information about the takeoff
distance required.
(e) During a landing operation the airplane descends from a specified height
above the airport, lands and comes to rest. This analysis would provide
information about the distance required for landing.
5.1.2 Importance of performance analysis
The performance analysis is important to asses the capabilities of an
airplane as indicated in the previous subsection. Moreover, from the point of
view of an airplane designer, this analysis would give the thrust or power
required, maximum lift coefficient required etc. to achieve a desired performance.
This analysis would also point out the new developments required, in airplane
aerodynamics and engine performance, to achieve better airplane performance.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter5
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4
5.1.3 Approach in performance analysis
As mentioned in subsection 1.1.3 the approach here is to apply the
Newtons laws and arrive at the equations of motion. The analysis of these
equations would give the performance.
Remarks:
i) References 1.1, 1.5 to 1.13 may be referred to supplement the analysis
described in this and the subsequent five chapters.
ii) It would be helpful to recapitulate the following points.
(a) A Flight path is the line along which the centre of gravity (c.g.) of the airplane
moves. Tangent to the flight path gives the direction of the Flight velocity (see
Fig.5.1).
Fig.5.1 Flight path
(b) The external forces acting on a rigid airplane are:
(I) Aerodynamic forces (lift and drag)
(II) Gravitational force
(III) Propulsive force (thrust)
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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(c) The forces produced due to control deflection, needed to balance the
moments, are assumed to be small as compared to the other forces. With this
assumption all the forces acting on the airplane are located at the centre of
gravity (c.g.) of the airplane (Fig.5.2) and its motion is simplified to that of a point
mass moving under the influence of aerodynamic, propulsive and gravitational
forces.
Fig.5.2 Steady level flight
5.2 Equations of motion for steady level flight
In this flight the c.g. of the airplane moves along a straight line at a
constant velocity and at a given altitude. The flight path, in this case, is a
horizontal line. The forces acting on the airplane are shown in Fig.5.2. T is
Thrust, D is Drag, L is lift and W is the weight of the airplane.The equations of
motion are obtained by resolving, along and perpendicular to the flight direction,
the forces acting on the airplane. In the present case, the following equations are
obtained.
T  D = m a
x
L  W = m a
z
where, m is the mass of airplane and a
x
, and a
z
, are the components of the
acceleration along and perpendicular to the flight path respectively.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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As the flight is steady i.e. no acceleration along the tangent to the flight path,
implies that a
x
= 0. Further, the flight is straight and at constant altitude, hence,
a
z
= 0.
Consequently, the equations of motion reduce to:
T D = 0, L W = 0 (5.1)
Noting that, L = (1/2)V
2
SC
L
and L = W in level flight, gives :
W = (1/2)V
2
SC
L
Or V = (2W / SC
L
)
1/2
(5.2)
Further, (1/2)V
2
S = W / C
L
Noting that, D = (1/2)V
2
SC
D
and T = D in level flight, gives
the thrust required (T
r
) as :
T
r
= D =(1/2) V
2
SC
D
Substituting for (1/2) V
2
S as W / C
L
, yields:
T
r
= W (C
D
/ C
L
) (5.3)
The power required (P
r
), in kiloWatts, is given by:
P
r
= T
r
V/1000 (5.3a)
where T
r
is in Newton and V in m/s.
Substituting for V and T
r
from Eqs. (5.2) and (5.3) in Eq.(5.3a) yields:
C W 2W
D
P =
r
1000 C S C
L L
Or
3
C 1 2W
D
P
r
3/2
1000 S
C
L
= (5.4)
Remarks:
i) Equations (5.1) to (5.4) are the basic equations for steady level flight and would
be used in subsequent analysis of this flight.
ii) To fly in a steady level flight at chosen values of h and V, the pilot should
adjust the following settings.
(a) The angle of attack of the airplane to get the desired lift coefficient so that the
lift(L) equals the weight(W).
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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(b) The throttle setting of the engine, so that thrust equals drag at the desired
angle of attack. He (pilot) will also have to adjust the elevator so that the airplane
is held in equilibrium and the pitching moment about c.g. is zero at the required
angle of attack. As noted earlier, the forces (lift and drag) produced due to the
elevator deflection are neglected.
5.3 Stalling speed:
Consider that an airplane which has weight (W) and wing area (S), is flying at
an altitude (h). From Eq.(5.2) it is observed that, the flight velocity (V) is
proportional to 1/C
L
1/2
. Thus, the value of C
L
required would
increase as the flight
speed decreases. Since C
L
cannot exceed C
Lmax
, there is a flight speed below
which level flight is not possible. The flight speed at which C
L
equals C
Lmax
is
called Stalling speed and is denoted by V
s
. Consequently ,
V
s
= (2W / SC
Lmax
)
1/2
(5.5)
It is evident from Eq.(5.5) that V
s
increases with altitude since the density ()
decreases with height.The variations of V
s
with h for a typical piston engined
airplane and a typical jet airplane are presented in Figs.5.3a and b respectively.
Appendices A & B give the details of calculations.
Remark:
The maximum lift coefficient (C
Lmax
) depends on the flap deflection (
f
). Hence,
V
s
will be different for the cases with (a) no flap (b) flap with takeoff setting (c)
flap with setting for landing. Figure 5.3a presents the variations of stalling speed,
with altitude, for four cases viz. with no flap and with three different flap settings.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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Fig.5.3a Variations of stalling speed with altitude for a low speed airplane
Fig.5.3b Variations of stalling speed with altitude for a jet transport
5.4 Equivalent airspeed
Equivalent airspeed (V
e
) is defined by the following equation.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter5
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9
,
2 2 1 1
V = V
o e
2 2
Noting = / V can be expressed as :
o e
2W
1/2
V = V =
e
SC
o L
(5.6)
Remarks:
i) From Eq.(5.6) it is evident that for a given wing loading (W/S), the equivalent
airspeed in steady level flight is proportional to 1/C
L
1/2
and is independent of
altitude. Thus the stalling speed, for a given airplane configuration, when
expressed as equivalent airspeed is independent of altitude.
ii) To avoid confusion between equivalent airspeed ( V
e
) and the actual speed of
the airplane relative to the free stream (V), the latter is generally referred to as
true airspeed.
5.4.1 Airspeed indicator
The equivalent airspeed is also significant from the point of view of
measurement of speed of the airplane using Pitotstatic system. It may be
recalled from the topics studied in fluid machanics that a Pitotstatic tube senses
the Pitot (or total) pressure (p
t
) and the static pressure (
s
p ). The difference
between p
t
and
s
p is related to the velocity of the stream ( V
) by the following
equation.
1
;
2
2 4
2
s
t
M M
p p = V 1+ + +.... M = V /a,
4 40
 

\ .
a = speed of sound (5.6a)
Thus, at low speeds (M < 0.2),
1
2
2
s
t
p  p V
~
It may be pointed out that, in the case of an airplane, the air is stationary and the
airplane is moving. Hence, the quantity V
1/2
, the P
rmin
and V
mp
increase with altitude (Fig.5.6a) . It may be added that
the slope of a line, joining a point on the P
r
vs V curve and the origin, is P
r
/ V or
T
r
. However, as pointed out earlier, T
r
has a minimum value (T
rmin
) which is
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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independent of altitude. Hence, all P
r
vs. V curves have a common tangent
passing through the origin. Such a tangent is shown in Fig.5.6a. This feature
should be pointed out when P
r
vs. V curves are plotted at different altitudes. Note
that the common tangent to P
r
vs. V curves does not touch at V
mp
but at V
md
.
Fig.5.6a Power required and power available curves
Fig.5.6b Power required and power available at an altitude near ceiling
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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5.7 Thrust and power required in steady level flight consideration of
parabolic drag polar
The discussion in section 5.6, was with reference to a general drag polar
which may be given in tabular form or a plot. Consider the parabolic polar given
by :
C
D
= C
D0
+ KC
L
2
(5.10)
Since an equation is available for the drag polar, it is possible to obtain
mathematical expressions for the power required and thrust required. In this
section it is assumed that C
DO
and K are constant with Mach number.
Substituting for C
D
in expression for thrust required gives:
T
r
= D = (1/2)V
2
SC
D
= (1/2) V
2
S (C
D0
+KC
L
2
) (5.11)
Substituting for C
L
as W /{(1/2)V
2
S} in Eq.(5.11) yields:
2
1 2W
2
T = V S C + K
r Do
1
2 2
V S
2
(
 
(

(

(

(
\ .
Or
2 2 2
= + / ( )
r DO
T V SC KW V S
1
2
2
(5.12)
In Eq.(5.12) the first term () V
2
S C
D0
is called Parasite drag. The second
term 2 K W
2
/ (V
2
S) is called Induced drag. Typical variations of the parasite
drag, induced drag and total drag are shown in Fig.5.7.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter5
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
7
Fig.5.7 Variation of drag with flight speed
It is observed that from Fig.5.7 that the parasite drag, being proportional to V
2
,
increases rapidly with speed. The induced drag being proportional to 1/ V
2
is high
at low speeds but decreases rapidly as speed increases. The total drag, which is
the sum of the induced drag and the parasite drag, is approximately equal to
induced drag at low speeds and approaches parasite drag at high speeds. It has
a minimum value at a speed (V
md
) where the parasite drag and induced drag are
equal to each other (Fig.5.7). This can be verified by differentiating Eq.(5.12) with
respect to V and equating it to zero i.e.
2
dT
2KW (2)
r
= V S C + = 0
md D0
3
dV S
V
md
Or
   
 
\ . \ .
1
2
1/4
2W K
V =
md
S C
D0
(5.13)
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter5
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8
Substituting V
md
in Eq.(5.12) gives minimum thrust required i.e.
T
rmin
= W (C
D0
K)
1/2
+W(C
D0
K)
1/2
= 2W(C
D0
K)
1/2
(5.14)
From Eq.(5.14) it is observed that when V equals V
md
, the parasite drag and
induced drag both are equal to W (C
D0
K)
1/2
. This is also shown in Fig.5.7.
Expression for power required in the present case is given by :
T V 1 1
3 r
P = = V SC
r D
1000 1000 2
Substituting for C
D
from Eq.5.10 gives:
1 1
3 2
P = V S [C + KC ]
r D0 L
1000 2
1 1 W
3 2
Or P = V S [C + K ( ) ]
r D0
2
1 1000 2
V S
2
Or
2
1 1 KW
3
P = V S C +
r D0
2000 500 VS
(5.15)
The first term in Eq.(5.15) is called Parasite power and the second term is called
Induced power. The variations with flight velocity (V) of induced power, parasite
power and the total power required are shown in Fig.5.8.
It is observed that the minimum power occurs at a speed, V
mp
, at which the
induced power is three times the parasite power. This can be verified by
differentiating Eq.(5.15) with respect to V and equating it to zero. The verification
is left as an exercise to the student.
1/2
   
 
\ . \ .
1/4
2W K
V =
mp
S 3C
Do
(5.16)
1/2
 
 



\ .
\ .
1/4 3
1 2W 256
3
P = C K
rmin Do
1000 S 27
(5.17)
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter5
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
9
Fig.5.8 Variation of power required with flight speed
Remarks:
i) The expressions given in Eqs.(5.13) and (5.14) can be obtained in the following
alternate way.
T
r
= W (C
D
/ C
L
)
Hence, T
rmin
= W (C
D
/ C
L
)
min
(5.18)
But, for a parabolic polar
C C
D0 D
= + K C
L
C C
L L
(5.19)
The value of C
L
at which (C
D
/ C
L
) is minimum i.e. (C
Lmd
) is given by :
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter5
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
10
C d(C /C )
D0 D L
=0 or  +K =0
2
dC
L C
Lmd
This gives C
Lmd
as:
C
Lmd
= (C
Do
/ K)
1/2
(5.20)
The corresponding drag coefficient, C
Dmd
is
Dmd DO
DO
DO
KC
C =C + =2C
K
(5.21)
Equation (5.21) shows that when T
r
equals T
min
, both parasite drag coefficient
and induced drag coefficient are equal to
DO
C . Hence under this condition, the
parasite drag and induced drag both are equal to (1/2) V
2
S
DO
C .
Further,
( )
1
2
1
2
Dmd DO
Lmd
DO
D
DO
L
C 2C C
= = = 2 (C K)
C C
C / K
min
 

\ .
(5.22)
Hence, T
rmin
and V
md
are:
DO DO
2W
1/2 1/2 1/4
T = 2 W (C K) and V = ( ) (K / C )
rmin md
S
,
which are the same as Eqs.(5.14) & (5.13).
(ii) Exercise 5.4 gives expressions for T
r
in terms of V/V
md
and T
rmin
.
(iii) Similarly, expressions given in Eqs.(5.16) and (5.17) can be obtained in the
following alternate manner.
1/2
3
C 1 2W
D
P =
r
3/2
1000 S
C
L
 


\ .
Hence, P
rmin
occurs when C
D
/C
L
3/2
is minimum. For a parabolic polar
1/2 DO
C C
D
= + K C
L
3/2 3/2
C C
L L
Therefore,
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter5
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
11
( )
1
2
DO
5/2
L
L
3/2
d C / C
D
C L 3 1 K
=  +
dC 2 2
L C
C
Equating the R.H.S. to zero, the value of C
L
at which the power required is
minimum (
Lmp
C ) is given as:
Lmp
C = (3
DO
C / K)
1/2
(5.23)
Then the drag coefficient, corresponding to
Lmp
C
is given by:
Dmp DO DO
DO
3KC
C = C + = 4 C
K
(5.24)
Equation (5.24) shows that when P
r
equals P
rmin
the parasite drag coefficient is
equal to
DO
C and the induced drag coefficient is equal to 3
DO
C . Consequently,
the parasite power is (1/2) V
3
S
DO
C
and induced power is 3 times of that.
Hence,
DO
DO
DO
1/4
4C C 256
3 D
= = C K
3/2 3/4
27
C (3C / K)
L
min
 
 



\ . 
\ .
(5.24a)
1/2
1/2 1/4
2W 2W K
V = =
mp
SC S 3 C
Lmp DO
 
   

 

\ . \ .
\ .
1
= V 0.76 V
md md
1/4
3
~ (5.24b)
The above expression for V
mp
is the same as in Eq.(5.16).
Example 5.1
An airplane weighing 100,000 N is powered by an engine producing
20,000 N of thrust under sea level standard conditions. If the wing area be
25 m
2
,
calculate (a) stalling speeds at sea level and at 10 km altitude,
(b) (C
D
/ C
L
)
min
, (C
D
/
3/2
L
C )
min
,
T
rmin
, P
rmin
, V
md
and V
mp
under sea level
conditions.
Assume C
Lmax
= 1.5, C
D
= 0.016 + 0.064
2
L
C .
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter5
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
12
Solution:
The given data are : W = 100,000 N, T = 20,000 N, C
D
= 0.016 + 0.064 C
L
2
,
S = 25 m
2
, C
Lmax
=1.5
a)
S
Lmax
2W
V = ,
SC
at s.l. = 1.225 kg/m
3
,
at 10 km = 0.413 kg / m
3
Hence, at sea level,
2 100000
V =
S
1.225 25 1.5
= 66 m/s = 237.6 kmph
At 10 km altitude,
2 100000
V =
S
0.413 25 1.5
= 113.6 m/s = 409.0 kmph.
b)
C
D0
C = = 0.016/0.064 = 0.5
Lmd
K
Dmd
C 2 = = 0.032
DO
C
Hence, (C
D
/ C
L
)
min
= 0.032/0.5 = 0.064 and
T
rmin
= W (C
D
/ C
L
)
min
= 100000 x 0.064 = 6400 N
C = 3C /K = 0.866
Lmp DO
C = 4C = 0.064
Dmp DO
3/2 3/2
(C / C ) = 0.064/0.866 = 0.0794
D min
L
2W 2 100000
V = = = 114.5 m/s = 412.2 kmph
md
S C 1.225 25 0.5
Lmd
2 100000
V = = 86.30 m/s = 310.7 kmph
mp
1.225 25 0.866
Note: V
mp
= V
md
/ 3
1/4
( )
3 3
1 2W 1 2 100000
3/2
P = C / C = 0.0794 = 641.5 kW.
rmin D
L
1000 S 1000 1.225 25
min
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter5
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
13
Answers :
a)
S
V at sea level = 237.6 kmph
S
V at 10 km altitude = 409.0 kmph
b) (C
D
/ C
L
)
min
= 0.064 ;
3/2
(C / C ) = 0.0794
D min
L
; T
rmin
= 6400 N
At sea level : P = 641.5 kW;
rmin
V = 412.2 kmph;
md
V = 310.7 kmph
mp
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter5
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
1
Chapter 5
Lecture 19
Performance analysis I Steady level flight 3
Topics
5.8 Influence of level flight analysis on airplane design
5.9 Steady level flight performance with a given engine
5.10 Steady level flight performance with a given engine and parabolic
polar
5.10.1 Airplane with jet engine
5.8 Influence of level flight analysis on airplane design
The significant manner in which the performance analysis helped in
evolution of the airplane configuration can be appreciated from the following
discussion.
(a) The low speed airplanes are powered by engines delivering BHP or ESHP. In
this case, the major portion of the power required is induced power, which
depends on the factor K in drag polar (Eq.5.10). This factor is given as 1 / A e
where A is the aspect ratio of the wing and e is the Oswalds efficiency factor
(see Eq.3.46). Hence the low speed airplanes and gliders have high aspect ratio
wings. It may be added that personal airplanes have aspect ratio between 6 to 8
as hanger space is also an important consideration. However, medium speed
commercial airplanes have aspect ratio between 10 to 12. Gliders have aspect
ratio as high as 16 to 20.
(b) For high subsonic airplanes most of the drag is parasite drag which depends
on
DO
C (see Eq.5.12). Hence, high speed airplanes have features like smooth
surfaces, thin wings, streamlined fuselage, smooth fairings at wingfuselage joint
and retractable landing gear. These features reduce
DO
C . Manufacturing
techniques have also been improved to achieve smooth surface finish. High
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter5
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2
speed airplanes also have high wing loading (W/S) to reduce the wing area.
Table 3.4 may be referred to for typical values of
DO
C , A and e of different types
of airplanes. The reciprocal of (C
D
/ C
L
) is (C
L
/ C
D
). It is called liftdrag ratio
(L / D). The maximum value of this ratio, (L / D)
max
, is an indication of the
aerodynamic efficiency of the airplane. (L / D)
max
lies between 12 to 22 for a
subsonic airplanes and between 5 to 8 for supersonic airplanes.
(c) When the weight of an airplane increases the thrust required increases in
proportion to W and the power required increases in proportion to W
3/2
(Eqs.5.3
and 5.4). Hence, airplane design bureaus have a group of engineers which
keeps a close watch on any increase in the weight of the airplane.
5.9 Steady level flight performance with a given engine
At the outset the following three points may be noted.
(I)In steady level flight the thrust must be equal to drag (Eq.5.1).
(II) The thrust is provided by the engine or the enginepropeller combination and
from chapter 4, it is noted that the thrust or power output varies with engine RPM,
flight speed and altitude.
(III) For airplanes with piston engine or turboprop engine, the output is the power
available at the engine shaft. Hence, to estimate the performance of such
airplanes the calculations are carriedout in terms of BHP or THP. For airplanes
with turbofan or turbojet engines, the output is in terms of thrust and to estimate
the performance of such airplanes the calculations are carriedout in terms of
thrust.
Typical variations, with altitude and flight speed, of the maximum thrust available
(T
a
) and the maximum thrust horse power available (THP)
a
are shown in
Figs.5.5 and 5.6a respectively. The thrust required and power required curves
are also shown in same figures.
Consider the curves of T
a
and T
r
corresponding to sea level conditions. It is seen
that the power or thrust available is much more than the minimum power or thrust
required. Hence, flights over a wide range of speeds are possible by controlling
the engine output with the help of throttle and ensuring thrust equals drag.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter5
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
3
However, as the speed increases above the speed for minimum power or thrust
( V
mp
or
V
md
), the power or thrust required increases and at a certain speed the
power or thrust required is equal to the maximum available engine output (point
A in Figs.5.5 & 5.6a). This speed is called the Maximum speed(V
max
). Similar
intersections between power available and power required curves or thrust
available and thrust required curves are seen at higher altitudes (points B, C and
D in Fig.5.5, point B in Fig.5.6a and point C in Fig.5.6b).
Similarly, when the flight speed decreases below V
mp
or
V
md
the power or
thrust required increases and there is a speed at which the power or thrust
required is equal to the available power or thrust  point D in Fig.5.5 and point C
in Fig.5.6b. Figure 5.6b is drawn separately from Fig.5.6a to show the points C
and C clearly.
Thus, the minimum speed can be limited by available thrust or power output. It is
denoted by (V
min
)
e
. However, in level flight the requirement of lift equal to weight
should also be satisfied(Eq.5.1). Hence, level flight is not possible below stalling
speed. Thus, two factors viz. the thrust or power available and the stalling, limit
the minimum flight speed of an airplane. Satisfying both these requirements, the
minimum speed of the airplane at an altitude will be the higher of the two speeds
viz. (V
min
)
e
and V
S
.
Typical variations of V
max
, (V
min
)
e
and V
S
are shown for a jet engined airplane in
Fig.5.9. The details of the calculations are given in Appendix B. Similarly, typical
variations of these speeds in case of a piston engined airplane are shown in
Fig.5.10 with details of calculation given in Appendix A. The following
observations are made.
(i)For a jet airplane V
max
may slightly increase initially with altitude and then
decrease. However, there is an altitude at which the thrust required curve is
tangential to the thrust available curve and flight is possible only at one speed.
This altitude is called Ceiling and denoted by h
max
. Above h
max
the thrust
available is lower than the minimum thrust required and level flight is not possible
as the requirement of T = D cannot be satisfied.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter5
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4
Fig.5.9 V
max
and V
min
for jet airplane
Fig.5.10 V
max
, (V
min
)
e
and V
s
for airplane with enginepropeller combination
(ii)The minimum speed of a jet airplane is the stalling speed (V
s
) at low altitudes.
However, near the ceiling, the minimum speed is that limited by the thrust
available i.e. (V
min
)
e
.
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
Velocity (m/s)
Vs
Vmax
(Vmin)e
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter5
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5
(iii)In the case of a piston engined airplane, the maximum speed seems to
decrease with altitude. In this case also there is a ceiling altitude beyond which
the power available is lower than the minimum power required and hence level
flight is not possible. The ceiling in this case, is lower than in the case of a jet
airplane because the power output of a piston engine decreases rapidly with
altitude. As regards the minimum speed, it is also limited by stalling at low
altitudes and by power available near the ceiling altitude.
5.10 Steady level flight with a given engine and parabolic polar
If the drag polar is parabolic and the engine output can be assumed to be
constant with speed, then V
max
and (V
min
)
e
from the engine output consideration,
can be calculated analytically. i.e. by solving an equation. It may be noted from
Figs.5.5 & 5.6 that the assumption of T
a
or P
a
as constant with V appears
reasonable near the speeds where V
max
occurs.
5.10.1 Airplane with jet engine:
The steps to calculate V
max
and (V
min
)
e
are as follows.
(1) Choose an altitude h. Let T
a
be the thrust available in the range of speeds
where V
max
is likely to occur.
(2) T
r
=T
a
= W(C
D
/ C
L
)
Hence,
DO
T C C
a D
= = +KC
L
W C C
L L
Or
DO
T
2 a
KC  C + C = 0
L
L
W
(5.25)
Equation (5.25) is a quadratic in C
L
.
Its solution gives two values of C
L
at which
level flight with the given thrust is possible. Let these values of C
L
be denoted as
C
L1
and C
L2
. Then, the corresponding flight speeds, V
1
and V
2
, are given as:
1 1
2 2
2W 2W
V = and V =
1 2
SC SC
L1 L2
(5.26)
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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6
It may be pointed out that the same results can be obtained by using Eq.(5.12),
i.e.
1
2
DO
2
2W
2
T = T = V S C + K
a r
2
V S
Or AV
4
BV
2
+ C = 0 (5.27)
where,
1
2
DO
2
2KW
A = SC , B = T and C =
a
S
For given value of thrust (T
a
), Eq.(5.27) also gives two solutions for level flight
speeds V
1
and V
2
.
Let V
1
be the higher among V
1
and V
2
.Then, V
1
is the maximum speed and V
2
is
the minimum speed, based on engine output i.e. (V
min
)
e
. The higher of (V
min
)
e
and the stalling speed (V
s
) will be the minimum speed at the chosen altitude.
The example 5.2 illustrates the procedure.
Remarks:
i) Calculate the Mach number corresponding to V
1
. If it is more than the critical
Mach number then
DO
C and K would need correction and revised calculation,
would be required.
ii) Obtain, from the engine charts, the thrust available at V
1
.
Let it be denoted by
T
a1
. If the thrust available (T
a
), assumed at the start of the calculation(step 1), is
significantly different from T
a1,
then the calculations would have to be revised
with new value of T
a
. However, it is expected that the calculations would
converge to the correct answer in a few iterations.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter5
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
1
Chapter 5
Lecture 20
Performance analysis I Steady level flight 4
Topics
5.10.2 Parameters influencing V
max
of a jet airplane
5.10.3 Airplane with enginepropeller combination
5.11 Special feature of steady level flight at supersonic speeds
5.10.2 Parameters influencing V
max
of a jet airplane
From Eq.(5.27), an analytical expression for V
max
can be deduced when it is
assumed that the thrust available (T
a
) ,C
DO
and K remain constant with flight
speed. The derivation is as follows.
2
2
2 DO a
1 2W
T = V S C K
2 V S
 
+

\ .
(5.27)
or AV
4
BV
2
+ C = 0
where,
DO
1
A = SC
2
, B = T
a
and
2
2KW
C =
S
. (5.27a)
When T
a
, C
DO
and K have constant values, Eq.(5.27a) gives :
1
2 2
B B  4AC
V =
2A
`
)
Consequently, V
max
being the larger of the two solutions, is :
2
max
1
2
B+ B  4AC
V =
2A
`
)
Substituting for A, B and C from Eq.(5.27a) yields :
2 2
max 2 2 2 2 2
1
2
DO DO
a
a
DO
T
T W K
V = +  4
SC S C S C
`
)
(5.27b)
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter5
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2
Multiplying and dividing some of the terms in Eq.(5.27b) by W gives:
( )( ) ( ) ( )
1
2
max
2
2
2
DO
2 2 2 2
DO DO DO
a a
T /W W/S T /W W/S
KC W
V = +  4
C S C C
 
`

\ .
)
Simplifying yields :
Or
( )( ) ( )
DO
max
DO
2
2
1/2
a a
W
T /W W/S + T /W  4C K
S
V =
C
 

\ .
`
)
(5.27c)
Equation (5.27c) shows that V
max
depends on thrust to weight ratio (
a
T /W), wing
loading (W/S), C
DO
, K and .The maximum speed (V
max
) increases with increase
of (
a
T /W) and (W/S) and decreases with increase of C
DO
and K. The term in
the denominator of Eq.(5.27c) indicates that V
max
would be higher at higher
altitudes because decreases with altitude. In section 4.5 it is pointed out that
the thrust output decreases as
0.7
. Taking this into account, Eq.(5.27c) indicates
that V
max
would increase slightly upto a certain altitude as shown in Fig.5.9.
The trend of V
max
, decreasing after a certain altitude, observed in Fig.5.9, can be
explained as follows.
From atmospheric characteristics (Chapter 2), it is observed that, with the
increase of altitude the speed of sound decreases. Thus for a given V
max
the
Mach number corresponding to it would increase with altitude. When the Mach
number exceeds the critical Mach number, C
DO
& K would no longer be constant
but actually increase. This would result in lowering of V
max
as compared to that
obtained with constant values of C
DO
and K. In section 4.2 of Appendix B the
values of V
max
at different altitudes are obtained by a graphical procedure which
takes into account the changes in C
DO
and K when Mach number is greater than
0.8.
5.10.3 Airplane with enginepropeller combination
The steps to calculate V
max
and (V
min
)
e
in this case, are as follows.
(1) Assume an altitude h. Let P
a
be the THP available in kW at this altitude.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter5
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
3
(2) From Eq.(5.15) :
2
1 1 KW
3
P = P = V S +
r a DO
2000 500 VS
C
or A
1
V
4
B
1
V + C
1
= 0 (5.28)
where,
2
, =
1 DO
1 1 KW
A = SC , B = P C
1 1 a
2000 500 S
.
Equation (5.28) is not a quadratic. An iterative method of solving Eq.(5.28) is
given in example 5.3. Equation (5.28) has two solutions V
1
and V
2
. The higher of
these two gives V
max
and the lower value gives (V
min
)
e
. The minimum speed at
the chosen altitude is higher of (V
min
)
e
and V
s
(see example 5.3).
Remark:
Obtain power available at V
1
calculated above and denote it by P
a1
. If P
a
assumed at the beginning of the calculation in step (1), is significantly different
from P
a1
, then the calculations would need to be revised with the new value of
P
a1
. However, it is expected that the calculations would converge in a few
iterations.
Example 5.2
For the airplane in example 5.1 obtain the maximum and minimum speed in
steady level flight at sea level.
Solution:
The given data are :
W = 100,000N, T = 20,000N, S = 25 m
2
,
2
C = 0.016 + 0.064 C
D
L
, C
Lmax
= 1.5
In this case, T / W = 20000 / 100000 = 0.2 = C
D
/ C
L
0.016
0.2 = + 0.064C
L
C
L
2
Or 0.064 C  0.2 C + 0.016 = 0
L
L
Solving the above equation gives: C
L
= 3.04 and 0.0822. The corresponding
speeds are :
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter5
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
4
2 100000
V = = 281.8 m/s
max
1.225 25 0.0822
and
2 100000
( V ) = = 45.4 m/s
min e
1.225 25 3.04
Since V
S
, as calculated in example 5.1, is 66.0 m/s, the minimum speed is
decided by V
S
and equals 66.0 m/s.
The Mach number corresponding to V
max
is :
281.8 / 340.29 = 0.828.
This value of Mach number is likely to be greater than M
crit
. As a possible
assumption let us assume M
cruise
= 0.8 and obtain
DO
C and K from Eqs.3.50a
and 3.51a. Consequently,
DO
C =  0.001 (M  0.8) + 0.11 (M  0.8)
2
and K = (M  0.8)
2
+ 20(M  0.8)
3
For M = 0.828,
DO
C = 0.000055 and K = 0.00122
Hence, the drag polar at M = 0.828 is likely to be:
C
D
= (0.016 + 0.000055) + (0.064+0.00122)C
L
2
= 0.016055 + 0.06522 C
L
2
Using this polar and revising the calculations, gives: V
max
= 281.3 m/s
This revised value of V
max
is very close to the value of 281.8 m/s obtained earlier
and hence further revision is not needed.
(Answers: V
max
= 281.3 m/s =1012.7 kmph, V
min
= 66.00 m/s = 237.6 kmph)
Example 5.3
A pistonengined airplane has the following characteristics.
W = 11,000 N, S = 11.9 m
2
, C
D
= 0.032 + 0.055 C
L
2
, C
Lmax
= 1.4.
Obtain the maximum and minimum speeds in level flight at an altitude of 3 km
assuming that the engine BHP is 103 kW and the propeller efficiency is 83%.
Solution :
W = 11,000 N, S = 11.9 m
2
, C
D
= 0.032 + 0.055 C
L
2
C
Lmax
= 1.4, at 3km altitude = 0.909 kg/m
3
,
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter5
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
5
P
a
= x BHP = 0.83 x 103 = 85.5 kW
From Eq.(5.15):
2
1 2K W
3
P = P = V S C +
a r Do
2000 1000 SV
Or
2
1 2 0.055 11000
3
85.5 = 0.909 11.9 0.032V +
2000 1000 0.909 11.9 V
= 1.731 x 10
4
V
3
+
1230.5
V
(5.28a)
Equation (5.28a) is not a quadratic. However, it can be solved for V
max
and (V
min
)
e
by an iterative procedure.
Solution for V
max
:
When solving for V
max
, by an iterative procedure, it is assumed that the first
approximation (V
max1
) is obtained by retaining only the term containing the
highest power of V in Eq.(5.28a) i.e.
1st approximation: 85.5 = 1.731 x 10
4
V
3
max1
This gives V
max1
= 79.05 m/s
To obtain the 2nd approximation, substitute V
max1
in the second term on RHS of
Eq.(5.28a). Note that this term was ignored in the first approximation.
3
max2
1230.5
4
85.5 = 1.731 x 10 V +
79.05
Or V
max2
= 73.93 m/s
To obtain the 3rd approximation, substitute V
max2
in the second term on RHS of
Eq.(5.28a), i.e.
3
max3
1230.5
4
85.5 = 1.731 10 V +
73.93
Or V
max3
= 73.54 m/s
To obtain the 4th approximation, substitute V
max3
in the second term on RHS of
Eq.(5.28a), i.e.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter5
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
6
3
max4
1230.5
4
85.5 = 1.731 10 V +
73.54
Or V
max4
= 73.51 m/s
Since the 3rd and 4th approximations are close to each other, V
max
is taken as
73.51 m/s.
Solution for (V
min
)
e
:
When solving for (V
min
)
e
, by an iterative procedure, it is assumed that the first
approximation ( )
1
min
e
V , is obtained by retaining only the term containing the
lowest power of V in Eq.(5.28a) i.e.
( )
1
min
e
1230.5
85.5 =
V
Or ( )
1
min
e
V = 14.4 m/s.
To obtain the 2nd approximation, substitute (V
min
)
e1
in the first term on RHS of
Eq.(5.28a). Note that this term was ignored in the first approximation.
2 min e
1230.5
4 3
85.5 = 1.731 10 14.4 +
(V )
Or
2 min e
(V ) = 14.48 m/s
Since the second approximation is very close to the first one,
(V
min
)
e
is taken as 14.48 m/s
The stalling speed at 3 km altitude is :
2W 2 11000
V = = = 38.2m/s
s
SC 0.90911.9 1.4
Lmax
Since V
s
is
greater than (V
min
)
e
, the minimum speed is 38.2 m/s.
Answers:
At 3 km altitude:
V
max
= 73.51 m/s = 265.0 kmph , V
min
= 38.20 m/s = 137.4 kmph
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter5
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
7
5.11 Special features of steady level flight at supersonic speeds
At transonic and supersonic speeds the variations of C
D0
, K and T
a
with
Mach number do not permit simple mathematical treatment of the performance
analysis. The thrust required (T
r
) increases rapidly as the Mach number
approaches unity (Fig.5.11).
Fig.5.11 Level flight performance at high speeds
The thrust available also increases but the increase is not as fast as that
of T
r
and the thrust available and thrust required curves may intersect at many
points (points A, B, and C in Fig.5.11). It is interesting to note that if the airplane
can go past Mach number represented by point B in Fig.5.11, then it can fly up to
Mach number represented by point C with the same engine. To overcome the
rapid drag rise in transonic region (Fig.5.11), the afterburning operation of the
engine is resorted to. It may be mentioned that an afterburner duct is located
between the turbine and the nozzle (Fig.4.8b). When the afterburner is on,
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter5
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
8
additional fuel is burnt in the afterburner duct. This gives additional thrust.
However, the specific fuel consumption is very high with afterburner on and
hence this operation is resorted to only for a short duration.
The thrust with afterburner on is shown schematically by a dotted line in Fig.5.11.
It is observed that the thrust available is more than the thrust required and
airplane can accelerate beyond point B. When the Mach number is close to that
represented by point C, the afterburner can be shut down and the airplane runs
with normal engine operation.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter5
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
1
Chapter 5
Exercises
5.1 Obtain the maximum speed and minimum speed in steady level flight at sea
level for the following airplane:
W = 36,000 N; S = 26.0 m
2
; C
D
= 0.032 + 0.043C
L
2
BHP = 503 kW; Propeller
efficiency = 82%; C
Lmax
= 1.5
[Answers: V
max
= 324.6 kmph; V
min
= 139.8 kmph]
5.2 A jet engined airplane has a weight of 64,000 N and wing area of 20 m
2
. If
the engine output at 5 km altitude be 8000 N, calculate the maximum and
minimum speeds in level flight. Given that
C
DO
= 0.017, A = 6.5, e = 0.80, C
Lmax
= 1.4.
[Answers: V
max
= 877 kmph,V
min
= 283.6 kmph]
5.3 An airplane stalls at M=0.2 at sea level. What will be the Mach number and
equivalent airspeed when it stalls at 5 km altitude? Compare the thrust required
to maintain level flight near stall at the two altitudes. Assume the weight of the
airplane to be same at the two altitudes.
[Answers: M = 0.274, V
e
= 68.06 m/s, (T
r
)
s.l
= (T
r
)
5 km
as C
L
is same]
5.4 (a) Show that the thrust required in steady level flight at a speed V for an
airplane with parabolic drag polar is given by:
V AW
2
T = D = AW ( ) +
r
2
V
md (V / V )
md
where, V
md
= speed for minimum drag, W = weight of airplane and A = (C
D0
K)
1/2
.
(b) Also show that if V = mV
md
, then the thrust required (T
r
) in terms of the
minimum thrust required (T
rmin
) is given by :
2 2 r
rmin
T 1
= m +m
T 2
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter5
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
1
Chapter 5
References
5.1 Pallett, E.H.J. Aircraft instrument integrated systems 3
rd
Edition, Longman
Science & Technology, (1992).
5.2 Illman, P.E. The pilots handbook of aeronautical knowledge 3
rd
Edition,
Tab books division of McGraw Hill (1995).
5.3 Perkins, C.D. (Editor) AGARD Flight test manual, Vol.I Performance
Pergamon Press (1959).
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter6
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
1
Chapter 6
Performance analysis II Steady climb, descent and glide
(Lectures 21,22 and 23 )
Keywords: Steady climb equations of motion, thrust and power required;
maximum rate of climb; maximum angle of climb; absolute ceiling; service ceiling;
glide equations of motion, minimum angle of glide, minimum rate of sink;
hodographs for climb and glide.
Topics
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Equations of motion in steady climb
6.3 Thrust and power required for a prescribed rate of climb at a given
flight speed
6.4 Climb performance with a given engine
6.4.1 Iterative procedure to obtain rate of climb
6.5 Maximum rate of climb and maximum angle of climb
6.5.1 Parameters influencing (R/C)
max
of a jet airplane
6.5.2 Parameters influencing (R/C)
max
of an airplane with enginepropeller
combination
6.6. Climb hydrograph
6.7. Absolute ceiling and service ceiling
6.8 Time to climb
6.9 Steady descent
6.10 Glide
6.10.1 Glide performance minimum angle of glide, minimum rate of sink
and maximum range and endurance in glide.
6.11 Glide hodograph
Exercises
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter6
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
2
Chapter 6
Lecture 21
Performance analysis II Steady climb, descent and glide 1
Topics
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Equations of motion in steady climb
6.3 Thrust and power required for a prescribed rate of climb at a given
flight speed
6.4 Climb performance with a given engine
6.4.1 Iterative procedure to obtain rate of climb
6.1. Introduction
In this chapter the steady climb, descent and glide are dealt with. A glide
is a descent with thrust equal to zero. The approach in this chapter is as follows.
(a) Present the forces acting on the airplane in the chosen flight,
(b) Write down equations of motion using Newtons second law,
(c) Derive expressions for performance items like rate climb, angle of climb.
(d) Obtain variation of these with flight velocity and altitude.
6.2 Equations of motion in a steady climb
During a steady climb the center of gravity of the airplane moves at a
constant velocity along a straight line inclined to the horizontal at an angle
(Fig.6.1). The forces acting on the airplane are shown in Fig.6.1.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter6
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
3
Fig.6.1 Steady climb
Since the flight is steady, the acceleration is zero and the equations of motion in
climb can be obtained by resolving the forces along and perpendicular to the
flight path and equating their sum to zero i.e.
T D W sin = 0 (6.1)
L W cos = 0 (6.2)
Hence, sin = (T D / W) (6.3)
From the velocity diagram in Fig.6.1, the vertical component of the flight velocity
(V
c
) is given by:
V
c
= V sin = (T D / W) V (6.4)
The vertical component of the velocity (V
c
) is called rate of climb and also
denoted by R/C. It is also the rate of change of height and denoted by (dh / dt).
Hence,
V
c
= R/C = dh/dt =
TD
Vsin = V
W
(6.5)
Rate of climb is generally quoted in m/min.
Remarks :
i) Multiplying Eq.(6.1) by flight velocity V, gives:
T V = D V + W V sin = D V + W V
c
( )
dh d
= DV+ mg = DV+ mgh
dt dt
(6.6)
In Eq.(6.6) the terms TV, DV and ( )
d
mgh
dt
represent respectively, the power
available, the energy dissipated in overcoming the drag and the rate of increase
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter6
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
4
of potential energy. Thus, when the airplane climbs, its potential energy
increases and a part of the engine output is utilized for this gain of potential
energy.
Two facts may be pointed out at this juncture. (a) Energy supply to the airplane
comes from the work done by the engine which is represented by the termTV in
Eq.(6.6). (b) The drag acts in a direction opposite to that of the flight direction.
Hence, energy has to be spent on overcoming the drag which is represented by
the term DV in Eq.(6.6). This energy (DV) is ultimately lost in the form of heat
and is appropriately termed as Dissipated. Continuous supply of energy is
needed to overcome the drag. Thus, a climb is possible only when the engine
output is more than the energy required for overcoming the drag.
It may be recalled from section 5.9 that in a level flight, at speeds equal to V
max
and (V
min
)
e
, the power (or thrust ) available is equal to the power (or thrust)
required to overcome the drag (see points D and D in Fig.5.5 and points C and
C in Fig.5.6b). Hence, the rate of climb will be zero at these speeds. The climb is
possible only at flight speeds in between these two speeds viz. V
max
and (V
min
)
e
.
It is expected that there will be a speed at which the rate of climb is maximum.
This flight speed is denoted by V
(R/C)max
and the maximum rate of climb is
denoted by (R/C)
max
. The flight speed at which the angle of climb () is maximum
is denoted by V
max
.
ii) In a steady level flight, the lift is equal to weight but in a climb, the lift is less
than weight as cos is less than one, when is not zero. Note that when an
airplane climbs vertically, its attitude is as shown in Fig.6.2. It is observed that in
this flight, the resolution of forces along and perpendicular flight direction gives:
L = 0, T = D + W
These expressions are consistent with Eqs.(6.1) and (6.2) when = 90
o
is
substituted in them. Note that in this flight the thrust is more than the weight.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter6
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
5
Fig.6.2 Airplane in vertical climb
6.3 Thrust and power required for a prescribed rate of climb at a given
flight speed
Here it is assumed that the weight of the airplane (W), the wing area (S) and the
drag polar are given. The thrust required and power required for a chosen rate of
climb (V
c
) at a given altitude (h) and flight speed (V) can be obtained, for a
general case, by following the steps given below. It may be pointed out that the
lift and drag in climb are different from those in level flight. Hence, the quantities
involved in the analysis of climb performance are, hereafter indicated by the
suffix c i.e. lift in climb is denoted by L
c
i) Since V
c
and V are prescribed, calculate the angle of climb from:
= sin
1
(V
c
/ V)
ii) From Eq.(6.2) the lift required in climb (L
c
) is :
L
c
= W cos (6.7)
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter6
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
6
iii) Calculate the lift coefficient in climb ( C
Lc
) as:
C
Lc
=
L W cos
c
=
1 2
1 2
V S
V S
2
2
(6.8)
iv) Obtain the flight Mach number; M = V/a ; a = speed of sound at the chosen
altitude.
v) Corresponding to the values of C
Lc
and M, obtain the drag coefficient in climb
(C
DC
) from the drag polar. Hence, drag in climb (D
c
) is given by:
D
c
= (1/2 V
2
S C
DC
) (6.9)
vi) The thrust required in climb (T
rc
) is then given by:
T
rc
= W sin + D
c
(6.10)
and the power required in climb (P
rc
) is :
P
rc
=
T V
rc
in kW
1000
(6.11)
Example 6.1
An airplane weighing 180,000N has a wing area of 45 m
2
and drag polar given
by C
D
= 0.017 + 0.05
2
L
C . Obtain the thrust required and power required for a
rate of climb of 2,000 m/min at a speed of 540 kmph at 3 km altitude.
Solution:
The given data are:
W = 180,000 N, S = 45 m
2
, C
D
= 0.017 + 0.05
2
L
C
V
c
= 2,000 m/ min = 33.33 m/s, V = 540 kmph = 150 m/s.
at 3 km altitude = 0.909 kg/m
3
sin = V
c
/ V = 33.33/150 = 0.2222 or = 12
o
50, cos = 0.975
L
c
= W cos = 180000 x 0.975
Or C
Lc
=
2
2W cos
V S
=
180000 0.975 2
= 0.381
0.909 150 150 45
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter6
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
7
Hence, C
DC
= 0.017 + 0.05 X0.381
2
= 0.02426
D
c
= (1/2 V
2
S) C
DC
= (1/2) X 0.909 X 150 X 150 X 45 X0.02426 = 11163 N
Hence, T
rc
= W sin + D
c
= 180000 X 0.2222 + 11163 = 51160 N
P
rc
= T
rc
V/1000 = 51160 X 150/1000 = 7674 kW
Answers:
Thrust required in climb (T
rc
) = 51,160 N
Power required in climb (P
rc
) = 7,674 kW
6.4 Climb performance with a given engine
In this case, the engine output is prescribed at a certain altitude and flight
speed. This is in addition to the data on weight of the airplane (W), the wing area
(S) and the drag polar.The rate of climb (V
c
) and the angle of climb() are
required to be determined at the prescribed altitude and flight speed.
The solution to this problem is not straightforward as sin depends on
(T D
c
) and the drag in climb (D
c
) depends on the lift in climb (L
c
), which in turn
depends on W cos . Hence, the solution is obtained in an iterative manner. This
is explained later in this section. However, if the drag polar is parabolic with
constant coefficients, an exact solution can be obtained using Eqs. (6.1) to (6.4).
The procedure is as follows.
From Eq.(6.4), sin = V
c
/ V.
Using Eq.(6.7), the lift during climb (L
c
) = W cos = W (1sin
2
)
1/2
1
2
2
= W 1(V /V)
c
(
(
(6.12)
Hence, Lift coefficient during climb ( )
1
2
2
W 1(V /V)
c
L
c
C = =
Lc
1 2
1 2
V S
V S
2
2
(
(
(6.13)
By its definition, D = (1/2) V
2
SC
D
.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter6
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
8
When the polar is parabolic, the drag in climb (D
c
) can be expressed as :
D
c
= (1/2) V
2
S (C
DO
+K
2
C
Lc
)
DO
2 2
V 1 KW
2 c
= V S C + 1
2
1 2 V
V S
2
(
 
(

( \ .
(6.14)
From Eq.(6.10), the thrust required in climb (T
rc
) is given by :
T
rc
= W sin + D
c
=
W V
c
+ D
c
V
Substituting for D
c
, yields :
T
rc DO
2 2
V WV 1 KW
2 c c
= V S + 1 +
2
1 2 V V
V S
2
C
(
 
(

( \ .
(6.15)
or
2
V V
c c
A  B + C =0
V V
   
 
\ . \ .
(6.16)
where,
2
KW
A = , B = W
2
1
V S
2
and
2
1 2KW
2
C = T  V SC 
DO
2
2
V S
(6.17)
Equation (6.16) is a quadratic in (V
c
/ V), and has two solutions. The solution
which is less than or equal to one, is the valid solution because V
c
/ V equals
sin and sin cannot be more than one. Once (V
c
/ V) is known, the angle of
climb and the rate of climb can be immediately calculated. This is illustrated in
example 6.2.
Example 6.2.
For the airplane in example 6.1, obtain the angle of climb and the rate of climb at
a flight speed of 400 kmph at sea level, taking the thrust available as 45,000 N.
Solution:
In this case, W = 1,80,000 N, S = 45 m
2
, C
D
= 0.017 + 0.05
2
C
L
V = 400 kmph = 111.1 m/s, T = 45,000 N
From Eq.(6.15), T
rc DO
2 2
V WV 1 KW
2 c c
= V S + 1 +
2
1 2 V V
V S
2
C
(
 
(

( \ .
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter6
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
9
Substitution of various quantities yields:
2 1
45000 = 1.225 111.1 45 0.017
2
2 2
V V 0.05 180000
c c
+ 1 180000
2 2
1 V
1.225 111.1 45 V
2
 

+

\ .
Simplifying,
2
V V
c c
 37.82
V V
   
 
\ . \ .
+ 7.24 = 0
Solving the above quadratic gives : ( V
c
/ V) = 37.62, 0.192.
Since sin cannot be larger than unity, the first value is not admissible.
Hence, V
c
/ V = sin = 0.192 or = 11
o
4'
V
c
= 0.192 111.1 = 21.33 m/s = 1280 m/min.
Answers:
Angle of climb () = 11
o
4' ; Rate of climb (V
c
) = 1280 m/min
6.4.1 Iterative procedure to obtain rate of climb
When the drag polar is not given by a mathematical expression, an
iterative procedure is required to obtain the rate of climb for a given thrust (
a
T ) or
thrust horse power (THP
a
). The need for an iterative solution can be explained as
follows.
From Eq.(6.10), sin =
T  D
a c
W
(6.18)
To calculate sin , the drag in climb (D
c
) should be known. The term D
c
depends on the lift in climb (L
c
). In turn L
c
is W cos , but cos is not known in
the beginning.
To start the iterative procedure, it is assumed that the lift during climb (L
c
) is
approximately equal to W. Using this approximation, calculate the first estimate
of the lift coefficient (C
L1
) as :
(C
L1
) = W / (1/2) V
2
S
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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From C
L1
and the flight Mach number obtain C
D1
from the drag polar. Calculate
the first approximation of drag (D
1
) as:
D
1
= (1/2) V
2
S C
D1
Hence, the first approximation to the angle of climb (
1
) is given by:
sin
1
T  D
a 1
=
W
(6.19)
In the next iteration, put L = W cos
1
and carry out the calculations and get a
second approximation to the angle of climb (
2
). The calculations are repeated till
the values of after consecutive iterations are almost the same. Once the angle
is known, V
c
is given as V sin .
It is observed that the convergence is fast and correct values of and V
c
are
obtained within two or three iterations. This is due to the following two reasons.
(a)When is small (i.e. less than 10
o
), cos is almost equal to one, and the
approximation, L = W, is nearly valid. (b) When is large the lift dependent part
of the drag, which is affected by the assumption of L ~ W , is much smaller than
T
a
. Consequently, the value of given by Eq.(6.18) is close to the final value.
Example 6.3 illustrates the procedure.
Example 6.3
An airplane weighing 60,330 N has a wing area of 64 m
2
and is equipped
with an enginepropeller combination which develops 500 kW of THP at 180
kmph under standard sealevel conditions. Calculate the rate of climb at this flight
speed. The drag polar is given in the table below.
C
L
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6
C
D
0.022 0.0225 0.024 0.026 0.030 0.034 0.040
C
L
0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.2
C
D
0.047 0.055 0.063 0.075 0.116
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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11
Solution:
The given data are: W = 60,330 N, S = 64 m
2
, V=180 kmph = 50 m/s,
THP
a
= 500 kW. Hence, T
a
= (THP
a
x 1000)/V = 500 x 1000 / 50 = 10,000 N
The values of and V
c
are obtained by the iterative procedure explained in
section 6.4.1.
1st approximation: L ~ W =
1
2
2
V S C
L1
Hence, C
L1
60330 2
= = 0.615
1.225 50 50 64
C
D1
: By interpolating between the values given in the above table, the value of
C
D1
is 0.041, corresponding to C
L1
of 0.615.
Hence, D
1
= (1/2) 1.225 50 50 64 X0.041= 4030 N
From Eq.(6.19) : sin
1
T  D
a 1
=
W
Or sin
1
=
10000 4030
= 0.099
60330
Or
1
= 5
o
41'
Hence, V
c1
= 50 x 0.099 = 4.95 m/s
cos
1
= 0.995
2
nd
approximation:
L = W cos
1
= 60330 0.995 = 60036 N
L2
60036 2
C = = 0.612
1.225 50 50 64
From above table C
D2
is 0.0408 corresponding to C
L2
of 0.612.
Hence, D
2
= (1/2) 1.225 50 50 64 0.0408 = 4010 N
sin
2
=
10000 4010
= 0.0993
60330
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Hence,
V
c2
= 50 x 0.0993 = 4.965 m/s
The two approximations, V
c1
and V
c2
are fairly close to each other. Hence, the
iteration process is stopped.
V
c
= 4.965 m/s = 298 m/min.
Remark:
In the present example, is small (5
0
41) hence 2nd iteration itself gives
the correct value. For an interceptor airplane which has very high rate of climb
(about 15000 m/min) few more iterations may be needed.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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Chapter 6
Lecture 22
Performance analysis II Steady climb, descent and glide 2
Topics
6.5 Maximum rate of climb and maximum angle of climb
6.5.1 Parameters influencing (R/C)
max
of a jet airplane
6.5.2 Parameters influencing (R/C)
max
of an airplane with enginepropeller
combination
6.5 Maximum rate of climb and maximum angle of climb
Using the procedure outlined above, the rate of climb and the angle of
climb can be calculated at various speeds and altitudes. Figures 6.3a to 6.3f
present typical climb performance of a jet transport. Figure 6.4a to 6.4d present
the climb performance of a piston engined airplane. Details of the calculations for
these two cases are presented in Appendices B and A respectively.
Fig.6.3a Climb performance of a jet transport  rate of climb
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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Fig.6.3b Climb performance of a jet transport  angle of climb
Fig.6.3c Climb performance of a jet transport  V
(R/C) max
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Fig.6.3d Climb performance of a jet transportV
max
Fig.6.3e Climb performance of a jet transport  variation of (R/C)
max
with altitude
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Fig.6.3f Climb performance of a jet transport  variation of
max
with altitude
Fig.6.4a Climb performance of a piston engined airplane rate of climb
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Fig.6.4b Climb performance of a piston engined airplane angle of climb
Fig.6.4c Climb performance of a piston engined airplane  V
(R/C)max
, and V
max
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Fig.6.4d Climb performance of a piston engined airplane  Variation of (R/C)
max
with altitude
Remarks:
i) At V = V
max
the available thrust or THP is equal to the thrust required or power
required in level flight. Hence climb is not possible at this speed. Similar is the
case at (V
min
)
e
limited by engine output (Figs.6.3a and 6.4a). For the same
reasons, at V
max
and (V
min
)
e
the angle of
climb () is also zero (Figs.6.3b and
6.4b). It may be recalled from subsection 5.9, that at low altitudes the minimum
speed is decided by stalling and hence the calculations regarding the rate of
climb and the angle of climb are restricted to flight speeds between V
min
and
V
max
.
ii) The speed at which R/C is maximum is denoted by V
(R/C)max
, and the speed at
which is maximum is called V
max
. Figures 6.3c and d and Fig.6.4c show the
variation of these speeds with altitudes for a jet transport and a piston engined
airplane respectively. It may be noted that V
(R/c)max
and V
max
are different from
each other. For a jet airplane V
(R/c)max
is higher than V
max
at low altitudes
.
The
two velocities
approach each other as the altitude increases. For a piston
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engined airplane V
(R/C)max
is lower than V
max
at low altitudes . The two velocities
approach each other as the altitude increases. These trends can be explained as
follows.
From Eqs.(6.3) and (6.4), it is observed that is proportional to the excess thrust
i.e. (T
a
 D
c
) and the rate of climb is proportional to the excess power i.e.
(T
a
V D
c
V). It may be recalled that for a piston engined airplane the power
available remains roughly constant with velocity and hence, the thrust available
(T
a
= P
a
/ V) will decrease with velocity. On the other hand, for a jet airplane the
thrust available is roughly constant with velocity and consequently the power
available increases linearly with velocity (see exercise 6.3). The differences in
the variations of T
a
and P
a
with velocity, in the cases of jet engine and piston
engine, decide the aforesaid trends.
iii) As the excess power and the excess thrust decrease with altitude, (R/C)
max
and
max
also decrease with altitude.
6.5.1 Parameters influencing (R/C)
max
of a jet airplane
In subsection 5.10.2, the parameters influencing V
max
were identified by
simplifying the analysis with certain assumptions. In this subsection the
parameters influencing (R/C)
max
are identified in a similar manner. The limitations
of the simplified analysis are pointed out at the end of this subsection.
The case of a jet airplane is considered in this subsection.
From Eq.(6.5) it is noted that :
C
TD
V = R/C = V
W
 

\ .
Following simplifying assumptions are made to identify the parameters
influencing (R/C)
max
.
(a)Drag polar is parabolic with constant coefficients i.e. C
DO
and K are constants.
(b) Though the angle of climb ( ) is not small, for the purpose of estimating the
induced drag, the lift (L) is taken equal to weight. See comments at the end of
section 6.4.1 for justification of this approximation.
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(c) At a chosen altitude, the thrust available (T
a
) is constant with flight speed.
With these assumptions, the expression for drag simplifies to that in the level
flight i.e.
2
2 2
2 D DO
1 1 2W
D = V SC = V S C + K
2 2 SV
 
`

\ .
)
Hence,
C
a
T D
V = V
W
`
)
Or
2
2
DO
a
c
1
V
T 2K W
2
V = V  C 
W W/S V S
`
)
Or ( )
1
3
C
DO
a
T 1 2K W
V = V  V W/S C 
W 2 V S
 

\ .
(6.20)
To obtain the flight speed corresponding to (V
c
)
max ,
Eq.(6.20) is differentiated
with respect to V and equated to zero i.e.
( )
1
2
2 DO
a c
dV T 3 2K W
=  V W/S C + = 0
dV W 2 V S
 

\ .
(6.21)
Simplifying Eq.(6.21) yields:
( )( ) ( )
2
(R/C)max (R/C)max
2
2
4
DO DO
a
2 T /W W/S 4K W/S
V  V  = 0
3C 3 C
(6.22)
Noting from Eq.(3.56) that ( )
2
max
DO
1
L/D =
4C K
, yields:
( )( ) ( )
( )
2
(R/C)max (R/C)max
max
2
2
2
4
2
DO
DO
a
2 T /W W/S W/S
V  V  = 0
3C
3 C L/D
Thus,
( )( )
( )
(R/C)max 2
2
max
1
2
DO
a
a
T /W W/S
3
V = 1 1+
3C
L
T /W
D
(
(
(
`
(
 
(

\ . (
)
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The negative sign in the above equation, would give an imaginary value
for
( ) R/C max
V and is ignored.
Hence,
( )
( )( )
( ) ( )
R/C max 2
DO
max
1
2
2
a
a
T /W W/S
3
V = 1+ 1+
3C
L/D T /W
(
(
`
(
)
( )( )
1
2
DO
a
T /W W/S Z
= ,
3C
`
)
(6.23)
where,
( ) ( )
2 2
max a
3
Z = 1+ 1+
L/D T /W
(6.24)
Substituting V
(R/C)max
from Eq.(6.23) in Eq.(6.5) yields:
( )
( )( ) ( )( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )( )
1
2
DO DO
max
DO DO
a a a
a
2 W/S K 3C T /W W/S Z T /W W/S ZC T 1
R/C =  
3C W 2 3C W/S T /W W/S Z
(
(
(
(
( (
Or ( )
( )( )
( )
( )
DO
DO
1
2
max
a a
a
a
T /W W/S Z T 6KC Z
R/C =  T /W 
3C W 6 T /W Z
( (
( (
( (
=
( )
( ) ( ) DO
1/2
3/2
2 2
max
a
a
W/S Z T Z 3
1 
3C W 6
2 T /W L/D Z
(
(
 
(
( 
(
\ .
(6.25)
Remarks:
The following observations can be made based on Eqs.(6.23) to (6.25)
(i) In Eq.(6.24), the quantity Z appears to depend on (L/D)
max
and (
a
T /W). In this
context it may be noted that for jet airplanes (a) the value of (L/D)
max
would be
around 20 and (b) the value of (
a
T /W) would be around 0.25 at sea level and
around 0.06 at tropopause. With these values of (L/D)
max
and (
a
T /W), Z would be
around 2.1 at sea level and 2.7 at tropopause.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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However, in Eqs.(6.23) and (6.25) the terms involving Z, appear as
1/2
Z or Z/6.
Hence, the dependence of
( ) R/C max
V and ( )
max
R/C on Z does not appear to be of
primary importance. The important parameters however, are (
a
T /W), (W/S),
and C
DO
. It may be recalled from section 4.5 that for a turbofan engine,
a
T
decreases with altitude in proportion to
0.7
; being the density ratio.
(ii) From Eq.(6.25) it is observed that for given values of W/S and C
DO
,
( )
max
R/C decreases with altitude. Hence, suitable value of (
a
T /W) is required to
achieve the specified rates of climb at different altitudes.
The same equation also indicates that the rate of climb increases when wing
loading increases and C
DO
decreases. However, the performance during cruise
and landing generally place a limit on the value of (W/S).
(iii) From Eq.(6.23) it is observed that the flight speed for maximum rate of
climb(V
(R/Cmax
), increases with (
a
T /W), (W/S) and altitude. In this context it may
be pointed out that the Mach number corresponding to V
(R/C)max
, should always
be worked out and corrections to the values of C
DO
and K be applied when this
Mach number exceeds M
cruise
. Without these corrections, the values of
( )
max
R/C obtained may be unrealistic.
(iv) Figure 4.12 shows typical variations of thrust vs Mach number with altitude as
parameter. It is observed, that the thrust decreases significantly with Mach
number for altitudes equal to or less than 25000' (7620 m). Thus, the
assumption of thrust being constant with flight speed is not a good approximation
for hs 25000' .
6.5.2 Parameters influencing (R/C)
max
of an airplane with enginepropeller
combination
In this subsection the simplified analysis is carried out for climb performance of
an airplane with enginepropeller combination.
From Eq.(6.5)
( )
C
V TD
TV DV
V = R/C = =
W W
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TV = 1000
p a
P ;
a
P = power available in kW
DV = Power required to overcome drag =
3
D
1
V SC
2
Following assumptions are made to simplify the analysis and obtain parameters
which influence (R/C)
max
are V
(R/C)max
in this case
.
(a) Drag polar is parabolic with C
DO
and K as constants.
(b) L = W for estimation of induced drag.
(c) Power available is constant with flight speed (V).
Consequently,
2
3
DO 2
1 2W
DV = V S C +K
2 SV
 
` 
\ .
)
(6.26)
Since P
a
is assumed to be constant, the maximum rate of climb would be
obtained when DV is minimum. This occurs at the flight speed corresponding to
minimum power
mp
V .
Hence, in this case :
( )
R/C max
mp
V = V
The expression for
mp
V is given in Eq.(5.24b), consequently :
( )
R/C max
1
1
4
2
mp
DO
2W K
V = V =
S 3C
 
 `

)
\ .
(6.27)
Substituting V
(R/C)max
from Eq.(6.27) in Eq.(6.5) gives:
( )
( )
( )
( )
R/C max
R/C max
R/C max
2
2
2 DO
p
max
a
V 1000 P
1 2W
R/C =  V SC + K
W W 2 SV
 

`

\ .
)
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
1
R/C max
p a
DO
DO
DO
1000 P 2K W/S
1 2 K W
=  V W/S C +
2
W 2 3C S
K/ 3C W/S
`
)
(6.28)
Noting that ( ) ,
max
DO
1
L/D =
2 C K
and
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( )
1/ 3 + 3
= 1.155, yields
2
:
( )
( )
( )
R/C max
p a
max
max
1000 P
1.155
R/C =  V
W L/D
(6.29)
Substituting for V
(R/C)max
from Eq.(6.27) yields :
( ) ( )
( )
p
1/2
a
max
DO max
1000 P
2 K 1.155
R/C =  W/S
W 3C L/D
(6.30)
Remarks:
(i) From Eq.(6.27) it is observed that V
(R/C)max
increases with wing loading (W/S).
(ii) From Eq.(6.30) it is observed that (R/C)
max
increases as
p
, P
a
and (L/D)
max
increase. However, the second term on the right hand side of this equation
indicates that (R/C)
max
decreases with increase of wing loading. This trend is
opposite to that in the case of jet airplanes. Thus, for a specified (R/C)
max
, the
wing loading for an airplane with enginepropeller combination should be rather
low, to decrease the power required.
(iii) The first term in Eq.(6.30) involves
p
and P
a.
From subsection 4.2.2 it is
noted that
P
a
is nearly constant with flight speed (V). However, the assumption
of
p
being constant with V is roughly valid only when the airplane has a variable
pitch propeller. For a fixed pitch propeller
p
varies significantly with V (Fig.4.5a)
and the assumption of P
a
being constant with V is not appropriate in this case.
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Chapter 6
Lecture 23
Performance analysis II Steady climb, descent and glide 3
Topics
6.6. Climb hydrograph
6.7. Absolute ceiling and service ceiling
6.8 Time to climb
6.9 Steady descent
6.10 Glide
6.10.1 Glide performance minimum angle of glide, minimum rate of sink
and maximum range and endurance in glide.
6.11 Glide hodograph
6.6 Climb hodograph
From Fig.6.1 it is observed that in a climb, the vertical velocity is the rate of climb
(V
c
) and the horizontal velocity is V
h
. From the discussion in section 6.5 it is
observed that for a chosen altitude, the vertical velocity (V
c
) and the horizontal
velocity (V
h
) change with the flight speed (V). A plot of the values of V
c
and V
h
at
a particular altitude, in which V
c
is plotted on yaxis and V
h
is plotted on the xaxis
is called Climb hodograph. Figure 6.5 shows a hodograph, based on the sea
level climb performance (Fig.6.3) of a jet airplane.
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Fig.6.5 Climb hodograph
In a hodograph the line, joining the origin to a point on the curve, has the length
proportional to the flight velocity (V) and the angle this line makes to the
horizontal axis (V
h
 axis) is the angle of climb ( ). This becomes evident when it
is noted that V
c
and V
h
are the components of the flight velocity (V) (see
Fig.6.1).
A line from the origin which is tangent to the hodograph gives the value of
max
and also the velocity corresponding to it (Fig.6.5). Actually, a climb hodograph
gives complete information about the climb performance at the chosen altitude
especially
max
, V
max
, (R/C)
max
, (R/C)
max
, V
(R/C)max
,
(R/C)max
and V
max
. These
quantities are marked in Fig.6.5
6.7 Absolute ceiling and service ceiling
Figures 6.3e and 6.4d present the variations of maximum rate of climb,
(R/C)
max
, with altitude. It is observed that (R/C)
max
decreases as the altitude
increases. The altitude at which the (R/C)
max
is zero is called Absolute ceiling. It
is denoted by h
max
. At this altitude level flight is possible only at one speed(see
sec. 5.9).
Near absolute ceiling, the rate of climb is very small and the time to climb
becomes very large.It is not possible to reach the absolute ceiling (see remark (ii)
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in section 6.8). Hence, for practical purposes an altitude at which the maximum
rate of climb is 100 ft /min(30.5 m/min) is used as Service ceiling.
To obtain the absolute ceiling and service ceiling the values of (R/C)
max
at
different altitudes are plotted as shown in Figs.6.3e and 6.4d. Subsequently, the
(R/C)
max
vs h curve is extrapolated till (R/C)
max
= 0. The altitude at which (R/C)
max
equals zero is the absolute ceiling. The altitude at which (R/C)
max
equals 100
ft/min (30.5 m/min) is the service ceiling. From Fig.6.3e and Appendix B the
absolute ceiling and service ceiling for the jet transport are 11.95 and 11.71 km
respectively. From Fig.6.4d and Appendix A the values of these ceilings for a
piston engined airplane are 5.20 and 4.61 km respectively.
6.8 Time to climb:
From the knowledge of the variation of rate of climb with altitude, the time
required (t) to climb from an altitude h
1
to h
2
can be calculated as follows.
dh dh
V = or dt =
c
dt V
c
Hence, t =
2
1
h
dh
V
c
h
}
(6.31)
The rate of climb (V
c
) in Eq.(6.31) depends on the speed and altitude at which
the climb takes place. The appropriate values of V
c
can be taken from plots
similar to those given in Figs.6.3e or 6.4d.
Remarks:
i) It may be noted that in a climb which attempts to fly at (R/C)
max
at each altitude,
the flight velocity, V
(R/C)max
, increases with altitude (Figs.6.3c and 6.4c).
Consequently, such a flight is an accelerated climb and the values of V
c
obtained
using steady climb analysis will need to be appropriately corrected for the
acceleration (see section 8.3.2 on accelerated climb).
ii) As an exercise the student should plot the height (h) on yaxis and the time to
climb (t) on xaxis. It is observed that this curve reaches the absolute ceiling
(h
max
) in an asymptotic manner. In other words, the time taken to reach absolute
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ceiling would be infinite and not practically attainable. Hence, service ceiling is
used for practical purposes.
6.9 Steady descent
Figure 6.6 shows an airplane in a steady descent. In such a flight thrust is
less than drag. The equations of motion are as follows.
T + W sin  D = 0 (6.32)
L W cos = 0 (6.33)
Fig.6.6 Descent or glide
Hence, sin =
D  T
W
(6.34)
Rate of descent ( V
d
) =
D T
V
W
(6.35)
The rate of descent is also called rate of sink and denoted by (R/S).
6.10 Glide
In a glide the thrust is zero. This may happen in a powered airplane due
to failure of engine while in flight. In a class of airplanes called gliders there is no
engine and the thrust is always zero. With thrust equal to zero, the following
equations of motion for glide, are obtained from Eqs.(6.32) and (6.33).
W sin  D =0 (6.36)
L  W cos =0 (6.37)
Hence,
sin = D / W and (6.38)
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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V
d
= V sin =
D V
W
(6.39)
The angle of glide, , is generally small. Hence, L ~ W and one can write,
sin = =
C D D
D
W L C
L
~ ~ (6.40)
1/2 1/2
2L 2W
V
SC SC
L L
   
~ ~
 
\ . \ .
and
1/2
3/2
C DV DV 2W
D
V =
d
W L S
C
L
 
~ ~

\ .
(6.41)
Remarks:
i) Multiplying Eq.(6.31) by V gives:
W V sin D V = 0
Or W V
d
D V = 0
Noting that V
d
is the rate of descent and equals dh / dt,
dh
W  DV = 0
dt
(6.42)
From Fig.6.6 it is to be noted that V is along the glide path and hence in the
downward direction. Consequently in Eq.(6.42) dh/dt is negative as the altitude
is decreasing. As a result, the potential energy of the glider decreases with time.
This loss of potential energy is utilized to provide for the energy required to
overcome the drag (the second term in Eq.6.42). Hence, for a glider to stay aloft,
it must be brought to a certain height and speed before it can carry out the glide.
This is done by launching the glider by a winch or by towing the glider by another
powered airplane.
6.10.1 Glide performance minimum angle of glide and minimum rate of
sink and maximum range and endurance in glide
The performance in a glide is stated in terms of the following four quantities.
(a) Minimum angle of glide (
min
) (b) Minimum rate of climb ((R/S)
min
or V
dmin
).
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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6
(c) The distance covered in glide from a certain height or range in glide (R
glide
)
(d) The time elapsed in descending from a given height or Endurance in glide
(E
glide
).
From Eq.(6.40) the minimum angle of glide (
min
), occurs when C
D
/ C
L
is
minimum or at C
L
= C
Lmd
. From Eq.(6.41) the minimum rate of sink (R/S)
min
or
V
dmin
occurs when C
D
/
3/2
C
L
is minimum or at C
L
= C
Lmp
. This can be
understood from the following alternate explanation. When a glider sinks, it is
expending energy to overcome the drag, which comes from the potential energy
initially imparted to it. Thus, the rate of sink would be minimum when the rate of
power consumption is minimum and this occurs when V equals V
mp
.
Gliders with very low rate of sink (around 0.5 m/s) are called Sail planes. From
Eq.(6.41) it is observed that a low rate of sink is achieved by (a) low wing loading
(b) low C
DO
with smooth surface finish and (c ) large aspect ratio (16 to 20) to
reduce K. Note from Eq.(5.24a ) that ( C
D
/
3/2
C
L
)
min
depends on
1/4
C
DO
and K
3/4
.
If a glider is left at a height h above the ground, then the horizontal distance
covered in descending to the ground is called Range in glide and denoted by
R
glide
. Assuming to be constant during the glide, the range in glide can be
expressed as:
L
D
C h h
R = = h
glide
tan C
~ (6.43)
Thus, the range in glide would be maximum when the flight is at
L
C
corresponding to C
Lmd
or at V= V
md
.
The time to descend from a height h is called E
glide
. Assuming V
d
to be constant,
E
glide
equals (h / V
d
). The quantity E
glide
would be maximum when the descent
takes place at C
L
= C
Lmp
or V = V
mp
.
It is evident from the above discussion that the flight speeds for
min
and (R/S)
min
are different .
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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7
6.11 Glide hodograph
In section 6.6, the climb hodograph was discussed. Similarly, a glide hodograph
is obtained when horizontal velocity (V
h
) is plotted on the xaxis and the rate of
sink (V
d
) is plotted on the yaxis. A typical diagram is shown in Fig.6.7. Such a
diagram gives complete information about glide performance at an altitude
especially,
min
, V
min
, (R/S)
min
, V
(R/S)min
and
(R/S)min
.
Fig.6.7 Glide hodograph
Example 6.4
A glider weighing 4905 N has a wing area of 25 m
2
,
DO
C = 0.012, A = 16
and e = 0.87. Determine (a) the minimum angle of glide, minimum rate of sink
and corresponding speeds under sea level standard conditions (b) the greatest
duration of flight and the greatest distance that can be covered when glided from
a height of 300 m. Neglect the changes in density during glide.
Solution:
(a)
D DO
2
L
2
C
1
L
C = + = 0.012 + C
Ae 3.14 16 0.87
C
t
= 0.012 + 0.023 C
L
2
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8
1
2
DO
DO
L min
D min
L(R/S)min
D(R/S)min
C = C = (0.012/0.023) = 0.721
Lmd
C = 2C = 0.024
C = C = 3 C = 1.25
Lmp Lmd
C = 4C = 0.048
Hence,
= (C /C ) = 0.024 / 0.721
min D L min
=0.0332 radians or 1.9
o
1
2
3/2
2W
(R/S) = (C /C )
min D min
L
S
 

\ .
Noting that the density ()has been assumed to be constant and equal to that at
sea level i.e. = 1.225 kg/m
3
, the above equation gives :
1
2
2 4905 0.048
(R/S) = = 0.615 m/s
min
3/2
1.225 25
1.25
 
 


\ .
\ .
1
2
1
1
2
2
2 4905
V = = 21.05 m/s.
min
1.225 25 0.721
2W 2 4905
V = = = 16m/s
(R/S)min
S C 1.225 25 1.25
Lmp
 

\ .
 
 



\ .
\ .
(b) The greatest distance, in descending from 300 m to sea level, ( R
glide
)
max
,
is (note is assumed constant during glide) :
( R
glide
)
max
= 300 /0.0332 = 9040 m = 9.04 km.
Longest time taken in descending from 300 m to sea level (E
glide
)
max
is (note R/S
is assumed constant during glide) :
(E
glide
)
max
= 300/0.615 = 487 s = 8 min 7s.
Note:
The rate of sink, in a flight when the greatest distance is covered, is higher than
the minimum rate of sink. Hence, the time of flight will be shorter in this case than
in a flight for longest endurance in glide. From the above data, the student may
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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9
show that (R/S) in the flight corresponding to (R
glide
)
max
is 0.7015 m/s and the
endurance in this flight is 427 s.
Remarks:
i) If the glide takes place from a sufficiently high altitude (as may happen for an
airplane having an engine failure in cruise), the rate of sink (R/S) cannot be taken
as constant during the descent. Equation (6.41) should be used to calculate the
rates of sink at various altitudes.
ii) The time elapsed during glide (E
glide
), in a general case is given by:
2
1
h
dh
E =
glide
V
d
h
}
; (6.44)
where V
d
is the rate of descent corresponding to an altitude h.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter6
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1
Chapter 6
Exercises
6.1 An airplane powered by a turbojet engine weighs 180,000 N, has a wing area
of 50 m
2
and the drag polar is C
D
= 0.016 + 0.048C
L
2
. At sea level a rate of
climb of 1200 m/min is obtained at a speed of 150 m/s. Calculate the rate of
climb at the same speed when a rocket motor giving an additional thrust of
10,000 N is fitted to the airplane.
(Answer: 1702 m /min.)
6.2 A glider having a wing loading of 185 N / m
2
has the following drag polar.
C
L
0.0
0. 1
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
C
D
0.0145
0.014
0.0155
0.0183
0.0231
0.0299
0.0385
0.0491
0.062
Obtain the minimum rate of sink, minimum angle of glide and corresponding
speeds at sea level.
(Hint: Obtain C
D
/ C
L
and C
D
/ C
L
3/2
from the given data, plot them, obtain
(C
D
/ C
L
)
min
, (C
D
/ C
L
3/2
)
min
and proceed.)
(Answers: (R/S)
min
= 0.647 m/s,
min
= 2.13
o
, V
(R/S)min
= 54.2 kmph,
V
min
= 71.35 kmph)
6.3 Consider a subsonic jet airplane. Assume that (a) thrust available (T
a
) is
roughly constant, (b) L W in climb or the drag in climb (D) is roughly equal to
the drag in level flight and (c) the drag polar is parabolic. With these
assumptions and from exercise 5.4 which gives:
DO
V A W
2
D = A W( ) + , A = C K,
2
V
md (V/V )
md
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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2
show that (V / V
md
) for (R/C)
max
i.e. (V / V
md
)
(R/C)max
is given by:
T T
2 2 a a
( ) +12A
V
W W
=
V 6A
md
(R/C)max
Further taking
DO
C = 0.016 and K = 0.05625 or A = 0.03 obtain the following
table.
T
a
/ W
0.2
0.15
0.1
0.06
V
V
md
(R/C)max
1.54
1.36
1.16
1.0
Note that, as the altitude increases, T
a
/ W decreases and as a consequence
V
V
md
(R/C)max
tends to 1. At absolute ceiling
V
V
md
(R/C)max
= 1 but
(R/C)
max
is zero !.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter7
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1
Chapter 7
Performance analysis III Range and endurance
(Lectures 2426)
Keywords: Range; endurance; safe range; gross still air range; Breguet
formulae; cruising speed and altitude; cruise climb; effect of wind on range.
Topics
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Definitions of range and endurance
7.2.1 Safe range
7.2.2 Head wind, tail wind, gust and cross wind
7.2.3 Gross still air range (GSAR)
7.3 Rough estimates of range and endurance
7.4 Accurate estimates of range and endurance
7.4.1 Dependence of range and endurance on flight plan and remark on
optimum path
7.4.2 Breguet formulae for range and endurance of airplanes with engine
propeller combination and jet engine
7.4.3 Discussion on Breguet formulae desirable values of lift coefficient
and flight altitude
7.4.4 Important values of lift coefficient
7.4.5 Influence of the range performance analysis on airplane design
7.5 Range in constant velocity  constant altitude flight (R
h,v
)
7.6 Cruising speed and cruising altitude
7.7 Cruise climb
7.8 Effect of wind on range and endurance
References
Excercises
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter7
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Chapter 7
Lecture 24
Performance analysis III Range and endurance 1
Topics
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Definitions of range and endurance
7.2.1 Safe range
7.2.2 Head wind, tail wind, gust and cross wind
7.2.3 Gross still air range (GSAR)
7.3 Rough estimates of range and endurance
7.4 Accurate estimates of range and endurance
7.4.1 Dependence of range and endurance on flight plan and remark on
optimum path
7.1 Introduction
Airplane is a means of transport designed to carry men and materials
safely over a specified distance. Hence, the fuel required for a trip or the distance
covered with a given amount of fuel are important items of performance analysis.
Similarly, airplanes used for training, patrol and reconnaissance would be
required to remain in air for a certain period of time. Thus, the fuel required to
remain in air for a certain length of time or the time for which an airplane can
remain in air with a given amount of fuel are also important aspects of
performance analysis. These two aspects viz. distance covered and the time for
which an airplane can remain in air are discussed under the topic of range and
endurance and are the subject matter of this chapter.
7.2 Definitions of range and endurance
Range (R) is the horizontal distance covered, with respect to a given point
on the ground, with a given amount of fuel. It is measured in km. Endurance (E)
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is the time for which an airplane can remain in air with a given amount of fuel. It
is measured in hours. The above definition of range is very general and terms
like safe range and gross still air range are commonly used. These terms include
details of the flight plan and are explained in the subsequent subsections.
7.2.1 Safe range
It is the maximum distance between two destinations over which an
airplane can carry out a safe, reliably regular service with a given amount of fuel.
This flight involves takeoff, acceleration to the speed corresponding to desired
rate of climb, climb to the cruising altitude, cruise according to a chosen flight
plan, descent and landing. Allowance is also given for the extra fuel requirement
due to factors like (i) head winds (see next subsection) normally encountered en
route (ii) possible navigational errors (iii) need to remain in air before permission
to land is granted at the destination and (iv) diversion to alternate airport in case
of landing being refused at the scheduled destination.
7.2.2 Head wind, tail wind, gust and cross wind
Generally the performance of an airplane is carried out assuming that the flight
takes place in still air. However the air mass may move in different directions.
Following three cases of air motion are especially important.
(a) Head wind and tail wind: In these two cases the direction of motion of air (V
w
)
is parallel to the flight direction. If V
w
is opposite to that of the flight direction, it is
called Head wind. When V
w
is in the same direction as the flight direction, it is
called Tail wind (Fig.7.1a). In the presence of wind, the velocitiy of the airplane
with respect to air (V
a
) and that with respect to ground (V
g
) will be different. For
the head wind case, V
g
= V
a
 V
w,
and for the tail wind case, V
g
= V
a
+ V
w.
(b) Gust: When the velocity of the air mass is perpendicular to flight path and
along the vertical direction, it is called gust. Here the velocity of gust is denoted
by V
gu
(Fig.7.1b). This type of air movement would result in a change of the
angle of attack of the airplane.
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(c ) Cross wind: When the velocity of the air mass is perpendicular to flight path
and parallel to the sideward direction, it is called Cross wind. Here it is denoted
by v (Fig.7.1c).
Fig.7.1a Head wind and tail wind
Fig.7.1b Gust
Fig.7.1c Side wind
7.2.3 Gross still air range (G.S.A.R.)
The calculation of safe range depends on the route on which the flight
takes place and other practical aspects. It is not a suitable parameter for use
during the preliminary design phase of airplane design. For this purpose, gross
still air range (G.S.A.R.) is used. In this case, it is assumed that the airplane is
already at the cruising speed and cruising altitude with desired amount of fuel
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and then it carries out a chosen flight plan in still air, till the fuel is exhausted.
The horizontal distance covered in this flight is called Gross still air range. In the
subsequent discussion the range will mean gross still air range.
Remark:
As a guideline G.S.A.R. is roughly equal to one and a half times the safe range.
7.3 Rough estimates of range and endurance
If the weight of the fuel available (W
f
in N) and the average rate of fuel
consumption during the flight are known, then the rough estimates of range (R)
and endurance (E) are given as follows.
R = W
f
x (km / N of fuel)
average
(7.1)
E = W
f
x (hrs / N of fuel)
average
(7.2)
The estimation procedure is illustrated with the help of example 7.1.
Example 7.1
An airplane has a weight of 180,000 N at the beginning of the flight and
20% of this is the weight of the fuel. In a flight at a speed of 800 kmph the lift to
drag ratio (L/D) is 12 and the TSFC of the engine is 0.8. Obtain rough estimates
of the range and endurance.
Solution:
W
1
= Weight at the start of the flight = 180,000N
W
f
= Weight of the fuel = 0.2x180,000 = 36,000N
W
2
= Weight of the airplane at the end of the flight
= 180,000  36,000= 144,000N.
Hence, the average weight of the airplane during the flight is :
W
a
=
180000 + 144000
= 162000N
2
Consequently, the average thrust (T
avg
) required during the flight is:
T
avg
= W
a
/ (L / D) = 162000/12 = 13500 N
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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The average fuel consumed per hour is:
T
avg
x TSFC = 13500 x 0.8 = 10800 N
Since the average speed is 800 kmph, the distance covered in 1 hr is 800 km.
Noting that the fuel consumed in 1 hr is 10,800 N, gives:
(km / N of fuel)
average
= 800/10800.
Consequently,
800
R = 36000 = 2667km
10800
and
the endurance E = 36000 x
1
= 3.33 hrs.
10800
7.4 Accurate estimates of range and endurance
For accurate estimates of range and endurance, the continuous variation
of the weight of the airplane during the flight and consequent changes in the
following quantities are considered.
(a) The thrust required (or power required),
(b) TSFC (or BSFC) and
(c) Flight velocity and lift coefficient.
It may be recalled from subsection 4.2.4, that is the specific fuel consumption
(SFC) of an engine delivering shaft horse power to a propeller is denoted by
BSFC and the SFC of a jet engine is denoted by TSFC. The units of BSFC and
TSFC are respectively N/kWhr and N/Nhr (or hr
1
).
The steps to accurately estimate the range and endurance are as follows.
Let W be the weight of the airplane at a given instant of time and W
fi
be the
weight of the fuel consumed from the beginning of the flight up to the instant
under consideration.
Then, W = W
1
 W
fi
(7.3)
where, W
1
= weight of the airplane at the start of the flight.
Let dR and dE be the distance covered in km and the time interval in hours
respectively, during which a small quantity of fuel dW
f
is consumed. Then,
dR = dW
f
x (km/N of fuel) (7.4)
and dE = dW
f
x (hrs/ N of fuel) (7.5)
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Following Ref.1.5, chapter 4, the Eqs.(7.4) and (7.5) are rewritten as:
dR = dW
f
km/hr
N of fuel /hr
 

\ .
(7.6)
and dE = dW
f
x { 1 / (N of fuel / hr)} (7.7)
It may be pointed out that (a) km/hr = 3.6 x V, where V is the flight speed in m/s.
(b) the fuel / hr in Newtons is equal to BSFC x BHP for an airplane with engine
propeller combination and equal to TSFC x T for a jet airplane.
Hereafter, the airplane with enginepropeller combination is referred to as E.P.C
and the jet airplane as J.A Note that in the case of an enginepropeller
combination, the engine could be a piston engine or a turboprop engine and in
the case of a jet airplane the engine could be a turbofan or a turbojet engine.
Equations (7.6) and (7.7) can be rewritten as :
3.6V
dR = dW
f
BSFC BHP
For E.P.C. (7.8)
and
3.6V
dR = dW
f
TSFC T
For J.A. (7.8a)
dW
f
dE =
BSFC BHP
For E.P.C. (7.9)
and
dW
f
dE =
TSFC T
For J.A. (7.9a)
Recall from section 5.2 that in a level flight,
C 1
2 D
T = D = W , L = W = V SC
L
C 2
L
,
1 1
2 2
L 0 L
2W 2W
V = =
S C S C
   
 
\ . \ .
(7.10)
Using,
0
= 1.225 kg/m
3
yields:
W
1/2
V = 1.278 ( )
SC
L
. (7.11)
Substituting for T and V from Eqs.(7.10) and (7.11), the expression for BHP is:
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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( )
1
2
3/2
D L
1 TV 1
3/2
BHP = = W / ( S) C / C
p
1000 782.6
p
(
(
(7.12)
where q
p
is the propeller efficiency.
During the analysis of range, the rate of change of weight of the airplane is only
due to the consumption of fuel. Hence,
dW
f
=  dW
Substituting for V, BHP, T and dW
f
in Eqs. (7.8),(7.8a),(7.9) and (7.9a) gives:
 3600 dW
p
dR =
BSFC W (C /C )
D L
For E.P.C. (7.13)
and
1/2 1/2
 4.6 dW
dR =
TSFC ( S W) (C /C )
D
L
For J.A. (7.13a)
( )
1/2
782.6 (S) dW
p
dE = 
3/2 3/2
BSFC W C /C
D
L
For E.P.C. (7.14)
and
( )
dW
dE =
TSFC W C /C
D L
For J.A (7.14a)
Let W
2
be the weight of the airplane at the end of the flight. Integrating
Eqs.(7.13), (7.13a), (7.14) and (7.14a), the range and endurance are given as:
2 2
1 1
W W
3600 dW
p
R = dR = 
BSFC W (C /C )
D L
W W
} }
For E.P.C. (7.15)
and
2
1 1
2 2
1
W
 4.6 dW
R =
TSFC ( S W) (C /C )
D W
L
}
For J.A (7.15a)
1/2
2 2
1 1
W W
782.8 (S) dW
p
E = dE = 
3/2 3/2
BSFC W (C /C )
D
W W
L
} }
For E.P.C. (7.16)
and
2
1
W
 dW
E =
TSFC W (C /C )
D L
W
}
For J.A. (7.16a)
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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7.4.1 Dependence of range and endurance on flight plan and remark on
optimum path
The set of Eqs.(7.15),(7.15a),(7.16) and (7.16a) or (7.8), (7.8a), (7.9) and (7.9a)
when integrated, give the range and endurance. However, while doing this, it
should be noted that the weight of the aircraft decreases continuously as the fuel
is consumed. Further, the flight is treated as steady level flight and hence, T = D
and L= W must be satisfied at each instant of time. Consequently, the thrust and
power required and the flight speed may change continuously. Hence, it is
necessary to prescribe the flight plan i.e., the manner in which the velocity
changes with time during the flight. The following three types of flight plans can
be cited as examples.
(a) Level flight at a constant velocity. In this flight, the lift coefficient decreases
gradually as the weight of the airplane decreases (Eq.7.10). Simultaneously, the
thrust required also decreases continuously.
(b) Level flight with constant lift coefficient (or constant angle of attack) . In this
flight, in accordance with Eq.(7.10), the flight velocity and the thrust required
decrease continuously as the weight of the airplane decreases.
(c) Level Flight with constant thrust. In this case, the continous decrease in the
airplane weight during the flight, requires that the flight velocity and the lift
coefficient (C
L
) be adjusted so that at each instant of time, the thrust balances
the drag and the lift balances the weight.
As mentioned earlier, the airplanes are commercial means to transport men and
materials. Hence, maximization of range and endurance are important
requirements. However, the right hand sides of Eqs.(7.15),(7.15a),(7.16) and
(7.16a) involve integrals. The optimization of an integral is different from the
optimization of an expression. The latter is done by taking the derivative of the
expression and equating it to zero. Whereas, in the case of an integral, it is to be
noted that the value of the integral depends on how the integrand varies with the
independent variable. This variation, in mathematical terms, is called a path. For
example, as mentioned above, the range will depend on the flight plan viz.
constant angle of attack flight or constant velocity flight or constant thrust flight.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter7
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
10
The problem of optimization is to find out the path that will maximize the integral.
The branch of Mathematics which deals with optimization of integrals is called
Calculus of variation. This topic is outside the scope of the present introductory
course. Interested reader may refer, chapter 20 of Ref.7.1.
Remark:
It can be shown, using calculus of variation, that if the specific fuel consumption,
propeller efficiency and altitude are assumed constant, then the maximum range
is obtained in a flight with constant lift coefficient. With these assumptions
Eqs.(7.15),(7.15a),(7.16) and (7.16a) become easy to integrate. The expressions
for range and endurance, obtained with these assumptions, are called Breguet
formulae. These are derived in the next subsection. It may be pointed out that
Breguet was a French pioneer in aeronautical engineering.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter7
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
1
Chapter 7
Lecture 25
Performance analysis III Range and endurance 2
Topics
7.4.2 Breguet formulae for range and endurance of airplanes with engine
propeller combination and jet engine
7.4.3 Discussion on Breguet formulae desirable values of lift coefficient
and flight altitude
7.4.4 Important values of lift coefficient
7.4.2 Breguet formulae for range and endurance of airplanes with engine
propeller combination and jet engine
The derivations of these formulae are based on the assumptions that during
the flight:
(i) BSFC or TSFC is constant
(ii) q
p
is constant for engine propeller combination (E.P.C).
(iii) altitude is constant
(iv) C
L
is constant and
(v) flight Mach number is below critical Mach number so that the drag polar is
independent of Mach number.
With, these assumptions, certain terms in Eqs.(7.15) and (7.15a) can be taken
outside the integral and the equations reduce to:
2
1
w
3600
dW p
R = 
W
BSFC (C /C )
D
w
L
}
For E.P.C
and
2
1
W
 4.6 dW
R =
1/2 1/2 1/2
TSFC(S) (C /C ) W
D
W
L
}
For J.A.
Hence,
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter7
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
2
8289.3
W p
1
R = log
10
BSFC (C /C ) W
D L 2
 

\ .
For E.P.C. (7.17)
and
1/2
W W 9.2
1/2 1 2
R = ( ) 1
1/2
S W
1 TSFC(C /C )
D
L
 
 



\ .
\ .
For J.A. (7.17a)
Similarly, from the above assumptions, Eqs.(7.16) and (7.16a) reduce to :
( )
1/2
2
1
W
782.6 (S)
dW p
E = 
3/2 3/2
W BSFC C / C
D
W
L
}
For E.P.C
and
2
1
W
1 dW
E = 
TSFC(C / C ) W
D L
W
}
For J.A.
Hence,
( )
1/2 1/2
1565.2
S p
1/2
E = [ ] W  W
2 1
3/2 W
1
BSFC C /C
D
L
(
(
For E.P.C. (7.18)
and
10
W 2.303
1
E = log
TSFC (C / C ) W
D L 2
 

\ .
For J.A. (7.18a)
7.4.3 Discussion of Breguet formulae desirable values of lift coefficient
and flight altitude
The following conclusions can be drawn from the above expressions for
range and endurance viz. Eqs.7.17, 7.17a, 7.18 and 7.18a.
(1) For range and endurance to be high, it is evident that q
p
should be high and
the TSFC and BSFC should be low.
(2) Desirable values of lift coefficients for an airplane with enginepropeller
combination: The endurance is maximum (Eq.7.18) when the lift coefficient is
such that C
D
/C
L
3/2
is minimum, i.e., C
L
= C
Lmp
. This can be understood from the
fact, that with BSFC being assumed constant, the rate of fuel consumption per
hour would be minimum, in this case, when the power required is minimum.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter7
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
3
From Eq.(7.17), for range to be maximum, in this case, C
D
/C
L
should be
minimum or C
L
= C
Lmd
. This can be understood from the fact that the range, in
this case is proportional to V/THP or L / D. Hence, range is maximised when C
L
corresponds to minimum drag.
(3) Desirable values of lift coefficients for a jet airplane: From Eq.(7.18a) it is
observed that the endurance is maximum when C
D
/ C
L
is minimum or C
L
= C
Lmd
.
This can be understood from the fact that with TSFC being assumed constant,
the fuel flow rate per hour would be minimum when the thrust required is
minimum.
From Eq.(7.17a) the range, in this case is maximum when C
D
/C
L
1/2
is minimum.
This can be understood from the fact that the range, in this case, is proportional
to (V / T) or
1/2
L D
C /C . The C
L
corresponding to (C
D
/C
L
1/2
)
min
is denoted here by
C
Lmrj
.
(4) Desirable values of flight altitude : Equation (7.17a), also shows that for a jet
airplane, the range would be high, when (a) the wing loading (W/S) is high and
(b) density ratio (o) is low or the altitude is high. Hence, the jet airplanes have
wing loading of the order of 4000 to 6000 N/m
2
, which is much higher than that
for the low speed airplanes which have a wing loading of 1000 to 2500 N/m
2
. The
jet airplanes also cruise at high altitude (10 to 12 km) which is not much below
the ceiling altitude of 12 to 14 km for these airplanes.
From Eq.(7.18) it is observed that the endurance of an airplane with engine
propeller combination is high when (a) the wing loading is low and (b) o is high or
flight takes place near sea level.
It may be added that the final wing loading chosen for an airplane is a
compromise between requirements of cruise, climb, takeoff and landing. The
takeoff and landing distances increase in direct proportion to the wing loading
(subsections 10.4.5 and 10.5.3), and hence, a high wing loading is not desirable
from this point of view.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter7
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
4
Remarks:
i) If the drag polar is parabolic, an expression for C
Lmrj
can be derived as follows.
1/2 1/2
1/2
2
3/2
C = C + K C
D DO
L
C C
DO D
Hence, = + K C
L
C C
L L
d(C / C )
C 3 D
3/2 1/2 DO L
= C + K C = 0
Lmrj Lmrj
dC 2 2
L
Or C
Lmrj
= (C
DO
/ 3K)
1/2
7.4.4 Important values of lift coefficient
The points on the drag polar at which C
L
is equal to C
Lmax
, C
Lmp
, C
Lmd
and C
Lmrj
are shown in Fig.7.2. The importance of these values of lift coefficient can be
reemphasized as follows.
(i) The maximum lift coefficient (C
Lmax
) decides the stalling speed which is one of
the criterion for the minimum speed of the airplane. It also affects the minimum
radius of turn (see subsection 9.3.3) and the takeoff and landing distances (see
subsections 10.4.5 and 10.5.3)
(ii) The lift coefficient corresponding to minimum power required (C
Lmp
) influences
the performance of airplanes with enginepropeller combination. It decides the
flight speeds corresponding to maximum rate of climb, minimum rate of sink and
maximum endurance of these airplanes.
(iii) The lift coefficient corresponding to minimum thrust required (
Lmd
C ) is also
the value of C
L
at which (L/D) is maximum. From Fig.7.2 it is observed that the
slope of a line joining the origin to a point on the curve, is equal to (C
L
/ C
D
). At,
C
L
= Lmd
C this line, from the origin, is tangent to the drag polar and has the
maximum slope (Fig.7.2). The value of C
Lmd
decides the flight speed for
maximum range of an airplane with enginepropeller combination and the
maximum endurance of a jet airplane.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter7
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
5
(iv) The lift coefficient corresponding to
( )
max
1/2
L D
C /C or C
Lmrj
decides the flight
speed for maximum range of jet airplanes.
Fig.7.2 Important points on a drag polar
Example 7.2
An airplane having an enginepropeller combination weighs 88,290 N and
has a wing area of 45 m
2
. Its drag polar is given by: C
D
= 0.022 + 0.059C
L
2
.
Obtain the maximum range and endurance at sea level in a steady level flight at
a constant angle of attack from the following additional data.
Weight of fuel and oil = 15,450 N, BSFC = 2.67 N/kWhr,
propeller efficiency (q
p
) = 85%.
Note: Along with the fuel, the lubricating oil is also consumed and this fact is
taken into account in this example, by specifying the weight of the oil along with
the weight of fuel.
Solution:
W
1
= 88290 N, W
2
= 88290 15450 = 72840 N
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter7
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
6
Since BSFC, q
p
and C
L
are constant, the maximum range and endurance occur
when C
L
has the values of C
Lmd
and C
Lmp
respectively.
C
Lmd
= (C
DO
/K)
1/2
= (0.022/0.059)
1/2
= 0.6106,
C
Dmd
= 2 C
DO
= 0.044
C
Lmp
= (3C
DO
/K)
1/2
= (3 x 0.022/0.059)
1/2
= 1.058, C
Dmp
= 4 C
DO
= 0.088
Hence, (C
D
/C
L
)
min
= 0.044/0.6106 = 0.0721
and
3/2 3/2
(C /C ) = 0.088/(1.058)
D min
L
= 0.0808
From Eq. (7.17):
8289.3
W 8289.3 0.85 88290 p
1
R = log = log
10 10
BSFC (C /C ) W 2.67 0.0721 72840
D L min 2
 
 
 
\ .
\ .
= 3058 km.
Remark:
Since C
L
is constant during the flight, the flight velocity and the power required
change as the fuel is consumed. In the present case, the following results
illustrate the changes.
Velocity at the beginning of the flight:
V
1
=( )
1/2 1/2
2W / S C = (2 88290/1.225 45 0.6106)
1 Lmd
= 72.41 m/s.
= 260.7kmph.
Velocity at the end of flight:
= ( )
1/2
2
2W / S C
Lmd
= (2 x 72840/1.225 x 45 x 0.6106)
1/2
= 65.8 m/s = 236.8 kmph.
Power required in the beginning of the flight:
( )
1 D L 1
1 1
W C /C V T V 88290 0.044
= = = 72.41= 460.7kW
1000 1000 1000 0.6106
Power required at the end of flight:
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter7
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
7
( )
2 2 2 2
D L
W C /C V T V 72840 0.044
= = = 65.8 = 345.5kW
1000 1000 1000 0.6106
Maximum endurance:
From Eq.(7.18) the maximum endurance is :
( )
1/2 1/2
1/2 1/2
W 1565.2 S p
1
E = 1
max
3/2 BSFC W W
1 2
C /C
D
L
min
1565.2 0.85 1.00 45 88290
= 1 = 14.06hrs
2.67 0.0808 88290 72840
(
(  
(
 (
(
\ .
(
(  
(

(
( \ .
In this flight C
L
equals 1.058. Proceeding in a manner similar to the remark
above, it can be shown that the speeds at the beginning and end of the flight for
E
max
are 197.8 kmph and 179.7 kmph respectively. The power outputs required
at the beginning and the end of this flight are 402.8 kW and 302.0 kW
respectively.
Example 7.3
A jet airplane has a weight of 922,140 N and wing area of 158 m
2
. The
weight of the fuel and oil together is 294,300 N. The drag polar is given by:
2
C = 0.017 + 0.0663 C
D
L
Obtain the maximum range in constant C
L
flight at an altitude of 10 km assuming
the TSFC to be 0.95 hr
1
.
Solution:
In a flight with constant C
L
the maximum range occurs when
1/2
C = C = (C / 3K)
L Lmrj D0
1/2
0.017
C = = 0.292
Lmrj
3 0.0663
 

\ .
C
Dmrj
= 0.017 + 0.0663 (0.292)
2
= 0.02265
1/2 1/2
( ) C /C = 0.02265 / 0.292 = 0.04192
Dmrj
Lmrj
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter7
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
8
at 10 km altitude is: 0.3369
From Eq.(7.17a):
( )
1/2
1/2
1/2
1/2
1/2
W W 9.2
1 2
R = 1
max
S W
1
TSFC C /C
D
L
9.2 922140 922140 294300
= 1 = 5317 km
0.95 0.04192 0.3369 158 922140
(
 
(
(

(
(
\ .
(
 
 
(
 
( \ .
\ .
Remarks:
i)The flight velocity corresponding to a C
L
of 0.292 at an altitude of 10 km is equal
to: [2 x 922140 / (158 x 0.413 x 0.292)]
1/2
= 311.1 m/s.
The speed of sound at 10 km is 299.5 m/s. Thus the Mach number at this speed
would be 311.1/299.5 = 1.04. This value is definitely higher than the critical Mach
number of the airplane. Consequently, the prescribed drag polar is not valid. The
C
D
will actually be much higher and the range much lower.
As an alternative, let the critical Mach number be taken as 0.85 and the range be
calculated in a flight at constant C
L
which begins at this Mach number.
Consequently, V = 0.85 x 299.5 = 254.5 m/s.
Hence,C
L
= (2 x 922140/0.413 x 158 x 254.5
2
) = 0.436
Consequently, C
D
= 0.017 + 0.0663 x (0.436)
2
= 0.0296
and
1/ 2 1/ 2
C /C = 0.0296/0.436 = 0.0448
D
L
The range in a constant C
L
flight with C
L
=0.436 would be:
1/2
1/2
4975
9.2 922140 922140294300
= 1 km
0.95 0.0448 0.3369158 922140
(
 
 
(
=
 
( \ .
\ .
.
(ii) The data given in this example, roughly corresponds to that of Boeing 727,
the famous jetliner of 1970s. The value of TSFC corresponds to engines of that
period. The value of K equal to 0.0663 includes the change in K, when Mach
number lies in the transonic range.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter7
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
1
Chapter 7
Lecture 26
Performance analysis III Range and endurance 3
Topics
7.4.5 Influence of the range performance analysis on airplane design
7.5 Range in constant velocity  constant altitude flight (R
h,v
)
7.6 Cruising speed and cruising altitude
7.7 Cruise climb
7.8 Effect of wind on range and endurance
7.4.5 Influence of the range performance analysis on airplane design
In section 5.8 it was pointed out that the analysis of level flight
performance led to improvements in design of airplanes. Similarly, the analysis of
range also helped in improvements in airplane design in the following way.
The high speed airplanes are jet airplanes and for these airplanes the range
(R) is proportional to :
1 1
1/2
TSFC
C /C
D
L
or
C 1 1
L
1/2
TSFC C
D C
L
Noting that 1/
1/2
L
C
is proportional to flight speed (V),
C 1
L
R V
TSFC C
D
Since, high speed airplanes fly in lower stratosphere, where speed of sound is
constant,
C 1
L
R M
TSFC C
D
(7.19)
The quantity
C 1
L
M
TSFC C
D
can be referred to as figure of merit (FM) for the
following reasons.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter7
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
2
(a) A low value of TSFC in an indicator of high engine efficiency and (b) A high
value of (C
L
/C
D
) is an indicator of high aerodynamic efficiency.
The figure of merit provided guidelines when the supersonic airplane
Concorde was being designed in early 1960s.The subsonic jets of that period
like Boeing 707 would fly around M = 0.8, have (L / D)
max
around 16 and TSFC
around 0.9. These values would give the FM of 0.8x16/0.9 or 14.2. If Concorde
were to compete with subsonic jets, it needed to have a similar value of FM. The
fighter airplanes of that period flying at Mach number of two had TSFC of 1.5 and
(L/D)
max
of 5. This would give FM of (2 x 5) /1.5 = 6.66 which was far too low as
compared to that for subsonic airplanes. Hence the targets for Concorde, which
was being designed for a Mach number of 2.2, were fixed at (L/D)
max
of 7.5 and
TSFC of 1.2. This would give FM of 2.2(1/1.2) x 7.5 = 13.75, which was
comparable to the FM of subsonic airplanes. However, to achieve a TSFC of 1.2
at M =2.2, a large amount of research was carried out and the Olympus engine
used on Concorde was developed jointly by RollsRoyce of U.K. and SNECMA of
France. Similarly, to achieve an (L/D)
max
of 7.5 at M = 2.2 needed a large amount
of computational and experimental effort. A picture of Concorde, a technological
marvel, is shown in Fig.7.3.
It may be added that for Concorde the Mach number was limited to 2.2 as
the designers had chosen to use aluminum as structural material. At M = 3 the
FM could be greater than that of subsonic airplanes but the aerodynamic heating
would cause surface temperatures of around 300
o
C at which the strength and
modulus of elasticity of aluminum will be significantly reduced.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter7
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
3
Fig.7.3 Concorde
(Source: www.airplanepictures.net)
The B787 (Fig.7.4) being brought out by Boeing and called Dream liner has
M = 0.85, (L/D)
max
of 22 and TSFC of 0.54 hr
1
. These values of (L/D)
max
and
TSFC
indicate steady improvements in aerodynamics and engine performance
over the last five decades .
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter7
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
4
Fig.7.4 Boeing 787 Dream liner
(Source: www.lotz.com)
7.5 Range in constant velocity  constant altitude flight (R
h,v
)
The assumption of constant C
L
during cruise gives the longest range(R).
However, it is more convenient for the pilot to fly the airplane at a constant speed
or Mach number. He just needs to keep an eye on the airspeed indicator or
Machmeter and adjust other parameters like the angle of attack and engine
setting.
To derive an expression for range in level flight at constant speed (R
h,v
),
an airplane with jet engine is considered and it is assumed that TSFC is
constant. Equation (7.8a) is the basic equation for range of a jet airplane. When
V is constant, the equation takes the following form.
2
1
1
W
3.6 V dW
R =
h v
TSFC T
r
W
}
(7.20)
T
r
= thrust required
Assuming a parabolic polar,
T
r
=
2 2
1 2K W KW
2 2 1
V S C + = q S C + ; q = V
DO DO
2 2
2 qS
V S
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter7
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
5
Note: The dynamics pressure (q), is constant in a constant velocity and constant
altitude flight.
Substituting for T
r
in Eq.(7.20) gives:
2
1
1
w
3.6 V  dW
R =
h v
2
TSFC q S C
D0 1+aW
w
}
where, a =
K
2 2
q S C
D0
1
3.6 V
1 1
Or R = [tan a W  tan a W ]
h v 1 2
qS C TSFC a
D0
(7.20a)
where W
2
= weight of the airplane at the end of the flight.
Let
W
f
=
W
1
, where W
f
= weight of fuel
Hence, W
2
= W
1
(1,) ;
Further, let E
1
= W
1
/D
1
= initial lift to drag ratio,
2
1
1 D1 DO 2 2
KW
D = qSC = qS C +
q S
`
)
2
1
DO
KW
= qSC +
qS
C
L1
= C
L
at start of flight =
W
1
2
1
V S
2
=
1
W
qS
E
max
=
1
2 K C
D0
Noting that ,
1 1 1 1 2
1 2
1 2

tan  tan = tan
1+
`
)
,
Equation (7.20a) can be rewritten as :
1 1 2
h,v
1 2
DO
DO
aW  aW 3.6V
R = tan
1+aWW K
TSFC qSC
qS C
(
` (
)
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter7
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
6
( )
( )
1 2 1
2
1
DO
2 2
DO
a W  W
3.6V
= tan
W K
TSFC KC
1+ 1
C q S
(
(
(
(
(
( )
1
DO 1 max
2
1
2 2
DO
W K
C qS 7.2E V
= tan
W K TSFC
1+ 1
C q S
(
(
(
(
(
(
Multiplying the denominator and numerator of the terms in square brackets by
qSC
DO
gives :
DO 1 1 max
h,v 2 2
1 1
DO
KC W 7.2E V
R = tan
KW KW TSFC
qSC + 
qS qS
(
(
(
(
(
DO 1 1 max
2
1
1
KC W 7.2E V
= tan
W TSFC
D  K
qS
(
(
(
(
(
Dividing the numerator and denominator of the term in square brackets by D
1
,
gives :
1
DO
1 max 1
h,v
1 1
1
W
KC
7.2E V D
R = tan
TSFC W W
1 K
qS D
(
(
(
(
 
(

(
\ .
Or
( )
1 max 1
h,V
max L1 1
7.2E V E
R = tan
TSFC 2E 1KC E
(
(
(7.21)
For an airplane with an enginepropeller combination, the range at constant
speed and constant altitude (R
h,v
) is given as:
2
1
1
W
3600 dW
p
R =
h v
BSFC T
W
}
(7.22)
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter7
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
7
Assuming BSFC and
p
to be constant and the drag polar as parabolic i.e.
1
2
2
2KW
2
T = V S C +
DO
2
SV
and substituting in Eq.(7.22) gives:
1
7200
E p
1 1
R = E tan
h v max
BSFC 2E (1KC E )
max L1 1
(
(
(7.23)
Remarks:
i) Comparing the ranges in the constant velocity and constant C
L
flights, Ref.1.1,
chapter 9, shows that the maximum range in a constant velocity flight is only
slightly lower than that in a constant C
L
flight.
ii) In actual practice BSFC (or TSFC) and
p
may vary during the cruise. If
detailed information about their variations is available, then better estimates of
range and endurance can be obtained by numerical integration of Eqs.(7.8),
(7.8a),(7.9) and (7.9a).
iii) Appendix A section 6 considers the range and endurance performance of a
piston engined airplane at an altitude of 8000 feet (2438 m) in constant velocity
flights at different speeds. The variations in propeller efficiency and fuel
consumption are taken into account. It is seen that the endurance is maximum
around flight speed of 135 kmph. The range is maximum for flight speeds
between 165 to 185 kmph.
iv) Section 6 of Appendix B considers the range and endurance performance of
a jet transport at an altitude of 36000 feet (10973 m) in constant velocity flights at
different speeds. The endurance is near its maximum value in the speed range of
684 to 828 kmph. The maximum range occurs around 240 m/s (864 kmph). The
corresponding Mach number is 0.82, which is slightly higher than the Mach
number beyond which the C
DO
and K begin to increase due to compressibility
effects.
7.6 Cruising speed and cruising altitude
The cruising speed (V
cr
) and the cruising altitude (h
cr
) together constitute
the combination at which the maximum range is obtained. To arrive at the values
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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of V
cr
and h
cr
the range is calculated at various speeds at a number of altitudes
and the plots as shown in Fig.7.5 are obtained. The dotted line in Fig.7.5 is the
envelop of all the curves. The speed and altitude at which the maximum of this
envelop occurs is called the most economical cruising speed and altitude. In
some cases this speed is rather low and a higher cruising speed may be chosen
from other considerations like, shorter flight time and speed appeal. i.e. a faster
airplane may be more appealing to the passengers even if it consumes more fuel
per kilometer of travel.
Fig.7.5 Determination of cruising speed and cruising altitude
7.7 Cruise climb
To prepare the back ground for the analysis of the cruise climb, consider
Eq.(7.8a) which gives the range of a jet airplane. i.e.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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9
2
1
W
W D
L
3.6 V dW
R =
C
TSFC W
C
 

\ .
}
(7.24)
The TSFC is generally assumed to be constant during the flight. Further
simplifications are needed to carry out the integration in Eq.(7.24). In the
constant altitude  constant C
L
flight considered in subsection 7.4.2, as the name
suggests, the lift coefficient (C
L
) is assumed constant during the flight. In this
case, to satisfy the requirement of L = W =
2
L
1
V SC
2
, the flight velocity is
decreased as the weight of the airplane decreases due to consumption of fuel
(see example 7.2). In the constant altitude constant velocity flight, considered
in section 7.5, the flight speed (V) is held constant during the flight. In this case,
C
L
decreases as the fuel is consumed.
Equation (7.24) suggests a third possibility, other than the above two cases, of
both V and C
L
being held constant during the flight.In this case, to satisfy
L = W =
L
2
1
V SC
2
, it has been suggested that the airplane be allowed to climb
slowly such that the decrease of atmospheric density ( ) with altitude
compensates for the decrease of airplane weight due to consumption of fuel.
With these simplifications Eq.(7.24) gives :
( ) ( )
( )
1 2
D L D L
2
1
W
W
3.6V dW 3.6V
R = = ln W /W
TSFC C /C W TSFC C /C
}
(7.25)
The flight is called Cruise climb as the altitude continuously increases during the
flight.
Remarks:
(i) Exercise 7.3 would show that for a jet airplane with W
f
/ W
1
= 0.2 and starting
the cruise climb at h = 11 km, the range would be 5141 km and the change of
flight altitude between the end and the start of cruise climb would be only
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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10
1.415 km. Thus, it is observed that the change in the altitude between the start
and end of cruise climb is very small as compared to the distance covered and
the level flight equations (L = W and T = D) are valid.
(ii) It can be shown (Ref.1.1, chapter 5) that the range in a cruise climb is higher
than that in level flight at the altitude where the cruise climb begins.
(iii) In actual practice continuous increase in altitude may not be permitted by Air
Traffic Regulations. As an alternative, a stepped climb approximation may be
used i.e. the flight path is divided into segments of constant altitude flights with
stepped increase in altitude after certain distance.
(iv)In a cruise climb the thrust required would be
T = D = (1/2) V
2
SC
D
Since, the flight velocity and C
L
(and hence C
D
) are held constant, the thrust
required will be proportional to ambient density (). It may be pointed out that in
lower stratosphere the engine output (thrust available) is also proportional to the
ambient density. Thus, in a cruise climb in lower stratosphere the thrust setting
required is also constant and it becomes a very convenient flight the pilot has
just to set the Mach number and then the autopilot will take care of the flight.
7.8 Effect of wind on range and endurance
In the foregoing discussion, it was assumed that the airplane moves in a
mass of air which is stationary with respect to the ground. However, in many
situations the air mass has a velocity with respect to the ground and the airplane
encounters head wind or tail wind. (see subsection 7.2.2 for definition of head
wind and tail wind). The wind velocity is denoted by V
W
. When V
W
is nonzero,
the velocity of the airplane with respect to the ground (V
g
) and that with respect
to air (V
a
) are different. To analyze the effect of wind on airplane performance, it
may be pointed out that the aerodynamic characteristics of the airplane (lift, and
drag) and the engine characteristics depend on the velocity with respect to air
(V
a
), whereas the distance covered in the flight depends on the velocity with
respect to the ground (V
g
). In the presence of head wind the velocity of the
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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airplane with respect to the ground will be lower than its velocity with respect to
air and the range decreases. For example, in a hypothetical case of head wind
being equal to the stalling speed, the airplane, in principle, can remain airborne
without moving with respect to the ground. The fuel will be consumed as engine
would produce thrust to overcome the drag, but no distance will be covered as
the airplane is hovering! When there is tail wind the range increases.
An expression for range with effect of wind can be derived as follows.
Consider a jet airplane. Let R
g
be the range in the presence of wind.
Equation(7.8a) can be used to calculate R
g
, but the quantity V in that equation
should be replaced with V
g
i.e. :
2 2
1 1
W
W W
3.6 V dW
3.6 (V  V ) dW g
a
R =  =
g
TSFC T TSFC T
W W
} }
, V
W
in m/s
2 2
1 1
W W
3.6 V dW dW
a
R =   3.6 V = R  3.6V E
g w a w
TSFC T TSFC T
W W
} }
(7.26)
where R
a
is the range in still air = 
2
1
W
3.6 V dW
a
TSFC T
W
}
and E is the duration of flight in hours. Thus, with head wind the range decreases
by 3.6 V
w
E. In example 7.1 the range is 2667 km and the endurance is 3.33
hours. If a head wind of 15 m/s is encountered then the range would decrease
by 15 x 3.6 x 3.33 = 180 km.
Remarks:
i) Before a flight takes off, the information about head wind, likely to occur on
the route is gathered from weather reports, and adequate amount of fuel is
provided to take care of the situation.
ii) The maximum endurance (E
max
) is not affected by the presence of wind,
because E
max
depends on airspeed only. The airspeed indicator in the cockpit, as
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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12
the name suggests, indicates airspeed and the pilot only needs to fly at airspeed
corresponding to E
max.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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Chapter 7
Exercises
7.1 A jet airplane is flying in level flight at a constant velocity (V). Show that when
the drag polar is parabolic the endurance (E) is given by :
( )
2E E
1 max 1
E = tan
TSFC 2E 1 KC E
max L1 1
 


\ .
where, , = W
fuel
/ W
1
W
1
= Weight of airplane at the beginning of the flight; W
2
= W
1
(1  )
E
1
= W
1
/D
1
, D
1
= drag at the beginning of the flight
C
L1
= Lift coefficient at the beginning of the flight.
TSFC = Specific fuel consumption (assume as constant).
7.2 Define safe range and gross still air range. Obtain the gross still air range
in steady level flight for a turboprop airplane flying at a constant speed of
400 kmph at an altitude where o = 0.65, given that:
C
D
= 0.021 + 0.06C
L
2
; W
1
= 176, 600 N, W
fuel
= 35, 300 N,
S = 90 m
2
, q
p
= 0.82, BSFC = 3.90 N/kW  hr.
(Answer: R = 2104 Km).
7.3 Consider a jet airplane with 20% of its weight as fuel fraction. It starts the
cruise climb at an altitude of 11km. What will be the altitude at the end of cruise
climb (h
f
)? Assuming V = 240 m/s, TSFC = 0.6 and C
L
/ C
D
= 16, estimate the
range in cruise climb (R
cc
). What is the angle of climb (
cc
) in cruise climb?
(Answers: h
f
= 12415 m, R
cc
= 5141 m,
cc
= 0.0157
o
).
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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Chapter 7
Reference
Riley , K.F., Hobson, M.P. and Bence, S.J. Mathematical methods for physics
and engineering Cambridge University press Cambridge, U.K. (1998).
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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Chapter 8
Performance analysis IV Accelerated level flight and climb
(Lecture 27)
Keywords: Accelerated level flight; accelerated climb; energy height.
Topics
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Accelerated level flight
8.2.1 Equations of motion in accelerated level flight
8.2.2 Time taken and distance covered in accelerated level flight
8.3 Accelerated climb
8.3.1 Equations of motion in accelerated climb
8.3.2 Effect of acceleration on rate of climb
8.3.3 Performance in accelerated climb from energy point of view
8.3.4 Energy height
Exercise
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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Chapter 8
Lecture 27
Performance analysis IV Accelerated level flight and climb
Topics
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Accelerated level flight
8.2.1 Equations of motion in accelerated level flight
8.2.2 Time taken and distance covered in accelerated level flight
8.3 Accelerated climb
8.3.1 Equations of motion in accelerated climb
8.3.2 Effect of acceleration on rate of climb
8.3.3 Performance in accelerated climb from energy point of view
8.3.4 Energy height
8.1 Introduction
The last three chapters dealt with the performance airplane in steady
flights. The flights with acceleration are considered in this and the next two
chapters. The accelerated flights could be along a straight line e.g. accelerated
level flight and accelerated climb or along curved paths like loops and turn. In
this chapter the accelerated level flight and climb are discussed.
8.2 Accelerated level flight
When an airplane moves along a straight line at a constant altitude but its
velocity changes with time, then it is said to execute an accelerated level flight.
This type of flight occurs in the following situations.
(i) The takeoff speed of an airplane is about 1.15 to 1.3 times the stalling speed.
However, the speed corresponding to the best rate of climb is generally much
higher than this speed (see Figs.6.3a and c). Hence the airplane may accelerate
from the takeoff speed to the speed corresponding to the desired rate of climb.
Similarly, the speed , at the end of the climb to the cruising altitude, is lower than
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the cruising speed (Figs.6.3a and c) and an airplane would accelerate at the
cruising altitude to attain the desired cruising speed.
(ii) The airplane may also accelerate in the transonic flight range to quickly pass
over to the supersonic speeds (see Fig.5.11)
(iii) The airplane may decelerate during a combat or when the pilot notices the
possibility of overshooting a target.
8.2.1 Equation of motion in accelerated level flight
The forces acting on an airplane in an accelerated level flight are shown in
Fig.8.1. It may be recalled that the equations of motion are obtained by applying
Newtons second law. For this purpose, the forces acting on the airplane are
resolved along and the perpendicular to the flight path. Sum of the components
of the forces in each of these directions, is equated to the product of the mass of
the airplane and the component of the acceleration in that direction.
The flight path in this case is a horizontal line. Hence, the equations of motion
are :
W
T  D = m a = a
g
(8.1)
L  W = 0 (8.2)
where a is the acceleration.
Fig.8.1 Forces in accelerated level flight
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8.2.2 Time taken and distance covered in an accelerated level flight
As regards the analysis of performance in an accelerated flight, it is of
interest to obtain the time taken and the distance covered for a given change in
velocity. The accelerated or decelerated flights last only for a short duration and
the weight of the airplane can be assumed to remain constant during such flights.
However, in a level flight L = W = (1/2) V
2
S C
L
, should be satisfied. Hence, the
value of C
L
and consequently of C
D
change continuously as the flight velocity
changes. From Eq.(8.1), the acceleration a is given by:
a = g (TD) / W
Substituting for D as (1/2) V
2
S C
D
, gives:
1
2
g
2
a = (T V S C )
D
W
(8.3)
Note that :
ds dV dV ds dV
V = and a = = = V
dt dt ds dt ds
( )
dV V dV
Consequently, dt = and ds = 8.3a
a a
Let the distance covered and the time taken for velocity to change from V
1
to V
2
be denoted by s and t respectively, Integrating expressions in Eq.(8.3a) gives:
2 2
1 1
V V
VdV dV
s = and t =
a a
V V
} }
(8.4)
Substituting for a from Eq.(8.3) yields:
2 2
1 1
V V
W V dV WdV
s = and t =
2 2
1 1
g (T V S C ) g (T V S C )
D D
V V
2 2
} }
(8.5)
The expressions in Eq.(8.5) can be directly integrated if T and D are simple
functions of velocity. Otherwise a numerical integration as illustrated in the
following example can be carried out.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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Example 8.1
An airplane with a weight of 156,960 N and a wing area of 49 m
2
has a
drag polar given by C
D
= 0.017+0.06C
L
2
. It accelerates under standard sea level
conditions from a velocity of 100 m/s to 220 m/s. Obtain the distance covered
and the time taken during the acceleration, assuming the thrust output to remain
roughly constant at 53,950 N.
Solution:
1
2
1 1
2 2
1
2
2
L = W = V SC
L
2
2 KW
2 2
D = V SC = V S C +
D D0
2
SV
2
2 0.06 156960
2
Or D = 1.225 490.017 V +
2
1.225 49 V
7
4.9225 10
2
Or D = 0.5102 V +
2
V
To carry out the numerical integration, the integrands in Eq.(8.5) are evaluated
for several values of V and the methods like trapezoidal rule or Simpsons rule
are used. Books on numerical analysis be consulted for further details of these
methods. Simpsons rule gives accurate results with a small number of points
and is used here. For this purpose the range between V
1
and V
2
is divided into
six intervals, each of 20 m/s. The values are tabulated below:
V (m/s) 100 120 140 160 180 200 220
D (N) 10042 10771 12518 14999 18050 21660 25731
W
g(TD)
0.3644 0.3705 0.3861 0.4107 0.4456 0.4954 0.5669
W V
g(TD)
36.44 44.46 54.06 65.72 80.21 99.09 124.72
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Using Simpsons rule,
s = (20/3) {36.44 + 4 (44.46 + 65.72 + 99.09 ) + 2(54.06 + 80.21) + 124.72}
= 8445 m = 8.445 km
t = (20/3) {0.3644 + 4 (0.3705 + 0.4107+0.4954) + 2 (0.3861 + 0.4456 ) + 0.5669}
= 51.34 s.
Answers:
Distance covered = 8.445 km ; time taken = 51.39 s.
8.3 Accelerated Climb
In this case, the flight takes place along a straight line inclined to the
horizontal at an angle as shown in Fig.8.2. The flight velocity increases or
decreases along the flight path. Figure 8.2 also shows the forces acting on the
airplane.
Fig.8.2 Accelerated climb
8.3.1 Equations of motion in accelerated climb
The equations of motion are:
W
T  D  Wsin = a
g
(8.6)
L  W cos = 0 (8.7)
8.3.2 Effect of acceleration on rate of climb
From Eq.(8.6), the acceleration can be expressed as:
g (T  D  W sin )
a =
W
(8.8)
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Note that : ;
dV dV dh dh
a = = . but = V = R/C
C
dt dh dt dt
dV
Consequently, a = V
c
dh
(8.9)
Substituting for a in Eq.(8.6) and noting that sin = V
c
/ V,
V W dV (TD)V
c
T  D  W  V = 0 or V =
c c
V g dh V dV
W 1+
g dh
 

\ .
(8.10)
From Eq.(6.4), (TD) V / W is the rate if climb in steady flight. Denoting it by V
co
,
Eq.(8.10) reduces to:
V
co
V =
c
V dV
1+
g dh
 

\ .
(8.11)
Remark:
The term (dV/dh) in Eq.(8.11) represents the rate of change of velocity with
altitude. This quantity would be positive if the flight velocity increases with
altitude. Thus, in an accelerated climb, the rate of climb, for given values of
thrust, speed and altitude, will be lower than that in a steady climb. This has
relevance to the flight with shortest time to climb, i.e., to calculate the shortest
time required to achieve desired altitude.
From Fig.6.3c it is observed that the flight speed for maximum rate of climb
(V
R/Cmax
) increases with altitude. Thus, in a climb which attempts to fly the
airplane at speeds corresponding to the maximum rate of climb (V
(R/C)max
) at
different altitudes, would not be a steady climb but an accelerated climb.
Consequently, the values of (R/C)
max
given in Fig.6.3e may need to be corrected
for the effect of acceleration.
8.3.3 Performance in accelerated climb from energy point of view
The performance of an airplane in an accelerated flight can also be viewed from
the energy point of view. Multiplying Eq.(8.6) by V gives:
W dV
T V  DV  W V sin = V
g dt
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Or
2
dh W d V
TV = DV + W +
dt g dt 2
 


\ .
(8.12)
In Eq.(8.12) the term TV represents the available energy provided by the
propulsive system. The term DV represents the energy dissipated in overcoming
the drag. The term W (dh / dt) represents the rate of change of potential energy
and (W/g) {d(V
2
/ 2) / dt} represents the rate of change of kinetic energy. Thus,
the total available energy can be utilized in three ways viz. overcoming drag,
change of potential energy and change of kinetic energy. If the flight takes place
at V
max
or (V
min
)
e
in level flight, then entire energy is used in overcoming the
drag and no energy is available for climb or acceleration. Only at speeds in
between (V
min
)
e
and V
max
, can an airplane climb or accelerate and the excess
power (TD)V has to be shared for increase of potential energy or kinetic energy
or both. If climb takes at V
(R/C)max
then no acceleration is possible.
8.3.4 Energy height
Equation (8.12) can be rewritten as:
2
(TD)V d V
= h +
W dt 2g
 


\ .
(8.13)
The term (h + V
2
/2g) is denoted by h
e
and is called Specific energy or Energy
height. It is called specific energy because it is equal to the sum of potential
energy and kinetic energy divided by the weight. It is called energy height
because this term has the dimensions of height. It may be noted that
(dh
e
/ dt) = (TD)V/ W (8.14)
The energy height concept is used in optimization of climb performance.
Reference 1.9 chapter 7 and Ref.1.12 chapter 2 may be referred to for details.
The quantity (dh
e
/ dt) is called specific excess power and denoted by P
s
.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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Example 8.2
An airplane climbs at constant equivalent air speed in troposphere. Obtain an
expression for the correction to be applied to the value of rate of climb calculated
with the assumption of the steady climb(the denominator in Eq.8.11).
Solution:
In a climb with V
e
as constant, the true air speed (V) is given by:
1
2
1
2
V = V / ,
e
dV d
3/2
Consequently, =  V
e
dh dh
In troposphere the variation of o with h is given as follows (Eq.2.7):
g
1
T h
o
R
=
T
o
 

\ .
where, T
O
= Temperature at sea level,
= Temperature lapse rate and
R = gas constant.
1
2
(g+R)
2(gR)
e
o
dV g R
Hence, = V
dh T R
 

\ .
(8.15)
In I.S.A., = 0.0065
K/m. Using g = 9.81 m/s and R = 287.05 m/s
2
K, the
correction factor in Eq.(8.11) is:
V dV
6 2 1.235
1+ = 1+ 4.894 10 V
e
g dh
(8.16)
It is seen that the correction required depends on V
e
and o. Typical values of the
correction factor at sea level (o = 1) and at 11 km altitude (o = 0.2971) are given
in Table E8.1.
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V
e
(m/s)
50
100
200
V dV
1+
g dh
 

\ .
at s.l
1.01224
1.0489
1.1958
V dV
1+
g dh
 

\ .
at 11 km
1.0548
1.2191
1.8766
Table E8.1 Correction factor in climb at constant equivalent air speed in
troposphere.
It is worth noting that at 11 km altitude the actual rate of climb, in constant V
e
flight at 200 m/s, is reduced to about half of its value in a steady climb.
Remark:
In a constant Mach number flight in troposphere, the flight velocity
decreases with altitude. Hence, the term (dV / dh) is negative and the rate of
climb in constant Mach number flight is more than that in a steady climb. See
exercise 8.1.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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Chapter 8
Exercise
8.1 A jet trainer is climbing in troposphere at a constant Mach number of 0.6.
Obtain the rate of climb when it is climbing at an altitude of 5 km. The airplane
has the following data.
W = 54,000 N, S = 17
2
m , C
D
= 0.017 + 0.055
2
L
C , and thrust available at 5 km
altitude = 13,000 N.
[Hint: Show that in a constant Mach number flight :
dV R V dV 1
2
=  M and 1+ = 1 RM
dh 2 T h g dh g 2
o
where, = ratio of specific heats,
= temperature lapse rate
R = Gas constant
Taking = 1.4, = 0.0065
K / m , R = 287.05
2
m
2
s K and g = 9.81 m /
2
s
gives:
V 1
c
=
2
V
co 1 0.1331M
]
(Answers: V
co
= 1798 m/min, V
c
= 1888 m/min)
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter9
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Chapter 9
Performance analysis V Manoeuvres
(Lectures 28 to 31)
Keywords : Flights along curved path in vertical plane loop and pull out ;
load factor ; steady level coordinatedturn  minimum radius of turn, maximum
rate of turn; flight limitations ; operating envelop; Vn diagram
Topics
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Flight along a circular path in a vertical plane (simplified loop)
9.2.1 Equation of motion in a simplified loop
9.2.2 Implications of lift required in a simplified loop
9.2.3 Load factor
9.2.4 Pull out
9.3 Turning flight
9.3.1 Steady, level, coordinatedturn
9.3.2 Equation of motion in steady, level, coordinatedturn
9.3.3 Factors limiting radius of turn and rate of turn
9.3.4 Determination of minimum radius of turn and maximum rate of turn
at a chosen altitude
9.3.5 Parameters influencing turning performance of a jet airplane
9.3.6 Sustained turn rate and instantaneous turn rate
9.4 Miscellaneous topics flight limitations, operating envelop and Vn
diagram
9.4.1 Flight limitations
9.4.2 Operating envelop
9.4.3 Vn diagram
Exercises
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Chapter 9
Lecture 28
Performance analysis V Manoeuvres 1
Topics
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Flight along a circular path in a vertical plane (simplified loop)
9.2.1 Equation of motion in a simplified loop
9.2.2 Implications of lift required in a simplified loop
9.2.3 Load factor
9.2.4 Pull out
9.3 Turning flight
9.3.1 Steady, level, coordinatedturn
9.3.2 Equation of motion in steady, level, coordinatedturn
9.1 Introduction
Flight along a curved path is known as a manoeuvre. In this flight the
radial acceleration is always present even if the tangential acceleration is zero.
For example, from particle dynamics (Ref.1.2) we know that when a body moves
with constant speed along a circle it is subjected to a radial acceleration equal to
(V
2
/ r) or
2
r where, V is the speed, r is the radius of curvature of the path and
e is the angular velocity (e = V / r). In a general case, when a particle moves
along a curve it has an acceleration along the tangent to the path whose
magnitude is equal to the rate of change of speed ( V ) and an acceleration along
the radius of curvature whose magnitude is (V
2
/ r). Reference 1.1, chapter 1 may
be referred to for details. In order that the body has these accelerations a net
force, having components along these directions, must act on the body. For
example, in the simpler case of a body moving with constant speed along a
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circle, there must be a centripetal force of magnitude m
2
r in the radially inward
direction; m is the mass of the body.
For the sake of simplicity, the motions of an airplane along curved paths
confined to either the vertical plane or the horizontal plane, are only considered
here. The flight along a closed curve in a vertical plane is refered to as loop and
that in the horizontal plane as turn. Reference 2.1 and Ref. 1.12, chapter 2, may
be referred to for various types of loops and turns. However, the simpler cases
considered here illustrate important features of these flights.
9.2 Flight along a circular path in vertical plane (simplified loop)
Consider the motion of an airplane along a circular path of radius r with
constant speed V. The forces acting on the airplane at various points of the flight
path are shown in Fig.9.1. Note also the orientation of the airplane at various
points and the directions in which D and L act; in a flat earth model W always
acts in the vertically downward direction.
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Note : The flight path is circular. Please adjust the resolution of your
monitor so that the flight path looks circular.
Fig.9.1 Flight along a loop with constant radius and speed
(Note: The quantity
2
W V
g r
is the magnitude of the inertia force at various points)
9.2.1 Equations of motion in a simplified loop
The equations of motion, when the airplane is at specified locations, can be
written down as follows.
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At point A :
2
WV
T  D = 0 ; L  W =
g r
(9.1)
At Point B:
2
W V
T  D  W = 0 ; L =
g r
(9.2)
At point C :
2
W V
T  D = 0 ; L + W =
g r
(9.3)
At point D :
2
WV
T  D + W = 0 ; L =
gr
(9.4)
At a general point G the equations of motion are:
2
WV
T  D  W sin = 0 ; L + Wcos =
gr
(9.5)
Note that the Eqs. (9.1) to (9.4) for points A, B, C and D can be obtained from
Eqs. (9.5) by substituting as 180
o
, 90
o
, 0
o
and 270
o
respectively.
Remarks:
i) If the tangential velocity is not constant during the loop then the first equation of
Eqs.(9.5) would become:
T  D  W sin = (W / g) a, where a = dV / dt (9.6)
ii) From Eqs. (9.1 to 9.5) it is observed that the lift required and the thrust
required during a loop with constant r and V change rapidly with time. It is
difficult for the pilot to maintain these values and the actual flight path is
somewhat like the one shown in Fig. 9.2.
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Fig.9.2 Shape of a normal loop
9.2.2 Implications of lift required during simplified loop
It is observed, that at the bottom of the loop i.e. point A in Fig. 9.1, the lift
required is equal to
2
WV
W +
gr
or
2
V
L = W 1+
gr
 


\ .
. The term (V
2
/ gr) could be
much larger than 1 and the lift required in a manoeuvre could be several times
the weight of the airplane. As an illustration, let the flight velocity be 100 m/s and
the radius of curvature be 200 m, then the term (V
2
/ gr) is equal to 5.1. Thus the
total lift required at point A is 6.1 W. In order that an airplane carries out the
manoeuvres without getting disintegrated, its structure must be designed to
sustain the lift produced during manoeuvres. Secondly, when lift produced is
high, the drag would also be high and the engine must produce adequate output.
Further, lift coefficient cannot exceed C
Lmax
, and as such no manoeuvre is
possible at V= V
stall
.
9.2.3 Load factor
The ratio of the lift to the weight is called Load factor and is denoted by n i.e.
n = (L / W) (9.7)
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A flight with a load factor of n is called ng flight. For example, a turn (see
example 9.2) with load factor of 4 is referred to as a 4g turn. In level flight, n
equals 1 and it is a 1g flight.
Higher the value of n, greater would be the strength required of the structure and
consequently higher structural weight of the airplane. Hence, a limit is prescribed
for the load factor to which an airplane can be subjected to. For example, the civil
airplanes are designed to withstand a load factor of 3 to 4 and the military
airplanes to a load factor of 6 or more. The limitation on the military airplane
comes from the human factors namely, a pilot subjected to more than 6g may
black out during the manoeuvre which is an undesirable situation.
To monitor the load factor, an instrument called gmeter is installed in the
cockpit.
9.2.4 Pull out
The recovery of an airplane from a dive or a glide is called a pull out
(Fig. 9.3). The dive is an accelerated descent while the pull out phase can be
regarded as a flight along an arc of a circle (See example 9.1).
Fig.9.3 Pull out from dive
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Example 9.1
An airplane with a wing area of 20 m
2
and a weight of 19,620 N dives with
engine switched off, along a straight line inclined at 60
o
to the horizontal. What is
the acceleration of the airplane when the flight speed is 250 kmph? If the airplane
has to pull out of this dive at a radius of 200 m, what will be the lift coefficient
required and the load factor? Drag polar is given by: C
D
= 0.035 + 0.076
2
L
C
and
the manouevre takes place around an altitude of 2 km.
Solution:
From Fig. 9.3 the equations of motion in the dive can be written as follows.
W
L Wcos = 0; Wsin  D = a
g
= 60
o
, Hence, cos = 0.5 and sin = 0.866
Consequently, L = 19620 x 0.5 = 9810 N
The drag of the airplane(D) can be obtained by knowing C
D
which depends on
C
L
.
2L
C =
L
2
SV
V = 250 kmph = 69.4 m/s, at 2 km = 1.0065 kg / m
3
Hence,
C
L
=
2 9810
2
1.0065 20 69.4
= 0.2024
Consequently, C
D
= 0.035 + 0.076 0.2024
2
= 0.03811
The drag D = L
C 0.03811
D
= 9810 = 1847.3N
C 0.2024
L
Hence, (W/g) a = W sin  D = 19620 x 0.866  1847.3 = 15144.1 N
Or a = 15144.1 9.81/ 19620 = 7.57 m/s
2
.
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To obtain the lift required during the pull out, let us treat the bottom part of the
flight path during the pull out as an arc of a circle.
From Eqs. (9.1) to (9.5), the lift required is maximum at the bottom of the loop
and is given by:
2 2
WV 1 69.4
L= W+ or L = 19620 1+
gr 9.81 200
 


\ .
Or L = 19620 x 3.45 Then,
19620 3.45 2
C = = 1.396
L
2
1.0065 20 69.4
Remarks:
i) The maximum load factor in the above pull out is 3.45. The value of lift
coefficient required is 1.396. This value may be very close to C
Lmax
and the
parabolic drag polar may not be valid.
ii) Since C
L
cannot exceed C
Lmax
, a large amount of lift cannot be produced at low
speeds. Thus maximum attainable load factor (n
maxattainable
) at a speed is:
n
maxattainable
= (1/2) V
2
S C
Lmax
/ W
At stalling speed the value of n is only one.
9.3 Turning flight
When an airplane moves along an arc of a circle about a vertical axis then
the flight is called a turning flight. When the altitude of the airplane remains
constant in such a flight, it is called a level turn. In order that a turning flight is
possible, a force must act in the direction of the radius of curvature. This can be
done by banking the airplane so that the lift vector has a component in the
horizontal direction. It may be added that the side force produced by deflecting
the rudder is not large. It also causes considerable amount of drag, which is
undesirable.
9.3.1 Steady, level, coordinatedturn
If there is no tangential acceleration i.e. the flight speed is constant, then
the flight is called a steady turn. If the altitude remains constant then the flight is
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called a level turn. When the airplane executes a turn without sideslip, it is called
coordinatedturn. In this flight the Xaxis of the airplane always coincides with
the velocity vector. The following two aspects may also be noted regarding the
steady, level, coordinatedturn.
(a) The centripetal force needed to execute the turn is provided by banking the
wing. The horizontal component of the lift vector provides the centripetal force
and the vertical component balances the weight of the airplane. Hence, the lift in
a turn is greater than the weight.
(b) An airplane executing a turn, does produce a sideslip.
Because of the aforesaid two factors, a pilot has to apply appropriate deflections
of elevator and rudder to execute a coordinatedturn.
A coordinatedturn is also called Correctly banked turn. In this chapter,
the discussion is confined to the steady level, coordinatedturn.
9.3.2 Equations of motion in steady level coordinatedturn
The forces acting on an airplane in steady, level, coordinatedturn are
shown in Fig.9.4. The equations of motion in such a flight can be obtained by
resolving the forces in three mutually perpendicular directions.
Fig.9.4 Turning flight
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As the turn is a steady flight: T D = 0 . (9.8)
As the turn is a level flight: W L cos  = 0. (9.9)
As the turn is coordinated which implied that, there is no unbalanced sideforce.
2
W V
L sin =
g r
 (9.10)
where  is the angle of bank and r is the radius of turn.
Remarks:
i) From the above equations it is noted that L = W / cos  . Hence, in a turn L is
larger than W. Consequently, drag will also be larger than that in a level flight at
the same speed. The load factor n is equal to 1/ cos  and is higher than 1.
ii) From Eqs. (9.9) and (9.10), the radius of turn r is given by:
2 2
W V V
r = =
g Lsin g tan  
(9.11)
Noting that,
1
cos =
n
 gives
2
tan = n 1  and
2
2
V
r =
g n 1
(9.11a)
The rate of turn, denoted by (
), is given by:
2
V V g tan
= = V / =
r gtan V


(9.12)
Noting
2
tan = n 1  gives :
2
g n 1
=
V
(9.12a)
(iii) In some books, the radius of turn is denoted by R. However, herein the letter
R is used to denote range, and to avoid confusion, the radius of turn is denoted
by r.
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Example 9.2
An airplane has a jet engine which produces a thrust of 24,525 N at sea
level. The weight of the airplane is 58,860 N. The wing has an area of 28 m
2
,
zerolift angle of 2.2
o
and a slope of lift curve of 4.6 per radian. Find (a) the
radius of a correctly banked 4g level turn at the altitude where o = 0.8 and the
wing incidence is 8
o,
(b) time required to turn through 180
o
and
(c) thrust
required in the manoeuvre if the drag coefficient at this angle of attack be 0.055.
Solution:
The given data are: W = 58860 N, S = 28 m
2
, o = 8
o
,o
0L
= 2.2
o
,
dC
L
d
= 4.6 per radian =
4.6
180
x 2t per degree = 0.083 per degree,
allowable n = 4 and T = 24525 N at sea level.
Consequently,
dC
L
C = (  )
L oL
d
= 0.0803 (8 + 2.2) = 0.82
In a 4g turn L = 4W = 1/2 V
2
S C
L
Hence, V =
1/2
2 4 58860
1/2
(2L / SC ) =
L
1.225 0.8 28 0.82
 

\ .
= 144.6 m/s.
0 '
1 1
cos = = or = 75 31
n 4
 
Hence, tan  = 3.873
Consequently,
( )
2
2
144.6
V
r = = = 550.3m
gtan 9.81 3.873 
Rate of turn =
V 144.6
= =
r 550.3
= 0.2627 rad /s
Hence, time to turn through 180
o
is equal to = 11.95s
0.2627
t
The thrust required = T
r
= 1/2 V
2
S C
D
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= (1/2) x 1.225 x 0.8 x 144.6
2
x 28 x 0.055 = 15786 N
Answers : (a) Radius of correctly banked turn = 550.3 m, (b) time required to turn
through 180
0
= 11.95 s and (c) thrust required during turn = 15,786 N
Remark:
The thrust available is given as 24525 N at sea level. If the thrust available is
assumed to be roughly proportional to (
0.7
), the thrust available at the chosen
altitude would be 24525 x 0.8
0.7
= 20978 N. This thrust is more than the thrust
required during the turn and the flight is possible.
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Chapter 9
Lecture 29
Performance analysis V Manoeuvres 2
Topics
9.3.3 Factors limiting radius of turn and rate of turn
9.3.4 Determination of minimum radius of turn and maximum rate of turn
at a chosen altitude
9.3.3 Factors limiting radius of turn and rate of turn
Turning flight is a very important item of performance evaluation,
especially for the military airplanes. Minimum radius of turn and maximum rate of
turn are important indicators of the manoeuverability of an airplane. From
Eqs.(9.11) and (9.12) it is observed that, at a given altitude and flight velocity, a
small radius of turn and a high rate of turn are achieved when the bank angle ( )
has the highest possible value. Equations (9.11a) and (9.12a) indicate that at a
given altitude, the minimum radius of turn (r
min
) and the maximum rate of turn
(
max
.
(I)Limitation due to C
Lmax
: From the above discussion we observe that the lift
coefficient in a turning flight is higher than the lift coefficient required at the same
speed in level flight. Let C
LT
be the lift coefficient in the turning flight and C
LL
be
the lift coefficient in the level flight at the same speed.
Then, C
LT
= n W / ( V
2
S ) = n C
LL
However, C
LT
cannot be more than C
Lmax
and this imposes limitations on the
attainable values of load factor (n) and the bank angle ( ). Let these two values
be denoted by
max
CLmax
n and
max
CLmax
. They can be expressed as :
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(n
max
)
CLmax
= /
Lmax LL
C C (9.13)
,
1
Noting that = cos 1/n
max
CLmax
=cos
1
( /
LL Lmax
C C ) (9.14)
It may be noted that, at stalling speed (V
s
), the value of C
LL
equals C
Lmax
or n =
1. Hence, turn is not possible at stalling speed .
(II) Limitation due to allowable load factor from structural consideration : The
bank angle and the load factor in a turn are related by:
cos = 1/n .
However, n cannot exceed the value permitted by the structural design of the
airplane. Let this value be denoted by (n
max
)
str
. Hence,
max
is limited to
cos
1
{1/(n
max
)
str
}.
(III) The drag coefficient in a turning flight is higher than that in a level flight at the
same speed. However, in a steady turn the thrust required cannot exceed the
thrust available (T
a
). This also imposes limitations on the attainable values of
and n. Let these two values be denoted as (
max
)
Ta
and (n
max
)
Ta
.
It may be noted that, at V = V
max
and (V
min
)
e
the entire engine output is used in
overcoming the drag in level flight. Hence, the steady level turn is not possible at
these two speeds.
The lowest of the above three values viz
max
CLmax
n , (n
max
)
str
and (n
max
)
Ta
is
the permissible value of n
max
. Let this value be denoted by (n
max
)
perm
.
Substituting this value in Eqs.(9.11a) and (9.12a) gives r and
.
9.3.4 Determination of minimum radius of turn and maximum rate of turn at
a chosen altitude
In a general case, the drag polar and the thrust available are functions of
Mach number. In such a case, the minimum radius of turn (r
min
) and the
maximum rate of turn (
max
) at an altitude, can be obtained by using the
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following steps. The limitations stated in the previous subsection, are taken into
account during the procedure.
(i) Choose an altitude. Obtain V
max
and V
min
at this altitude. Note that a steady
level, coordinatedturn is possible only within this speed range.
(ii) Choose a flight speed (V) in between V
max
and V
min
and obtain C
LL
as:
C
LL
= 2W / ( SV
2
)
Obtain Mach number (M) corresponding to the chosen V and the speed of sound
at chosen altitude.
(iii) Obtain the C
Lmax
at the chosen flight Mach number. It may be recalled from
subsection 3.7.4, that for airplanes flying at high speeds, the C
Lmax
depends on
Mach number. Obtain the ratio C
Lmax
/ C
LL
.
The ratio C
Lmax
/ C
LL
gives the quantity
max
CLmax
n defined above. If this value
is smaller than the allowable load factor from structural consideration viz.
(n
max
)
str
, then the turn may be limited by C
Lmax
. In this situation, choose
C
LT1
= C
Lmax
. It may be mentioned that the procedure presented here, aims at
obtaining the value of lift coefficient in the turn (C
LT
) which satisfies all the three
limitations on the turn mentioned above. The quantity C
LT1
is the value of C
LT
as
limited by C
Lmax
. This will be modified in the subsequent steps.
If C
Lmax
/ C
LL
is more than (n
max
)
str
, then the turn may be limited by (n
max
)
str.
In
this situation, choose C
LT1
as (n
max
)
str
x C
LL
.
(iv) Obtain from the drag polar, the drag coefficient C
DT1
, corresponding to C
LT1
and the chosen Mach number. Calculate the drag D
T1
from:
D
T1
= 1/2 V
2
S C
DT1
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If D
T1
is greater than the available thrust (T
a
), then the turn is limited by engine
output. In this situation, obtain the maximum permissible value of drag coefficient
in turning flight (C
DT
) as limited by T
a
. It is given as : C
DT
= T
a
/ (1/2 V
2
S)
Corresponding to this value of C
DT
, obtain the lift coefficient C
LT
by referring to
the drag polar.
If D
T1
is smaller than T
a
, then the turn is not limited by the engine output. In this
situation, the turn is limited by C
Lmax
or (n
max
)
str.
Consequently, C
LT
is the
smaller of the two values obtained in step (iii).
(v) Once C
LT
is known, is given by:
= cos
1
(C
LL
/C
LT
). Knowing and V, the radius of turn (r) and rate of turn
(
max
and the corresponding speeds V
rmin
and V
max
can be determined at the
chosen altitude.
(vii) Repeat steps (i) to (vi) at different altitudes.
The procedure is illustrated, at a chosen altitude, in example 9.3.
Example 9.3
A passenger airplane has a gross weight of 176,400 N and a wing area of
45
2
m . Obtain the variations of r and
max
at various speeds are worked out in a tabular manner using the procedure
outlined above.
V (m/s) 105 115 125 145 165 185 205
C
LL
1.354 1.129 0.955 0.710 0.548 0.436 0.355
C
Lmax
/ C
LL
1.034 1.240 1.466 1.972 2.553 3.21 3.94
C
LT1
1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4
1.243
*
C
DT1
0.115 0.115 0.115 0.115 0.115 0.115 .0942
D
T1
(N)
15000 17993 21258 28601 37042 46568 46852
T
a
(N)
21100 21125 21150 21480 21580 21980 22270
C
DT
** ** 0.1114 0.0864 0.067 0.0543 0.0448
C
LT
1.4
$
1.4
$
1.396
1.178
1.08
0.863
0.745
LT
LL
C
=n
C
1.034 1.240 1.461 1.659 1.824 1.98 2.10
(degrees)
14.75 36.25 46.9 52.93 56.76 59.63 61.6
r (m) 4273 1838 1491 1619 1819 2043 2321
(rad/s)
0.0246 0.0626 0.0838 0.0896 0.0907 0.0906 0.0883
The symbols in the above table have the following meanings:
* Turn is limited by load factor (n
max
)
str
hence C
LT1
= (n
max
)
str
C
LL
.
** Thrust available is more than thrust required. Hence, C
LT
= C
LT1
$ Turn is limited by C
Lmax
Turn is limited by T
a
Table E9.3 Variations of radius of turn (r) and rate of turn
with
flight velocity (V) for airplane in example 9.3
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Fig.E9.3 Variations of radius of turn (r) and rate of turn
with flight
velocity (V) for the airplane in example 9.3
The plots of r vs V and
= 0.0907 rad/s, V
rmin
= 124 m/s and
max
V
= 165 m/s
Answers:
Minimum radius of turn (r
min
) = 1490 m at V
rmin
= 124 m/s
Maximum rate of turn (
max
) = 0.090 rad/s at
max
V
= 165 m/s
Remarks:
i) Turning performance of a jet airplane :
Section 7 of Appendix B presents the turning performance of a jet airplane.
Figures 9.5a and b show the variations of
and V
rmin
with altitude.
Fig.9.5a Turning performance of a jet transport rate of turn (
)
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Fig.9.5b Turning performance of jet transport radius of turn (r)
Fig.9.5c Turning performance of jet transport  variation of V
max
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Fig.9.5d Turning performance of jet transport  variation of V
rmin
Note:
Some curves in Figs.9.5a,c and d show discontinuity in slope at certain points.
This occurs when the criterion limiting the turning performance changes from
(n
max
)
str
to (n
max
)
Ta
.
ii) Turning performance of a piston engined airplane :
Section 7 of Appendix A presents the turning performance of a piston engined
airplane. Figures 9.6a and b show the variations of r and
max
with velocity at
different altitudes for that airplanes. Figures 9.7c and d present the variations of
r
min
and
max
and
V
rmin
with altitude
.
Both these speeds increase with altitude. The two speeds
come close to each other as absolute ceiling is approached. Minimum radius of
turn (r
min
) increases with altitude and
max
decreases with altitude. At absolute
ceiling, the rate of turn becomes zero and the radius becomes infinite.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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Fig.9.6a Turning performance of a piston engined airplane
 variation of rate of turn (
)
Fig.9.6b Turning performance of a piston engined airplane
variation of radius of turn ( r)
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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Fig.9.6c Turning performance of a piston engined airplane
variation of r
min
with altitude
Fig.9.6d Turning performance of piston engined airplane
variation of
max
with altitude
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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Fig.9.6e Turning performance of piston engined airplane
variations of V
rmin
and
max
V
with altitude
iii) In many situations the minimum radius of turn in level flight is limited by the
available engine output. This can be overcome and a smaller radius of turn can
be obtained by allowing the airplane to descend during the turn. In this manner a
loss of potential energy is used to increase the available energy during turn.
Reference 1.12, chapter 2 may be consulted for additional details. See also
subsection 9.3.6 for further information.
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Chapter 9
Lecture 30
Performance analysis V Manoeuvres 3
Topics
9.3.5 Parameters influencing turning performance of a jet airplane
9.3.6 Sustained turn rate and instantaneous turn rate
9.3.5 Parameters influencing turning performance of a jet airplane
The steps, described in subsection 9.3.4 , to determine r
min
,
max
, V
rmin
and
max
V
Hence,
{ }
2 2 2
a
D L DO
1 1
T = V SC = V S C + KC
2 2
Or
2
2
a
DO 2
1 2nW
T = V S C +K
2 SV
 
` 
\ .
)
(9.15)
Solving Eq.(9.15) for n
2
, gives :
( )
2 2
DO
2 a
1 1
V V C
T
2 2
n = 
K W/S W W/S
`
)
(9.16)
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Let the free stream dynamic pressure be denoted by q :
Or q =
2
1
V
2
(9.17)
Consequently, Eq.(9.16) can be rewritten as :
2 a DO
qC
T q
n = 
K(W/S) W W/S
`
)
(9.18)
From Eq.(9.11a)
2
2
V
r =
g n 1
Or
2
2q
r =
g n 1
(9.19)
From Eq.(9.19) it is observed that r is a function of q and n. However, when the
constraint of thrust available is taken into account, then n and q are related by
Eq.(9.18).
The value of q which would give minimum radius of turn (r
min
), can be obtained in
two stages.
(a) Substitute the expression for n as given by Eq.(9.18) in Eq.(9.19).
(b) Differentiate the resultant equation for r obtained in step (a), with respect to
q, and equate it to zero.However, the resulting expression is complicated. An
alternate way is as follows.
(i) Differentiate Eq.(9.19) with respect to q and equate it to zero.
( )
( )
( )
1/2
2 2
2 2 2
2g n 1  2gqn n 1 dn/dq
dr
=
dq
g n  1
= 0
Or
2
dn
n  1 qn = 0
dq
(9.20)
(ii)The quantity (dn/dq) is obtained by differentiating Eq.(9.18) with respect to q
i.e.
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( )
( )
DO
2
a
T /W qC
dn
n = 
dq 2K(W/S)
K W/S
(9.21)
(iii)Substituting for n
2
and n (dn/dq) in Eq.(9.20) yields :
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
2 2
a a DO DO
2 2
q C q C q T /W
T q
  1 + = 0
K W/S W 2K W/S
K W/S K W/S
Simplifying :
( )
( )
a
q T /W
= 1
2K W/S
(9.22)
Equation (9.22) yields the value of q which gives minimum radius of turn. This
value is denoted by q
rmin
i.e. :
q
rmin
=
( )
a
2K W/S
T /W
(9.23)
Using Eq.(9.17), V
rmin
is given as :
V
rmin
=
( )
( )
a
4K W/S
T /W
(9.24)
Substituting q
rmin
in Eq.(9.18) gives :
( )( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
2
2
2 DO
rmin 2 2
a
a
a
2K W/S T /W 4K W/S C
n = 
T /W K W/S
T /W K W/S
=
( )
DO
2
a
4 KC
2 
T /W
Or
( )
2
DO
rmin
a
4KC
n = 2 
T /W
(9.25)
Substituting from Eqs.(9.24) and (9.25) in Eq.(9.11a) gives :
2
rmin
min
2
rmin
V
r =
g n 1
( )
( )
DO
2
a
a
4K(W/S) 1
=
T /W 4KC
g 2 1
T /W
( )
( ) ( )
2
a a
DO
4K W/S
=
g T /W 1 4KC / T / W
(9.26)
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Proceeding in a similar manner, the values of
max
V
,
max
n
and
max
, which
take into account the constraint of thrust available, can be derived. The final
expressions are given below.
( )
DO
1/2
1/4
max
2(W/S)
V = K/C
(
(
(9.27)
DO
1/2
max
a
T /W
n =  1
KC
(
(
(
(9.28)
( )
1/2
DO
max
1/2
a
C T /W
= g 
W/S 2K K
(
 
(
` 
(
\ .
)
(9.29)
Remarks:
(i)From Eqs.(9.26) and (9.29) it is observed that for a jet airplane to have a low
value of r
min
and a high value of
max
V
, the value of (T
a
/W) should be high and
that of (W/S) should be low. However, as stated in section 7.4.3 the wing loading
(W/S) is a compromise between various considerations like range, takeoff and
landing. Consequently, the general practice is to select (T
a
/W) to give the desired
value of
max
), as
given by Eq.(9.28), could be high, especially near the sea level where (T
a
/W) is
at its highest. In this situation the constraint of (n
max
)
str
needs to be taken into
consideration.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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(iii)The constraint of C
Lmax
is likely to affect the value of r
min
. Example 9.4
illustrates such a situation.
(iv) A simplified analysis of the turning performance of an airplane with engine
propeller combination can be carried out by assuming that (a) THP in constant
with flight velocity and (b)
DO
C and K are constants. However, the resulting
expression has the following form.
4
rmin r min
AV +BV +C = 0
This equation does not have an analytical solution and a graphical or numerical
procedure is needed. Reference 1.12 chapter 2 can be consulted for details.
It can be inferred from the analysis of Ref.1.12, that if it is desired to increase
max
or decrease r
min
of a given airplane, then the wing loading (W/S) should
be reduced and / or the ratio (BHP/W) should be increased.
Example 9.4
Consider the airplane in example 9.3 with the simplification that the thrust
remains constant with flight velocity and has the value of 21685 N. Obtain the
values of V
rmin
,
max
V
, n
rmin,
max
n
, r
min
and
max
(
(
DO
1/2
max
a
T /W
n =  1
KC
(
(
(
( )
1/2
DO
max
1/2
a
C T /W
= g 
W/S 2K K
(
 
(
` 
(
\ .
)
Accordingly ,
rmin
4 0.05 3920
V = = 110.23 m/s
0.525 0.1229
rmin 2
4 0.05 0.017
n = 2  = 1.332
0.1229
2
min
2 2
2
rmin
V
110.23
r = = = 1407.6 m
g n 1 9.81 1.332 1
1/2 1/4
max
23920 0.05
V = = 160.04 m/s
0.525 0.017
(  

(
\ .
1/2
max
0.1229
n =  1 = 1.793
0.05 0.017
(
(
(
2
max
max
max
g n  1
=
V
2
9.81 1.793 1
= = 0.0912 rad/s
160.04
The values of lift coefficients corresponding to V
rmin
and
max
V
are:
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2
rmin
Lrmin
2
rmin
n W
1.332 176400
C = = = 1.637
1
0.5 0.525 110.23 45
V
2
S
2
max
Lmax
2
max
n W
1.793 176400
C = = = 1.045
1 1
V S 0.525 160.04 45
2 2
It is observed that in case of
max
,
max
n = 1.793
,
max
= 0.0912 rad/s
Remark :
The values by exact analysis are :
V
rmin
= 124 m/s, n
rmin
= 1.451 , r
min
= 1490 m ,
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max
V = 165 m/s
,
max
n = 1.824
max
= 0.0907 rad/s
.
The agreement between the two results is seen to be reasonable. The reasons
are that (T
a
/W) is rather low and the variation of T
a
with V is not large.
9.3.6 Sustained turn rate and instantaneous turn rate
The maximum rate of turn in a steady level coordinatedturn is called
Maximum sustained turn rate(MSTR) (Ref. 1.12 chapter 2). An airplane can
maintain this turn rate continuously for some time. However, as explained in
subsections 9.3.3 and 9.3.4 this turn rate is generally limited by the thrust
available. A rate of turn higher than MSTR can be obtained if the airplane is
allowed to descend or slow down. In this manner, the loss of potential energy or
kinetic energy can be utilized to increase the available energy during turn and
increase the rate of turn. This rate of turn is called Instantenous rate of turn. The
maximum instantenous rate of turn will be limited by other two factors viz. C
Lmax
and (n
max
)
str
. See also item (iv) in subsection 9.4.3.
General Remark:
In the foregoing sections various types of flight situations of practical
interest have been analyzed. To analyze any other flight situation one can begin
by writing down the equations of motion along and perpendicular to the flight
path. From these equations, the lift required, thrust required and accelerations in
tangential and radial directions can be worked out.
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Chapter 9
Lecture 31
Performance analysis V Manoeuvres 4
Topics
9.4 Miscellaneous topics flight limitations, operating envelop and Vn
diagram
9.4.1 Flight limitations
9.4.2 Operating envelop
9.4.3 Vn diagram
9.4 Miscellaneous topics
A flight is called free flight when the airplane is away from the influence of
the ground i.e. it is at a height more than a few wing spans above the ground.
The performance in level flight, climb, turn etc. come under this category. In
contrast, the analysis of takeoff and landing requires consideration of the
influence of proximity of ground. The discussion of performance in free flight is
concluded in this section by describing aspects like flight limitations, operating
envelop and Vn diagram. Chapter 10 describes the performance in takeoff and
landing.
9.4.1 Flight Limitations:
In chapters 5 to 8 and the previous subsections of this chapter, the
performance of an airplane in free flight has been discussed under categories of
level flight, climb, accelerated flights and manoeuvres. The important aspects of
these analyses are generally brought out in a diagram which is called here as
Variations of characteristics velocities. Figure 9.7a shows the variations of V
max
,
(V
min
)
e
, V
s
, V
(R/C) max
V
max
, V
rmin
and
max
V
,
(c) the maximum allowable load
factor, (n
max
)
str
, limits r
min
and
max
.
In addition to these, the performance of the
airplane may also be limited by considerations like buffeting, sonic boom,
maximum dynamic pressure (q) limit and aerodynamic heating . These limitations
are briefly described below.
Fig.9.7a Variations of characteristic velocities Jet transport
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Fig.9.7b Variations of characteristic velocities Piston engined airplane
(i)Buffeting is an irregular oscillation of a part of an airplane, caused by the
passing of separated flow from another component. For example, the horizontal
tail experiences buffeting when the separated flow from the wing passes over it
(horizontal tail). This happens when the wing is at a high angle of attack or the
shock stall takes place on it in the transonic flow regime. To prevent buffeting,
the permissible value of C
Lmax
may be limited. This in turn would affect V
s
, r
min
and
max
.
(ii)The sonic boom problem is encountered when an airplane flies at supersonic
speed at low altitudes. The shock waves created by an airplane, when it is flying
at a supersonic speed, coalesce and form two waves across which there is a
finite pressure rise (overpressure). When these waves reach the ground each of
them is perceived as an explosive like sound called sonic boom or sonic bang.
The intensity of the boom depends on the size and shape of the airplane, its flight
altitude and the atmospheric conditions. It increases with the increase in the size
of the airplane and decreases with the increase of the altitude of the flight. An
overpressure in excess of about 100 N/m
2
is quite annoying and may cause
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
0 20 40 60
Velocity (m/s)
A
l
t
i
t
u
d
e
(
m
)
V for minimum radius of turn
V for maximum rate of turn
Stalling speed
Vmin from engine output
V max
V for maximum angle of climb
V for maximum rate of climb
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vibrations of buildings and rattling of window panes. To keep the overpressure on
the ground within socially acceptable limits, the supersonic transport airplanes
are generally not permitted to cross Mach number of one below tropopause and
they cruise at altitudes of 16 to 20 km.
(iii)The airplanes are generally designed for a dynamic pressure (q =
2
1
V
2
) of
100,000 N/m
2
.
This limit would not permit attainment of high supersonic Mach
number at low altitudes.
(iv)As the flight Mach number increases, the stagnation temperature (T
s
) on the
surface increases. It is given by:
1
2
T = T (1+ M )
s amb
2
(9.32)
where, T
amb
is the ambient temperature and is the recovery factor which has a
value of around 0.9 for turbulent boundary layer on the surface. The maximum
stagnation temperature (T
s
) may be limited from the consideration of material
used for the fabrication of the airplane. This would limit the maximum permissible
Mach number.
(v) Reference 3.9, chapter 17, mentions about other limits like engine relight limit,
pilot ejection altitude and duct pressure limit. The minimum speed from engine
relight limit is encountered in some cases at high altitudes where enough air may
not be available to restart the engine in the event of flameout. The highest
altitude may be limited to about 15 kms which is the the highest altitude at which
ejection by the pilot is permitted.
9.4.2 Operating envelop
The maximum speed and the minimum speed of the airplane can be
calculated from the level flight analysis. However, the attainment of maximum
speed may be limited by the considerations mentioned in the previous
subsection. A diagram which indicates the range of flight speeds permissible for
an airplane at different altitudes is called Operating envelope. Typical operating
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envelope for a military airplane is shown in Fig.9.8. Explanation of the curves in
this figure is as follows.
(i)The curve ABCDE is the level flight boundary based on the engine output. The
portion ABC is the V
max
or (M
max
) boundary. The portion CDE is the (V
min
)
e
or
(M
min
) boundary, limited by the engine output. It may be mentioned that for these
Fig.9.8 Operating envelope of a military airplane  Schematic
curves (ABC and CDE) the engine output is with the afterburner on. On this
boundary (ABCDE) the specific excess power (P
s
) is zero.
(ii)The curve FG is the line representing stalling speed (V
s
).
2W
V = ; C without flap
s Lmax
S C
Lmax
Recalling that when Mach number exceeds 0.5, the maximum lift coefficient
(C
Lmax
) decreases due to shock stall or buffetting. The line FG includes this effect
when Mach number corresponding to V
s
is more than 0.5.
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(iii)The line HJK represents the dynamic pressure (q) limit corresponding to q of
100,000 N/m
2
.
(iv)The line LMNOP represents the boundary corresponding to stagnation
temperature (T
s
) of 400K. It may be pointed out that T
amb
and hence the speed
of sound change with altitude in troposphere. They are constant in lower
stratosphere. Hence, the allowable flight Mach number, for stagnation
temperature to be below allowable value, changes with altitude.
The flight envelope taking into account the above limits is the curve FDCONMJH.
Remark:
Figure 9.8 also shows zones marked as : (I) advantageous for interceptor role,
(II) advantageous for aerial combat and (III) suitable for high speed low altitude
flight.
It may be added that for the interceptor role, it is advantageous if the airplane
flies at high altitude and high speed (zone I in Fig.9.8).
For aerial combat the manoeuverability, which is measured mainly by the rate of
turn, is important. It may be recalled from subsection 9.3.3 that the rate of turn is
low at (a) altitudes near the ceiling and (b) flight speeds close to V
max
and V
min
.
Further, the aerial combat cannot take place at very low altitudes. Hence, the
aerial combat zone is the region marked as (II) in Fig.9.8.
For airplanes used as ground attack fighter, the ability to fly at high speed and at
low altitude is important. Zone (III) in Fig.9.8 is appropriate for these airplanes.
9.4.3 Vn diagram
The load factor (n) has already been defined as the ratio of lift and weight
i.e. n = L / W. In level flight n = 1. However, as pointed out in subsections 9.2.3
and 9.3.3 the value of n during a manoeuver is greater than one. Hence, the
structure of the airplane must be designed to withstand the permissible load
factor. Further, when an airplane encounters a gust of velocity V
gu
(see Fig.7.1b)
the angle of attack of the airplane would increase by = V
gu
/V. This increase
in angle of attack, would increase the lift by L, given by :
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L = V
2
S C
L
= V
2
S C
L
V
gu
/ V
= VSC
L
V
gu
(9.33)
Hence, n = L / W = VSC
L
V
gu
/ W (9.34)
From Eqs.(9.33) and (9.34), L increases with V
gu
. Further, for a given V
gu,
the
values of L & n increase with flight velocity. An airplane must be designed to
withstand the gust loads also.
In aeronautical engineering practice, the load factors due to manoeuver
and gust are indicated by a diagram called Velocityload factor diagram or Vn
diagram. A typical Vn diagram is shown in Fig.9.9. This diagram can be
explained as follows.
(i) Curves OIA and OHG : The lift (L) produced by an airplane is given by
L = V
2
S C
L
. It should be noted that (i) C
L
C
Lmax
and (ii) at stalling
speed(V
s
), L = W and n = 1. However, if the airplane is flown with C
L
= C
Lmax
at
speeds higher than V
s
, then (a) L will be more than W and (b) L or n would be
proportional to V
2
. This variation is a parabola and is shown by curve OIA in
Fig.9.9. In an inverted flight the load factor will be negative and the V vs n curve
in such a flight is indicated by the curve OHG in Fig.9.9. It may be mentioned that
an airplane can fly only at V V
s
and hence the portions OI and OH in Fig.9.9
are shown by chain lines.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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Fig.9.9 A typical Vn diagram
(ii) Positive and negative manoeuver load factors : An airplane is designed to
withstand a certain permissible load factor. Higher the permissible load factor,
heavier will be the weight of airplane structure. Hence, for actual airplanes the
manoeuver load factor is limited depending on its intended use. Federal Aviation
Administration (FAA) in USA and similar agencies in other countries, prescribe
the values of permissible manoeuver limit load factors (n
positive
and n
negative
) for
different categories of airplanes. Table 9.1 gives typical values. A limit load is
obtained by multiplying the limit load factor with the weight (W). The airplane
structure is designed such that it can withstand the limit load without yielding.
The ultimate load factor, in aeronautical practice, is 1.5 times the limit load factor.
The ultimate load is obtained by multiplying the ultimate load factor with the
weight (W). The airplane structure is designed such that it can withstand the
ultimate load without failing, though there may be permanent damage to the
structure.
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Type of airplane n
positive
n
negative
General aviationnon aerobatic 2.5 to 3.8 1
Transport 3 to 4 1
Fighter 6 to 9 3
Table 9.1 Typical limit load factors
In Fig.9.9, n
positive
= 3 and n
negative
= 1.2 have been chosen; the actual values
depend on the weight of the airplane and its category. Reference 3.18 part
V,chapter 4 may be consulted for details.
(iii) Lines AC, GF and FD : The positive manoeuver load factor is prescribed to
be constant upto the design diving speed (V
d
); line AC in Fig.9.9. According to
Ref.3.9, chapter 14, the design diving speed could be 40 to 50% higher than the
cruising speed (V
c
) for subsonic airplanes. For supersonic airplanes, the Mach
number corresponding to V
d
could be 0.2 faster than the maximum level flight
Mach number. The negative manoeuver load factor is prescribed to be constant
upto design cruising speed (line GF in Fig.9.9) and then increases linearly to zero
at V = V
d
(line FD in Fig.9.9).
(iv) Manoeuvre load diagram : The diagram obtained by joining the points
OACDFGO is called Manoeuvre load diagram.
(v) Manoeuvre point and Corner speed : The point A in Fig.9.9 is called
Manoeuvre point. The flight speed at this point is denoted by V* and is called
Corner speed. At point A the lift coefficient equals C
Lmax
and the load factor
equals n
positive
. This combination would result in the maximum instanteneous
turn rate at the speed V*. See subsection 9.3.6 for definition of instanteneous
turn rate.
(vi) Positive and negative gust load factors : From Eq.(9.33) it is observed that
the gust load factor varies linearly with velocity. The regulating agencies like FAA
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prescribe that an airplane should be able to withstand load factors corresponding
to V
gu
= 30 ft/s (9.1 m/s) upto cruising speed (V
c
) and V
gu
= 15 ft/s (4.6 m/s)
upto design diving speed (V
d
). Lines JB and JF in Fig.9.9 show the gust lines
corresponding to V
gu
= 30 ft/s (9.1 m/s) and Lines JC and JE in the same figure
show the gust lines corresponding to V
gu
= 15 ft/s (4.6 m/s).
It may be pointed out that a gust in real situation, is not a sharp edged gust as
shown in Fig.7.1b and the velocity V
gu
is attained in a gradual manner. This
causes reduction in the gust load factor. To take care of this reduction the gust
load factor is multiplied by a quantity called Gust alleviation factor. Reference
3.9 chapter 14 may be referred for details.
(vii) Gust load diagram : The diagram obtained by joining the points JBCEFJ is
called Gust load diagram.
(vi) Final Vn diagram : For its safe operation, an airplane must be designed to
withstand load factors occuring at all points of the gust and manouever load
diagrams. Hence, the final Vn diagram is obtained by joining the parts of these
two diagrams representing the higher of the manoeuver and gust load factors.
The final Vn diagram in the case presented in Fig.9.9, is given by the solid curve
obtained by joining the points IABBBCEFFGHI.
It may be pointed out that the gust load line JB is above the curve IA in the
region IK. However, along the curve IK the airplane is already operating at C
Lmax
and any increase in angle of attack due to gust cannot increase C
L
beyond C
Lmax
.
Hence, the portion JK of the line JB is not included in the final Vn diagram.
It may also be pointed out that the angles of attack of the airplane are different at
various points of the Vn diagram. Consequently, the components of the resultant
aerodynamic force along and perpendicular to the chord of the wing (N and C in
Fig.3.7) would be different at different angles of attack. The structural analysis
needs to take this into account. For example, the angle of attack is positive and
high at point A and it is positive and low at point C. At points G and E the angles
of attack are negative. Books on Airplane structures may be consulted for details.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter9
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1
Chapter 9
Exercises
9.1 Define steady level coordinatedturn. An airplane having a weight of 11,000
N has a wing area of 15 m
2
and drag polar of C
D
= 0.032 + 0.06C
L
2
. Obtain the
radius of turn in a steady level coordinated turn at a speed of 160 kmph at sea
level from the following data.
C
Lmax
= 1.4, (THP)
available
= 90 kW, maximum load factor = 3.5.
What is the time taken to turn through 180
o
?
[Answers: r = 124.6 m; t = 8.81 s]
9.2 Define load factor. What are its values in (a) level flight (b) free fall (c) in a
turn of radius 200 m at a speed of 100 m/s and (d) at the bottom of a loop of
radius 200 m at a speed of 100 m/s?
[Answers: (a) 1 (b) 0 (c) 5.19 (d) 6.097]
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter10
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1
Chapter 10
Performance analysis VI Takeoff and landing
(Lectures 3234)
Keywords: Phases of takeoff flight takeoff run, transition and climb; take
off distance; balanced field length; phase of landing flight; landing distance.
Topics
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Definitions of takeoff run and takeoff distance
10.3 Phases of takeoff flight
10.3.1 Takeoff ground run
10.3.2 Transition and climb phases
10.4 Estimation of takeoff performance
10.4.1 Distance covered and time taken during ground run
10.4.2 Various speeds during takeoff run
10.4.3 Distance covered and time taken during transition phase
10.4.4 Distance covered and time taken during climb phase
10.4.5 Parameters influencing takeoff run
10.4.6 Effect of wind on takeoff run
10.4.7 Guidelines for estimation of takeoff distance
10.4.8 Balanced field length, its estimation and effect of number of
engines on it.
10.5 Landing performance
10.5.1 Definition of landing distance
10.5.2 Phases of landing flight
10.5.3 Estimation of landing distance
10.6 Flap settings during takeoff and landing
References
Exercises
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter10
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
2
Chapter 10
Lecture 32
Performance analysis VI Takeoff and landing 1
Topics
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Definitions of takeoff run and takeoff distance
10.3 Phases of takeoff flight
10.3.1 Takeoff ground run
10.3.2 Transition and climb phases
10.4 Estimation of takeoff performance
10.4.1 Distance covered and time taken during ground run
10.4.2 Various speeds during takeoff run
10.1 Introduction
An airplane, by definition, is a fixed wing aircraft. Its wings can produce lift
only when there is a relative velocity between the airplane and the air. In order to
be airborne, the lift produced by the airplane must be at least equal to the weight
of the airplane. This can happen when the velocity of the airplane is equal to or
greater than its stalling speed. To achieve this velocity called Takeoff
velocity(V
TO
) the airplane accelerates along the runway. Thus, an airplane
covers a certain distance before it can takeoff. Similarly, when an airplane
comes in to land, the lift produced must be nearly equal to the landing weight.
Hence, the airplane has a velocity, called Touch down speed (V
TD
), when it
touches the ground. It then covers a certain distance before coming to halt.
The estimation of takeoff distance and landing distance are the topics
covered in this chapter.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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10.2. Definitions of takeoff run and take off distance
The horizontal distance covered along the ground, from the start of take
off till the airplane is airborne is called the takeoff run. However, to decide the
length of the runway required for an airplane, it is important to ensure that the
airplane is above a certain height before it leaves the airport environment. This
height is called Screen height and is equal to 15 m (sometimes 10 m), which is
above the height of common obstacles like trees and electricity poles. The take
off distance is defined as the horizontal distance covered by an airplane from the
start of the run till it climbs to a height equal to the screen height. It is assumed
that the weight of the airplane during takeoff is the gross weight for which it is
designed and that the takeoff takes place in still air.
10.3 Phases of take off flight
The takeoff flight is generally divided into three phases namely (i) ground
run (ii) transition (or flare) and (iii) climb (see Fig.10.1a).
Fig.10.1a Phases of takeoff flight
10.3.1 Takeoff ground run
During the ground run the airplane starts from rest and accelerates to the
takeoff speed (V
T0
or V
1
). The flaps and engine(s) are adjusted for their takeoff
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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settings. In the case of an airplane with tricycle type of landing gear, all the three
wheels remain in contact with the ground till a speed of about 85% of the V
T0
is
reached. This speed is called Nose wheel lift off speed. At this speed the pilot
pulls the stick back and increases the angle of attack of the airplane so as to
attain a lift coefficient corresponding to takeoff (C
LT0
). At this stage, the nose
wheel is off the ground (Fig.10.1b) and the speed of the airplane continues to
increase. As the speed exceeds the take off speed the airplane gets airborne and
the main landing gear wheels also leave the ground.
When the airplane has a tail wheel type of landing gear, the angle of attack is
high at the beginning of the takeoff run (Fig.10.1c). However, the tail wheel is
lifted off the ground as soon as some elevator effectiveness is gained
(Fig.10.1d). This action reduces the angle of attack and consequently the
drag of the airplane during most of the ground run. As the takeoff speed is
approached the tail wheel is lowered to get the incidence corresponding to C
LT0
.
When V
T0
is exceeded, the airplane gets airborne.
The point at which all the wheels have left the ground is called Unstick point
(Fig.10.1a).
Fig.10.1b Nose wheel liftoff
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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Fig.10.1c Tail wheel type airplane at start of takeoff run
Fig.10.1d Tail wheel type of airplane during middle part of takeoff run
10.3.2 Transition and climb phases
During the transition phase the airplane moves along a curved path
(Fig.10.1a) and the pilot tries to attain a steady climb. As soon as the airplane
attains an altitude equal to the screen height, the takeoff flight is complete. For
airplanes with high thrust to weight ratio the screen height may be attained during
the transition phase itself.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter10
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6
10.4 Estimation of takeoff performance
From the point of view of performance analysis, the following two
quantities are of interest.
(i) The takeoff distance (s) (ii) The time (t) taken for it.
Since the equations of motion are different in the three phases of takeoff flight,
they (phases) are described separately in the subsequent subsections.
10.4.1 Distance covered and time taken during ground run
The forces acting on the airplane are shown in Fig.10.1a. It is observed
that the ground reaction (R) and the rolling friction, R, are the two additional
forces along with the lift, the drag, the weight and thrust ; is the coefficient of
rolling friction between the runway and the landing gear wheels. The equations of
motion are :
W
T D  R = a
g
(10.1)
L + R W = 0 (10.2)
Hence, R = W  L and
T  D  (WL)
a =
W/ g
(10.3)
Further,
dV dV ds dV
a = = = V
dt ds dt ds
Hence, ground run (s
1
) is given by:
1 1
V V
V dV W V dV
s = =
1
a g T D  (WL)
o o
} }
(10.4)
The time taken during ground run (t
1
) is given by:
1 1
V V
dV W dV
t = =
1
a g T  D  (WL)
o o
} }
(10.5)
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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7
Equations (10.4) and (10.5) can be integrated numerically, when the variations
of T, D and L are prescribed and is known. The value of depends on the type
of surface. Typical values are given in Table 10.1.
Type of surface Coefficient of
rolling friction ()
Concrete, wood or asphalt 0.02
Hard turf 0.04
Average fieldshort grass 0.05
Average fieldlong grass 0.1
Soft ground 0.10.3
Table 10.1 Coefficient of rolling friction
The thrust during takeoff run can be approximated as T = A
1
B
1
V
2
. The angle
of attack and hence, the lift coefficient ( C
L
) and the drag coefficient ( C
D
) can be
assumed to remain constant during the takeoff run. With these assumptions, the
lefthand side of Eq.(10.1) becomes :
1
2 2
T  D  (WL) = A  B V  W  V S (C  C )
1 1 D L
2
= A BV
2
where A = A
1
 W and
1
B = B + S (C  C )
1 D L
2
Substituting in Eqs.(10.4) and (10.5) gives :
{ }
1
V
W V dV W
2
s = = ln A/(A  BV )
1
1
2
g 2gB
A  BV
o
}
(10.6)
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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8
and
1
V
A + B V W dV W
1
t = = ln
1
2
g 2g AB A  B V
ABV 1
o
`
)
}
(10.7)
Remarks:
i) The denominator in the integrands of Eqs.10.4 and 10.5, i.e. [T D  (W  L)],
is the accelerating force during the takeoff run. A good approximation to s
1
and
t
1
is obtained by taking an average value of the accelerating force (F
a
) to be its
value at V = 0.7 V
1
i.e.
F
a
= [T D  (W  L)]
V = 0.7 V1
Consequently,
1
V 2
W V
W V dV
1
s = =
1
g F 2g F
a a
o
}
(10.8)
and
1
V
WV W dV
1
t = =
1
g F g F
a a
o
}
(10.9)
ii) Generally the flaps are kept in takeoff setting (partial flaps) right from the
beginning of the takeoff run. Hence, C
D
during the takeoff run should include
the drag due to flaps and landing gear.
Reference 3.6, section 3.4.1 may be consulted for increase in C
DO
due to the flap
deflection and the landing gear. See also section 2.9 of Appendix A. The
proximity of the ground reduces the induced drag. As a rough estimate, the
induced drag with ground effect can be taken to be equal to 60% of that in free
flight at the same C
L
.
(iii) The takeoff speed (V
TO
or V
1
) is (1.1 to 1.2) V
s
; where V
s
is the stalling
speed with W = W
TO
and C
L
= C
LTO
. As mentioned in subsection 3.7.4, C
LTO
is
0.8 times C
Lland
.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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9
10.4.2 Various speeds during takeoff run
In the subsection 10.3.1 the nose wheel liftoff speed and takeoff speed have
been explained. Section 6.7 of Ref.1.10 mentions additional flight speeds
attained during the ground run. A brief description of the speeds, in the sequence
of their occurance, is as follows.
(a) Stalling speed (V
s
) : It is the speed in a steady level flight at W = W
TO
and
C
L
= C
LTO
.
(b) Minimum control speed on ground (V
mcg
): At this speed, the deflection of full
rudder should be able to counteract the yawing moment due to failure of one
engine of a multiengined airplane when the airplane is on ground.
(c) Minimum control speed in air (V
mca
) : At this speed, the deflection of full
rudder should be able to counteract the yawing moment, due to failure of one
engine of a multiengined airplane if the airplane was in air.
(d) Decision speed (V
decision
) : This speed is also applicable to a multiengined
airplane. In the event of the failure of one engine, the pilot has two options. (I) If
the engine failure takes place during the initial stages of the ground run, the pilot
applies brakes and stops the airplane. (II) If the engine failure takes place after
the airplane has gained sufficient speed, the pilot continues to takeoff with one
engine inoperative.
If the engine failure takes place at decision speed (V
decision
), then the distance
required to stop the airplane is the same as that required to takeoff with one
engine inoperative. See subsection 10.4.8 for additional details.
(e) Takeoff rotation speed (V
R
): At this speed the elevator is powerful enough to
rotate the airplane to attain the angle of attack corresponding to takeoff.
(f) Liftoff speed (V
LO
) : This is the same as unstick speed mentioned in
subsection 10.3.1. This speed is between (1.1 to 1.2) V
S
.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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It is mentioned in Ref.1.10, chapter 6, that V
mcg
, V
mca
, V
decision
, V
R
lie
between V
S
and V
LO
.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter10
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1
Chapter 10
Lecture 33
Performance analysis VI Takeoff and landing 2
Topics
10.4.3 Distance covered and time taken during transition phase
10.4.4 Distance covered and time taken during climb phase
10.4.5 Parameters influencing takeoff run
10.4.6 Effect of wind on takeoff run
10.4.7 Guidelines for estimation of takeoff distance
10.4.3 Distance covered and time taken during transition phase
From Fig.10.1a it is observed that during the transition phase the airplane
changes the direction of flight and its speed would increase from V
1
to V
2
. The
height attained during this phase and the horizontal distance traversed can be
obtained by treating the flight path as part of a circle. However, according to the
procedure given in Royal Aeronautical Data sheets (now called Engineering
Sciences Data Unit, ESDU for short), the increase in height during the transition
phase is small and the horizontal distance (s
2
) can be obtained by assuming that
the work done by the engine is used in overcoming the drag and in increasing the
kinetic energy of the airplane i.e.
)
2 2
2 2 2 1
W
T s = D s + (V  V
2g
Or
( )
2 2
2 1
2
V  V
W
s =
2g TD
(10.10)
T and D in Eq.(10.10) are evaluated at the mean speed during this phase i.e., at
(V
2
+ V
1
) / 2. The time taken (t
2
) in transition is given by:
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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2
2 1
2
2
s
t =
0.5 (V + V )
(10.11)
V
1
generally lies between (1.15 to 1.2) V
s
and V
2
is (1.05 to 1.1) V
1
.
10.4.4 Distance covered and time taken during climb phase
Since the vertical height covered during the transition has been ignored,
the horizontal distance covered in climb phase (s
3
) is the distance covered while
climbing to screen height i.e.
s
3
= (Screen height) / tan (10.12)
where, is the angle of climb at velocity V
2
:
sin =
TD
W
where, T and D are evaluated at V
2
.
The time taken in climb phase (t
3
) is:
t
3
= (Screen height) / V
2
sin (10.13)
Hence, the takeoff distance (s) and the time taken for it (t) are given by :
s = s
1
+ s
2
+ s
3
(10.14)
t = t
1
+ t
2
+ t
3
(10.15)
Example 10.1
A jet airplane with a weight of 441, 450 N and wing area of 110 m
2
has a
tricycle type landing gear. Its C
Lmax
with flaps is 2.7. Obtain the takeoff distance
to 15 m screen height and the time taken for it. Given that:
(i) V
1
= 1.16 V
s
(ii) V
2
= 1.086 V
1
(iii) C
L
during ground run is 1.15
(iv) Drag polar with landing gear and flaps deployed is C
D
= 0.044 +0.05C
L
2
(v) Thrust variation during takeoff can be approximated as :
T = 128,500 0.0929 V
2
; where V is in kmph and T is in Newton
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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(vi)Takeoff takes place from a level, dry concrete runway ( = 0.02) at sea level.
Solution:
( )
0
Lmax Lmax
T
C = 0.8 C = 0.8 2.7 = 2.16
1/2 1/2
2W 2 441450
V = = = 55.08 m/s
s
S C 1.225 110 2.16
Lmax
   
 
\ . \ .
Hence,
V
1
= 1.16 x 55.08 = 63.89 m/s
and V
2
= 1.086 x 63.89 = 69.38 m/s.
For C
L
= 1.15,
C
D
= 0.044 + 0.05 x 1.15
2
= 0.1101
Hence,
2
D L
1
T  D  (WL) = T W  V S {C  C }
2
= 128500  0.0929 (3.6V)
2
 0.02 x 441450
0.5 x 1.225 x V
2
x 110 (0.1101  0.02 x 1.15)
= 119671 7.0752 V
2
Using Eqs.(10.6) and (10.7) the ground run (s
1
) and time taken for it (t
1
) are:
s
1
=
441450
2 9.81 7.0752
ln [119671/(1196717.0752 x 63.89 x 63.89)] = 878.32 m
( ) ( )
1 1
2 2
1 1 1
2 2 2
1
441450 (119671) + (7.0752) 63.89
t = ln
2 9.81(119671 7.0752) 119671  7.0752 63.89
(
(
(
= 26.34 s.
The distance covered during transition (s
2
) is obtained as follows.
63.89 + 69.38
Average speed during transition = m/s = 66.635 m/s = 239.9 kmph
2
Hence, thrust during this phase = 128500 0.0929 x 239.9
2
= 123,153 N
To get the drag during this phase it is assumed that C
L
equals C
LTO
and it is given
by :
C
LTO
= C
Lmax
(V
s
/ V
1
)
2
= 2.16 / (1.16)
2
= 1.605
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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Assuming the same drag polar as in the ground run gives:
C
D
= 0.044 + 0.05 x 1.605
2
= 0.1728
Hence, D = 0.5 x1.225 x (66.635)
2
x 110 x 0.1728 = 51695 N
Using Eqs.(10.10) and (10.11) gives :
2
2 2
441450 69.38  63.89
s = = 230.4 m
2 9.81 123159  51695
 


\ .
and t
2
= 230.4 / 66.635 = 3.46 s.
During the climb phase, V = 69.38 m/s = 249.77 kmph.
Hence, T = 128500  0.0929 x 249.77
2
= 122704 N
To get the drag in the climb phase the lift coefficient should be known. For this
purpose L is taken roughly equal to W.
Hence,
1
1
2
2
L
441450
2
C = W/ V S = = 1.36
2
1.225 110 69.38
 

\ .
Consequently, C
D
= 0.044 + 0.05 x 1.36
2
= 0.1365
and D = 0.5 x 1.225 x (69.38)
2
x 110 x 0.1365 = 44269 N
Hence,
122704  44269
sin = = 0.1777
441450
Consequently, tan = 0.1805.
Using Eqs.(10.12) and (10.13) gives:
s
3
= 15/0.1805 = 83.1 m
and t
3
= 15/(69.38 x0.1805) = 1.20 s.
Finally, s = s
1
+ s
2
+ s
3
= 878.32 + 230.4 + 83.1 = 1192 m
and t = t
1
+ t
2
+ t
3
= 26.34 + 3.46 + 1.20 = 31.0 s.
Answers:
Take off distance = 1192 m ; Time taken for takeoff = 31 s.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
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10.4.5 Parameters influencing takeoff run
The major portion of the takeoff distance is the ground run. Hence if
ground run is reduced, the takeoff distance is also reduced. From Eq.(10.8), it is
observed that the distance s
1
is given by :
( )
2
1
1
avg
V W
s =
g TD WL (
(10.16)
Let V
1
= 1.1 V
S
. Recalling,
S
Lmax
2W
V =
SC
, Eq.(10.16) can be rewritten as :
( )
1
2
Lmax avg
1.21 2W
s =
2gSC TD WL (
=
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
Lmax
avg
1.21 W/S
gC T/W  D/W  1L/W (
(10.17)
The following observations can be made from Eq.(10.17).
i) The ground run increases when the wing loading (W / S) increases.
ii)The ground run also increases when decreases. Since decreases with
altitude, the takeoff distance will be more when the altitude of the airport
increases.
iii)The ground run decreases as C
Lmax
increases. Hence, the high speed
airplanes which have high wing loading from consideration of cruise, employ
elaborate high lift devices to increase C
Lmax
.
iv)The takeoff run decreases by increasing the accelerating force which mainly
depends on (T/W). It may be recalled from subsection 4.3.5 that the thrust of a jet
engine can be increased temporarily by using an afterburner. The thrust can also
be augmented by using an auxiliary rocket fired during the takeoff run. In
shipboard airplanes a catapult is used to augment the accelerating force.
10.4.6 Effect of wind on takeoff run
While discussing the range performance it was shown, with the help of a
derivation in section 7.8, that the distance covered with respect to the ground
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decreases when the flight takes place in the presence of head wind. Same effect
occurs during the takeoff and the takeoff distance reduces in the presence of
head wind. In a hypothetical case of head wind being equal to the stalling speed
(V
s
), the airplane can get airborne without having to accelerate along the ground.
A quantitative estimate of the effect of wind velocity (V
w
) on s
1
, can be obtained
from Eq.(10.4), by replacing the limits of integration from (0 to V
1
) by (V
w
to V
1
)
i.e. :
( )
1
w
1
withwind
V
W V dV
s =
g T D  (WL)
V
}
Thus, the head wind, though bad for range, is beneficial during takeoff as it
reduces the takeoff distance.
Airports have a device to indicate the direction of wind. The takeoff flight takes
place in such a manner that the airplane experiences a head wind. This is
referred to as Takeoff into the wind.
10.4.7 Guidelines for estimation of takeoff distance
In subsections 10.4.1, 10.4.3 and 10.4.4, a procedure to estimate the
takeoff distance has been presented. However, it is based on several
assumptions and consequently has significant amount of uncertainty. In actual
practice, there would be further uncertainty due to factors like condition of the
runway surface (wet or dry), and piloting technique. Hence, for the purpose of
preliminary design of airplane, the following guidelines can be used.
For airplanes with enginepropeller combination, the Federal Aviation
Regulations designated as FAR23 (Ref.10.1) are used. Under these regulations,
the takeoff distance to attain 50 feet (or 15 m) is obtained under certain
prescribed conditions. This distance is denoted here by s
to23
. Reference 10.2
has estimated s
to23
for several airplanes. It is observed (Ref.10.2) that s
to23
is
related to the following parameter.
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T0 T0
LT0
W W
( ) ( )
S P
C
where,
(W/S)
T0
= wing loading based on takeoff weight.
(W/P)
T0
= power loading based on takeoff weight and sea level static power
output.
= density ratio = /
0
C
LT0
= Lift coefficient in take off configuration (about 80% of C
Lmax
in landing
configuration)
The above quantity is called takeoff parameter for FAR23 and denoted by
TOP
23
i.e.
T0 T0
23
LT0
W W
( ) ( )
S P
TOP =
C
(10.18)
Based on the data of Ref.10.2, the following relationship has been deduced in
Ref.3.18, pt.I, chapter 3.
s
to23
(in ft) = 8.134 TOP
23
+ 0.0149
2
23
TOP (10.19)
where, W/S is in lbs / ft
2
, W in lbs and P in hp.
When SI units are used this relationship takes the following form.
s
to23
(in m) = 8.681x10
3
TOP
23
+5.566x10
8 2
23
TOP (10.20)
where W / S is in N / m
2
, W in N and P in kW.
Example 10.2
Consider an airplane with the following features.
W/S = 2400 N / m
2
, W/P = 24 N /kW , C
LTO
= 1.6 and = 1.
Estimate the takeoff distance for this airplane.
Solution :
The parameter TOP
23
in this case is :
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter10
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
8
TOP
23
= 2400 x 24/(1 x 1.6) = 36000 N
2
/( m
2
kW)
Using Eq.(10.20) gives,
s
to23
= 8.681x10
3
x 36000 +5.566x10
8
x 36000
2
= 385.9 m or 1260 ft.
Answer : Takeoff distance = 385.9 m or 1260 ft.
As regards the airplanes with jet engines, the takeoff parameter (TOP) is defined
as :
T0
LT0 T0
W
( )
S
TOP =
T
C ( )
W
(10.21)
where, T = sea level static thrust.
Reference 3.9 chapter 5, gives a curve as guideline for s
to
in feet and TOP in
lbs / ft
2
. However, when a second order equation is fitted to that curve, the
relationship can be expressed in SI units in the following form.
s
to
(in m) = 0.1127 TOP +1.531 x 10
6
TOP
2
(10.22)
Example 10.3
Consider a jet airplane with the following features.
W/S = 5195 N/m
2
, T / W = 0.3, C
LT0
= 2.16 and = 1.
Estimate the takeoff distance.
Solution :
In this case TOP is :
TOP =
2
5195
= 8017 N/m
12.160.3
From Eq.(10.22) :
s
to
= 0.1127x8017 +1.531 x 10
6
x 8017
2
= 1002 m.
Answer : Takeoff distance = 1002 m.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter10
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
1
Chapter 10
Lecture 34
Performance analysis VI Takeoff and landing 3
Topics
10.4.8 Balanced field length, its estimation and effect of number of
engines on it.
10.5 Landing performance
10.5.1 Definition of landing distance
10.5.2 Phases of landing flight
10.5.3 Estimation of landing distance
10.6 Flap settings during takeoff and landing
10.4.8 Balanced field length and its estimation
Takeoff is a critical phase of flight operation and various eventualities are
taken into account to arrive at the length of the runway required for the operation
of the airplane. In the case of multiengined airplane, the possibility of the failure
of one of the engines during takeoff is an important consideration. If the engine
failure takes place during initial stages of ground run, then the pilot can apply the
brakes and bring the airplane to halt. If the engine failure takes place after the
airplane has gained sufficient speed, then the following two alternatives are
available.
(a) Apply brakes and stop the airplane, but this may need much longer runway
length than in the case of takeoff without engine failure.
(b) Instead of applying brakes, continue to fly with one engine inoperative and
takeoff; but the takeoff distance would be longer than when there is no engine
failure.
These two alternatives indicate the possibility of a speed, called Decision
speed. If the engine failure occurs at the decision speed, then the distance
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter10
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
2
required to stop the airplane is the same as that required to takeoff with one
engine inoperative. The takeoff distance required when engine failure takes
place at the decision speed is called Balanced field length (BFL). It is estimated
as follows.
FAR 25 (see Ref.10.1) is used as a set of regulations for obtaining the takeoff
distance of jet airplanes. The regulations also prescribe a procedure to calculate
the balanced field length (BFL). Reference 10.2 has estimated BFL for many jet
airplanes and observed that BFL is a function of TOP defined in Eq.(10.21).
Based on this data, the BFL in feet, when W/S in lbs / ft
2
is given as (Ref.3.18,
Pt.I, chapter 3):
BFL (in ft) = 37.5 TOP (in lbs / ft
2
) (10.23)
When SI units are used, Eq.(10.23) takes the following form.
TO
LT0 TO
W
( )
S
BFL (inm) = 0.2387
T
C ( )
W
(10.24)
where W / S is in N / m
2
.
Remark :
(i) Effect of number of engines on BFL :
The data in Ref.10.2, on which Eq.(10.23), is based, shows some scatter
(Fig.3.7 of Ref.10.2). However, the data for airplanes with two, three and four
engines show some definite trend; the BFL is more as the number of engines
decrease. This is expected, as for a two engined airplane, when one engine is
inoperative, the thrust available would decrease to half of the full thrust, whereas
for an airplane with four engines, with one engine inoperative, the thrust available
would be three fourth of the full thrust. Consequently, BFL would be less for a
four engine airplane as compared to that for a two engined airplane. Perhaps,
based on this argument, Ref.3.9, chapter 5, suggests three different lines for BFL
vs TOP curve for airplane with two three and four engines. In SI units these lines
can be expressed as:
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter10
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
3
For two engined airplane: BFL (in m) = 0.2613 TOP (in N / m
2
) (10.25)
For three engined airplane: BFL (in m) = 0.2387 TOP (in N / m
2
) (10.26)
For four engined airplane: BFL (in m) = 0.2196 TOP (in N / m
2
) (10.27)
Example 10.4
Consider the airplane of example 10.3 and obtain the balance field length.
Solution:
In this case :
W
/ S = 5195 N/m
2
,
= 1.0 , C
LTO
= 2.16 and T/ W = 0.3.
Consequently, TOP is 8017 N/m
2
.
Using Eqs (10.25) to (10.27) the BFL would be (a) 2095 m for an airplane
configuration with two engines, (b) 1914 m for three engine configuration and
(c) 1761 m for four engine configuration. Comparing s
to
and BFL in examples
10.3 and 10.4, it is seen that is BFL is nearly twice of s
to
.
(ii) See Appendices A and B for calculation or takeoff distance for a piston
engined airplane and a jet airplane respectively.
10.5 Landing performance
10.5.1 Definition of landing distance
While describing the takeoff distance it was mentioned that the airplane should
clear the screen height before it leaves the airport environment. For the same
reason, the landing flight begins when the airplane is at the screen height. The
landing distance is defined as the horizontal distance that the airplane covers in
descending from the screen height and to come to halt. In actual practice, the
airplane does not halt on the runway. After reaching a sufficiently low speed the
pilot takes the airplane to the allotted parking place.
10.5.2 Phases of landing
Figure 10.2 shows the phases of landing flight for an airplane with tricycle type
landing gear.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter10
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
4
Fig.10.2 Phases of landing flight
During the final approach phase, the airplane performs a steady descent. The
flight velocity in this phase is called approach speed and denoted by V
A
. During
the flare, the pilot makes the flight path almost horizontal. In the float phase the
pilot gently touches the main wheels to the ground. This is done gradually so that
the vertical velocity of the airplane is not more than about 4 m/s. The flight speed
at the point of touch down is denoted by V
T
. It is about 90% of V
A
. After the
touch down, the airplane rolls for a period of about 3 seconds during which the
nose wheel is gently lowered to touch the ground. Brakes are not applied in this
phase as their application would produce a large decelerating force which would
cause a large nose down moment and the nose wheel may hit the ground with a
bang. After the three wheels have touched the ground, the brakes are applied
as well as other devices like reverse thrust or reversed pitch of propeller are
deployed. The ground run is said to be over when the airplane comes to halt or
attains a low speed when it can turn off the runway and go to the parking place.
10.5.3 Estimation of landing distance
This can be done in a way similar to the estimation of the takeoff distance
i.e., by writing down equations for each phase of the flight. However, the
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter10
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
5
estimation cannot be done accurately as the flare and float phases depend very
much on the judgment of the pilot.
Royal Aeronautical Society Data sheets (presently called Engineering Science
Data Unit or ESDU) have given a simple method which amounts to assuming a
constant deceleration and calculating the distance to decelerate from V
A
and to
come to a halt i.e.
s
land
=  (V
A
)
2
/ 2a (10.28)
where, a = 1.22 m/s
2
(or 4ft/s
2
) for simple braking system
= 1.52 m/s
2
(or 5 ft/s
2
) for average braking system.
=  1.83 m/s
2
(or 6 ft/s
2
) for modern braking system and
=  2.13 to 3.0 m/s
2
(or 7 to 10 ft /s
2
) for airplane with modern braking
system and reverse thrust or reverse pitch propellers.
The approach speed (V
A
) depends on factors like stalling speed under
approach conditions, minimum speed at which adequate control is possible and
the type of approach viz. visual landing or instrumented landing system or aircraft
carrier deck approach. As a first estimate V
A
can be taken as 1.3 V
s
.
Example 10.5
Obtain the landing distance for the airplane in example 10.1. Assume that
the airplane has modern braking system with reverse thrust and that V
A
= 1.3 V
s
.
Solution:
From example 10.1, W = 441, 450 N, S = 110 m
2
,
C
Lmax
during landing = 2.7.
Hence,
1/2
s
2 441450
V =
1.2251102.7
 

\ .
= 49.24 m/s
Consequently, V
A
= 1.3 x 49.24 = 64.01 m/s.
Taking a =  2.13 m/
2
s , the estimate of landing distance is :
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter10
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
6
land
2
64.01
s =  = 961.9 m
2 (2.13)
Answer : Landing distance = 961.9 m
Remarks:
i) Appendix A also estimates the landing distance using Eq.(10.28). Appendix B
uses a different formula.
ii) The landing distance is proportional to (V
A
)
2
and consequently it is proportional
to (V
s
)
2
.
The following observations can be made by noting that (V
s
)
2
equals
2W/(SC
Lmax
).
(a) The landing distance increases with increase of (W/S) and the altitude of
landing field. (b) The landing distance decreases with increase of C
Lmax
.
iii) The use of reverse thrust and reverse pitch propeller to reduce the landing
distance has been mentioned earlier. The landing run can also be decreased by
using (a) arresting gear, (b) drag parachute and (c) spoilers.
The arresting gear is used for airplane landing on the deck of a ship.
The drag parachute, when opened, increases the drag significantly and reduces
the landing run.
The spoilers are located on the upper surface of the wing. When deflected up,
the spoiler disturbs the flow, resulting in reduction of lift and increase of drag.
Spoiler ailerons are shown in Fig.1.2c. When used as a device to produce a
rolling moment, the spoiler aileron is deflected only on the left or the right wing
half. The lift on that wing half is reduced and the airplane rolls. Whereas, during
landing, the spoiler ailerons on both the wing halves are deployed
simultaneously. This results in a large reduction in lift and increase in drag. Both
these effects help in reducing the landing run.
iv) Like takeoff distance the landing distance is also reduced by head wind.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter10
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
7
10.6 Flap settings during takeoff and landing
It is mentioned in subsection 10.4.1, that the
Lmax
C during takeoff is 80% of that
during landing. The flap setting during takeoff is lower than the setting during
landing. The reasons for this difference are as follows.
Equation (10.17) shows that the takeoff run depends on ambient density( ) ,
wing loading (W/S), maximum lift coefficient (C
Lmax
) and the average accelerating
force. Out of these parameters, as pointed out earlier, the values of (W/S) and
(T/W) are chosen based on considerations of cruise, maximum speed etc. In this
situation, the choices available to reduce the takeoff distance are (a) C
Lmax
and
(b) average accelerating force during the takeoff.
It may be pointed out at this juncture that a high value of C
LTO
would reduce V
1
and hence the takeoff run (Eq.10.17). However, the high value of C
LTO
would
also result in high value of C
D
and consequently high value of drag and a lower
accelerating force. This would tend to increase the takeoff run (Eq.10.17). On
account of these two opposing effects, there is an optimum value of C
LTO
and
the corresponding flap setting, that would result in lowest takeoff run.
On the other hand, during landing the approach speed and the touch down
speed would be lowest when the C
Lmax
is highest. Further, the high value of C
D
associated with high value of C
Lmax
would also increase the decelerating force
during landing run and consequently reduce it. Thus a high value of C
Lmax
is
beneficial for reducing the landing run & distance.
Keeping these two aspects in view, the flap setting during the takeoff is
lower than that during the landing. As a guideline it is mentioned in Ref.3.15,
chapter 5, that the flap deflection for takeoff
( )
f
TO
is about half of that during
landing
( )
f
Land
.The deflection of the leading edge slat during takeoff, is about
twothirds of that during landing.
It may be further added that during landing run, after all the landing gear
wheels have touched ground, the lift is not needed. Hence, in airplanes with
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter10
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
8
provision of spoilers, they (spoilers) are deployed during the landing run to
reduce the lift and increase the drag.
Acknowledgements
The major portion of the lecture material was prepared when the author was an
AICTE Emeritus fellow at IIT Madras. Support of AICTE and IIT Madras is
greatfully acknowledged. He is also grateful to Prof.J.Kurian, Prof.P.Sriram and
Prof.K.Bhaskar, the Heads of the department of Aerospace engineering, IIT
Madras and to Prof. K. Mangala Sunder, Coordinator NPTEL, and Prof.S.R.
Chakravarthy, Coordinator for Aerospace Engineering, NPTEL, IIT Madras for
providing facilities to carryout the work.
The lecture material in powerpoint format was reviewed by Prof. K.
Sudhakar, Dept.of Aerospace Engg. , IIT Bombay, Prof.C.V.R. Murti, formerly of
IIT Kanpur and now at Institue of Aeronautical Engg. near Hyderabad,
Prof. B.S.M. Augustine, Sathyabama University, Prof.K.Elangovan ,Dept.of
Aeronautical Engg., M.I.T., Chennai, Prof. R.Rajasekhar, Park college of
Engg.&Technology, Coimbatore and Mr.K.Ibrahim , former chief deisgner, HAL.
The author is indebted to them for their comments which helped in considerably
improving the text. Prof.C.V.R. Murti made detailed comments and even went
through the revised draft. Special thanks are due to him.
The lecture material in the running matter format was reviewed by two reviewers
selected by NPTEL. The comments by the reviewers, helped in adding new
topics and giving explanatory notes. Authors wife, Mrs. Suniti, also went through
the lecture material and her comments helped in refining the text. The author is
thankful to these persons.
The help of Mr. Amudan Arun Kumar and Mr.S.Ananth former B.Tech
students, Mr.Aditya Sourabh, Dual Degree student, Mr.M.Mahendran, M.S.
scholar, Mr.S.Gurusideswar, Ph.D. scholar and Sandip Chajjed, Project staff
Department of Aerospace Engineering and Ms. K. Sujatha of NPTEL Web studio,
IIT Madras is gratefully acknowledged.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter10
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
9
The author would like to record appreciation of Mr. G.Manikandasivam of
NPTEL Web studio, IIT Madras for painstakingly keying in several revisions of
the lecture material and also for preparing figures suitable for conversion to PDF
format.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter10
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
1
Chapter 10
Exercises
10.1 Describe the various phase of takeoff flight, Write down the equations of
motion during takeoff run. Taking C
D
, C
L
and T as constant during takeoff run
show that the ground run (s
1
) is given by:
W
s = ln
1
S g (C  C )  q
D L 1
where W, S, g, and have the usual meanings, q
1
= dynamic pressure at the
unstick point and
TW
=
S (C  C )
D L
.
10.2 A rocket motor firing for a short duration of say 10 s is proposed to be used
to reduce the take of run. Explain that a larger reduction in the takeoff distance
would be achieved by using the rocket motor in the later part of the takeoff run
than in the beginning of the takeoff run.
10.3 Describe various methods to reduce the takeoff distance and landing
distance.
Flight dynamicsI Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter10
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
1
Chapter 10
References
10.1 Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR), Federal Aviation Administration,
Washington D.C. USA.
10.2 Loftin , Jr. L.K. Subsonic aircraft evolution and the matching of size to
performance NASA Reference publications ,1060, August 1980. This report can
be downloaded from the site NASA Technical Report Server (NTRS) .
APPENDIX  A
PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A PISTON ENGINED
AIRPLANE PIPER CHEROKEE PA28180
(Lectures 35  37)
E.G. TULAPURKARA
S. ANANTH
TEJAS M. KULKARNI
REPORT NO: AE TR 20071
FEBRUARY 2007
(REVISED OCTOBER 2011)
1
Performance Analysis of a piston engined
airplane Piper Cherokee PA28180
E.G.Tulapurkara*, S Ananth
$
and Tejas M Kulkarni
$
ABSTRACT
The report is intended to serve as an example of performance calculation of a typical piston
engined airplane.
Problem statement: Obtain the following for the prescribed airplane:
 Information about the airplane.
 Drag Polar at cruising speed and during takeoff condition.
 Engine Characteristics.
 Variation of stalling speed with altitude for flaps up and flaps down
conditions.
 Variations of the maximum speed (V
max
) and minimum speed (V
min
) with altitude.
 Variations of maximum rate of climb (R/C)
max
and maximum angle of climb (
max)
with
speed and altitude. Variation of V
R/Cmax
and V
max
with altitude. Values of absolute
ceiling and service ceiling.
 Variations of range and endurance with flight speed in constant velocity
flights at cruising altitude. Speeds corresponding to R
max
and E
max
.
 Variation of minimum radius of turn (r
min
) and maximum rate of turn
(
max
) at selected altitudes and variations of (V
rmin
) and (
max
V
) with
altitude.
 Takeoff and landing distances.
*
AICTE Emeritus Fellow, Department of Aerospace Engineering, IIT Madras
$
Third year B.Tech students, Department of Aerospace Engineering, IIT Madras
2
Contents
1 Information about the airplane
1.1 Overall dimensions
1.2 Power plant
1.3 Weights
1.4 Wing geometry
1.5 Fuselage geometry
1.6 Horizontal tail geometry
1.7 Vertical tail geometry
1.8 Landing gear
1.9 Flight condition
1.10 Performance of PA28181 as given in Ref.3*
2 Estimation of drag polar
2.1 Estimation of
DOWB
C
2.2 Estimation of
DOH
C
2.3 Estimation of
DOV
C
2.4 Estimation of
DLG
C and
DMISC
C
2.5 Cooling drag and leakage drag
2.6 Estimation of parasite drag coefficient
DO
C
2.7 Estimation of induced drag coefficient
Di
C
2.8 Expression for drag polar during cruise
2.8.1 Slight modification of drag polar
2.9 Expression for drag polar during takeoff condition
* Reference numbers in this Appendix relate to those given at the end of this appendix.
3
3 Engine characteristics
3.1 Variation of engine BHP
3.2 Thrust horsepower available
4 Steady level flight
4.1 Variation of stalling speed with altitude
4.2 Variations of V
max
and V
min
with altitude
5 Steady climb performance
6 Range and endurance
6.1 Estimation of range in constant velocity flight
6.2 Calculation of BHP and fuel flow rate at different RPMs and MAPs at 8000'
6.3 Sample calculations for obtaining optimum N and MAP for a chosen flight
velocity (V)
7 Turning performance
8 Takeoff and landing distance estimates
8.1 Distance covered during takeoff run
8.2 Distance covered during transition
8.3 Distance covered during climb phase
8.4 Landing distance estimate
9 Concluding remarks
Acknowledgements
References
4
Appendix A
Lecture 35
Performance analysis of a piston engined airplane 1
Topics
1 Information about the airplane
1.1 Overall dimensions
1.2 Power plant
1.3 Weights
1.4 Wing geometry
1.5 Fuselage geometry
1.6 Horizontal tail geometry
1.7 Vertical tail geometry
1.8 Landing gear
1.9 Flight condition
1.10 Performance of PA28181 as given in Ref.3
2 Estimation of drag polar
2.1 Estimation of
DOWB
C
2.2 Estimation of
DOH
C
2.3 Estimation of
DOV
C
2.4 Estimation of
DLG
C and
DMISC
C
2.5 Cooling drag and leakage drag
2.6 Estimation of parasite drag coefficient
DO
C
2.7 Estimation of induced drag coefficient
Di
C
2.8 Expression for drag polar during cruise
2.8.1 Slight modification of drag polar
5
2.9 Expression for drag polar during takeoff condition
1. Information about the airplane
Airframe: Piper Cherokee PA28180
Type: Pistonengined propeller driven low speed recreational airplane.
Manufacturer and country of origin: The Piper Airplane Corporation, USA.
1.1 Overall dimensions*
Length : 7.148 m
Wing span : 9.144 m
Height above ground : 2.217 m
Wheel base : 1.897 m
Wheel track : 3.048 m
1.2 Power plant
Name : Lycoming O360A3A
Rating : 180BHP (135 kW) at 2700 RPM
Weight : 129 kgf (1265.5 N)
Number : 1
Propeller : 1.88 m diameter, fixed pitch.
1.3 Weights
Maximum takeoff weight : 1088 kgf (10673.28 N)
Empty weight : 558 kgf (5473.98 N)
Fuel capacity : 50 US gallons (189 litres) usable 178.63 litres
Payload : 468.1 kgf (4592.06 N)
Maximum wing loading : 73.2 kgf/m
2
(718.1 N/m
2
)
Maximum power loading (P/W) : 0.1241 kW/kgf (0.01265 kW/N)
1.4 Wing geometry
Planform shape : Trapezoidal near root, rectangular afterwards
and elliptical fillets at the tip.
Span (b) : 9.144 m
Reference area (S or S
Ref
) : 14.864 m
2
* The dimensions / areas are based on Fig.1 and the additional details given in Ref.2.
6
Flap area : 1.384 m
2
Aileron area : 1.003 m
2
Airfoil : NACA 65
2
415, t/c = 15 %, C
lopt
= 0.4
Root chord : 2.123 m
Tip chord : 1.600 m
Quarter chord Sweep : 1.48
0
Dihedral : 6
0
Twist : 2
0
Incidence : 4.62
0
at root, 2.62
0
at tip
High lift devices : Simple flaps having 3 different settings : 10
0
,
25
0
and 40
0
Derived parameters of wing:
(i) Aspect ratio (A ) :
A = b
2
/ S = 9.144
2
/ (14.864) = 5.625
(ii) Root chord of equivalent tropazoidal wing (c
req
) :
req t
b
S= (c +c )
2
Or 14.864 =
req
9.144
(c +1.60)
2
c
req
= 1.651 m
(iii) Root chord of exposed wing (c
re
):
From Fig.1, the maximum fuselage width is 1.168 m. Hence semi span of the exposed wing
(b
e
/ 2) is:
e
b 1
= (9.1441.168)=3.988m
2 2
(iv) The root chord of exposed equivalent wing (c
re
) is obtained as follows.
An expression for the chord of the equivalent wing is
y
c =1.651 (1.6511.600)
b/2
Hence,
re
0.584
c =1.651 (1.6511.600)=1.644m
9.144/2
7
(v) Taper ratio of the exposed wing (
e
) is:
e
= 1.6 / 1.644 = 0.9732
(vi) Mean aerodynamic chord of the exposed wing ( e c )
2 2
e e
e
re
e
(1+ + ) 2 2 (1+0.9732+0.9732 )
c = c = 1.644
3 1+ 3 1+0.9732
`
)
=1.622 m
(vii) Planform area of the exposed wing (S
e
) is:
S
e
= 3.988 (1.644+1.6) = 12.937 m
2
(viii) Wetted area of exposed wing (S
wet
)
e
is :
(S
wet
)
e
= 2 S
e
{1+1.2 x (t/c) } = 2 x 12.937 { 1 + 1.2 x 0.15} = 30.53 m
2
1.5 Fuselage geometry
Length (l
b
) : 6.547 m (measured from Fig.1)
Frontal area (S
b
) : 1.412 m
2
(Ref.2 p.179)
Maximum width : 1.168 m
Derived parameters for fuselage:
(i) Equivalent diameter (d
e
) of fuselage :
2
e e
d =1.412 or d =1.341m
4
(ii) Height of maximum cross section (h
max
)
h
max
= 1.412 / 1.168 = 1.209 m.
(iii) Rough estimate of wetted area of fuselage (S
s
)
e
is :
(S
s
)
e
= 0.75 x ( perimeter of the maximum cross section ) x l
b
= 0.75 (1.209 + 1.168) x 2 x 6.547 = 23.34 m
2
.
(iv) Fineness ratio of fuselage (A
f
) :
A
f
= l
b
/ d
e
= 6.547 / 1.341 = 4.882
1.6 Horizontal tail geometry
Planform shape : Rectangular with elliptical fillets at tips.
Span : 3.048 m
Area : 2.267 m
2
Root chord and tip chord : 0.762 m
Airfoil : NACA 0012.
8
Derived parameters of horizontal tail:
(i)Aspect ratio = A
t
= 3.048
2
/ 2.267 = 4.098
(ii)Exposed area of horizontal tail = area of h.tail area inside fuselage 2.15 m
2
Hence wetted area of h.tail (S
wet
)
h
is :
(S
wet
)
h
: = 2 x 2.15 [1+1.2 x 0.12] = 4.919 m
2
1.7 Vertical tail geometry
Span : 1.219 m
Area : 1.059 m
2
Root chord : 1.182 m
Tip chord : 0.517 m
Quarter chord sweep : 21.8
0
Airfoil : NACA 0010.
Derived parameters of vertical tail:
(i) Taper ratio : 0.4374
(ii) Aspect ratio : 1.403
(iii)Exposed area of vertical tail : same as area of v.tail = 1.059 m
2
(iv) Wetted area of v.tail (S
wet
)
v
is :
(S
wet
)
v
= 2 x 1.059 { 1+ 1.2 x 0.1} = 2.372 m
2
(v) Mean aerodynamic chord of vertical tail is :
Vt
c = (2/3) x 1.182 x (1+0.4374 + 0.4374
2
) /(1+0.4374) = 0.893 m.
1.8 Landing gear
Type : Nonretractable, nose wheel type with fairing.
Number of wheels : Nose 1, main 2, all same size.
Thickness : 0.135 m
Diameter : 0.4547 m
Wheel base : 1.897 m
Wheel track : 3.048 m
9
1.9 Flight condition
Altitude : 2438 m ( 8000' )
Density : 0.9629 kg/m
3
Speed of sound : 330.9 m/s
Kinematic viscosity ( ) :
4
0.17792 10
(m
2
/s)
Flight speed : 237 km/hr (65.83 m/s)
Mach number : 0.1992
Weight of the airplane : 1088 kgf (10673.28 N)
1.10 Performance of PA28181
$
as given in Ref.3.
Maximum takeoff weight : 1157 kgf (2550 lbf)
Power plant rating : 135 kW (180 BHP)
Wing loading : 73.3kgf/ m
2
Maximum level speed : 246 kmph
Cruising speed : 237 kmph
Stalling speed : 86 kmph, with flaps down condition
Maximum rate of climb : 203 m/min at sea level
Service ceiling : 4035 m
Takeoff run : 350 m
Takeoff to 15m : 488 m
Landing run : 280 m
Landing distance from 15m : 427 m
Range with allowance for taxi, takeoff, climb, descent and 45 min reserves at 6000 feet
(1830 m) : 924 km at 55 % power ; 875 km at 65 % power ; 820 km at 75 % power.
$
Remark: The performance calculations are being done for PA28180 as a large
amount of data on the airplane, the engine and the propeller are available in Ref.2. However,
information on actual performance of this airplane is not given there. Ref.3 (which is easily
accessible) contains information about PA28181 which is only slightly different from
PA28180.
10
Fig.1. Threeview drawing of Piper Cherokee PA28180
Dimensions in m
11
2. Estimation of drag polar