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2013 International Conference on Lightning and Static Electricity

September 17 -20, 2013 Seattle, USA

Book of Abstracts

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Aircraft Fuel Tanks .................................................................................................................................. 7
SEA13-13 COMPUTATIONAL SIMULATION OF LIGHTNING STRIKE EFFECTS ON AIRCRAFT FUEL TANK R. Ranjith, S. Lee, and R. S. Myong .................................................................................................................................... 7 SEA13-15 SUB-CELL MODELING TECHNIQUES FOR LIGHTNING FUEL SYSTEM SIMULATION Timothy McDonald, Cody Weber, Gregory Rigden, Rodney A. Perala ............................................................................................... 7 SEA13-28 UNDERSTANDING OF EDGE GLOW PHENOMENON I. Revel, A. Herv, G. Peres, M. Webster, R. Maddison, F. Flourens...................................................................................................................................... 8 SEA13-38 MODELING AND SIMULATION OF SPARKING IN FASTENING ASSEMBLIES L. Chemartin and P. Lalande, ........................................................................................................................................................... 9 SEA13-53 NOVEL ESTIMATION METHOD OF SPARK PHENOMENA OF THE CFRP SAMPLE WITH A FASTENER BY OPTICAL MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUE UNDER LIGHTNING TEST Shinya Ohtsuka, Masaaki Furukawa, Yuki Yamaguchi (Kyushu Institute of Technology) Takayuki Nishi, Hiroyuki Tsubata (Fuji Heavy Industries LTD. Aerospace Company) ....................................................................................................................................... 9 SEA13-54 CURRENT FLOW ANALYSIS AND MEASUREMENT OF THE COMPOSITE STRUCTURE BY LIGHTNING STRIKE. Takayuki Nishi, Hiroyuki Tsubata, Hiroyasu Fujita (Fuji Heavy Industries LTD. Aerospace Company) .. 10 SEA13-66 COMPARISON BETWEEN MEASUREMENT AND SIMULATION RESULTS OF LIGHTNING CURRENT DISTRIBUTION IN PARTIAL WING MODEL OF AN AIRCRAFT Tatsufumi Aoi, Yoichiro Tsumura, Syusaku Yamamoto, Atsuhiro Iyomasa, Koji Satake, HideoYamakoshi, Koichi Murakami, Toru Hashigami, Greg Rigden and Andy Plumer ........................................................................................................................................... 11 SEA13-68 FUEL TANK SAFETY 3D DISTRIBUTION ON FASTENERS/ASSEMBLIES OUTSIDE AND INSIDE FUEL TANK Fabian Fustin, Fabrice Tristant, Fabien Terrade and Jean-Patrick Moreau ............................................ 12 SEA13-69 FUEL TANK SAFETY METHODOLOGY AND ASSESSMENT AT STRUCTURE LEVEL Fabrice Tristant, Jean-Patrick Moreau, and Fabian Fustin, ........................................................................................................ 12

Aircraft Lightning Direct Effects .......................................................................................................... 14


SEA13-07 TITANIUM MICROSTRUCTURE CHANGES IN LIGHTNING Julie Drexler ............................................. 14 SEA13-16 OVERVIEW OF LIGHTNING-RELATED RESEARCH ACTIVITIES AT NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR AVIATION RESEARCH (NIAR) Yulia Kostogorova-Beller ................................................................................................... 14 SEA13-20 THERMO-MECHANICAL DAMAGE OF PROTECTED CFRP STRUCTURES CAUSED BY LIGHTNING CONTINUOUS CURRENTS Christian KARCH* and Wilhelm WULBRAND .......................................................... 15 SEA13-25 ANALYSIS OF LIGHTNING DIRECT EFFECTS ON CARBON FIBER COMPOSITE MATERIALS AS MECHANICAL EFFECTS. B. Lepetit, Y. Duval, F. Soulas, S. Guinard, I. Revel, G. Peres ...................................... 15 SEA13-32 AC CONDUCTIVITY AND MICROSTRUCTURAL CHANGES OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS Dr. Prasun Majumdar, Mohammad FaisalHaider, and Prof. Kenneth Reifsnider............................................................... 16 SEA13-75 MEASUREMENT OF BREAKTHROUGH PLASMA CURRENT TO UNDERLYING SYSTEMS DURING A LIGHTNING ARC ATTACHMENT TO PUNCTURED CARBON FIBRE PANELS Stephanie Hellsten .......................... 17

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SEA13-84 BONDED JOINTS WITHSTAND SCALE-UP WITH PROBE SIZE C. E. Anway, J. McFarland .................... 18 SEA13-86 EFFECT OF LIGHTNING STRIKES ON UNPROTECTED CARBON COMPOSITE SCARF REPAIRS WITH DIELECTRIC ADHESIVE SCRIMS Patrice Ackerman ........................................................................................... 18 SEA13-87 ARC EROSION OF ALUMINUM AND TITANUIM IN PRESENCE OF LIGHNTING INDUCED ARCS Dejan Nikic and Arthur C. Day .................................................................................................................................. 19

Aircraft Lightning Indirect Effects ....................................................................................................... 20


SEA13-10 SHELL RESISTIVITIES CORRELATED TO INDIRECT EFFECTS OF LIGHTNING Ernest Condon ............... 20 SEA13-34 LIGHTNING INDIRECT EFFECT TEST TO THE AIRCRAFT EQUIPMENT CABIN Duan Zemin Si Xiaoliang Duan Jingbo Qiu Shanliang Chen Lin Wang Xiaoming Zhu Nan ...................................................................... 20 SEA13-50 LIGHTNING TEST HARNESS INTERACTIONS AND THEIR APPLICATION TO AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION. Murray Marple, Allan Meyer , Eric Stewart .................................................................................................... 21 SEA13-70 COMPUTATION OF LIGHTNING INDUCED TRANSIENTS ON ENGINE NACELLE WIRING Fabien Terrade, Fabrice Tristant and Jean-Patrick Moreau ........................................................................................ 22 SEA13-71 COMPUTATION OF LIGHTNING INDUCED TRANSIENTS ON LEVEL A CONTROL SYSTEMS Fabien Terrade, Fabrice Tristant and Jean-Patrick Moreau ........................................................................................ 22

Aircraft Lightning Interaction............................................................................................................... 23


SEA13-27 MAGNETIC SIGNATURE ASSESSMENT OF AIRCRAFT LIGHTNING SWEEPING USING NUMERICAL METHOD Alexandre Herv, Gilles Peres, Kamal Abboud, Toufic Abboud ........................................................ 23 SEA13-37 NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE SURFACE EFFECTS ON THE DWELL TIME DURING THE SWEEPING OF LIGHTNING ARCS. L. Chemartin and P. Lalande ........................................................................ 23 SEA13-44 IN-FLIGHT LIGHTNING DAMAGE ASSESSMENT SYSTEM (ILDAS): IN-FLIGHT TEST EXPERIENCE Alte de Boer............................................................................................................................................................... 24 SEA13-56 AIRPLANE LIGHTNING STRIKE DATABASE DEVELOPMENT CURRENT FINDINGS AND COMPARISONS WITH PREVIOUS STUDIES Joe Heeter, Paul Murray, Neil Phelps, Virgene Severson (Gina) .............................. 24 SEA13-61 CORRELATIONAL STUDY OF OPEN CIRCUIT RESONANT (SANSEC) SENSORS ELECTRIC FIELD DISTRIBUTION ON LIGHTNING ATTACHMENT Kayla M. Farrow, Pawel Ambrozewicz and Linda L.Vahala ........ 25 SEA13-63 AIRLINE FIELD EXPERIENCES AND SOLUTIONS FOR LIGHTNING STRIKE IN JAPAN Hiroshi Kobayashi ...................................................................................................................................................................... 26 SEA13-65 AIRPLANE LIGHTNING STRIKES AND AIR TEMPERATURE David B. Walen ....................................... 26 SEA13-83 MODELING OF THE ATTACHMENT OF LIGHTNING TO AIRCRAFT, AND THE INTERACTION OF THE LIGHTNING ARC WITH AIRCRAFT MATERIALS Eugene Tam, John J Lowke and Anthony B Murphy .................. 27

Aircraft Lightning Standards & Safety ................................................................................................ 29


SEA13-46 DESIGN CHANGE AIRCRAFT CLEARANCES VIA VALIDATED CEM METHODS Simeon J Earl, Chris C. R. Jones, and Paul Baker .................................................................................................................................... 29

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SEA13-77 UPDATE OF AIRWORTHINESS REQUIREMENTS AND GUIDANCE MATERIAL FOR AIRCRAFT LIGHTNING PROTECTION Linda Brussaard ...................................................................................................... 29

Aircraft Test Methods/Instrumentation ............................................................................................... 30


SEA13-06 IMPACT TESTING TO SIMULATE LIGHTNING Julie Drexler............................................................... 30 SEA13-17 ESTABLISHMENT OF A LIGHTNING TEST LABORATORY FOR DIRECT EFFECTS RESEARCH H Simpson, P Leichauer, C Stone, A Haddad ........................................................................................................................ 30 SEA13-18 AN ASSESSMENT OF THE UNIVERSAL COMMON PRACTICE GUIDE TO CONDUCT LIGHTNING ENERGY TRANSFER CHARACTERISATIONS H Simpson, C Stone, A Haddad ................................................................... 31 SEA13-47 FIBER-OPTIC CURRENT SENSOR VALIDATION WITH TRIGGERED LIGHTNING MEASUREMENTS Truong X. Nguyen, Jay J. Ely, George N. Szatkowski, Carlos T. Mata, Angel G. Mata and Gary P. Snyder ..................... 31 SEA13-48 A FIBER-OPTIC AIRCRAFT LIGHTNING CURRENT MEASUREMENT SENSOR Truong X. Nguyen, Jay J. Ely and George N. Szatkowski ........................................................................................................................ 32 SEA13-51 UNIVERSAL COMMON PRACTICE LIGHTNING STRIKE PROTECTION CHARACTERIZATION TECHNIQUE TO QUANTIFY DAMAGE MECHANISMS ON COMPOSITE SUBSTRATES Szatkowski, George.............................. 33 SEA13-55 EFFECT OF SHOT-PLAN SELECTION ON OBSERVED STATISTICAL THRESHOLD Kovach, Daniel J, Basu, Sabyasachi (Shobbo) ...................................................................................................................................... 34 SEA13-59 DAMAGE DETECTION RESPONSE CHARACTERISTICS OF OPEN CIRCUIT RESONANT (SANSEC) SENSORS Kenneth L. Dudley .......................................................................................................................... 34 SEA13-62 ELECTRIC FIELD UNIFORMITY IN INITIAL LEADER ATTACHMENT TESTING Christopher Biagi ........... 35 SEA13-76 THE USE AND CALIBRATION OF DIGITAL CAMERA SYSTEMS IN FUEL TANK TESTING Stephen Haigh 36 SEA13-89 VALIDATION OF ALEGRA-MHD TO MODEL CONFINED ELECTRICAL DISCHARGES* Thomas A. Haill1, Kenneth M. Williamson1, Raymond Martinez2, and Jane M. Lehr1 ................................................................ 37

Electrostatics ........................................................................................................................................... 38
SEA13-35 FRICTION COEFFICIENT DEPENDENCE ON ELECTROSTATIC SURFACE CHARGING Thiago A. L. Burgo and Fernando Galembeck .............................................................................................................................. 38 SEA13-45 NEW PROCESS FOR AAR ESD CLEARANCE THROUGH COMPUTER MODELLING By Simeon J. Earl and Chris C. R. Jones ............................................................................................................................................. 38 SEA13-74 HIGH VOLTAGE ELECTROSTATIC CHARGING OF BULLETS IN FLIGHT. Peter Bevelacqua, Andrew Robb ...................................................................................................................................................................... 39 SEA13-80 THE DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND PERFORMANCE OF A LOW COST AMPLIFIER FOR MULTICHANNEL PICOAMPERE CURRENT MEASUREMENTS IN E-STATICS TESTING. Andrew M. Robb, Emma Sanyal, Eddie Kwon .................................................................................................................................................... 39 SEA13-81 CHARGING MECHANISMS OF SMALL ISOLATED CONDUCTORS Dr. Peter Rimbey ........................... 40 SEA13-85 P-STATIC ENVIRONMENT FOR LARGE TRANSPORT AIRPLANES Joe Heeter, Mike Anderson, Rob Steinle, Shahriar Khosravani........................................................................................................................... 40

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SEA13-88 PROPAGATING BRUSH DISCHARGE AND MODERN COMMERCIAL AIRCRAFT Michael. G. Anderson, Megan J. Hurt, Theresa N. Ward, J. Sidney Clements ...................................................................................... 40

Facilities ................................................................................................................................................... 42
SEA13-03 EARTHING SYSTEM IMPEDANCES IN COMSOL AND ATP-EMTP Jiawei Liu, Sren Find Madsen and Casper Falkenstrm Mieritz ........................................................................................................................... 42 SEA13-22 A 3D TRANSIENT LIGHTNING STRIKE SIMULATION OF TETHERED AEROSTAT Zemin Duan*, Shanliang Qiu, Sixiao Liang ............................................................................................................................. 42 SEA13-23 PROTECTION AGAINST LIGHTNING OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BUILDINGS F. Issac, B Michielsen, E. Bachelier, D. Prost, W. Quenum, P. Nicouleau, C Miry, E. Amador, C. Trouilloud (EDF France) ........................ 43 SEA13-40 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR GROUNDING AND SHIELDING OF BURIED DATA CABLES AT AIRPORT FACILITIES Loren Carvajal, Ben Wibisono, Enrique Tenicela ............................................................................ 44 SEA13-41 THE INFLUENCE OF LIGHTNING ROD SYMMETRIZATION ON OVERVOLTAGE IN NARROW STRUCTURES. Jan Mike and Marcela Efmertov........................................................................................... 44 SEA13-43 INSTALLATION SCHEMES FOR DOWN CONDUCTORS AT ATCT Loren Carvajal, Ben Wibisono, Enrique Tenicela ............................................................................................................................................ 46 SEA13-64 ASSESSING AND MITIGATING RAPID REDISTRIBUTION OF CHARGE AT FAA FACILITIES C. M. Graves, Jr., ................................................................................................................................................................. 46

Lightning Protection Materials/Systems............................................................................................... 48


SEA13-08 SELF-ASSEMBLING CONDUCTIVE COATINGS AND THEIR USE IN LIGHTNING STRIKE AND ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE PROTECTION Timothy D. Fornes*, Scott R. Durso, and Seth B. Carruthers ...................................................................................................................................................................... 48 SEA13-19 OPTIMIZED PROTECTION FOR COMPOSITE HELICOPTERS ON SYSTEM LEVEL TO MINIMIZE EFFECTS DUE TO LIGHTNING STRIKE Doris Zehetmeier, Sonia Zehar............................................................................. 48 SEA13-29 ELECTRICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF MULTILAYERED AEROSPACE GRADED CARBON COMPOSITE FLAT PANELS FOR LIGHTNING STRIKE PROTECTION R. Abid , A. Haddad, H. Giffiths, M. Cole, S. Evans ........... 49 SEA13-39 ENHANCE THE ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY OF CONDUCTIVE POLYMER COMPOSITE COATINGS WITH NANOTECHNOLOGY Zhuo Li, Kyoung-sik Moon, C.P. Wong ......................................................................... 50 SEA13-49 THERMAL SIMULATION AND TESTING OF EXPANDED COPPER FOIL USED FOR LIGHTNING PROTECTION OF COMPOSITE AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES J.D. Morgan, R.B. Greegor, P.K. Ackerman, and Q.N. Le ...................................................................................................................................................................... 51 SEA13-52 LIGHTNING STRIKE PROTECTION CHARACTERISTICS OF OPEN CIRCUIT RESONANT (SANSEC) SENSORS George Szatkowski ......................................................................................................................... 51 SEA13-57 NEXT-GENERATION MULTIFUNCTIONAL CONDUCTIVE SURFACING AND LIGHTNING STRIKE PROTECTION SOLUTIONS FOR AEROSPACE COMPOSITES J. Jeffrey Sang and Dalip K. Kohli............................ 52 SEA13-78 CONDUCTIVE POLYMERS AS DROP IN ADDITIVES FOR CARBON FIBER AIRCRAFT PRIMERS Heather Milligan, Danilo Pozzo, Volha Hrechka (Presenter) ......................................................................................... 53

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SEA13-82 CARBON NANOTUBE BASED THERMOPLASTIC LIGHTNING STRIKE ISOLATORS Ned Bryant ............. 53

Natural Lightning Physics and Detection ............................................................................................. 54


SEA13-04 ESTIMATION OF CHARGE AND CURRENT DISTRIBUTION USING MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF LIGHTNING STEPPER LEADER Abhay Srivastava ............................................................................................. 54 SEA13-09 ELECTRIC FIELD AND CURRENT OF NEGATIVE UPWARD LIGHTNING STRIKES TO THE PEISSENBERG TOWER, GERMANY F. Heidler, M. Manhardt, K. Stimper ............................................................................... 54 SEA13-11 LIGHTNING LOCATION USING ACOUSTIC SIGNALS Elias Badillo Ibarra, Rene O. Arechiga, Ronald J. Thomas and Jeffrey. B. Johnson ..................................................................................................................... 55 SEA13-21 LIGHTNING DIRECT EFFECTS (LDE) ON A STRUCTURE INTEGRATED ANTENNA (SIA) Andr Zaprasis, Markus Rothenhusler; Robert Sekora; Manfred Schreiner; ........................................................................... 55 SEA13-30 OBSERVATIONS OF THE CHARACTERISTICS OF MICROWAVE RADIATION RESULTING FROM VARIOUS LIGHTNING DISCHARGE PROCESSES IN THUNDERSTORMS. Danyal Petersen .................................................. 56 SEA13-36 LIGHTNING MAPPING OBSERVATIONS OF UPWARD-INITIATED LIGHTNING FLASHES William Rison, Paul Krehbiel, Ron Thomas, and Harald Edens................................................................................................ 57 SEA13-42 RELATION BETWEEN LIGHTNING RETURN STROKE CURRENT AND CHARGE TRANSFER Koji Michishita, Shigeru Yokoyama, Hiroaki Sato and Seiji Furukawa .................................................................... 58

Wind Turbines ........................................................................................................................................ 59


SEA13-01 LIGHTNING VERIFICATION TESTS FOR WIND TURBINES Sren Find Madsen, Kim Bertelsen & Bas Eirksson ........................................................................................................................................................ 59 SEA13-02 NUMERICAL TOOLS FOR LIGHTNING PROTECTION OF WIND TURBINES Sren Find Madsen1, Casper Falkenstrm Mieritz1, Anna Candela Garolera2 ............................................................................................. 59 SEA13-24 MODELLING OF LIGHTNING STREAMER FORMATION AND PROPAGATION IN WIND TURBINE BLADES Anna Candela Garolera, Joachim Holboell ,Sren Find Madsen, Casper F. Mieritz .......................................... 59 SEA13-26 SURFACE LIGHTNING PROTECTION ARCHITECTURES FOR HYBRID CARBON FIBER/GLASS FIBER COMPOSITES USED ON CURRENT WIND TURBINE BLADES Jesus ASPAS PUERTOLAS, Damien COUDEYRE, Pierre-Nicolas GINESTE .................................................................................................................................. 60 SEA13-31 MODELING LIGHTNING CURRENT DISTRIBUTION IN CONDUCTIVE ELEMENTS OF A WIND TURBINE BLADE A. Smorgonskiy, F. Rachidi, M. Rubinstein .......................................................................................... 61 SEA13-58 LIGHTNING INDUCED INDIRECT EFFECTS ON WIND TURBINES Sren Find Madsen, Lisa Carloni .... 62 SEA13-60 HIGH VOLTAGE & HIGH CURRENT TEST EXPERIENCES ON WIND POWER TURBINE BLADES ACCORDING TO IEC61400-24 ed.1.0 Lars Bo Hansen ...................................................................................... 62 SEA13-67 LIGHTNING CURRENT OBSERVED AT WIND TURBINES IN WINTER IN JAPAN ISHII, Masaru, SAITO, Mikihisa, NATSUNO, Daisuke, SUGITA, Akiko.................................................................................................. 63

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Aircraft Fuel Tanks


SEA13-13 COMPUTATIONAL SIMULATION OF LIGHTNING STRIKE EFFECTS ON AIRCRAFT FUEL TANK R. Ranjith, S. Lee, and R. S. Myong
Lightning is an atmospheric electrical phenomenon which presents many threats to aircraft flight safety. The threat depends on the component which is subjected to lightning directly or indirectly. In case of fuel tank, lightning poses the hazard of fuel vapour ignition which will result in serious devastations. The natural lightning strike scenario is simulated computationally to study the effects of the lightning strike on aircraft fuel tanks. A coupled thermal-electric model is used for the simulation. In the simulation it is assumed that the electrical conductivity of the material depends on the temperature and the temperature rise due to Joule heat generation depends on the electrical current. The inter-dependence of the thermal and electrical properties is incorporated through the coupled thermal-electric analysis module. Two different configurations of fuel tanks are considered for simulation with each configuration having different fabrication materials viz., aluminium and carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite. The two configurations show different damage behaviour due to the differences in their properties. The differences in the damage incurred on fuel tanks due to lightning could be understood by comparing the results of these two configurations. The electrical potential plot indicates the maximum potential attained in the model due to lightning current. The temperature plot for different layers is used to identify the possibility of fuel vapour ignition inside the fuel tank.

SEA13-15 SUB-CELL MODELING TECHNIQUES FOR LIGHTNING FUEL SYSTEM SIMULATION Timothy McDonald, Cody Weber, Gregory Rigden, Rodney A. Perala
An important aspect of recent certification efforts is preventing fuel system ignition during lightning and other related environments, such as electrostatic discharge and power fault. Simulation tools have become essential in the effort to validate the design, prove fault tolerance, and set current levels for coupon testing. Many physically-small aircraft features are critical in this process. The fasteners between skins, ribs, spars, and stringers are important, as well as their coatings and surface treatments. Bonds or isolators connecting fuel and hydraulic pipes to structure need to be modeled correctly. In addition, the use of multilayered composites, thin expanded metal meshes, and panel coatings can alter the lightning current path. Finally, engine cables to fuel gauging and engine control systems in or near the fuel tanks contain small pins and thin metal shields. Verification programs are increasingly relying on simulations that must consider modeling the entire aircraft or at least a full wing and at the same time must properly model small system elements as described above that may be near or smaller than the size of the computational cell. Further, submillimeter features may introduce anisotropies and other complicated behavior that must be resolved.

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There are three classes of techniques that can be used to properly model large aircraft system elements that have such complications. This includes advanced FDTD techniques to automatically capture the behavior of elements smaller than the mesh; multi-layer and anisotropic material modeling approaches; and finally techniques in which an analyst manually determines the bulk properties of cells based on the aggregate performance of sub-cell features through empirical measurements. This paper will describe all three techniques and describe methods to properly integrate them to support lightning fuel system ignition prevention verification programs along with evidence of their success in providing good correlation of simulation with experimental measurements of aircraft wing tanks.

SEA13-28 UNDERSTANDING OF EDGE GLOW PHENOMENON I. Revel, A. Herv, G. Peres, M. Webster, R. Maddison, F. Flourens
The improvement of CFRP mechanical properties has led to the development of new materials in aeronautic industry. In the frame of sparking experiments for qualifying lightning strike protections, a new phenomenon has been observed on edges of aircraft substructures, like a bright glow with some ejections. The energy released by these so-called edge glows has been assessed. Uncertainties in the nature and the severity of this threat make necessary to consider it as a potential ignition source and to implement appropriate lines of defense. The fine understanding of mechanisms inducing edge glow is of primer importance, firstly to identify worst cases in term of edge glow occurrence, for instance versus fasteners arrangement, to establish a mitigation plan for current materials and finally, to identify the key parameters and derive relevant requirements enabling the development of improved materials. Although it is observed a strong correlation between edge glow occurrence and transverse electrical conductivity between carbon plies, the whole mechanism and the way it is sensitive to the material properties and the lightning characteristics is not obvious. The poor transverse electrical conductivity of materials having interleaves doped with thermoplastic nodules induces large electrical stresses when facing a lightning strike. However, if there is evidence that conductivity is the main driver for enhancing voltage rises and current concentration into the matrix, this parameter seems not sufficient to explain or predict edge glow occurrence. Hidden behind the conductivity, some parameters have a great influence on the electrical stress induced into the sample for a given effective conductivity. For all these reasons and because the nature of edge glow was unclear, an in-depth investigation was necessary. A numerical model has been developed to derive voltage drops and current repartition over the different plies of a CFRP part with objective to assess their sensitivity with material parameters as the effective thickness conductivity, the homogeneous contact assumption, the number of plies and the layup, the transverse conductivity within plies . In addition, thermal and electrical experiments have been conducted on instrumented samples and the comparison with numerical modelling has permitted to confirm that edge glow is a sparking discharge between plies occurring at edges and not a core phenomenon propagating up to the edge. Evidence is shown that the voltage drop between impacted and adjacent fasteners is a key driver with a clear cut threshold, paving the way for material property specifications.

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SEA13-38 MODELING AND SIMULATION OF SPARKING IN FASTENING ASSEMBLIES L. Chemartin and P. Lalande,
This paper deals with modeling and simulation of sparking occurrence in fastening CFRP assemblies. The principle consists to calculate in three dimensions the temporal distributions of current density and temperature in the structure, and to derive some physical criteria to estimate the possibility of sparking occurrence. Simulations are performed with a Finite Volume Method in time domain and an unstructured mesh. Low frequency assumption is considered for the calculations of electromagnetic quantities (quasi static assumption). The contact resistances between each elements of the structure are also considered, assuming a uniform distribution of the resistance on the interfaces. The two main mechanisms involved in the not-linear behavior of the fastener during high current components are also modeled. First, dielectric breakdowns of sealant layers are simulated with their dielectric strength. Melting/pyrolising of carbon or metallic interfaces are modeled with thermo electric laws available in the literature. Two different situations are simulated. In the case of a direct attachment of the lighting arc on the fastener, the current (A or D components) enters the assembly through the bolt. In the case of conduction, the current (fraction of D component) passes from the skin to the rib through the bolt. The results of simulations bring to light the role of the contact resistances between the bolt and other elements (rib, skin, nut) on the occurrence of sparking. In some case, computations indicate some important reinforcements of the current density of more than 10kA/mm, resulting to a strong local heating of the bolt and a possible sparking occurrence.

SEA13-53 NOVEL ESTIMATION METHOD OF SPARK PHENOMENA OF THE CFRP SAMPLE WITH A FASTENER BY OPTICAL MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUE UNDER LIGHTNING TEST Shinya Ohtsuka, Masaaki Furukawa, Yuki Yamaguchi (Kyushu Institute of Technology) Takayuki Nishi, Hiroyuki Tsubata (Fuji Heavy Industries LTD. Aerospace Company)
This paper described a novel estimation method of spark phenomena of the CFRP sample with a fastener that was simulated as a part of main wings fabricated with the CFRP material of the newly developing airplanes, by the optical measurement technique under lightning test. In terms of the insulation diagnosis for high voltage electric power apparatus such as the gas-insulated switchgear (GIS), power transformer and so on, some of the authors have developed the novel optical measurement system to detect and estimate the partial discharge (PD) phenomena, especially for the charge amount Q and the discharge energy E. The optical measurement system mainly consists of a

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photo-multiplier tube (PMT), an optical fiber made of bundle quartz glass fibers, a digital oscilloscope (OSC) and a personal computer (PC), which could measure the waveform of the light emission intensity of the PD and consequently calculate the value of its time integral Lint to estimate the Q and E because it was confirmed that the Lint has a proportional relationship with Q. Note that the discharge energy E could be obtained by the Q and the constant value of applied voltage V during the discharge (E = QV). We applied this optical measurement system and the estimation method to the spark phenomena of the CFRP sample that was placed in a dark box together with a digital camera to take a still image of the spark under the lightning test in reference to SAE ARP5416. Usage of the optical fiber contributes to reduce the severe electromagnetic environment near the sample flowing the large test current, by flexibly separating the PMT from the sample. In this experiment, the PMT and the OSC were placed in a shield box, and the spark light emission signal from the sample was led into the PMT through the optical fiber. We investigated the spark light emission signals together with the applied test current waveforms by changing the applied current peak and the resultant wave shape. As a result, we could measure the spark light emission signals of the CFRP sample together with the applied test current waveforms and the still images of the spark under the lightning test. These results give us important information when and how the spark was generated during the lightning current flowing. Using the calibration curve of the discharge energy E and Lint obtained from the corona discharge experiment, we estimated the spark energy for the measurement results. The estimated spark energy showed a good correlation with the light emission area as well as the apparent brightness of the still image of spark. Thus, this result suggests that this novel optical measurement system and the estimation method of the spark phenomena are basically available in the lightning test of the CFRP sample.

SEA13-54 CURRENT FLOW ANALYSIS AND MEASUREMENT OF THE COMPOSITE STRUCTURE BY LIGHTNING STRIKE. Takayuki Nishi, Hiroyuki Tsubata, Hiroyasu Fujita (Fuji Heavy Industries LTD. Aerospace Company)
The target of this research and development is to simulate the behavior of lightning strike in the development / design phase of the aircraft, and is the development of the method of analysis to detect the point where a spark occurs beforehand in practical test. The index of the analytical technique development is to be able to analyze the condition that a spark does not occur in the fuel tank, which fitted 14 CFR 25.981 of the FAA regulation. Concretely, the analysis tool is developed based on FDTD method, and verify it in comparison with the lightning test in step by step from a small element of structure to wing box. And also, the electric characteristic of material / structure is acquired necessary for the analysis tool on the lightning test. Particularly, the detailed current flow analysis by the FDTD will be affected by the electric characteristic such as the deflection of the lightning current flow by the direction of the fiber of CFRP, and also the mechanism that a spark starts. These electric characteristics were tested to improve precision of the current flow analysis.

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This paper reports these analysis and lightning test results as follows. - Comparison between test and analysis on the wing box which reproduced partial fuel tank constitution. - Results of test for deflection of the lightning current flow by the direction of the fiber of CFRP. - Results of the test for the mechanism of a spark around fastener.

SEA13-66 COMPARISON BETWEEN MEASUREMENT AND SIMULATION RESULTS OF LIGHTNING CURRENT DISTRIBUTION IN PARTIAL WING MODEL OF AN AIRCRAFT Tatsufumi Aoi, Yoichiro Tsumura, Syusaku Yamamoto, Atsuhiro Iyomasa, Koji Satake, HideoYamakoshi, Koichi Murakami, Toru Hashigami, Greg Rigden and Andy Plumer
For the purpose of predicting lightning current distribution of a metal wing fuel tank when lightning attaches to an aircraft, we measured lightning current distribution of a partial wing model of an aircraft (we call it 'unit cell'), and compared it with electromagnetic simulation results. We applied standard SAE ARP 5412A lightning current (Component A, D) to the unit cell and measured current and magnetic field of important locations of the unit cell. Especially we measured current flowing through each fastener, for example, the fastener that received direct attachment. This was realized by optical fiber current sensors without significant modification of actual aircraft joint configuration by installing them into the flange of the joint. By comparing these measurement results with the simulation results, we studied lightning current distribution around joint structures. For the simulation, the shape and the fastening structure of the unit cell were modeled and a FD-TD code of EMA3D was used. Time history of surface magnetic field outside of the unit cell, which corresponds to its current distribution, had a good agreement between measurement and simulation results, and most of total current was found to flow on the outer structure surfaces as expected from Faraday cage effect. Amount of current inside the tank was very small, less than only 1% of total injection current for both measurement and simulation. Since this inner current would increase if there is leakage electromagnetic field from small openings, we put a thin dielectric film between skin-splice flanges of the unit cell to have the worst case situation and also modeled it for the simulation. Furthermore, by measurement using the optical fiber current sensors, there was a case that about 20 % of total current was observed flowing through the injected fastener in case of direct attachment to a fastener of skin-splice. Even in this case, current inside the tank was little, as described previously. This situation was also calculated by simulation and most of total current flowed on the outer structure surfaces even though the 20 % of total current once passed through the injected fastener. From calculations of various situations, it was considered that the macroscopic distribution of current flow in case of metal wing was mainly governed by structure shape, and little affected by local impedances such as contact resistances. For example, in the case of the direct lightning attachment to the skin-splice, current spread concentrically symmetric though the skin-splice even though there are some

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resistances between fasteners and structures of the splice. In addition, this was not influenced by variation of contact resistance of each fastener. From this, it is considered that when performing lightning tests by coupon samples to which manufacturing variation and/or some failures are incorporated, it is not needed to calculate current distribution for each situation and/or to adjust current share of each fastener intentionally. Finally, we developed a full wing model of an aircraft and time histories of current distributions were calculated. Current inside the tank was less than 1% of total injection current, which is same with the case of the unit cell.

SEA13-68 FUEL TANK SAFETY 3D DISTRIBUTION ON FASTENERS/ASSEMBLIES OUTSIDE AND INSIDE FUEL TANK Fabian Fustin, Fabrice Tristant, Fabien Terrade and Jean-Patrick Moreau
The recent evolution of the regulation on fuel tank safety requires new justifications related to the prevention of ignition sources within fuel tanks in case of a lightning event. Fasteners are a potential source of ignition, above a threshold current flowing inside these designs. Therefore it is useful to understand the current distribution on each element of the structure. The following paper presents 3D computations in Finite Differences in Time Domain concerning the evaluation of both distributions and current levels on fasteners outside (skin fasteners) and inside the fuel tanks of the aircraft. The related aircraft model includes all structural parts of fuel tanks, fuel tank systems wiring and hydraulic pipes routed into the fuel. Fasteners are represented by means of elementary wire elements, and computed with a double precision FDTD code. That kind of representation is validated with both tests on elementary assemblies and on a box representing the panel of fasteners and structural parts present on aircraft fuel tanks.

SEA13-69 FUEL TANK SAFETY METHODOLOGY AND ASSESSMENT AT STRUCTURE LEVEL Fabrice Tristant, Jean-Patrick Moreau, and Fabian Fustin,
The requirements for showing compliance to FAR 25.981 and FAR 25.954 have been raised in the past few years. It is nowadays require to demonstrate the efficiency of the prevention of ignition sources taking into account manufacturing escapes, accidental damages and aging. To summarizing the issue, this requirement leads to investigate the sparking current threshold of possible ignition sources and to evaluate the actual current flowing through these possible ignition sources. The paper describes a practical method which allows an aircraft manufacturer to show to the regulation authority that the prevention of ignition sources is maintained thorough the life of the aircraft, by demonstrating the

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robustness of protection features or showing fault tolerance devices. Understanding that every type of fasteners may constitute a potential ignition source above a certain current level, the difficulty of developing a practical methodology is apparent since hundreds of potential different ignition sources exist inside of a fuel tank. The method described involves a complete inventory of all the different possible ignition source, a determination of the sparking threshold in nominal condition and in presence of failure modes on a reduced sampling of typical and worst case assemblies, and the determination of the current distribution actually flowing in the structure.

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Aircraft Lightning Direct Effects


SEA13-07 TITANIUM MICROSTRUCTURE CHANGES IN LIGHTNING Julie Drexler
Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) is a commonly available scanning electron microscope (SEM) technique that can be utilized to look at damage to titanium fasteners and surrounding structure caused by a sparking event from lightning. Utilizing SEM technology, phase and chemical changes were observed which allowed an understanding into 3 areas. These areas are approximate effected depth due to the lightning, the temperatures experienced and the approximate cooling rate. Background on the technique will be presented as well as the results.

SEA13-16 OVERVIEW OF LIGHTNING-RELATED RESEARCH ACTIVITIES AT NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR AVIATION RESEARCH (NIAR) Yulia Kostogorova-Beller
Lightning among other electromagnetic threats is a well known concern for CFRP composite airframe structures. A latent probability of aircraft catastrophic failure during flight is the ever-present risk of a lightning strike, or attachment, during storms. While the industries continue to display a desperate need to acquire the ability to predict the failure of composites as the result of a lightning strike, such a tool is presently nonexistent, rendering the success of contemporary LSP designs heavily dependent on expensive, time-consuming, and proprietarily carried out experimental testing. The challenge to fulfilling this gap lies in accounting for the complex interplay of multidisciplinary physics-based mechanisms of lightning-matter interaction and implementing a unified mathematical framework. Although the fundamental description of the physics is available, construction of a congruent model to predict the material response in the environment of thermo-electrical-mechanical transients needs to be realized. Not until this building block becomes available can further progress be made; furthermore, absence of fundamental material-lightning research impedes invention of novel LSP material architectures with enhanced functionality engineered at nanoscales. This talk will present an overview of lightning strike-related research activities within the scopes of the Air Force Research Laboratory-sponsored program conducted at National Institute for Aviation Research (NIAR) located in Wichita, Kansas. This program was designed in support of technological development for the use of novel submicron nickel-based materials complimentary to the state-of-the-art lightning strike protection schemes. Additionally, it was a goal to advance the level of understanding of lightning-matter interaction and damage formation as result of simulated high-current lightning arc attachment. As an outcome, the continuation of lightning research at NIAR is envisioned by focusing on modeling of lightning-induced composites failure and developing an experimental approach enabling investigation of materials behavior under the extreme environment of lightning at nanoscale in a timeresolved fashion, which can be achieved with the synchrotron x-ray diffraction technique.

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SEA13-20 THERMO-MECHANICAL DAMAGE OF PROTECTED CFRP STRUCTURES CAUSED BY LIGHTNING CONTINUOUS CURRENTS Christian KARCH* and Wilhelm WULBRAND
Advanced composites have emerged as the structural materials of choice for many aerospace applications. Lightning to an aircraft is a rare event, but it does in fact oc-cur sufficiently often that it must be regarded as something that sooner or later is al-most certain to occur. During the lightning strike on aircraft there is a direct contact between the aircraft surface and the lightning arc. Lightning damage effects can be categorized as direct and indirect. The direct effects of lightning strikes on composite structures include inter alia the melting or burning of materials at the arc attachment area, mechanical damage due to thermo-mechanical distortion, magnetic forces, shock waves, near surface explosions, etc. The investigation of the present report is focussed on thermo-mechanical damage of protected CFRP structures caused by continuous lightning currents. This contribution provides methods and applications to predict lightning induced thermo-mechanical damage of protected carbon-fibre rein-forced composite structures. A system of coupled partial differential equations of transient heat diffusion, the Max-wells as well as the Duhamel-Neumanns equations is solved using the commercial FE software ANSYS. In the thermal modelling the temperature dependent material data and the latent heats of the material phase transitions are taken into account. Moreover, for the heterogeneous lightning protection layer effective material proper-ties for the thermal and electrical conductivity, as well as for the elastic constants and thermal expansion coefficients are numerically derived using a microstructural finite element homogenization approach. It is shown that the continuous lightning currents generate an extreme temperature gradient within the protected CFRP structure. Due to thermal expansion high values of thermal strains are generated. These thermal strains give rise to mechanical stresses and thus to mechanical damage of protected CFRP structures: the cracking of epoxy matrix and carbon fibres.

SEA13-25 ANALYSIS OF LIGHTNING DIRECT EFFECTS ON CARBON FIBER COMPOSITE MATERIALS AS MECHANICAL EFFECTS. B. Lepetit, Y. Duval, F. Soulas, S. Guinard, I. Revel, G. Peres
The lightning direct effects result in damages of materials which are usually understood within an electrical and thermal framework. Joule effect induced by the circulation of electrical current through the material results in its melting or vaporization. The extension of the damages is assessed on the basis of the amount of these liquid or vapor phases. Such an approach is well adapted to describe damages on metal and has been extended to describe the continuous C component damaging effects on carbon fiber composite materials [1]. There is however growing evidence that, at least for the impulse A or D components, mechanical effects take place. Mechanical impulses induced on samples by lightning strikes have been measured [2-4], and thermo-mechanical models have been proposed to account for the observed damages [3-4]. It has been shown [4] that the transferred impulse has two main origins: magnetic forces induced by the circulation of current in the sample and surface explosion, enhanced by the confining effect of paint on the surface.

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The present paper analyzes further the mechanisms by which these applied stresses can result in damages in the material. Lightning test campaigns with dedicated instrumentation (high speed cameras, interferometric velocimetry) have been performed. Resulting damages on samples have been quantified with non-destructive ultra-sonic testing as well microscope expertise on micro-cuts. The striking similarities of the observed damages with the ones obtained for mechanical impacts provide insight on the mechanical mechanisms inducing them. Thermo-mechanical models are being developed in parallel to these experimental results to understand better these damage mechanisms. Two kinds of models are considered. One includes the thermal effects responsible for the mechanical stress. This leads to a complex multi-physics problem involving strongly coupled electromagnetics, thermodynamics and mechanics. Another kind reduces the complexity of the model by replacing the electromagnetic and thermodynamic processes by equivalent mechanical stress sources. These models shed some light on the influence of the sample design parameters (dielectric thickness on the surface, metallic protection, CFC characteristics) on the resulting damages.

SEA13-32 AC CONDUCTIVITY AND MICROSTRUCTURAL CHANGES OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS Dr. Prasun Majumdar, Mohammad FaisalHaider, and Prof. Kenneth Reifsnider
Composite materials are increasingly being used in different applications including primary structures of an aircraft. In addition to structural integrity, their multi-physical behavior is often important for reliable performance in extreme environments such as electrical storms (lightning). Electrical effects are often coupled with structural integrity and thermal behavior due to Joule heating in composites and their joints. This inherently multi-physical behavior needs to be understood and analyzed to facilitate new multi-functional material design. An essential first step towards that goal is to understand how multiphysics properties (e.g. AC conductivity) depend on local details (e.g. micro-structure). Composite materials are insulators (e.g. glass/epoxy) or heterogeneously conductive (carbon/epoxy) at the local level but can be insulators or conductive (much less than metallic materials) at the global level. In this study, AC conductivity is measured over a frequency range to explore how different lamina orientation affects anisotropic conductivity of the composite laminate. As expected, conductivity is indeed dependent on fiber architecture which acts as conduction path in the laminate, and also depends on progressive increase in current intensity. Preliminary results show that there is a threshold intensity of current which can provide a nonlinear materials response indicating irreversible damage (microstructural change) in the material. A 3D X-ray microscope has been used to visualize and quantify (down to 1 micron) such local material state changes due to electrical current. The ongoing work is expected to form a foundation for future multi-functional material development.

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SEA13-75 MEASUREMENT OF BREAKTHROUGH PLASMA CURRENT TO UNDERLYING SYSTEMS DURING A LIGHTNING ARC ATTACHMENT TO PUNCTURED CARBON FIBRE PANELS Stephanie Hellsten
One of the requirements in the use of composite airframe materials is that it should protect underlying systems, including component such as hydraulic pipes and cable installations. In some circumstances, components such as lightweight fairings can be punctured by a lightning attachment, and the question then is whether the puncture would allow the lightning arc to reattach to underlying bonded structure or components. It has been observed previously that the formation of a puncture hole can allow the arc plasma to bridge a gap to such underlying structure, and provide a parallel electrical path. The result can be that some of the current takes this path. This paper describes some experiments which were carried out on carbon composite samples to investigate this effect, by measuring current flow and driving voltage when such plasma bridging occurs. A sample of protected carbon fibre composite (CFC) panel was used as the basis for this experiment. A rectangular slot was made in the centre of the panel and this was faced with a metal plate attached via fasteners. The purpose of the metal plate was to allow arc attachments to be made to the edge of the aperture, and to use different aperture geometries, without unduly degrading the CFC panel. Some tests were also carried out for comparative purposes by attaching to the CFC panel itself. A simulated lightning arc of Component D waveshape was attached to the edge of each geometry. An earthed wire grid was used to capture any plasma passing through the hole and allowed measurement of the current via Rogowski coils. In certain tests, the voltage between the wire rig and the arc rig, and also between the metal plate and the arc rig, was measured. These showed that as the plasma penetrates through to the grid, the voltage on the grid rises to meet the resistive voltage drop along the panel. The distance of the wire rig was varied between 15 and 30mm from the underside of the panel. It was shown that the peak value of the current measured on the wire rig ranged between zero and 30kA with decreasing distance from the panel. It was also shown that the time of onset of rise of current increased with increasing distance from the panel (typically between 15s to 70s). It was found that repeated arcs to holes in the CFC structure resulted in an increase the current, thought to be due to the degradation of the lightning protection. Some tests were carried out in which the Component B and C* breakthrough currents were included in the measurement, it was found that the conduction through the hole was much more variable and often spiky, with the peaks of the spikes occasionally corresponding to the full 400A injected. This is not fully understood and more work will be carried out.

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SEA13-84 BONDED JOINTS WITHSTAND SCALE-UP WITH PROBE SIZE C. E. Anway, J. McFarland
Lightning effects on bonded carbon fiber structure involve many physical effects, including sparking in and around non-conducting bonded joints. Non-conducting adhesives are commonly used in bonding carbon fiber structure because of their high mechanical strength, but sparking from lightning events can damage bondline strength. Furthermore, withstand voltages in polymers vary considerably from location to location, making performance prediction difficult. This work postulates a normal distribution of withstand voltage values across the area of the adhesive and uses Monte Carlo simulation techniques to derive a relationship between probe size and expected associated withstand distribution. One point of test data allows calibration of the tool, and the rest of the curve matches the theoretical expectations for shape. The results allow extrapolation to larger bond areas.

SEA13-86 EFFECT OF LIGHTNING STRIKES ON UNPROTECTED CARBON COMPOSITE SCARF REPAIRS WITH DIELECTRIC ADHESIVE SCRIMS Patrice Ackerman
In-production and in-service damage to exterior composite airline parts requires repairs to restore the airplane part to original design. Bolted and scarf repairs have been a standard approach to restore the composite to the original design with the scarf repair being the preferred repair as it does not impact the aerosurface as significantly as a metal bolted repair does. Increasing use of composites in the design of aircraft has increased the interest in the use of scarf repairs for restoration of composites, but the effect of lightning strikes on these repairs has typically been mitigated by the use of a metal surface protection material. In the event of a lightning strike, the metal foil provides protection by distributing the current thereby minimizing further damage to the underlying structure and/or systems. The need to determine whether through-hole scarf repairs would be able to withstand an attachment without metal protection was performed. A test specimen representing a large part structure which encompassed three rib bays and electrical simulations of the leading edge and trailing edge structure was subjected to lightning test waveforms consisting of an initial stroke of Zone 3 A/5 current component, followed by B-C* current components per ARP5412A. The controlled variables were the selection of an adhesive with a dielectric scrim and no surface protection. The results suggest that a field through hole scarf repair without a surface protection system in Zone 3 was not effective in preventing sparking from a 40kA direct lightning attachment in a fuel tank. In addition, the results showed visible damage to the through hole scarf repair on both the OML and the IML along the perimeter of the repair where the current could not transition across the dielectric in the film adhesive of the CFRP repair.

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SEA13-87 ARC EROSION OF ALUMINUM AND TITANUIM IN PRESENCE OF LIGHNTING INDUCED ARCS Dejan Nikic and Arthur C. Day
The purpose of this study is to develop scaling relations for material erosion with respect to electrical current for aluminum and titanium. Experiments were performed with a source capable of generating short pulses (approx. 100 ms) with up to 20kA currents across a small gap between sample pieces. Reverse polarity configurations were compared, as well as the effects of aircraft sealants applied between the samples. The amount of damage on the experimental coupons was significant and visible even with a low magnification microscope. Analysis of the samples was performed using a confocal microscope to generate a 3D profile of the arcing damage. The total volume of displaced material and the surface area of the damage were calculated from these profiles. Experimental data shows a nearly linear relationship between the amount of displaced material and electric current, which is consistent with similar studies performed at much lower currents. The primary purpose of this study was to generate data for comparison of erosion models under development. The data obtained will be used to compare the experimental observations with the models used to describe the high-current arc phenomena.

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Aircraft Lightning Indirect Effects


SEA13-10 SHELL RESISTIVITIES CORRELATED TO INDIRECT EFFECTS OF LIGHTNING Ernest Condon
Extensive analysis has been performed using Finite Element Time Domain (FDTD) techniques to quantify the relationship between fuselage shell resistivities vs the voltages and currents developed on internal wiring. Many different shell materials and treatment have been investigated. These results have been verified in laboratory testing. The initial approach was to break the Indirect Effects of Lightning phenomenon into the different contributing Factors that lead to voltages and currents on internal wiring. These Factors were analyzed/evaluated both individually and in combinations. These four Factors will be briefly described in the paper/presentation. The results have been accumulated into a graph that clearly shows shell resistivities at which the resistive effects become dominant (such as for a carbon fiber fuselage), and when aperture effects are dominant (such as for an aluminum aircraft). This graph and the included design relationships allow a designer to quickly determine what voltages and currents to expect on wiring for a given fuselage shell design/material. Also clearly shown is that the transition between aperture effects vs resistive effects occurs at a resistivity much higher than an all-aluminum shell one does not need to use an all aluminum shell to obtain similarly low voltages and currents. These estimates then become available much earlier the design phase, allowing them to accurately support the decisions for shell material/treatment, the design/testing levels for equipment suppliers, as well other approaches to be implemented for the mitigation of the Indirect Effects of Lightning.

SEA13-34 LIGHTNING INDIRECT EFFECT TEST TO THE AIRCRAFT EQUIPMENT CABIN Duan Zemin Si Xiaoliang Duan Jingbo Qiu Shanliang Chen Lin Wang Xiaoming Zhu Nan
Lightning is a serious threat to the aircraft and flight safety. Damage to the electrical and electronic devices or interfere their normal work is the important way that lightning can affect aircraft. Therefore, study the electromagnetic field strength and distribution in the aircraft equipment cabin when aircraft being struck by lightning , is helpful for us to improve the aircraft lightning security design and understand the interaction between the lightning and aircraft. Though the electromagnetic environment when aircraft being struck by lightning has been researched by some computer simulation studies , there is almost no experimental study reports. In present paper, we report the experimental test results of the electromagnetic environment in the aircraft equipment cabin when aircraft being struck by lightning. For lightning tests of equipment cabin, the simulated lightning are performed by power modulators, A and E lightning current waveform are

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used for the lightning indirect test. The peak amplitude of A and E wave lightning current waveform are 71.5 kA and 195 kA, respectively. The equipment cabin is composed by aluminum box segment and the carbon fiber composite hatch cover. We test the electromagnetic field strength and distribution under two cases: hatch cover opening and hatch cover closing. The test results show that the electromagnetic field strength in cabin is stronger when hatch cover is opening, the distribution of electromagnetic field in cabin is almost no change under two different cases. This means that carbon fiber hatch cover has some electromagnetic shielding effect, and the distribution of electromagnetic field is just depend on framework structure. By measuring the strength change between two different cases, we can conclude that, in our test system, the electromagnetic shielding factors of carbon fiber hatch cover are 0.83 for A lightning current waveform and 0.61 for E lightning current waveform, respectively. The different shielding factors between two current waveforms, demonstrates that shielding effectiveness is sensitive to the frequency. Based on the test results, we clearly know the electromagnetic environment in aircraft equipment cabin, and the test results also provide the guidance for placing equipments.

SEA13-50 LIGHTNING TEST HARNESS INTERACTIONS AND THEIR APPLICATION TO AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION. Murray Marple, Allan Meyer , Eric Stewart
Transfer impedance is a fundamental parameter of shielded cables. The results of transfer impedance measurements are useful for customizing a bench level lightning qualification test, or when applying equipment level or system level lightning qualification test data to aircraft certification. For example, RTCA/DO-160 Section 22 specifies bench tests for the indirect effects of lightning and utilizes transfer impedance to characterize and quantify the lightning phenomena where current travels down a shield, or shields, and causes high voltage potentials at equipment interface pins. The goal of this paper is to summarize the results of experimental work done at Rockwell Collins to refine the transfer impedance test method, to validate assumptions that are made when utilizing test data to show compliance to aircraft certification requirements, and to show how aircraft certification requirements can be demonstrated in lab tests. This summary includes a description of the method used to make the transfer impedance measurement and the variables that affect the results of this testing. In addition the factors related to test harness construction, such as current distribution in multi-conductor harnesses and the influence of shield termination techniques, are also analyzed. Finally, the testing includes the validation of the behavior of various interface signal lightning protection techniques typically used when tested with harnesses attached. The conclusion of the paper identifies the variables that must be controlled and what the worst case assumptions are when planning and designing bench level lightning qualification tests.

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SEA13-70 COMPUTATION OF LIGHTNING INDUCED TRANSIENTS ON ENGINE NACELLE WIRING Fabien Terrade, Fabrice Tristant and Jean-Patrick Moreau
The following paper presents 3D computations, using FDTD, of lightning transient levels induced on wiring, pipes and bonding of a Falcon lateral IPPS. Those computations have been carried out during preliminary design phase, to consolidate lightning specifications on IPPS system and to evaluate the impact of several possible design choices. The whole IPPS structure, wiring, bonding, pipes has been include in the mesh (with an oblique thin wire model for wiring). Many simulations have been carried out to account for uncertainties (bonding values, per-unit-length parameters of wires), design choices (especially on bonding straps between nacelle and aircraft), modelling choices, and input/exit points of lightning channel.

SEA13-71 COMPUTATION OF LIGHTNING INDUCED TRANSIENTS ON LEVEL A CONTROL SYSTEMS Fabien Terrade, Fabrice Tristant and Jean-Patrick Moreau
The following paper presents 3D computations, using FDTD, of lightning transient levels induced on Falcon 7X level A control systems wiring. A comparison is made with measured bundle currents, carried out during certification campaigns. The FDTD model includes not only the whole aircraft structure, equipment, bonding, pipes, the coaxial return setup, but also, which was the main challenge of these simulations, the whole aircraft wiring, using an oblique thin wire model.

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Aircraft Lightning Interaction


SEA13-27 MAGNETIC SIGNATURE ASSESSMENT OF AIRCRAFT LIGHTNING SWEEPING USING NUMERICAL METHOD Alexandre Herv, Gilles Peres, Kamal Abboud, Toufic Abboud
ILDAS-2 project involving Airbus, EADS IW and NLR aims to develop a system of diagnosis of inflight lightning strike on aircrafts. It is able to determine the attachment scenario and retrieve lightning strike char acteristics from on-board synchronous measurement of the electromagnetic field. However, the numerical method is presently not capable to detect a potential sweeping of the lightning channel from in-flight data as it is based on the processing of pulse components exclusively. Nevertheless, this phenomenon is a threat for aircrafts as it maycause damages on unexpected locations difficult to localise with only on-ground visual check-up. Then, we aim to develop a numerical tool able to diagnose a lightning sweeping event thanks to the magnetic field recorded on an aircraft. In this frame, this preliminary work consists in the development of a numerical method able to calculate the signature of a sweeping event on the magnetic field recorded on an aircraft. After reminding the phenomenology of a lightning strike sweeping, the paper presents the principle of the numerical method and the under-lying hypotheses. The method is based on the convolution of the time varying transfer function of the aircraft due to the movement of the lightning channel and the injected waveform. Transfer functions of the aircraft are calculated using ASERIS BE, an EADS frequency software which solves the Electric Field Integral Equation(EFIE) with a Boundary Element Method (BEM). The output of the numerical method is the magnetic field in the time domain on some observation points around the aircraft. It focuses on slow waveforms (C waveform). Transient components like A, D and H waveforms are not in the range of this study as they are too quick to be concerned by this phenomenon. This work enables to identify the expected magnetic field signature of sweeping on different location of an aircraft. Conclusions are then drawn on the ability of an H-field recording set-up, for example the ILDAS-2 set-up, to identify the sweeping scenarios likely to happen. These results may also be useful during measurement campaigns to diagnose the occurring of a sweeping.

SEA13-37 NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE SURFACE EFFECTS ON THE DWELL TIME DURING THE SWEEPING OF LIGHTNING ARCS. L. Chemartin and P. Lalande
During a lightning strike in flight, the arc sweeps back along the aircraft surface by jump under the effects of the aerodynamic flow. This mechanism is called swept stroke. The dwell times at each attachment point vary according to the nature of the surface; the local geometry and air flow; and the current waveform which could cause reattachment if a current peak occurs.

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This paper is focused on the effects of surface on the dwell time value. The model used for these calculations is based on Magneto Hydrodynamic (MHD) approach. This method is one of the ways to simulate the complex dynamics of long unsteady electric arcs. In this theoretical frame, the determination of the plasma characteristics requires a set of coupled non-linear equations describing the dynamics of the plasma (Navier-Stokes equations) and the electromagnetic source distributions (Maxwell equations) to be solved. Simulations of the sweeping of a lightning arc along panels are proposed, assuming continuing currents and a given boundary layer. Simulations are performed with different materials (aluminum and CFRP) and paint thicknesses. A parametric analysis is proposed and the main results are presented and discussed.

SEA13-44 IN-FLIGHT LIGHTNING DAMAGE ASSESSMENT SYSTEM (ILDAS): INFLIGHT TEST EXPERIENCE Alte de Boer
The results described in this paper form part of the ILDAS-2 project, which Airbus has launched with EADS IW and NLR, as a follow-up to the ILDAS-1 FP6 EU research project. The goal of the programme is to develop a system for determining the current waveform and attachment points of lightning striking aircraft in-flight. The ILDAS-2 project focuses on a configuration for measurement during flight tests. A limited ILDAS setup was flown through lightning on board an Airbus A340 test aircraft; the campaign results were presented at ICOLSE 2011, Oxford. In 2013, a complete and representative ILDAS configuration was installed in an Airbus A380 test aircraft: the configuration consisted of nine cabin-only sensors with lightning-triggered high-rate synchronous data acquisition of all sensor signals. The goals of the campaign were to validate operation of the system during in-flight lightning, especially with respect to the lightning detection criteria, and proper reconstruction of the lightning waveform with numerical post-processing based on inversemethod algorithms.

SEA13-56 AIRPLANE LIGHTNING STRIKE DATABASE DEVELOPMENT CURRENT FINDINGS AND COMPARISONS WITH PREVIOUS STUDIES Joe Heeter, Paul Murray, Neil Phelps, Virgene Severson (Gina)
Commercial airplanes are exposed to the threat of being struck by lightning while performing in-flight operation and therefore must be adequately protected against the adverse effects of a lightning strike. Statistically compiled and standardized data characterizing the lightning threat as a function of various parameters, such as flight phase, weather conditions, etc., exists in academic lightning publications. Additionally, this statistical data forms the bases of the lightning zoning definitions and guidelines contained in the SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) documents.

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The body of knowledge used to derive the statistical data and hence our understanding of lightning interaction with airplanes was to a great extent gathered during flight test programs and surveys conducted in the 1980s timeframe. In this paper we investigate the effects of several changes that have occurred since the 1980s that could affect the current understanding of lightning interaction with airplanes and our understanding of those parameters which most contribute to the threat of a lightning strike. Among parameters that have changed since the 1980s are; the introduction of new flight routes taking commercial airplanes over different geographical locations, deregulation, changes to airline business models, the introduction of new airplane designs including airplane geometries and materials, improved weather prediction and weather radar systems for storm avoidance, and global weather pattern changes. We propose the generation of a robust, comprehensive, and interactive database comprised of lightning strike event reports and associated data. We will present the design and capabilities of our database as well as representative analysis results. The results presented will consist of correlations between lightning strikes and such parameters as flight phase, altitude, flight length, and airplane geometry. Statistical assessments of attachment locations and zones will also be generated. This work may help validate or update the current statistical characterization of lightning interactions with airplanes, and also shed light on emerging aviation trends.

SEA13-61 CORRELATIONAL STUDY OF OPEN CIRCUIT RESONANT (SANSEC) SENSORS ELECTRIC FIELD DISTRIBUTION ON LIGHTNING ATTACHMENT Kayla M. Farrow, Pawel Ambrozewicz and Linda L.Vahala
NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) is conducting research to develop an open circuit SansEC (Sans Electric Connection) sensor to provide lightning strike protection (LSP) in conjunction with damage detection and diagnosis for composite aircraft. SansEC sensors are simplistic devices consisting of an open circuit conductive trace shaped in a planar geometric spiral. The length and width of the conductive trace as well as the gap separation between adjacent turns determines the inductance, resistance and capacitance of the LRC circuit and its associated resonant response. When the sensor is placed on a composite substrate, the electrical impedance of the substrate is reflected in the sensors resonant response thus enabling it to detect permittivity and conductivity changes associated with composite damage. SansEC sensors can be designed in various shapes and sizes depending on the application. For applications on exterior aircraft surfaces, the sensor must be designed to perform the required lightning strike protection in addition to damage detection and diagnosis. Lightning-direct effect current tests were conducted on multiple SansEC sensor configurations to evaluate their ability to withstand the incident lightning energy and protect the underlying composite. Test results indicated several SansEC sensor geometric configurations demonstrated an intrinsic ability to steer the lightning current along the corner of the sensor. To investigate this phenomenology, electromagnetic computational simulations were conducted to calculate the electric field distribution on the SansEC sensors conductive trace to determine if the associated electromagnetic radiation preceding lightning attachment establishes modal structures on the conductive trace which predisposition the direction of the current flow. The simulations provide a means to

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visualize the traces modal structure and identify electric field gradients residing on the sensor. This paper presents a correlational study of the SansEC sensors computed electric field distribution to the measured lightning propagation direction for various SansEC sensor configurations. The study suggests the direction of lightning propagation follows strong electric field gradients resident on the conductive trace.

SEA13-63 AIRLINE FIELD EXPERIENCES AND SOLUTIONS FOR LIGHTNING STRIKE IN JAPAN Hiroshi Kobayashi
Currently we operate 229 airplanes of our entire fleet and sometime those are encountered lightning strikes. From our field experience, we would like to share following two points; There is very unique and intense lightning (sounder storm) system along with the Japan Sea coast especially in the winter. Occasionally the airplane is grounded for several days due to repair. To minimize the down time, we seek maintenance solutions. Lightning current tends to enter at the nose of airplane and to exit from tips of wing and/or stabilizer. We can see more damages in forward fuselage structures compared to aft of those. At the end of year 2010, we found a sever damage in the forward pressure bulkhead and adjacent fuselage structure. Through a detailed inspection, corrosion was found on grounding bracket attached to forward bulkhead and we suspected there was conductive failure between radome diverter strips and fuselage structures. To prevent such structure damages due to conductive failure, an enforced inspection program was introduced on our fleet. After introduced the new inspection program, we could observed a number of radome replacements due to lightning damage was reduced. We are a launch airline of Boeing 787. Since entry into service in November 2011, we are flying 17 airplanes as of 2013 March. The airplane structure is composed mainly of CFRP and behavior to lightning strike is somewhat different from aluminum airplane. During our 787 operations, lightning strikes occurred several times. So far most of damages are very minor and those are correspondence with what we expected.

SEA13-65 AIRPLANE LIGHTNING STRIKES AND AIR TEMPERATURE David B. Walen


Pilots have reported lightning strikes to airplanes under the Airlines Lightning Strike Reporting Project (ALSRP). The pilot reports contains data on the flight and weather conditions during which aircraft have received lightning strikes or static discharges. One key parameter related to the occurrence of lightning strikes to airplanes is the air temperature at the time of the lightning strike. The lightning strike report requests the pilots to record the static air temperature at the time of the lightning strike. Most large transport airplanes display the total air temperature or ram air temperature to the pilots, not

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the static air temperature. The total air temperature indicated to the pilots depends on the static air temperature and the airplane Mach number. Therefore, the pilot reports that record the total air temperature must be corrected to determine the static air temperature. A set of pilot reports was reviewed to show the relationship of airplane lightning strikes and static air temperature. The data shows that airplane lightning strikes occur at an average static air temperature of -6 degrees C. Earlier compilations of pilot-reported lightning strikes did not correct the recorded total air temperature which resulted in a higher indicated air temperature at the time of the lightning strike to the airplane. In addition, there have been concerns that the likelihood of an airplane lightning strike would increase as the air temperature on the ground increases, particularly for airplanes taking off. The air temperature on the ground was determined at the location nearest the reported airplane position. The air temperature on the ground at the time of the airplane lightning strike followed a similar distribution as the static air temperature at the airplane altitude at the time of the lightning strike, with a mean temperature of 14 degrees C.

SEA13-83 MODELING OF THE ATTACHMENT OF LIGHTNING TO AIRCRAFT, AND THE INTERACTION OF THE LIGHTNING ARC WITH AIRCRAFT MATERIALS Eugene Tam, John J Lowke and Anthony B Murphy
Two separate stages of the interaction of lightning with an aircraft will be examined in this paper. The first is the formation and attachment of lightning to the aircraft. A three-dimensional model has been developed to determine electric field strengths and charge densities within and around solids of various geometries, conductivities, and permittivities. The calculations include the distortion of background electric fields by the metals and dielectrics in the aircraft and the initiation of corona discharges on the aircraft. A finite-difference approach incorporating a direct method is used to solve the system of equations. The second stage concerns the interaction of the lighting arc with the aircraft once the arc has been established. Standard electro-hydrodynamic equations (NavierStokes, conservation of energy, conservation of mass, etc.) can be used to model the lightning arc under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium. We include the substrate (the aircraft material) in the computational domain, so that it will be possible to determine the temperature and vaporization rate of the material self-consistently. This approach has successfully been applied to modeling of arc welding and of carbon arcs for nanostructure production. A finite difference approach with a direct solver is used. Convection is treated using the ULTRA-QUICK scheme. The presence of vapour can markedly alter the characteristics of the arc and the transfer of heat and current to the aircraft. An essential prerequisite to modelling of lightning arc interactions with aircraft is therefore the calculation of the thermophysical properties of mixtures of air and aircraft materials in the vapour and plasma state. The properties, such as electrical and thermal conductivity, can be drastically affected by even very low concentrations of metals in particular. For example, adding 1 wt% aluminum to air increases the electrical conductivity by more than a factor of 10 at temperatures up to 5700 K at atmospheric pressure. To calculate the thermophysical properties, free energy minimization is used to determine the equilibrium composition of the gas mixture. It is then straightforward to obtain the

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thermodynamic properties (density, specific heat and enthalpy), and the ChapmanEnskog method of solution of the Boltzmann equation is used to determine the transport properties (electrical and thermal conductivities, viscosity and diffusion coefficients). We will present calculations of (1) the alteration of the electric fields, and the initiation of corona discharges, for solids of different geometries and electrical properties; (2) the properties of lightning arcs, including the temperature of the substrate; and (3) the thermophysical properties of mixtures of air and metal vapours.

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Aircraft Lightning Standards & Safety


SEA13-46 DESIGN CHANGE AIRCRAFT CLEARANCES VIA VALIDATED CEM METHODS Simeon J Earl, Chris C. R. Jones, and Paul Baker
Modifications to aircraft through large production numbers are a fact of life. Maintaining the EMH clearances through the sequence of design changes embodied in these modification states is an expensive problem, often necessitating repeated whole aircraft tests where it is not possible to state categorically that the changes will not affect EMH performance. For EMC, such repeat tests appear to be an accepted part of the process, but for lightning this is not the case. Computer modelling techniques and the very high quality of the computer representation of the aircraft and its wiring have now been validated for tracking the changes in induced cable currents resulting from certain kinds of design change. Provided the changes between the tested aircraft standard and a modification state are comparable with those validated, it is now acceptable for the new lightning clearance to be developed by extrapolation using the CEM techniques.

SEA13-77 UPDATE OF AIRWORTHINESS REQUIREMENTS AND GUIDANCE MATERIAL FOR AIRCRAFT LIGHTNING PROTECTION Linda Brussaard
Already in the 1960s, the first regulations applicable to lightning protection for aircraft design were adopted. Since these days, the knowledge and the design of aircraft, has changed a lot. These changes invite both the regulators to adopt their rules regularly as well as the different standardisation committees to review their standards recurrently. In the 1990s FAA and JAA joint forces in the EEHWG working groups. The recommendations on Lightning and HIRF from this working group (published in 1998) were followed up by rulemaking processes in FAA and JAA. The FAA system already adopted changes in their FAR 23, 25, 27, and 29. The JAA rulemaking process was continued by EASA, and as such this year a NPA will be published to adopt the CS 23, 25, 27, and 29 rules in relation to lightning protection and HIRF in accordance with the EEHWG recommendations and the already adopted FAA regulations. The industry working groups concerning Lightning, in the US the SAE AE-2 and in Europe the Eurocae WG 31, are maintaining, and updating if necessary, their standards in close corporation. Recently some of the standards have been updated to reflect the latest standards and keep the knowledge of lightning up to date. The majority of these standards are acknowledged by the authorities to serve as guidance material in showing compliance to the regulations regarding lightning protection. This paper intents to give an overview of the current status of regulations, and guidance material as used and accepted by EASA.

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Aircraft Test Methods/Instrumentation


SEA13-06 IMPACT TESTING TO SIMULATE LIGHTNING Julie Drexler
Lightning is a complex phenomenon that is partially understood. There have been great efforts to use simulated lightning in a laboratory condition to test parts, but these tests are often expensive. Analysis has shown that there is a significant pressure/shock wave component to lightning that may result in failures of some materials in a lightning event. Two mechanical techniques, an impact test and a splitHopkinson bar test, were used to study if mechanical impact testing could be used to screen and predict polymeric materials behavior in a lightning event. Here, the test method, the results of mechanical impact tests and how they relate to some simulated lightning lab data will be presented.

SEA13-17 ESTABLISHMENT OF A LIGHTNING TEST LABORATORY FOR DIRECT EFFECTS RESEARCH H Simpson, P Leichauer, C Stone, A Haddad
Building on its long experience in the field of high voltage engineering, Cardiff University has since 2009 been developing a lightning direct effects test laboratory in co-operation with EADS and with the support of funding from the Welsh Assembly Government. The purpose of this facility is to provide a dedicated research capability in the field of lightning protection of aerospace structures, able to study the scientific basis of the subject free from the pressures experienced by industrial organisations with interest in the discipline. The laboratory is now nearing completion, with a D component capability achieved during 2011 and B and C components due to become available in early 2013. Provision has been made in the design for the integration of an A component capability at a later date. The generator current is produced by three capacitor banks with associated chargers and tuning circuits, and is able to produce the B, C and D components of EUROCAE ED 84 / SAE ARP 5412. The generator has been designed to allow upgrade of the D-bank to provide a full A component capability with no software, and only minor hardware, modifications required. Additionally, a novel control method for the C bank has been implemented, making use of pulse modulation techniques to provide a stable output current less affected by the test specimen resistance. Control and monitoring is achieved by the use of pneumatic and optical systems in order to ensure electrical isolation of the HV side of the installation from the remainder of the laboratory. This paper describes the design and development of the laboratory and its control systems and demonstrates the waveforms produced into test loads of varying resistances. Furthermore, it details the diagnostic systems which are being put in place to aid the development of a detailed understanding of test sample behaviour which is essential to achieving the laboratorys stated aims.

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SEA13-18 AN ASSESSMENT OF THE UNIVERSAL COMMON PRACTICE GUIDE TO CONDUCT LIGHTNING ENERGY TRANSFER CHARACTERISATIONS H Simpson, C Stone, A Haddad
This paper presents the findings of a lightning direct effects test programme on carbon fibre composite flat panels performed at the Cardiff University Morgan-Botti Lightning Laboratory. The programme makes use of the proposed Universal Common Practice Guide to Conduct Lightning Energy Transfer Characterisations, as defined by NASA and Boeing and presented at ICOLSE 2011. The aims of the programme are as follows: To evaluate the proposed common test method from a users perspective, assessing the practicality of the proposed method and configuration and the ease of implementing them in a different laboratory to that envisaged during the development of the test method. To produce evidence from tests carried out on the proposed baseline panels, to support an evaluation of the consistency of results across different laboratories by the authors of the Common Practice Guide. To repeat using the Common Practice method a number of tests previously carried out at Cardiff University and other UK laboratories, to enable a comparison of the results, and hence enable a first estimation of the difference in damage intensity between methods. This paper presents the findings of this study. In particular, the following are addressed: A critique of the Common Practice Guide, assessing its usability and including recommendations for amendments and improvements, both technical and practical. A summary of the damage sustained by the Baseline Test Panels, measured in accordance with the requirements of the Common Practice Guide. A further summary of the damage sustained by the Baseline Test Panels when tested using the procedures currently used by the Cardiff laboratory. A comparison of the damage previously sustained by different (ie non-baseline) test panels tested using current Cardiff laboratory procedures against panels of the same design tested using the Common Practice Guide.

SEA13-47 FIBER-OPTIC CURRENT SENSOR VALIDATION WITH TRIGGERED LIGHTNING MEASUREMENTS Truong X. Nguyen, Jay J. Ely, George N. Szatkowski, Carlos T. Mata, Angel G. Mata and Gary P. Snyder
Previous efforts to measure total lightning current on aircraft were hampered in part by lack of suitable sensors. Traditional sensors are difficult for aircraft installation or are unable to accurately measure total current. A recent effort successfully developed a fiber optic current sensor that is highly suitable for aircraft installation. It is based on Faraday Effect and has many beneficial characteristics, including the ability to directly measure total current down to DC and to conform to structure geometries. The sensor is also small, light-weight, non-conducting, safe from interference, and free of hysteresis and saturation. In the fiber, Faraday Effect causes light polarization to rotate when exposed to a magnetic field in the direction of light propagation. Thus, the magnetic field strength can be determined from the light

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polarization change. By forming closed fiber loops and applying Amperes law, measuring the total light rotation yields the current enclosed. Potential uses include characterization of aircraft total lightning current waveforms and associated propagation paths, and can provide future environmental data for aircraft certifications. Though laboratory demonstrations have been highly successful, accurately measuring current from an actual lightning strike is an important advance. Two sensor systems were constructed and installed for measuring rocket-triggered lightning at Camp Blanding, Florida. The systems are similar in design but with different sensitivities and specific components used. The 850nm laser wavelength system was tested in summer 2011. With two fiber loops around the lightning down conductor for increased sensitivity, the system could measure up to 75 KA. The 1550nm wavelength system was tested in summer 2012 and could measure up to 100 KA using four fiber loops. Waveform data were captured with a 14-bit data acquisition system. Results were compared to a shunt resistor as reference. The 850nm system showed good results early. Its results compared well against the shunt resistor in both amplitudes and waveform shapes. While later comparisons showed gradually increasing amplitude deviations, the overall waveforms still compared very well. Corroded components or connectors affecting the 50-ohm output termination were the most likely problem. The 1550nm system also yielded good results in 2012 after early electromagnetic interference issues were addressed. The results demonstrate the fiber optic sensors accuracies in capturing real lightning currents, and represent an important step toward future aircraft installation.

SEA13-48 A FIBER-OPTIC AIRCRAFT LIGHTNING CURRENT MEASUREMENT SENSOR Truong X. Nguyen, Jay J. Ely and George N. Szatkowski
A fiber-optic sensor based on Faraday Effect is developed for measuring total aircraft lightning current. Compared to traditional sensors, the fiber optic current sensor has many advantages that include the ability to measure total current directly down to DC and to conform to structure geometries. The fiber sensor is also small, light-weight, non-conducting, safe from interference, and free of hysteresis and saturation. Faraday Effect causes light polarization to rotate when the fiber is exposed to a magnetic field in the direction of light propagation. Thus, the magnetic field strength can be determined from the light polarization change. By forming closed fiber loops and applying Amperes law, measuring the total light rotation yields the current enclosed. Potential sensor uses include characterization of current waveforms, parameters and paths, and providing environmental data for aircraft certifications. A reflective polarimetric scheme is used, where light polarization change is measured after a round-trip propagation through the sensing fiber. A two-detector setup measures the two orthogonal polarizations for noise subtraction and improved dynamic range. The current response curve is non-linear and requires a simple correction. The system operates at 1310 nm wavelength and can measure 300 A - 300 KA, a 60 dB range. This wavelength was chosen with considerations for measurement sensitivity and range appropriate for desired lightning parameters, along with component sizes and availability. Good results were achieved in laboratory tests comparing against other standard current sensors. Effects of current up to 300 KA were simulated in the laboratory using multiple fiber- and wire-loops Rev 1 32

combinations. In addition, good measurement comparisons were achieved for currents on a simulated aircraft fuselage and on a simulated internal structure. This indicates the suitability for transfer function measurements on internal complex structures that maybe difficult with traditional sensors. The system was also tested at a commercial test laboratory from 20 KA to 200 KA. Though the setup was not optimal, accuracy within 3-10% was achieved.

SEA13-51 UNIVERSAL COMMON PRACTICE LIGHTNING STRIKE PROTECTION CHARACTERIZATION TECHNIQUE TO QUANTIFY DAMAGE MECHANISMS ON COMPOSITE SUBSTRATES Szatkowski, George
To support FAA certification airworthiness standards, composite substrates are subjected to lightning direct-effect electrical waveforms to determine performance characteristics of the lightning strike protection (LSP) conductive layers used to protect composite substrates. Test results collected from independent LSP studies are often incomparable due to variability in test procedures & applied practices at different organizations, which impairs performance correlations between different LSP data sets. Under a NASA supported contract, The Boeing Company developed technical procedures and documentation as guidance in order to facilitate a test method for conducting universal common practice lightning strike protection test procedures. The procedures obtain conformity in future lightning strike protection evaluations to allow meaningful performance correlations across data sets. This universal common practice guidance provides the manufacturing specifications to fabricate carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) test panels, including finish, grounding configuration, and acceptable methods for pretest nondestructive inspection (NDI) and post test destructive inspection. The test operations guidance elaborates on the provisions contained in SAE ARP5416 to address inconsistencies in the generation of damage protection performance data, so as to provide for maximum achievable correlation across capable lab facilities. In addition, the guidance details a direct effects test bed design to aid in quantification of the multi-physical phenomena surrounding a lightning direct attachment supporting validation data requirements for the development of predictive computational modeling. The LSP Test Bed is designed to accommodate a repeatable installation procedure to secure the test panel and eliminate test installation uncertainty. It also facilitates a means to capture the electrical waveform parameters in 2 dimensions, along with the mechanical displacement and thermal heating parameters which occur during lightning attachment. Following guidance defined in the universal common practice LSP test documents, protected and unprotected CFRP panels were evaluated at 20, 40 and 100KAmps. This report presents analyzed data demonstrating the scientific usefulness of the common practice approach. Descriptions of the common practice CFRP test articles, LSP test bed fixture, and monitoring techniques to capture the electrical, mechanical and thermal parameters during lightning attachment are presented here. Two methods of measuring the electrical currents were evaluated, inductive current probes and a newly developed fiberoptic sensor. Two mechanical displacement methods were also examined, optical laser measurement sensors and a digital imaging correlation camera system. Recommendations are provided to help users

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implement the common practice test approach and obtain LSP test characterizations comparable across data sets.

SEA13-55 EFFECT OF SHOT-PLAN SELECTION ON OBSERVED STATISTICAL THRESHOLD Kovach, Daniel J, Basu, Sabyasachi (Shobbo)
Simulated lightning direct effects tests are often performed to investigate the effects of peak current level (or other input variable) on the presence/absence of sparking (a binary outcome). Data resulting from these tests are often analyzed using Logistic Regression techniques, and the outputs are presented as threshold curves (often with uncertainty bounds). It is recognized that the quantity of definitive outcomes has a positive effect on the reduction of threshold uncertainty. Since lightning tests are expensive to perform, there is always interest in maximizing the value of the acquired data. In an attempt to maximize data value, numerous systematic and mixed systematic/arbitrary approaches have been taken towards the selection of peak current levels for spark testing. These approaches are typically based on the use of prior test result(s) in the selection of the subsequent strike level. This effort seeks to explore the effect of input selection on observable outcome. Monte-carlo techniques will be used to model the results of simulated lightning spark testing, and provide the distribution of potential outcomes. Several algorithms developed to assist in shot selection will be evaluated using a range of a-priori threshold distributions (well-behaved, nominal, nearly-stochastic) to determine the algorithms effect on the observed vs. pre-defined threshold variance. The results of this effort should prove useful in the establishment of a the proper methodology for an input selection algorithm. Additionally, we will investigate the effect of sample size on error for the these algorithms, with an eye towards understanding the benefits vs costs for increased sampling. This initial effort is focused on shot-plan algorithms and observed threshold distributions targeting fastener sparking phenomena, future investigations based on this approach can be performed for other phenomena (e.g., sparks emanating from bonded joints) as desired.

SEA13-59 DAMAGE DETECTION RESPONSE CHARACTERISTICS OF OPEN CIRCUIT RESONANT (SANSEC) SENSORS Kenneth L. Dudley
The capability to access the current or future state of the health of an aircraft to improve safety, availability, and reliability while reducing maintenance costs has been a continuous goal of NASA, the FAA, and the U.S. Air Force for decades. Many companies, commercial entities, and academic institutions have become interested in Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) and a growing effort of research into smart vehicle sensing systems is emerging. Methods to detect damage to aircraft materials and structures have historically relied on visual inspection during pre-flight or post-flight operations by flight and ground crews. More quantitative non-destructive tests with various instruments and sensors have traditionally been performed when the aircraft is out of operational service during major scheduled maintenance. Through the use of reliable sensors coupled with data monitoring, data mining, and data analysis techniques the health of a vehicle or damage to the vehicle can be detected insitu.

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NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) is developing a composite aircraft skin damage detection method and system based on open circuit SansEC (Sans Electric Connection) sensor technology. Composite materials are increasingly used in modern aircraft for reducing weight, improving fuel efficiency, and enhancing the overall design, performance, and manufacturability of airborne vehicles. Materials such as fiberglass reinforced composites (FRC) and carbon-fiber-reinforced polymers (CFRP) are being used to great advantage in airframes, wings, engine nacelles, turbine blades, fairings, fuselage structures, empennage structures, control surfaces and aircraft skins. SansEC sensor technology is a new technical framework for designing, powering, and interrogating sensors to detect various types of damage in composite materials. The source cause of the in-service damage (lightning strike, impact damage, material fatigue, etc.) to the aircraft composite is not relevant. The sensor will detect damage independent of the cause. Damage in composite material is generally associated with a localized change in material permittivity and/or conductivity. These changes are sensed using SansEC. The unique electrical signatures (amplitude, frequency, bandwidth, and phase) are used for damage detection and diagnosis. Through the use of experimental damage test coupons and through computational modeling NASA LaRC has demonstrated with individual sensors that SansEC sensors can be effectively used for in-situ composite damage detection. An operational system and method would incorporate an entire SansEC sensor array on the aircraft exterior surfaces to form a Smart skin sensing surface. In this paper, this new method and system for aircraft in-situ damage detection and diagnosis are presented.

SEA13-62 ELECTRIC FIELD UNIFORMITY IN INITIAL LEADER ATTACHMENT TESTING Christopher Biagi
Initial leader attachment testing is used to determine lightning attachment points and breakdown paths across or through non-conducting materials. Test standards (e.g., SAE ARP 5416) specify general test arrangements in laboratory spark gaps where the test object (e.g., a radome or an antenna) is made one electrode and placed at a distance from a large flat external electrode. The flat geometry of the external electrode ideally represents an equipotential surface at a distance from the test object that produces a uniform electric field and has minimal influence on test results. There are a few problems with the test setups that are not addressed in the test standards. Firstly, the test standards do not consider how test results are influenced by the distortion of the electric field in the spark gap caused by: (1) the supporting or suspending structures that keep in place the test object, or (2) the mocked-up adjacent aircraft surfaces attached to the test object that necessarily have to be truncated after extending to some distance. Secondly, streamers originating from the edges of truncated aircraft surfaces also distort the electric field, and may invalidate tests if they connect to the test object or the external electrode. Finally, when the external electrode is a suspended flat plate and charged positively, and the test object is connected to the ground plane, positive streamers originate first from the edge of the plate where the electric field is geometrically enhanced. The issues described above make initial leader attachment testing a difficult and time intensive task. Compromises in the test procedure, for example, reducing the gap distance between the test object and external electrode, are often necessary in order to complete tests. In this paper, we present work performed at Lightning Technologies to minimize or even eliminate the issues described above. We use Rev 1 35

the finite element method to model the electric field surrounding a radome positioned in a laboratory spark gap with various supporting structure and differing extents of mocked-up aircraft in order to examine field uniformity when supporting structures and spurious streamers from artificial edges are present.

SEA13-76 THE USE AND CALIBRATION OF DIGITAL CAMERA SYSTEMS IN FUEL TANK TESTING Stephen Haigh
There is a historical requirement to demonstrate the sensitivity of fuel system ignition source diagnostics to 200J voltage sparks which forms part of current guidance material such as ED-105/ARP5416A. Flammable gas or camera methods used for tests must be shown to be sensitive to such a threat. In reality such low energy voltage sparks are rarely if ever seen in lightning tests to fuel tanks, more prevalent are the trails of burning particles or hot out-gassing from within the joint. Nonetheless the 200J criteria remains a useful basis for ensuring a consistent standard of sensitivity for the diagnostics used. In using cameras the convenience of use of digital systems has resulted in the demise of Polaroid film and increasing difficulty in getting push-development services for conventional 35mm film. Therefore digital cameras are being widely adopted for fuel systems tests and have many advantages; they provide immediate high definition colour pictures which satisfy the 200J requirement. They can also be linked fibre optically to provide a remote image download capability so that the results can be seen without approaching or interfering with the test set up. An apparent problem with the digital cameras is that the rated sensitivities of 400ASA/F2.8 etc do not have the physical basis that they had for conventional film cameras, and so the sensitivity of cameras is somewhat arbitrary, and clearly varies from camera to camera. No longer can it be said that a camera set at 3000ASA/f4.7 for example will detect a 200Jspark at 0.6m object distance. It is now necessary to verify that this is the case for the specific camera being used. The sensitivity can be checked using a 200J spark generator, which makes the approach compatible with the way in which the required settings for 35mm and Polaroid cameras were originally set up. Potential problems with this approach are: The need to repeat the calibrations when different cameras are used or significantly different setups The assumption that 200J sparks have a consistent brightness/visibility is not verified, and there is evident to suggest that they arent consistent In order to ensure consistent calibrations between the camera systems of different test labs, an approach is being worked on which could allow a relatively simple LED based transient light source to be used to verify the sensitivities of cameras. This can be used in conjunction with simple software which avoids the subjective question of is this spark visible or not in the calibration process.

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This paper describes such an approach, gives its advantages and disadvantages, and describes how it might be used in practice.

SEA13-89 VALIDATION OF ALEGRA-MHD TO MODEL CONFINED ELECTRICAL DISCHARGES* Thomas A. Haill1, Kenneth M. Williamson1, Raymond Martinez2, and Jane M. Lehr1
Sandia National Laboratories is developing the capability to predict thermal and electrical characteristics of short arcs that may appear in equipment subjected to transient currents of hundreds or thousands of amperes. This capability is critical to assuring functionality and protection of sensitive equipment in extreme environments. Penetration of electrical energy can impact sealed metallic compound joints through delamination, spalling, and burn through. Herein, the focus is on predicting structural integrity of compound joints subjected to lightning strikes. Joint-materials respond to multiple physical phenomenon including thermal energy, shock waves, and changes of state that result from axial confinement of lightning-induced electrical discharge. This paper presents models and simulations of the late-time expansion phase of arcing that result from lightning-like currents (with peaks of 1 kA to 10 kA and an 8 s rise time). Simulations were performed using ALEGRA-MHD and incorporated Lagrangian tracers in the dielectric and electrode surfaces recording simulated particle velocities and displacements, pressure pulses, density, and temperature changes. Experimental results from axially confined exploding wires in an air gap, confined exploding wires in potted materials, and finally arc breakdown through and shock generation in potted materials are compared to the ALEGRA models. Comparisons include measured voltages, currents, and radially expanding shock waves captured by time-gated Schlieren images. *This work is sponsored by the Boeing Company through a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement with Sandia National Laboratories under contract PTS No. 1651.15.05. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Company, for the U. S. Department of Energys National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

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Electrostatics
SEA13-35 FRICTION COEFFICIENT DEPENDENCE ON ELECTROSTATIC SURFACE CHARGING Thiago A. L. Burgo and Fernando Galembeck
Friction between dielectric surfaces produces patterns of fixed, stable electric charges that in turn contribute electrostatic components to surface interactions between the contacting solids. Surprisingly, the effect of triboelectricity on friction coefficients is as yet poorly defined and understood and this is largely due the complexity and poor understanding of tribocharging mechanisms and effects. [i] The models and mechanisms described in the literature for friction and wear seldom mention the tribocharging effects that are necessarily observed whenever two solids are in mutual contact and these are not considered even in recent and detailed experimental-theoretical analyses. Four types of experimental results are described in this work, on rolling and sliding friction. Rolling friction of glass spheres increases with electrostatic potential on PTFE films that were charged by repeatedly rubbing flat glass over PTFE that reached electrostatic potential as high as 1000V.[ii] Neutral glass spheres roll over charged PTFE but they quickly stop, after moving for only a fraction of the distance observed in uncharged PTFE, showing that charging introduces a powerful mechanism for mechanical energy dissipation. The widely used standard for friction assessment, the coefficient of rolling resistance (CoRR) of glass spheres on charged films was measured as a function of the average potential on the film and it increases many-fold in charged PTFE, in a potential range that is easily achieved by rubbing this polymer with glass and other common materials. However, glass surface modification with silanes eliminates the effect of tribocharged PTFE on glass rolling friction and this is explained considering a mechanism based on charge induction by the electrified surface. Static friction coefficients of PE pellets on PTFE were also shown to depend on static charging and lateral force microscopy (LFM) imaging on tribocharged PTFE showed that nanoscale friction coefficients also increase manifold. These results suggest new approaches to control friction coefficients, by controlling tribocharge formation.

SEA13-45 NEW PROCESS FOR AAR ESD CLEARANCE THROUGH COMPUTER MODELLING By Simeon J. Earl and Chris C. R. Jones
There is a significant threat of electrostatic discharge during the mating phase of air-to-air refuelling. Previously, a simplified/coarse model was used to define a double exponential which was then reinjected into a detailed model. With the advances in modern parallel computing, it has become possible to model not just one aircraft in a problem space but two. This allows the use of the detailed model of

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the aircraft in which coupling onto cables is predicted while the static discharge is being simulated. As a result, a new clearance process has been proposed.

SEA13-74 HIGH VOLTAGE ELECTROSTATIC CHARGING OF BULLETS IN FLIGHT. Peter Bevelacqua, Andrew Robb
It has been well established since the 1950s that projectiles fired from small arms carry small electrostatic charges. These charges are caused by triboelectric charging of the bullets interaction with the powder combustion byproducts. This naturally occurring charge is generally in the tens to hundreds of picocoloumb range. It is also possible to artificially charge bullets in flight. Artificial charging can result in much higher charges on the bullet and charge and polarity can be controlled. This paper presents the results of a series of experiments in which small arms projectiles were artificially charged early on in their ballistic flight path. Several techniques are presented to efficiently charge the bullets without substantially perturbing their flight path. The two most promising candidates for charging bullets are charging via high voltage corona sources and charging by direct impact with a 46AWG magnet wire held at high voltage. The charged bullets continue on their flight path and measurements of their charge are made at multiple points along their path before impact to determine rates of decay.

SEA13-80 THE DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND PERFORMANCE OF A LOW COST AMPLIFIER FOR MULTI-CHANNEL PICOAMPERE CURRENT MEASUREMENTS IN ESTATICS TESTING. Andrew M. Robb, Emma Sanyal, Eddie Kwon
Low-current measurements using commercial off the shelf (COTS) lab instruments is often done using Keithley Instruments products. These are widely available in both single and dual-channel models and their current single-channel model the 6485 is well supported by National Instruments (NI) Labview and instrument drivers are readily available. When faced with the need to do many channels of concurrent picoamp range measurements it is worth considering other options. This paper details the design, construction, and performance of a lower-cost method of doing many-channel low-current measurements using low cost multi-channel NI USB data acquisition modules and arrays of simple amplifiers built using the Texas Instruments LMC6001 Ultra low input current amplifier. The installation of these amplifier arrays on the front end of the analog inputs of the DAQs allow test instrumentation sets to be built that support many simultaneous E-static discharge current measurements at a lower cost than interfacing to large numbers of individual picoammeters.

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SEA13-81 CHARGING MECHANISMS OF SMALL ISOLATED CONDUCTORS Dr. Peter Rimbey


Small electrically floating conductors such as screws, bolts, washers and nuts used to install plastic clamps and brackets in a fuel tank environment have been shown to be capable of storing electrostatic energies in excess of the minimum ignition energies of many hydrocarbon vapors. In particular, bolt assemblies possessing capacitances as small as 1 to 3 pico-farads can charge to levels exceeding the 0.2 mJ MIE used as a basis for defining a point ignition source in fuel. Two primary charging mechanisms are responsible for driving the isolated conductor to the threat level. The first is capacitive or Pauthenier charging due to space charge transport and accumulation on the conductor as charge relaxes to ground in the charged fuel environment. The second is due to the induced polarization charge which drives the isolated conductor to a potential as determined by the local electric field. This paper provides experimental data demonstrating the threat posed by small isolated metallic fasteners subject to a charged refuel environment. Theoretical models are used to elucidate the basic physics of the phenomenon and in addition demonstrate the effects of local ground planes on the two primary charging mechanisms.

SEA13-85 P-STATIC ENVIRONMENT FOR LARGE TRANSPORT AIRPLANES Joe Heeter, Mike Anderson, Rob Steinle, Shahriar Khosravani
ARP5672 offers an explanation of triboelectric charging of the airplane as the mode of charge accumulation on the airplane due to particle impingement to the exposed surfaces of the airplane with ice particles, rain, snow and dust. This paper includes accounts of two types of charging of large transport airplanes in scope with the description provided in the ARP and includes an assessment of exogenous charging. An analysis into the nature of exogenous charging due to the presence of an external electric field associated with lightning is also presented. The intent of this paper is a comparison of triboelectric charging and exogenous charging and the airplanes response to these unique charging mechanisms.

SEA13-88 PROPAGATING BRUSH DISCHARGE AND MODERN COMMERCIAL AIRCRAFT Michael. G. Anderson, Megan J. Hurt, Theresa N. Ward, J. Sidney Clements
The performance of new materials or novel implementation of existing materials used in modern commercial aircraft must be evaluated against known operational conditions to ensure safety and meet regulatory rigors. The use of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) has increased significantly in the latest generation of commercial jets, and the combination of CFRP and various coatings can create a dielectric barrier previously not present in all-aluminum airframes. It is known through years of experience that refueling operations can introduce significant amounts of electrostatic charge into the flammable environment. As the charge moves from the fuel to its surfaces, its progress is greatly

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slowed by the dielectric barrier and, depending on the relative relaxation rates, can accumulate at this interface. Under certain foreseeable conditions, an electrostatic discharge, called a Propagating Brush Discharge (PBD) or Lichtenberg discharge, can be created. This type of discharge can be highly energetic due not only to energy stored in capacitance of the electrical double layer at the dielectric barrier, but also in the size of the area that can participate in the discharge. This paper explores firstorder sensitivities to the onset of PBD, including the effect of coating thickness and surface area.

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Facilities
SEA13-03 EARTHING SYSTEM IMPEDANCES IN COMSOL AND ATP-EMTP Jiawei Liu, Sren Find Madsen and Casper Falkenstrm Mieritz
The present paper deals with earthing system modeling in both FEM domain and EMTP domains. The purpose is to represent the actual geometry of an earthing system very accurately, considering the geometry and the construction details, as well as the soil topology surrounding the earthing system.

SEA13-22 A 3D TRANSIENT LIGHTNING STRIKE SIMULATION OF TETHERED AEROSTAT Zemin Duan*, Shanliang Qiu, Sixiao Liang
Tethered aerostat is widely used as an aerial platform. Due to suspending in the sky of height of 2~3 kilometers and exposed to the atmospheric electrical environment, the tethered aerostat is easily struck by lightning in thunderstorm, protection from hazards presented by lightning is necessary. Usually, conductive ropes (lightning ropes, LTRs) are arranged at the periphery of the tethered aerostat to present lightning attachment and protection. The lightning current passes through the conductive ropes and then flows down to the tethered cable, and finally flows into the earth. The tethered cable which connects electrically well to the ground electrodes not only provides the lightning current path, but also provides power supply, information exchange, and holds on to the tethered aerostat keeping its stable suspension. When lightning current flows through the CLPJ, the lightning induced overvoltage between the outer conductive lightning protection jacket (CLPJ) and core power line of the tethered cable may cause the breakdown of middle tensile Kevlar material, special surge protection measures may be necessary. This paper presents a 3D transient simulation of lightning strike to tethered aerostat and tethered cable. The transient current and electromagnetic field distribution under different lightning strike attachment points (strike to LTRs) are calculated. Results of different lightning attachment points are analyzed and compared. The lightning current evolution and distribution characteristic in LTRs are also explained based on the simple equivalent circuit model. The obtained lightning electromagnetic field environment levels will guide the lighting indirect effect protection design. Besides, base on the equivalent transmission line model of the tethered cable, the transient overvoltage between CLPJ and power line induced by several different lightning strike attachment points are presented. It seems that surge protection measures such as installing lightning eliminator at the two ends of the tethered cable i necessary for tethered cable safe protection under lightning strike with current above several tens of koliamperes.

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SEA13-23 PROTECTION AGAINST LIGHTNING OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BUILDINGS F. Issac, B Michielsen, E. Bachelier, D. Prost, W. Quenum, P. Nicouleau, C Miry, E. Amador, C. Trouilloud (EDF France)
In the case of buildings built with reinforced concrete and under certain conditions, using the reinforcing steel as a lightning protection system (LPS) is a good possibility. In this case, the metal in the concrete is used as a mesh of the lightning protection system and, its correct connections to the ground network allows the draining of the lightning current. Appropriate rules of construction and execution make it possible to guarantee that one will indeed obtain a good protection against lightning strokes. However, once the building construction is achieved, if appropriate rules havent been established or followed, it is difficult to ensure that the quality of the LPS will exist. This article gives a methodology for analyzing, a posteriori, whether the concrete steel reinforcing can be used as lightning protection system or not. If it is rather easy to check, by a measurement, the resistance of the connection of the concrete reinforcements to the ground network, it is much more difficult to test the quality of its internal interconnections and, hence, the effective mesh constituted by the metal reinforcements. In the first part, we will look at how to qualify the electric interconnections of the reinforcement. For that we measure the coupling factor between loops in coaxial or coplanar polarization. These measurement techniques are derived from techniques used for the determination of the surface impedances of composite materials in aeronautics. We will show that, under certain conditions, it is possible to define the impedance and the size of the effective mesh representing the reinforced concrete wall. These measurements, done in transmission mode (loop on either side of the wall) or reflection mode (on only one side of the wall), allow to give a local evaluation of the interconnection state. In the second part, we will analyze the capacity of the steel reinforced to be used as electromagnetic shield for a lightning strike. For that, it is necessary to stress the whole structure with a lightning type aggression. One technique is to inject a current in the building structure and to measure the internal magnetic field induced by the current. In a large size building, to obtain easily useable results it is necessary to put the generator far away from the building, which is often difficult to realize. An alternative for an external generator is to put it inside the building. In this condition, the stress state of the building is complementary to the stress state of a lightning strike. It will be shown that, using a low frequency approximation, the transfer function Hext/Iint obtained with internal injection is equivalent to the transfer function Hint/Ilightning. In the last part of this contribution, we will present experimental results obtained on a real reinforced concrete structure, showing how to evaluate the metal reinforcements as lightning protection.

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SEA13-40 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR GROUNDING AND SHIELDING OF BURIED DATA CABLES AT AIRPORT FACILITIES Loren Carvajal, Ben Wibisono, Enrique Tenicela
This paper presents the analytical and practical approaches used to shield underground data communication cables from electromagnetic interference due to lightning and other sources. Three practical solutions are presented: (1) the use of rigid galvanized steel conduit, (2) the use of filtering using inductive neutralized transformers, and (3) the use of proper grounding as recommended by Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) standard FAA-STD-019, which provides design recommendations for effective grounding and shielding of underground cables to reduce the levels of electric and magnetic interference to which they might be exposed. High levels of interference are present at every airport facility in the United States, as well as at other similar non-airport large campus underground data communication cable systems, so the provided solutions may be generally applied. A real case study of airport communications disruption due to electromagnetic interference is presented, and a solution provided. Research has shown that currents are induced by natural lightning strikes producing signal disturbances in buried cables. These induced currents produced experimentally or by natural lightning events have been measured at the terminations of a buried power cable, in the cable shield, and in the inner cable conductor. Anomalies in underground conduits have been observed to adversely affect vital data transfer for the flow of air traffic at airport facilities across the United States. The sources of interference have been either lightning strikes or magnetic coupling of man-made sources. Several studies have been done to determine the correct approach to avoid any type of interference in cable lines using effective shielding and grounding techniques. The vulnerability of underground cable communication at airport facilities to sources of magnetic interference is increasing with the increase of new transmission systems, band congestion, and intentional and unintentional interference activity. These sources of interference represent significant threats to the normal operation, availability, and reliability of underground communication line systems. This paper presents a case study of a real event where an airports underground communication cables signals were affected by magnetic interference. Furthermore, it provides the adaptive solution that restored the proper operation and signal recovery of the airports data communication systems, allowing the critical transfer of information among the different FAA facilities operating on the airport campus.

SEA13-41 THE INFLUENCE OF LIGHTNING ROD SYMMETRIZATION ON OVERVOLTAGE IN NARROW STRUCTURES. Jan Mike and Marcela Efmertov
The authors of the article present the significance of symmetrical placement of lightning conductors on the position of lightning current in them. The aim of the article is to prove the instructions described in

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the standard SN EN 62 305 and confirm the conclusion that buildings should be protected not only by a lightning rod but also by lightning conductors which create an irreplaceable part of the complex protection system. If the lightning rod influences the safe placement of lightning discharge above a building than the individual lightning conductor determines its safe grounding. Lightning conductors have an important influence on the induction of lightning currant in constructions. Unfortunately, many buildings whose height is much bigger than their width (spires, watchtowers, highrise buildings, factory chimney pots) contain only one lightning conductor which doesnt ensure their protection. The authors prove this fact on examples of protection of historical buildings such as the Eiffel Tower in Paris and the Petn Watchtower in Prague. The conclusions which were drawn at the end of 19th and the beginning of 20th century are compared with the Rolling Sphere Method and Protective Angle Method which are based on SN EN 62 305 standard. In Prague, symmetrical lightning conductors were studied by Karel Vclav Emanuel Zenger (18301908), professor of physics at Czech Technical University at the beginning of 70s of 19th century. The report on the influence of symmetrically-placed conductors was not only presented in Prague at The Czech Royal Society of Science in 1872 but it was also sent to many well-known European academies (Paris, London, Edinburg, Brussels). His conclusions were also accepted by Sir W. Thomson. Karel Vclav Zenger continued the research done by Vclav Prokop Divi (1698-1765), the first specialist in Czech lands, who studied the lightning rod at the same time as American scientist Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790). Zenger introduced his findings at the First Electrotechnic Congress in Paris in 1881. Two years later (1883) he suggested the usage of ovoid which is a special lightning rod ending of elliptical shape. Karel Vclav Zenger was also the first physicist who suggested protection of town buildings by symmetrically placed lightning rods. Consequently, he managed to protect many public buildings in Prague such as Czech Technical University in Karlovo square, comprehensive high school in Jen Street, newly reconstructed National Theatre and Petn Watchtower. The Zenger lightning rods were produced by Deckert and Homolka firm. Karel Vclav Zenger played a similar role as the Belgium scientist Louis Hnri F. Melsens (1814-1886) who put a similar lightning rod in 1865 on 91m-tall Brussels town hall and Englishman James C. Maxwell (1831-1879) or the French structural engineer and architect Gustav Eiffel (1832-1923) who placed his lightning rod on his wellknown tower. The Zengers lightning rod was an ingenuous simplification of Faraday cage. His lightning rod was widely used in Austro-Hungarian Empire, Germany, Serbia and in Bulgaria. It is also used today. The authors put the Zengers findings in contrast with the todays views on the theories of building protection. The main aim of this article is to show the neglect of symmetric placement of lightning rods and resulting insufficient protection of buildings. The proof of insufficient protection by a single lightning rod and its consequences is shown on our computer model.

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SEA13-43 INSTALLATION SCHEMES FOR DOWN CONDUCTORS AT ATCT Loren Carvajal, Ben Wibisono, Enrique Tenicela
This paper focused on the design practice for the effective placement of down conductors on Air Traffic Control Towers to increase the level of lightning direct strike protection. A Scheme Analysis for balance placement of down conductor at ATCT is presented. Related historical t implementation data that supports the adopted is discussed and analyzed. During several years it has been observed the tendency for direct stroke not only at air terminal placed at the top of the towers but at particular zones which constitute the edge of structures. Several studies have been done to determine the higher attractive locations of a structure for direct lightning strikes. In such location, corresponding techniques for lightning protections have to be increase to control and conduct the flow of the electric energy towards ground, with minimal impedance reduce risk of accidents the surrounding structure.

SEA13-64 ASSESSING AND MITIGATING RAPID REDISTRIBUTION OF CHARGE AT FAA FACILITIES C. M. Graves, Jr.,
An abundance of incidental evidence exists regarding lightning-related equipment damage or disruption where no direct attachment can be documented. In many cases for the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), thunderstorm activity has been documented in the near vicinity ofbut not immediately overFAA facilities where electronic equipment has been disrupted or damaged. Particularly sensitive platforms were the Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) and the Air Route Surveillance Radar (ARSR-4), which became de facto weather sensorsthey failed whenever lightning was in the vicinity. While several potential culprits can be identified, such as lightning precursor events and externally conducted impulses, a more likely explanation is the rapid redistribution of charge. This phenomenon, described in IEEE 1100-1999, Recommended Practice for Powering and Grounding Electronic Equipment, can easily explain how electronic equipment is damaged in inadequately bonded and grounded FAA facilities. In order to understand the effects of rapid redistribution of charge, the observer must first take a broader view of the facility. Individual portions of a facility can no longer be realistically separated and treated independently, such as segregating the grounding system, the lightning protection system, and the earthing system. The facilities share a multitude of interconnected electrical and electronic systemsnot always effectively grounded. Moreover, these systems must be viewed as subordinate portions of an interdependent whole. Furthermore, the FAA no longer considers lightning protection systems solely from the perspective of safety. Safety is a necessary but insufficient condition. Of necessity, the FAA lightning protection, grounding, bonding, and shielding (LPGBS) systems must address equipment failure, malfunction, and upset. This necessity arises from the life-critical nature of air traffic control systems. As a result, consensus standards such as NFPA 780, Standard for the Installation of Lightning Protection Systems,

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form a small portion of FAA standards; the purpose of the commercial and industrial standards is to provide for the practical safeguarding of persons and property from hazards arising from exposure to lightning. Many of the improved grounding and bonding practices developed over the course of these programs have been incorporated into the latest version of FAA-STD-019, Lightning and Surge Protection, Grounding, Bonding and Shielding Requirements for Facilities and Electronic Equipment. These changes to the FAA Standard were to enhance the LPGBS system with regard to system performance (as was presented at ICOLSE 20071 and ICOLSE 20092,3). This paper will discuss the phenomenon of rapid redistribution of charge, direct evidence of facility damage, and the FAAs holistic approach to enhance and improve overall system safety and performance including the continuing program to provide mitigation at FAA facilities.
1

Graves, C. M., Mitigating Rapid Redistribution of Charge: Segment 2Performance Improvement Case Study, ICOLSE 2007. 2 Graves, C. M., Examining Rapid Redistribution of Charge:FAA Site Case Study of Near Strike Damage, ICOLSE 2009. 3 Graves, C. M., Mitigating Rapid Redistribution of Charge: FAA Standards for Facility Lightning Protection, ICOLSE 2009.

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Lightning Protection Materials/Systems


SEA13-08 SELF-ASSEMBLING CONDUCTIVE COATINGS AND THEIR USE IN LIGHTNING STRIKE AND ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE PROTECTION Timothy D. Fornes*, Scott R. Durso, and Seth B. Carruthers
The management of heat and electricity in aerospace composites has received considerable attention, especially in the areas of lightning strike protection (LSP) and electromagnetic interference shielding (EMI). The state-of-art LSP systems based on expanded metal foils (EMF) provide opportunities for improvement in weight savings, manufacturability, and repair among other things. In the case of EMI shielding, current materials are limited in their ability to provide very high shielding effectiveness (> ~80 dB) over a broad range of frequencies in combination with light weight and attractive material processibility. To address these and related issues, LORD Corporation has developed a novel conductive polymer technology, termed UltraConductive materials. UltraConductive polymers are predominately polymeric in nature yet behave like metals in their ability to efficiently conduct heat and electricity. This behavior is rooted in the materials ability to selfassemble into very efficient conductive networks during the curing of the polymer. Ultimately, UltraConductive technology affords dramatic improvements in weight savings for LSP and EMI applications as compared to conventional approaches. Lightning strike testing on representative composite panels has shown that this new technology provides comparable zone 2A lightning protection with 50% weight savings over industrial standard conventional EMF. EMI shielding tests have demonstrated attenuation levels in excess of 100 dB over a broad frequency range and performance on carbon substrates that mirrors shielding levels that of solid aluminum. Moreover, the base technology affords the flexibility of applying LSP and/or EMI coatings in the form of a surface film, a spray, or as an adhesive. Given this unique combination of performance and delivery flexibility, it is believed that the UltraConductive technology has strong potential to address specific electromagnetic needs in both fixed and rotary wing applications and associated manufacturing processes. This paper will highlight some of the key features of this self-assembling technology, how it is being used to safeguard aerospace structures from lightning strikes and EMI, and ways the technology might improve composite manufacturing.

SEA13-19 OPTIMIZED PROTECTION FOR COMPOSITE HELICOPTERS ON SYSTEM LEVEL TO MINIMIZE EFFECTS DUE TO LIGHTNING STRIKE Doris Zehetmeier, Sonia Zehar
After a lightning strike, the helicopter has to be able of a safe return flight and landing. For that, optimized protection is applied at helicopter level, to minimize negative effects due to lightning strike. This need is increased by today intensive use of avionics and composite materials for which a high level of lightning protection (direct and indirect effects) is necessary.

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Data about Eurocopter in service incidents due to lightning strikes are collected from customers supports and are compiled in a specific database. A synthesis of the main interesting results from this database is presented, including a description of the main damages and failures obtained after a lightning strike to composite helicopter. It is also shown that current lightning zoning standards cover what is observed in service. This continuous follow-up of inflight incidents combined with the experience acquired through the various qualification/certification campaigns has allowed to define high level recommendations to apply to protect helicopters against Lightning Direct Effects (LDE). These recommendations are presented as well as the validity field of the numerical computations to simulate the lightning effects in case of impact on composite materials and on fuel tanks in particular. By now the protections used for composite helicopters to prevent damage due to LDE are well engineered. For Lightning Indirect Effects (LIE), there are still some challenges as many equipment items were initially specified then built to be installed in metallic helicopters where the requirements are significantly lower compared to CFC helicopters. In case of re-use, risks can be reduced if effort is done for cable routing as well as on structural architecture from the very beginning of the helicopter design, keeping in mind to tackle weight increase drawbacks. In case of a new equipment item or upgrading of an existing equipment item, a balanced effort must be found between the equipment supplier and the integrating manufacturer. This publication shows step by step which additional protections have to be applied to reduce LIE. Initially, by the basis of a simple test setup the predominant physical effects are described and the indirect lightning terminology is clarified accordingly. Further practical investigations as well as corresponding theoretical validations and numerical simulations on real CFC and metallic tailbooms help to understand the origin of pulses with challenging long duration time (high energy). With this attained knowledge and support tools, best practice proposals to reduce LIE on composite helicopters are presented whereupon advantage can be taken already from some LDE recommendations. LIE tests on a realistic CFC helicopter structure with varying design configurations and corresponding numerical simulations are planned and will contribute to verify the current recommendations.

SEA13-29 ELECTRICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF MULTILAYERED AEROSPACE GRADED CARBON COMPOSITE FLAT PANELS FOR LIGHTNING STRIKE PROTECTION R. Abid , A. Haddad, H. Giffiths, M. Cole, S. Evans
Contemporary advancements in aircraft design including the use of carbon fibre reinforced plastics have increased the probability of lightning hazards. Statistically, lightning can strike each commercial airplane once per year. Carbon fibre reinforced plastics have low electrical shielding effectiveness compared to conventional metals; their use hails the likelihood of induced voltages in electronic wirings during a lightning strike incident, with a likely consequence of damage to the aircraft. The chief aim of this research, thereby, is to design carbon composite components and structures with effective lightning protection without compromising on primary aviation targets including light weight aircraft. In order to achieve this, understanding electrical behaviour of the material is indispensable. Studying electrical resistance and potential distribution are economically viable tools to categorize the material behaviour pre and post such a lightning strike event compared to conventional mechanical techniques.

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Preliminary finite element computational simulations in this work showed no effect of variable ply angle on the surface electrical potential distribution in two layered carbon fibre reinforced plastic composites under lightning impulse; in fact these demonstrated resistive behaviour of the material itself on the whole under both lightning impulse current and direct current because of the presence of shared equipotentials. Experimental investigations were then performed to verify the resistive behaviour of carbon composite panels under DC and low impulse current. In this context, the surface potential distribution in twenty four multilayered aerospace graded carbon fibre reinforced epoxy panels of variable material with different ply lays ups (namely [0,0],[0,90], quasi-isotropic and cross ply) has been studied under low DC current (200mA) and low lightning impulse current (1A) using two different electrode formation methods: (i) silk screening using conductive silver paint and (ii) photo etching method analogous to preparing glass fibre printed circuit boards resulting in electro formed copper/tin plated electrodes. The same number (25), electrode size (3 mm diameter) and spacing (20 mm) was employed for all sample measurements. For different levels of DC current injections including 10mA, 200 mA, and 500 mA no change in resistance and no heating effect was experienced. Configurations employed for measurements comprised Current being injected in two directions: (a) in line to the top fibre layer and (b) transverse to the top fibre layer. The total contact resistances at the electrodes in the current injection line were calculated using the voltage values from the two configurations that included the resistance due to current spread termed as current distortion resistance in addition to the resistance due to electrode/surface contact. The current distortion resistance was found to be dependent on the current spread as in case (a) the current being in line to the top fibre layer would facilitate the spread and concentrate less within the current injection path leading to high resistances at the electrodes lying within the current injection path. Whereas for case (b) the current spread is limited because of current injection transverse to the fibre direction and most of the current is concentrated within the current injection path giving low resistances at the electrodes within that path. Longitudinal and Transverse Volume Conductivity values were also measured using the four probe method for all ply lay ups and material types.

SEA13-39 ENHANCE THE ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY OF CONDUCTIVE POLYMER COMPOSITE COATINGS WITH NANOTECHNOLOGY Zhuo Li, Kyoung-sik Moon, C.P. Wong
Electrically conductive composites (ECC) based on metal filled polymers have attracted tremendous attention due to their wide range applications, including Electromagnetic shielding, electronic packaging, conductive coating etc. They can achieve electrical conductivity of 103-104 S/cm, which is orders of magnitude higher than that of conductive polymers while maintain the properties of polymers such as adhesion, flowability and compliance. However, the electrical resistivity of most conventional conductive composites is still two orders of magnitude lower than pure metals despite a filler loading as high as 80-90 wt.%. According to previous researches, the limited conductivity mainly results from the

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contact resistance between neighboring metallic fillers. The conduction mechanism is mostly based on physical contacts (or electrical tunneling) rather than metallurgical joints between neighboring particles. In the present work, we start from the electrical tunneling theory and analyze the possible methods to decrease the contact resistance of ECC. Then we review the recent progress in our group on how to improve the electrical conductivity with nanotechnology. Generally, there are three strategies to enhance the conductivity, namely 1) decreasing the inter-particle distance by roughening the metallic surfaces, 2) removing the insulating surfactants on conductive fillers, which serves as an energy barrier for tunneling, and 3) introduction of metallic nanoparticles and trigger sintering to form metallurgical bonds between fillers to decrease the contact resistance.

SEA13-49 THERMAL SIMULATION AND TESTING OF EXPANDED COPPER FOIL USED FOR LIGHTNING PROTECTION OF COMPOSITE AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES J.D. Morgan, R.B. Greegor, P.K. Ackerman, and Q.N. Le
Since the 1960s lightning protection of aircraft has been an important design aspect, and a concern for the public, aircraft manufactures and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). With the implementation of major composite structures to the aircraft lightning protection has become a more complicated issue to solve. One widely used material for composite lightning strike protection within the aerospace industry is expanded copper foil (ECF). ECF is currently used in both military and commercial passenger aircraft. An issue that has historically been an area of concern with ECF has included micro cracking of paint on the composite structure which can result in corrosion of the copper foil, and subsequent loss of conductivity. This paper will investigate the issues of stress in the composite structure layup which contributes to paint cracking caused by aircraft thermal cycling. The analysis of ECF by computer modeling using commercially available codes will be supported by data from experimental physical testing. Variables in the ECF such as thickness, weight, number of layers and surface layup structure will be explored.

SEA13-52 LIGHTNING STRIKE PROTECTION CHARACTERISTICS OF OPEN CIRCUIT RESONANT (SANSEC) SENSORS George Szatkowski
Traditional methods to protect composite aircraft from lightning strike damage rely on a conductive layer embedded on the outer surface of the aircraft composite skin. This method is effective at preventing severe direct effect damage and minimizes indirect effects to aircraft systems from lightning strike attachment, but provides no additional benefit for the added parasitic weight from the conductive layer. When a known lightning strike occurs, the points of attachment and detachment on the aircraft surface are visually inspected and checked for damage by maintenance personnel to ensure continued safe flight operations. A new multi-functional lightning strike protection (LSP) method has been developed to provide both aircraft lightning strike protection and damage detection and diagnosis for composite aircraft surfaces.

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The method incorporates a SansEC sensor array on the aircraft exterior surfaces forming a Smart skin surface for areas requiring Zone 1B lightning protection. SansEC sensors are open-circuit devices comprised of conductive trace spiral patterns sans (without) electrical connections. The SansEC sensor is an electromagnetic resonator having specific resonant parameters (frequency, amplitude, bandwidth & phase) which when electromagnetically coupled with a composite substrate will indicate the electrical impedance of the composite through a change in its resonant response. Any measureable shift in the resonant characteristics can be an indication of damage to the composite caused by a lightning strike or from other means. The SansEC sensor method is intended to diagnose damage for both in-situ health monitoring or ground inspections. This paper presents lightning direct effect test results on several different SansEC LSP configurations tested at 40 and 100KAmps following a universal common practice test procedure to enable damage comparisons between SansEC LSP configurations and common practice copper mesh LSP approaches. The SansEC test panels were mounted in a LSP test bed. Electrical, mechanical and thermal parameters were measured during lightning attachment and are presented with post test destructive inspection comparisons.

SEA13-57 NEXT-GENERATION MULTIFUNCTIONAL CONDUCTIVE SURFACING AND LIGHTNING STRIKE PROTECTION SOLUTIONS FOR AEROSPACE COMPOSITES J. Jeffrey Sang and Dalip K. Kohli
The use of carbon fiber reinforced composite structures in new aircraft is growing rapidly. At the same time, aircraft increasingly use digital electronic systems to control critical flight functions. As carbon fiber reinforced composites do not have high conductivity like metal, manufacturers must add lightning strike protection (LSP) materials to protect composite structures and underlying electrical components from the adverse electromagnetic effects (EME) associated with lightning strike. This is typically achieved by adding a layer of conductive expanded metal screen (copper, aluminum, or bronze) on top of the composites. This solution, however, adds weight, manufacturing steps and cost. Therefore, development of low-weight, conductive surfacing and prepreg materials that are capable of mitigating lightning strike damage without added metal screen is desirable. These next-generation EME protection materials must provide high conductivity, environmental durability, resistance to corrosion, good paint adhesion and UV and chemical resistance while adding minimal weight to the aircraft. In addition, manufacturers are increasingly requiring materials be compatible with automatic placement equipment. This paper presents a range of next-generation multifunctional surfacing and LSP materials developed by Cytec Aerospace Materials. These materials provide Zone 1A and 2A lighting strike protection with significant weight saving (up to 50%) and automation placement capability. The material portfolio includes co-curable conductive surfacing films, conductive prepregs, self-surfacing conductive prepregs and conductive adhesives, sealants and coatings. Their development, properties and EME performance are discussed as well as potential applications in the aerospace market.

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SEA13-78 CONDUCTIVE POLYMERS AS DROP IN ADDITIVES FOR CARBON FIBER AIRCRAFT PRIMERS Heather Milligan, Danilo Pozzo, Volha Hrechka (Presenter)
An emergent core challenge for composite based fuselages is to dissipate electric charge, a problem previously resolved by the natural high conductivity of metal. Electrostatic charge build up is a severe problem in aircraft as it can interfere with sensitive electronics necessary for navigation. Current methods focus on embedding internal metal meshes of copper and aluminum into the carbon fiber structure, which increases the weight of the aircraft. In addition, a technology that has also attempted to address this issue is the addition of silver particles to external coatings (e.g. primers and paints) to increase conductivity. We present a novel approach for effective charge dissipation that reduces weight and thereby fuel consumption. Our approach uses conductive conjugated polymers as drop-in additives to existing aircraft paint primers. Conjugated organic polymers have resonating bonds that can create an effective mechanism for charge transfer. Conjugated polymer materials have significantly lower densities than silver based coatings and, due to their self-assembling properties and unique packing structures, require a very low weight percent of additive (1 to 5 wt% ) for polymers to achieve adequate electronic conductivity. Typical silver particle loadings exceed 30 wt%. This is tremendously advantageous for weight reduction as well as the durability and adhesion of the paint. As an added benefit, the use of low polymer loadings means the properties of the primer remain largely intact. This results in minimal capital investment for adoption of this product into the carbon fiber assembly line since no new equipment will be needed. This presentation outlines the conductive and mechanical properties of polyurethane based paints with conjugated polymer additive that have been recently developed by PolyDrop. It shows major benefits in comparison with existing conductive coatings for electromagnetic effect management.

SEA13-82 CARBON NANOTUBE BASED THERMOPLASTIC LIGHTNING STRIKE ISOLATORS Ned Bryant
During a lightning strike event, lightning strike isolators are critical parts of fuel-line aircraft safety. Current technology is based on carbon fiber and carbon black filled epoxies. This paper summarizes the development efforts to achieve burn-in resistant, injection moldable thermoplastics, capable of maintaining ESD characteristics after multiple ~10 kV DC strikes.

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Natural Lightning Physics and Detection


SEA13-04 ESTIMATION OF CHARGE AND CURRENT DISTRIBUTION USING MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF LIGHTNING STEPPER LEADER Abhay Srivastava
Lightning is mostly unpredictable high voltage natural phenomena in atmosphere. At the same time living bodies are affected by this most dangerous event. Electromagnetic interferences and compatibility on electrical equipment can be generated by a direct lightning strike or by an indirect discharge in the close proximity of the lightning channel. Such lightning flash surges often cause adverse effects on electrical/electronic and communication equipments. It is central to important problems such as predicting the electromagnetic compatibility between complex electronic systems, and the response of systems to lightning strikes and electromagnetic pulses. Simple electromagnetic integral problems can be solved by analytic methods, but most practical application problems are very complicated to solve analytically. One must either solve a simplified approximation, or use numerical computations. There are various approximations and numerical method using Monte Carlo technique to estimate the charge and current distribution on conducting objects. In the present work a mathematical model developed using Monte Carlo technique for analysis of electric and magnetic field and estimate the charge and current distribution on conducting objects.

SEA13-09 ELECTRIC FIELD AND CURRENT OF NEGATIVE UPWARD LIGHTNING STRIKES TO THE PEISSENBERG TOWER, GERMANY F. Heidler, M. Manhardt, K. Stimper
Subject matter of the paper is the analysis of the slow-varying electric fields and the associated currents of the total of 35 negative upward lightning initiated by the Peissenberg tower, Germany. 34 of which were from winter upward lightning and only one from summer upward lightning. The initial stage of the upward lightning is characterized by a leader moving up from the top of the tower toward the thundercloud. The leader produced a slow-varying initial continuous current which transported the charges to ground. The amount of charges was on average 44.8 C and on maximum 165C. The upward lightning are commonly subdivided into two different types according to whether they are initiated without nearby preceding discharge activity (called self-initiated lightning) or they are triggered by nearby lightning discharge activity (called other-triggered lightning). It appears that all of the winter negative upward lightning were self-initiated ones which occurred without nearby preceding lightning activity. Only the summer negative upward lightning was identified to be an other-triggered one which was initiated by nearby lightning activity. The slow-varying electric fields of the winter upward lightning showed a fast rise characterized by the 10-to-90% risetime, with an arithmetic mean of 13.8 ms. After attaining the maximum, the electric field turned into a slow decay being characterized by the time on half value which was evaluated to having

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the arithmetic mean of 441 ms. The maximum value of the electric field was 39.9 kV/m on average, with the highest value being 64.5 kV/m. For the electric fields, higher values were prevented by recovery effects such as the corona from objects at ground and the redistribution of the charge in the thundercloud. Due to these effects, no or only weak correlations were found between the 10-to-90% risetime, the time on half value, the charge, and the maximum of the electric field.

SEA13-11 LIGHTNING LOCATION USING ACOUSTIC SIGNALS Elias Badillo Ibarra, Rene O. Arechiga, Ronald J. Thomas and Jeffrey. B. Johnson
In the summer of 2011 and 2012 a network of acoustic arrays was deployed in the Magdalena mountains of central New Mexico to locate lightning flashes. A Times-Correlation (TC) raytracing-based-technique was developed in order to obtain the location of lightning flashes near the network. The TC technique, locates acoustic sources from lightning. It was developed to complement the lightning location of RF sources detected by the Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) developed at Langmuir Laboratory, in New Mexico Tech. The network consisted of four arrays with four microphones each. The microphones on each array were placed in a triangular configuration with one of the microphones in the center of the array. The distance between the central microphone and the rest of them was about 30 m. The distance between centers of the arrays ranged from 500 m to 1500 m. The TC technique uses times of arrival (TOA) of acoustic waves to trace back the location of thunder sources. In order to obtain the times of arrival, the signals were filtered in a frequency band of 2 to 20 hertz and crosscorrelated. Once the times of arrival were obtained, the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm was applied to locate the spatial coordinates (x,y, and z) of thunder sources. Two techniques were used and contrasted to compute the accuracy of the TC method: NearestNeighbors (NN), between acoustic and LMA located sources, and standard deviation from the curvature matrix of the system as a measure of dispersion of the results. For the best case scenario, a triggered lightning event, the TC method applied with four microphones, located sources with a median error of 152 m and 142.9 m using nearest-neighbors and standard deviation respectively.

SEA13-21 LIGHTNING DIRECT EFFECTS (LDE) ON A STRUCTURE INTEGRATED ANTENNA (SIA) Andr Zaprasis, Markus Rothenhusler; Robert Sekora; Manfred Schreiner;
Structure Integrated Antennas (SIA) are becoming increasingly important in general aviation for airborne antenna applications. The general design consists of a rain erosion protection coating, a front dielectric layer to protect the antenna, the antenna radiating elements and a Carbon Fibre Composite (CFC) backing structure representing the aircraft structure. The advantage compared to typical conformal antennas is that SIAs provide the electrical performance of those antennas while the aircraft structure still complies with the load bearing requirements.

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If the SIA design does not include dedicated lightning protection elements (e.g. lightning diverter), mechanical damage can occur to the SIA layers in the event of a lightning strike. The lightning protection of a SIA cannot easily be implemented as, in general, the performance and the conformality will be reduced. For this reason the general behaviour of such an antenna is studied with respect to LDE. This paper presents the lightning test results of a representative prototype of such a SIA installed in a CFC panel. The CFC panel includes copper mesh and represents the surrounding of an aircraft structure. The antenna under test is regarded as being located within the lightning strike zone 2A. The overall goal of this LDE research on a SIA is to demonstrate if the antenna design, without lightning protection, is sufficient for the aircraft lightning strike zone 2A or not. Several high voltage attachment tests as well as high current tests will be conducted and evaluated. Additionally, the resulting current and voltage waveforms as well as amplitudes on the antenna feeders will be recorded during the tests. The tests will be conducted in March 2013 at the EMCC DR. RAEK laboratory in Germany.

SEA13-30 OBSERVATIONS OF THE CHARACTERISTICS OF MICROWAVE RADIATION RESULTING FROM VARIOUS LIGHTNING DISCHARGE PROCESSES IN THUNDERSTORMS. Danyal Petersen
Lightning is known to be both a direct meteorological hazard and as an indicator of other co-located meteorological hazards such as heavy rain, hail, and high winds. The remote sensing of lightning, especially in real time, offers a valuable source of information that can be used to reduce the destructive impact that these hazards have on both human and natural systems. A large body of research exists on the characteristics of lightning-generated electromagnetic radiation, of both the optical and radiofrequency (RF) variety. Luminous radiation has been observed from infrared through x-rays, while RF radiation has been observed from the ELF band up to microwave frequencies. Various RF radiation signatures allow identification of specific discharge processes, such as the LF pulses generated by return strokes and the VHF pulses generated by negative stepped leader breakdown. Perhaps the best known systems that utilize these signals are Vaisalas National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) for the identification of ground-strike locations and (at least in the research community) New Mexico Techs Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) for the high-resolution imaging of lightning channels. Historically, focus has been on frequencies ranging from VLF up to VHF due to the relative strength of the radiation. Impulses generated at these frequencies can be detected at large distances, allowing for useful imaging networks whose receivers are separated by large distances. Microwave frequency radiation has been of lesser interest, presumably due to its relative weakness. As such, there exists very little published data on the characteristics of lightning-generated microwave radiation. However, lightning radiation at these frequencies is still quite observable, and may contain useful information on lightning structure and behavior that is not available at lower frequencies. To this end, we report on the current state of knowledge of lightning RF radiation emitted at microwave frequencies. We also report the results of a new study of lightning RF radiation emitted at microwave

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frequencies ranging from 1 to 5 GHz with a focus on 1.57 GHz (the GPS L1 band). Simultaneous observations were also made using a fast electric field antenna, a VHF receiver at 190 MHz, the Oklahoma Lightning Mapping Array, and a high speed video camera. The intensity and time-domain behavior of the observed microwave radiation is reported, and specific radiation signatures are identified for various discharge processes such as return strokes, negative stepped leader breakdown, dart leader breakdown, and intracloud breakdown. A discussion is then given on how these observations may provide the basis for microwave-based lightning observing systems.

SEA13-36 LIGHTNING MAPPING OBSERVATIONS OF UPWARD-INITIATED LIGHTNING FLASHES William Rison, Paul Krehbiel, Ron Thomas, and Harald Edens
The New Mexico Tech Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) is a VHF time-of-arrival lightning mapping system. An LMA consists of multiple VHF receiving stations (typically eight to 15), distributed over an area with dimensions of about 50 to 100 km. Each station records the amplitudes and times of arrival of impulsive VHF radiation, with a timing accuracy of about 30 ns. The locations of the impulsive VHF radiation is determined by correlating the times of arrival at multiple stations. This allows us to make three-dimensional images of lightning channels. An LMA can detect and locate lightning out to a distance of several hundred kilometers from the array center (limited by the curvature of the earth), with a location accuracy of a few tens of meters over the LMA, with larger location errors for channels outside of the array. Recent observations of upward-initiated lightning flashes with several LMAs give insights into the initiation mechanisms for such discharges. Upward-initiated cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning flashes are often triggered by preceding natural IC or CG flashes. An LMA observation from eastern Virginia documents a positive CG flash that was initiated by an upward negative leader from a tower in response to a nearby negative CG flash. ULF magnetic data shows that the upward leader initiated a large continuing current for about 500 ms. After this current cuts off, a positive CG stroke (with a 50 ms long continuing current) developed along a different channel, with an NLDN-detected ground strike point about 30 km NNW of the upward leader. Recent observations from an LMA installed in Catalonia, Spain, (Van Der Velde et al, 2011) show another mechanism for initiation of flashes by upward leaders. A negative leader from a rotating wind turbine blade initiated a lightning flash which resulted in a CG return stroke, about 40 km distant, after about one second of intracloud activity. The initiation mechanism is similar to that of rocket triggering of lightning. Lightning mapping technology provides a tool for detecting lightning strikes to wind turbines. While most upward-initiated lightning flashes are triggered, some upward-initiated flashes with no preceding trigger have been observed (Schultz et al, 2011). These are all from winter storms, where the only lightning flashes in the storms were upward initiated. The LMA shows that charge for the flashes came from a low-altitude negative charge region, with no positive charge region below. Most lightning is initiated in high-field regions between two charge regions in a thundercloud, typically at altitudes of 5

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to 10 km. In these winter storms, the fields in the cloud are apparently not strong enough to initiate lightning. In these cases, the fields at the tips of towers eventually become strong enough to initiate an upward leaders.

SEA13-42 RELATION BETWEEN LIGHTNING RETURN STROKE CURRENT AND CHARGE TRANSFER Koji Michishita, Shigeru Yokoyama, Hiroaki Sato and Seiji Furukawa
For the effective lightning protection design of the airborne vehicle, accurate evaluation of the returnstroke current waveform parameters is important. Charge transfer is one of the important parameters when the damage to the airborne vehicle due to the lightning energy is discussed. The amount of a charge transfer associated with a lightning flash or individual strokes can be estimated by using the electric field change obtained with a slow antenna. In this paper, the authors estimated the charge transfer associated with negative first return strokes through the point charge model from the electric field observed at one point by assuming that the charge center is at 4.7 km above the ground and the charge center is just above the lightning striking point. The measuring site was at southwest part of Japan. The authors firstly demonstrate the accuracy of the charge transfer estimated by the above-mentioned method by comparison with the time integral of the measured current. The accuracy is dependent on the S/N ratio and is estimated 20% when the S/N ratio is 20dB, corresponding to the average ratio in our dataset. The charge transfer associated with negative first return strokes within 50 km from the measuring site of the electric field is subject to analysis. Most of the electric fields were obtained during summer. The authors first discuss the relation between the charge (Q0.2ms) at 0.2 ms from the onset of the return stroke estimated based on the measured electric field and the return stroke current (I) estimated by the LLS (Lightning Location System). The power curve relating the impulse charge in C and the return stroke current in kA is Q0.2ms=10.6 I0.96 (R2=0.64), therefore, the charge transfer at 0.2 ms is almost linearly related to the return stroke current. The linear relation is found in the measured current obtained by Berger. The correlation coefficient between the charge and the current is 0.74 and is almost the same with that evaluated by Berger, 0.77. The charge transfer (Q1ms) at 1ms after the onset of the return stroke is also estimated from the electric field change. The relation is I=9.4Q1ms 0.64 (R2=0.65) and is also in good agreement with the relation for the data obtained by Berger, I=10.6Q1ms 0.7 (R2=0.59). It is possible that the relation between the negative first return stroke current and the charge transfer within 1 ms after the onset of the return stroke is almost the same regardless of the geographical location since the charge transfer in the time range is mainly contributed by the charge stored on the leader channel but that in the cloud. With the increase of the time range subject to analysis, the correlation between the charge transfer and the return stroke current decreases due to the increase of the contribution of the continuing current.

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Wind Turbines
SEA13-01 LIGHTNING VERIFICATION TESTS FOR WIND TURBINES Sren Find Madsen, Kim Bertelsen & Bas Eirksson
The present paper discusses the different verification test methods presented in the informative Annex D of IEC 61400-24 [1]. Based on extensive use of the test methods, the paper addresses both high voltage testing: strike attachment tests and swept stroke tests and the high current tests in terms of the conducted current test, the arc entry test and the charge injection test. The physical backgrounds for the test methods are presented and the different issues of importance are discussed for each of the methodologies. By using the test methods on a daily basis, some of the principles can be questioned and needs to be discussed internationally before revising and reissuing of the standard. Finally some ideas on future test methods are presented, tests that will cast even more light on the nature of lightning protection of wind turbines. In this context the use of IR and UV camera technologies are discussed, both of which can be used to investigate LPS properties in a nondestructive manner.

SEA13-02 NUMERICAL TOOLS FOR LIGHTNING PROTECTION OF WIND TURBINES Sren Find Madsen1, Casper Falkenstrm Mieritz1, Anna Candela Garolera2
The present paper presents the different numerical tools used for lightning protection analysis. Initially the risk assessment considering attachment point distribution and location of vulnerable points on the wind turbine will be discussed, and secondly when the lightning attachment point has been decided, the principles of modeling magnetic fields, induced voltages, required shielding of panels etc. will be treated. The paper will address the requirements posted in the IEC 61400-24 in terms of zoning and positioning of air termination systems, and solve these issues using more recent tools than the far simpler EGM methods and subjective LPZ zoning concept.

SEA13-24 MODELLING OF LIGHTNING STREAMER FORMATION AND PROPAGATION IN WIND TURBINE BLADES Anna Candela Garolera, Joachim Holboell ,Sren Find Madsen, Casper F. Mieritz
The positioning of lightning air terminations along a wind turbine blade is a complex issue to consider when designing the lightning protection of wind turbine blades. According to the IEC 61400-24 on lightning protection of wind turbines, the interception efficiency depends on the effectiveness of the air termination in enhancing the electric field and attracting the lightning discharge, thus shielding the blade surface and preventing from breakdown of the blade material. However, the number and location of the

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discrete receptors may be difficult to establish since their performance is significantly influenced by the presence of conducting materials inside the blade. The design and validation of the lightning air termination system of a blade, as well as the evaluation of the effects of internal conductive components, involve high voltage tests, which are expensive and usually require complex setups. Furthermore, the tests may need to be repeated when a new conducting element is included in the blade with unpredictable effects for the lightning protection system. In the last few years, numerical methods to determine the areas of a structure more likely to be struck by lightning have proved to be a useful tool to establish the preliminary design of the lightning protection of wind turbines. However, these methods mainly concern the lightning exposure on a macroscopic level while more detailed models containing the blade internals with multiple streamer origination will add great value to the detailed design process. This paper presents a method to investigate the origination and propagation of streamers from the different conductive elements of the blade, in order to assess the effectiveness of the air termination system and the effects of internal conductive materials. The study is focused on the last few meters of the blade, where the probability of lightning attachment is highest. The calculations are performed using dynamic simulations with the finite elements method, and the results have been correlated with high voltage tests in the laboratory. The algorithms developed will be a new and improved tool for the blade LPS coordination. In particular for blades equipped with conductive elements such as carbon fiber or monitoring systems, the simulation models can involve a high level of detail and therefore be used in the detailed positioning of air terminations.

SEA13-26 SURFACE LIGHTNING PROTECTION ARCHITECTURES FOR HYBRID CARBON FIBER/GLASS FIBER COMPOSITES USED ON CURRENT WIND TURBINE BLADES Jesus ASPAS PUERTOLAS, Damien COUDEYRE, Pierre-Nicolas GINESTE
This paper presents original results concerning lightning direct effects protection of hybrid materials (glass-fiber/carbon fiber) used on current wind turbine blades. Composite materials used intensively on the last 90's were mainly based on fiber glass. Lightning protection of such wind turbine blades were typically assured by the installation of a set of small metallic receptors placed on the surface of the blade and near the extremities, the whole connected to a down conductor assuring the current transfer down to the hub of the machine. Nevertheless, near 20% of the damages observed on wind turbines were still caused by lightning. Moreover, the trend in wind turbine construction towards bigger machines that attain over 10 MW, and blades going beyond 80 m, have imposed the use of carbon fiber on structural parts such as the spar caps, thus leading in most of the cases to hybrid glass fiber/carbon fiber sandwich structures. This kind of hybrid structures are particularly sensible to lightning and assure at the same time the mechanical integrity of the structure thus presenting a particular interest from a risk analysis perspective. The challenges and particularities respect to lighting direct effects protection are multiple. On one hand, they differ from classical aeronautic structures as they present very thick insulation layers

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between the carbon fiber and the surface of the blade. Damaging mechanisms due to the arc-structure interaction are thus drastically modified. On the other hand, current waveforms and zoning derived from IEC61400 as well as a low cost maintenance policy impose harsher testing levels than those derived in aeronautic standards as ED-84. As a consequence, the protection strategy has to be carefully reviewed. To override these difficulties, several original surface protection architectures have been studied in this work at a coupon level. They rely on the use of metallic mesh or expanded metal foils introduced in the curing process. Higher grades have been tested in order to withstand the harsher constraints exposed and to address multi-flash up to a certain extent. Finally, and based on the results obtained from the lightning testing campaign that has been performed, we are able to describe the underlying damage mechanisms involved and we also propose some guidelines for an optimized choice of a lightning protection material for this kind of structures.

SEA13-31 MODELING LIGHTNING CURRENT DISTRIBUTION IN CONDUCTIVE ELEMENTS OF A WIND TURBINE BLADE A. Smorgonskiy, F. Rachidi, M. Rubinstein
Modeling of the lightning current interaction with a wind turbine is a challenging problem (1,2). One of the main difficulties is related to the presence of many different materials within the same structure with different characteristic dimensions (ranging from millimeters to tens of meters). In order to cope with this problem, the overall structure is often subdivided into subsystems (blade, hub, nacelle, tower and the grounding system). Each part can then be analyzed and simulated separately, while the remaining parts are either omitted or included using a simplified model (35). In this paper, we present an analysis of the lightning current distribution within the lightning protection system (LPS) of the blades of a wind turbine during a lightning strike. We consider not only the down conductor but also other elements connected to the LPS within the blades. According to the IEC 61400-24 (6), all internal conductive components, such as carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP), tip brake cables, electrical cables for sensors, warning lights, etc. present within the blade shall in general be bonded to the LPS. The complex geometry of the blade shown in Fig. 1 requires the use of a numerical method for the analysis. In this study, we have used COMSOL Multiphysics which is based on the finite element method. The anisotropic electrical conductivity characteristics of the CFRP have also been implemented in the model. The behavior of the analyzed system is found to be similar to the skin effect in solid conductors. Starting from the frequency of about 20 kHz as shown in Fig. 2, the most of the lightning current flows in a thin layer close to the surface of the bladewithin CFRP laminates. This leads to a local increase of the temperature and mechanical stresses in the material. A detailed description of the model and an analysis of several typical configurations of LPS with internal elements will be presented in the full version of the paper.

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SEA13-58 LIGHTNING INDUCED INDIRECT EFFECTS ON WIND TURBINES Sren Find Madsen, Lisa Carloni
The present paper discusses the indirect effects induced by lightning transients propagating in wind turbines, which are particularly critical for some such pitch control systems, de-icing devices, weather stations and other devices measuring lector-magnetic fields or currents. More importantly, lightning transients can induce high current and voltages which are potentially harmful or even lethal for the personnel servicing the towers. The analysis is based upon the extensive use of simulation tools, such as lightning attachment simulation (not discussed in this paper) and lightning current propagation simulation, in order to predict and fully comprehend the results of the high voltage testing. While direct effects of lightning strikes are localized induced effects can spread out over the entire structure and can affect unexpected parts of the tower located at a distance from the attachment point, thus simulation tools are necessary to avoid damaging the test samples with over-testing. The physical rationale is presented and the relative importance of the different effects is also discussed. The strategy for the analysis is presented and possible solutions are suggested for the specific examples of a semi-conducting Carbon Fiber girder located in the vicinity of the lightning current down conductor and for an anti-icing device.

SEA13-60 HIGH VOLTAGE & HIGH CURRENT TEST EXPERIENCES ON WIND POWER TURBINE BLADES ACCORDING TO IEC61400-24 ed.1.0 Lars Bo Hansen
The intention behind this Paper is to give a short review of LMs testing background for influencing some of the content that got into the new IEC61400-24 ed.1.0 (2010) lightning standard for Wind Power Turbines, particular on how to make High-voltage (HV) strike attachment tests on blades with the use of a draft version of the SAE ARP5416/EUROCAE ED105 Aircraft standard, because the old US MILSTD-1757 was outdated and unrealistic. With some minor modification, adjusted to blade testing, is the content from the SAE ARP5416/EUROCAE ED105 standard now a part of the informative annex D in IEC61400-24 ed.1.0 standard. The Paper will then deal with some of the test scenarios in the informative annex D, which is important from a blade manufacture perspective, like HV strike attachment tests to blade specimens made only with glass fiber, plus blades containing carbon fibers. Test outcome from Positive & Negative Switching Impulse Voltage is also discussed, it seems like negative charged blade specimens fails more often than when positive charged, which can lead to the assumption that for certifying purposes is it only necessary to do tests with negative polarity. The Swept leader attachment tests and setups will also be discussed for blades with glass & carbon fiber, because the HV strike attachment test is a test of a nonmoving object and it doesnt deal with a leader

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sweeping along the surface a short distance prior to first stroke arrival and this swept leader test then covers this scenario. Field experience from blades that have successful passed the IEC HV strike attachment test, 5 to 10 angle from horizontal seems also to perform well in the field and that gives confidence in that the mentioned HV tests are reliable. Experiences with High Current (HC) physical damage tests, typical level 1 tests, on blade metal hardware components and conductive carbon parts of blades will be discussed and examples on successful and non-successful tests will be shown. At the end will some suggestions be made for minor changes of the current IEC61400

SEA13-67 LIGHTNING CURRENT OBSERVED AT WIND TURBINES IN WINTER IN JAPAN ISHII, Masaru, SAITO, Mikihisa, NATSUNO, Daisuke, SUGITA, Akiko
Lightning current was directly observed at 27 wind turbines in Japan, in the 5-year project, from 2008 to 2013, of NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization), Japan. The aim of this extensive observation was to provide statistical data on lightning currents flow into wind turbines by direct lightning hits to facilitate improvement of lightning performance of wind turbines. The background of this research is that wind turbines in Japan have suffered from frequent damages by lightning especially in winter [1], and such frequent incidents in cold seasons have never been experienced in other regions of the world. This paper reports on characteristics of more than 650 lightning currents observed at instrumented wind turbines in Japan, recorded during 5 seasons from October to March as of 2013. In other months, 11 data only were recorded, although observation was carried out through the year. Almost all the data acquired during the cold months from October to April were associated with upward lightning, and in this paper, they are classified as winter lightning. About 70% of them were negative flashes neutralizing negative charge in cloud. About 20% were bipolar flashes, which were characterized by large charge transfer. The occurrence probability of bipolar flashes is much higher than at other observation sites in Europe. The rest 10 % were positive upward flashes. This proportion also is considerably higher than 4% at Gaisberg tower in Austria [2]. Return strokes were observed at about 11% of upward flashes, and this proportion is much smaller than observations carried out in Europe. Most of the return strokes were negative strokes. About 6% of the observed flashes transferred electric charge exceeding 300C in absolute values. These flashes transferring large amount of charge did not contain return strokes. Among these, majority were bipolar flashes, although their proportion was only 20 %. The transferred charge of one positive flash and one bipolar flash exceeded 1000C. In the latter case also, most of the charge was carried by positive current.

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Several flashes contained high-current pulses exceeding 50 kA in the absolute values, and they were not return strokes. Two of the high-current pulses had characteristics of GC strokes. GC strokes are highcurrent upward lightning strokes, so far observed in Japanese winter lightning only, which are causes of multiple-line back-flashovers on 500 kV transmission lines [3]. Reference [1] D. Natsuno, S. Yokoyama, T. Shindo, M. Ishii, H. Shiraishi, Guideline for lightning protection of wind turbines in Japan, 30th International Conference on Lightning Protection (ICLP 2010), No. SSA1259, Cagliari, Italy, September 2010. [2] G. Diendorfer, H. Zhou, H. Pichler, Review of 10 years of lightning measurement at the Gaisberg Tower in Austria, Proc. 3rd International Symposium on Winter Lightning, Sapporo, Japan, pp. 185190, June 2011. [3] M. Ishii, M. Saito, Lightning electric field characteristics associated with transmission-line faults in winter, IEEE Trans. Electromagnetic Compatibility, vol. 51, pp.459-465, 2009.

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