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# Unit 7

Practical Electricity II

## 2009 Mr Chung T W David, Coral Secondary

School
Lesson Objectives
y state some electrical hazards and precautionary
measures to ensure the safe use of electricity in
the home.

## 2009 Mr Chung T W David, Coral Secondary

School
Practical Electricity II
y Attention! This lesson may save your life!

for granted!

## 2009 Mr Chung T W David, Coral Secondary

School
Living and Physics

## Living and Physics

y Observation:
y See what happens to the wire

URL:

## 2009 Mr Chung T W David, Coral Secondary

School
Living and Physics

## Living and Physics

y Questions:
y What was that spark?
y What
Wh t caused
d th
the sparkk to
t occur?
?

## 2009 Mr Chung T W David, Coral Secondary

School
Living and Physics

## Living and Physics

Common Household Wiring
y Live or ‘Hot’ wire (Brown or
Red)
y This is a wire at high
voltage.
y This voltage may vary
between countries
y In Singapore, this voltage is
240V.
y Neutral (Blue or Black)
y This is a wire at 0V.
2009 Mr Chung T W David, Coral Secondary
Schooly It is kept at zero by earthing.
Living and Physics

## Living and Physics

Common Household Wiring
y Earth wire (Yellow & Green)
y This is a wire at 0V.
y No current flows through
under normal operation
y It is connected to the ground

## 2009 Mr Chung T W David, Coral Secondary

School
What is a short circuit?
y A short circuit is an accidental low-resistance
connection between two nodes of an electrical
circuit that are meant to be at different voltages
y An
A example l iis th
the accidental
id t l connection
ti off th
the
Live and Neutral wires for Household Wiring
y Causes an overflow of current in the circuit

## 2009 Mr Chung T W David, Coral Secondary

School
Living and Physics
y Grouping: In pairs
y Duration: 5min
y Questions:
y What was that spark?
y What caused the spark to occur?

## 2009 Mr Chung T W David, Coral Secondary

School
Electrical Hazards
Ha ards
y Electric Shocks and Electrocution
y Electrical Fires

y P
Possible
ibl CCauses:
1. Damaged Insulation
2. Overheating of Cables
3. Damp Conditions

## 2009 Mr Chung T W David, Coral Secondary

School
Electrical Hazards
y Electric Shocks and Electrocution
y Occurs: When a person is injured or killed by
large
a ge cu
current
e t flowing
o g through
oug the e body
body.
y Example: touching exposed live wire.
y Electric Shocks and Electrocution
y Occurs: A short circuit occurs causing the wire to
be overheated and a fire starts.
y Example:
E l CConnecting
ti ttoo many electrical
l ti l
appliances to same output socket, causing a fire
to break.
2009 Mr Chung T W David, Coral Secondary
School
Electrical Hazards
1. Damaged Insulation
y The wires of electrical appliances are insulated with
insulating materials such as rubber
y Due to wear and tear
tear, the rubber can become
damaged and the wires exposed
y If a person comes into contact with the exposed
wire…

## 2009 Mr Chung T W David, Coral Secondary

School
Electrical Hazards
2. Overheating of Cables
y Refers to the unusually
large amount of heat
generated by over
over-
sized
current flowing through
the conducting wires
point can g
p generate a
huge amount of heat too

## 2009 Mr Chung T W David, Coral Secondary

School
Electrical Hazards
3. Damp Conditions
y Wet
W t conditions
diti off the
th
skin greatly reduce the
electrical resistance of
the skin.
skin
y Dry skin has a typical
resistance of 100 kΩ or
more However
more. However, it may
drop below 1kΩ when
wet
y With a voltage of 240V
240V,
0.23A can flow through
the body
2009 Mr Chung T W David, Coral Secondary
School
Electrical Safety
Safet
y Never use instruments to poke into an electrical
socket
y Replace old wiring
y Do not wet electrical appliances, plugs or
sockets
y Never use electrical gadgets in wet places
y Disconnect the appliance when cleaning it
y Call the electrician

## 2009 Mr Chung T W David, Coral Secondary

School
Safety Precautions in Using Electricity (I)
y Earthing
y Why is there an earth wire?
y When a fault occurs, the earth wire will carry the
current to the ground directly.
directly
y This prevents the person who is in contact with the
ground and touching the ‘live’ appliance to be
electrocuted.
y Appliances with metal
surface are usually
earthed.
earthed

## 2009 Mr Chung T W David, Coral Secondary

School
Safety Precautions in Using Electricity (II)
y Switches
y Used to cut off electric current when we are not
operating the electrical appliance
y Must be fitted to the live wire

lamp

neutral electric
contact
240 V supply

## live fuse springy

metal

two-way
switches
2009 Mr Chung T W David, Coral Secondary
School
Safety Precautions in Using Electricity (III)
y Fuses
y Consist of a thin piece of copper wire, the fuse is given a
current rating (i.e the maximum current it can carry
without
ith t melting)
lti )
y When a fault occurs and the size of the current flow
exceeds the rated value of the fuse, the fuse will ‘blow’
(the fuse wire will melt, cutting off current flow)
y Must be fitted to the live wire
Normal
O ti
Operation
L

N
2009 Mr Chung T W David, Coral Secondary
School
Safety Precautions in Using Electricity (III)
y Fuses
y Consist of a thin piece of copper wire, the fuse is given a
current rating (i.e the maximum current it can carry
without
itho t melting)
y When a fault occurs and the size of the current flow
exceeds the rated value of the fuse, the fuse will ‘blow’
(the fuse wire will melt, cutting off current flow)
y Must be fitted to the live wire
Abnormal
O ti
Operation
L
Fuse

No current flow N
2009 Mr Chung T W David, Coral Secondary
School
Safety Precautions in Using Electricity
z Switch and Fuse
• must always be wired into the ‘live’ wire!

neutral
neutral
live
(off) live
(on)

correct incorrect

## 2009 Mr Chung T W David, Coral Secondary

School
Safety Precautions in Using Electricity (IV)

z Circuit Breakers
• A special type of switch that automatically cuts off electricity
supply in a circuit if the flow of current becomes too large
• The circuit breaker can only be reset after the fault has been
corrected
• Miniature Circuit Breakers (MCB) work like fuses but they ‘trip’
trip
• Earth Leakage Circuit Breakers (ELCB) detect small leakages in
the earth wire and cut off the current in the live wire

## 2009 Mr Chung T W David, Coral Secondary

School
Lesson S
Summary
mmar
y Household Wiring and Short Circuits
y Hazards of Electricity
y Electrical Safety Rules
y Safety Precautions in Using Electricity

School