*Institute for Strength of Materials, Technical University of Vienna, Karisplatz 13, A1040 Vienna, Austria
CONSTRUCTION & BUILDING MATERIALS Vol. 6 No. 2 1 9 9 2
30.50
I .017 0.203
0.203 2 0.258
0. 342 0.762
L,
a
59.68
F/gl
Cooling tower at Port Gibson, Miss., USA; (a) sections, (b) thickness profile, (c) FE mesh
2,4 
2.3
5'
1.1
/ 2.2/
2.1/
/
1.6
2.o/
1.9
//
1.5
/
/ //
d /
/ /
/ /
I I 0.8 0.9
I 1.0
1.5
(m)
Fig~
Transverse displacement w at point ~ = O,j~ = 37.9m versus load intensity factor ~. (  o 7, geometically nonlinear; (  [ ]   ) geometrically linear
1.3
It
.2e
that the precracking domain is practically linear. After crack initiation the shell experiencas a significant decrease of stiffness. The respective part of the Iceddisplacement diagram was termed the 'crack plateau' [14]. Because of the loadcarrying capacity of the reinforcement the shell exhibits hardening type of behaviour. Collapse is associated with the progressive fracture of the concrete and yielding of the reinforcement. A simple estimate of the collapse load [14] showed that the fear of a large difference between the load at the termination of the analysis and the 'true' failure load was unjustified. Figure 3 illustrates the influence of the reinforcement on the static response of the shell. It is seen that the length of the 'crack plateau' decreases with increasing reinfomement percentage. The difference between the ultimate load and the load corresponding to the crack plateau becomes larger with increasing reinforcement percentage.
78
0.1 0.20.30.40.50.60.70.80.91.0
w {m)
Fig3 Transverse displacement w at point ot = 0,,# = 37.qm versus load intensity factory A for three different percentages of reinforcement. (  . .) no reinforcement; (o), regular; (   [ ]   ) , doubled
A recent application of the 'smearedcrack concept' relates to the numerical evaluation of the safety coefficient of a concrete cooling tower built in 1965 at Ptolemels, Greece. Details of this investigation are contained in References 15 and 16. Figure 4 shows characteristic dimensions of the shell (Fig 4a), the circumferential distribution of the wind load (Fig 4b) and the FE mesh used for the analyses (Fig 4c). Except for a small zone at the lower part of the shell, the concrete shell is reinforced by only one layer of reinforcement located in the middle of the shell. The present state of the cooling tower is
CONSTRUCTION & BUILDING MATERIALS Vol. 6 No. 2 1992
39.0 w (z, (3=0 ) 1.221.0 0,5 ~. 0.0 (j 0.5 1,0 1,5 0() I 120 150 1 0
kN m2 1
b
QO ,.J
5q.8
 ' C
Fig4
Coofing tower PtolemarsIII, Greece; (a) geometry; wind load w (z, 0 = Of); (b) cimumferential distribution of the wind load; (c) FE mesh
k 1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0 v (cm)
Fig5
Loaddisplacement diagrams for the load cases L II, III and I~ ( ), load case I; ( ), load case II; ( . . . . . ), load case lib (    ) , load case IV
characterized by the occurrence of a relatively large number of long meddional cracks, it has been verified numerically that the temperature gradient between the inside and the outside surface of the cooling tower shell, according to winter conditions, is the most likely cause for the occurrence of the observed cracks [16]. The investigation of the influence of the thermal preloading on the limit of serviceability and on the ultimate load histories including winter conditions with and without subsequent thermal unloading (load cases II and Ill) and a 'wintersummer cycle' (load case IV), represented by the subsequent application of a thermal gradient &T/h according to winter and to summer conditions. The thermal preloading is followed by the incremental application of the wind load. In order to evaluate the stiffness reduction due to the observed cracks, an ultimate (wind) load analysis of the originally uncracked shell (load case I) has been carried out. Figure 5 shows the load displacement curves obtained from load cases I, II, III and IV, respectively. As a consequence of the thermally induced cracks, the safety factor Xc against the beginning of progressive windinduced cracking ('crack plateau') is reduced by approximately 30%. The specific way of considering the thermal history only has a minor influence on the structural behaviour under wind loading. With regards to the safety against yielding of the reinforcement, Xy (which can be regarded as the limit of serviceability of the tower shell), and to the safety against structural collapse (Xu) no significant influence was found (Fig 5).
CONSTRUCTION & BUILDING MATERIALS VOlo 6 No. 2 1992
Figure 6 shows plots of the crack distribution on the outside face of the cooling tower shell at the load level X = 1.22 for load case I (Fig 6a) and for load case III (Fig 6b). In order to account for the corrosion of the reinforcement, three different sconaria concerning the reduction of the diameter of the reinforcement bars were investigated. From these analyses it was concluded that the degree of corrosion and, consequently, the efficiency of the precautions to be taken for the protection of the reinforcement against further corrosion are the relevant criteria with regards to the safety of the cooling tower [15,16]. The efficiency of a repair by attaching stiffening rings to the shell and the influence of the location of a single ring on the structural response was also investigated [16]. Figure 7 contains plots of the deformed shell at X = 1.22, corresponding to load case III, for the unstiffened shell (Fig 7a), the shell stiffened by only one ring located at different levels (Figs 7bd), and for the shell stiffened by three rings (Fig 7e). If three stiffening rings are applied, a 61% increase of the safety factor against structural collapse can be achieved. The results obtained from ultimate load analyses of RC cooling towers contributed significantly to the understanding of the structural heheviour of this type of shells after the onset of cracking of concrete. Compared to the traditional technique of determining the safety coefficient of the shell against buckling, ultimate load analyses based on realistic computational models for reinforced and prestressed concrete highly improve the reliability of the calculated safely coefficient against collapse of RC and PC shells [14].
Tension stiffening
The capacity of the intact concrete between neighbouring cracks to carry tensile stresses, which are transferred from the reinforcement to the surrounding concrete by means of bond slip, contributes to the stiffness of the partially cracked structure. The expression 'tension stiffening' means that consideration of this capacity results in the stiffening of an otherwise too soft structure. The constitutive model for tension stiffening developed by Roegl and Mang [68] is a socalled 'reinforcomentreleted' model, because the stiffness associated with tension stiffening is assigned to the reinforcement. This is done by multiplying the nonvanishing coefficients of the metedal stiffness matrix for the reinforcement (which is assumed to be 'smeared' to steel layers of equivalent stiffness) by socalled 'tension stiffening factors f~ obtained as in References 68.
79
II I I I I
I I I
I ilily
I=
1
I I II I Illll I II I II IIII IIII
1111+'t" +1 II I'I'11 11 I I
II II
: ; : 41" I I I
I IIIIn
: ; ; H I :1"11 I I I I I I I I
/
a
/111
b
,,':][
I
Fig 6
Crack distribution ('smeared crack' approach) on the outside face at h = 1.22; (a) load case h (b) load case ill; (    ) , cracks in the softening regime; ( ), crack beyond the softening regime
I ! j I ~ j l IJ
Fig;"
Plots of the deformed shell at X = 1.22, 30fold magnification of di~olacements (load case III); (a) no stiffening ring; (b)(d) one stiffening ring located at different levels; (e) three stiffening rings
Ibt'
(a) GSi ~i
,,
I= I
i=1,2
(i)
a b
Fig 8
Crack bands; (a) one crack band, (b) two crack bands
In Equation (1), ITat I('~ and ~ are average values (of the absolute value) of the bond stress and of the steel stress between neighbouring cracks, respectively. Upper (lower) quantities in brackets refer to parallel cracks in one (two) direction(s). Figure 8 shows that up to two crack bands are taken into account. The assumption of the second crack band being normal to the first one (Fig 8b) is mechanically incorrect.
80
However, if the 'smearedcrack concept' is viewed as simple, FEMSpecific analysis technique for the approximate consideration of the overall degradation of the structural stiffness due to fracture of concrete, this assumption will be adequate. It is questionable whether some of the proposed 'improvements' of this concept, such as nonorthogonal crack bands, rotating cracks, etc will n ~ r i l y improve the overall situation with regards to ultimate load analysis of 'reallife' RC surface structures. In Equation (1), It is the length of the reinforcement bar with the diameter (It between neighbouring cracks (Fig 8); bt is an average quantity [68]. The sum in equation (1) extends
CONSTRUCTION & BUILDING MATERIALS Vol. 6 No. 2 1 9 9 2
~/
~1.0
of symmetry 106.7..~ x
,~.7
Figa
4.0
this curve. Note that Liu [19] obtained the curve through extrapolation of Hedgren's eKpedmental reeults). In contrast to the situation for the cooling tower (see Fig 2), disregard of geometric nonlinearity results in a significant underestimation of the ultimate load. Figure 11 shows the influence of tension stiffening on the transverse displacement at midspan of the free edge. In case of disregard of tension stiffening (ft = 1), the failure load of the shell is underestimated. Especially at intermediate load levels the steel stresses in the cracked subregions of the shell are overestimated [10]. Like a number of other constitutive models developed for consideration of tension stiffening, the one by Fioegl and Mang represents a crude, semiheuristic apprcwimation of the complex( physical reality. The initial hope to be able to develop a fully satisfactory constitutive model for tension stiffening, however, was not fulfilled completely.
Nonlocal failure criterion for concrete
'~ 3.o
ii ,< 2.0 1.0 1.0
I
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
w (cm)
Transverse displacement w at midspan of the free edge versus load intensity factor X. ( . . . . ) geometrically nonlinear; ( ) geometrically nonlinear; follower load; (x . . . . . ), geometrically linear; ( ), experimental
4.0
3.o
~ 2.0
Analytical: geom. nonlinear; follower load i I I I I 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 w (cm)
Transverse displacement w at midspan of the free edge versus load intensity factor X (ft = 1: tension stiffening disregarded). ( x  .  ) , analytical, fj = 1; ( e    ) , analytical; ( ) experimental
For ultimate load analysis of RC surface structure8, Rankine's strength criterion has almost exclusively been used as the criterion for failure of concrete. According to this criterion, such failure will occur, if I(~ t I ~>~ Iol u I, where or1 is the algebraically larger principal stress and C, l u is the corresponding peak stress in the (h  ~1 diagram obtained from a biaxial test (restricted to proportional, monotonic loading ((~ = ~,/a~ = const.)). Criticism of a fixed failure envelope in the a~  ~= plane, representing the geometric locus of all biaxial states of fracture stress o,u(%), Cr2u((Z~), was raised first by Bazant and Cedolin [20]. This criticism was the motivation for concrete subjected to a plane state of stress. The criterion is based on the wellknown fact that critical values of physical quantities of a point of a body frequently also depend, to some extent, on the distribution of these quantities in the environment of this point. This nonlocal influence on the considered quantity may be approximated by its gradient at this point. The developed criterion is characterized by a factor k, by which the biaxial tensile strength of concrete at the considered point of the surface structure is magnified (k~>~l). k is determined by means of a hypothesis, through which the 'noniocal situation' at this point is compared to the one at a certain point of a fictitious beam with a rectangular crosssection of yet to be determined depth h. If h was known, k(h) could be determined, k(h) is defined as [2123]
/b,.
k(h)over the n concrete layers. The thickness of layer I is g~)h, where h is the thickness of the shell and g~ is the weight coefficient for GaussLegendrs numerical integration, v,, (V~)) is the distance of the considered steel layer (concrete layer /) from the middle surface of the shell. I~) is the projection of the crack spacing b/, in the concrete layer I into the direction of (I's in the considered steel layer. Further details, including an upper bound for ft (the lower bound is obviously equal to 1), are given elsewhere [68]. Figure 9a shows the FE discretization of a quarter of a parabolicallycylindrical shell model, tested by Hedgren [18]. The shell is subjected to hydrostatic pressure, representing a follower load. Fig 9b shows the crosssection of the shell model. The material properties as well as details of the modelling of the reinforcement are given, e.g. in Reference Figure 10 shows that disregard of the followerload effect of the hydrostatic pressure has little influence on the result. (The horizontal dashes in this figure indicate the 'band width' within which the Ioeddisplacament curve obtained from the experiment is located. It was introduced in Reference 6 because of the uncertainty concerning the exact location of
CONSTRUCTION & BUILDING MATERIALS Vol. 6 No. 2 1992
u
Jr(l)b,. f .
.
.~ 1.88 JeOO)b,. (2)
f.
where f ~ is the modulus of rupture, f~) is the modulus of rupture of a beam of 10 cm depth, f~ is the direct tensile strength, and f~)lf~ = 1~8, which is a crude apprc~imation following from a paper by He,mann [24] who has evaluated a large number of pertinent test results from the literature. Mayer [25] presented a f~ulf~ )  h diagram which is also based on the evaluation of several test results from the literature. This diagram shows that the modulus of rupture increases with decreasing depth of the beam and, thus, with increasing stress gradient. The condition for the determination of h is obtained as [2123]
h = 4
~ 0(e)
IvU0() I
(3)
81
1.86 kN m2
~i
22.60
21.40
J
13z
0 15ll.
o 15~
O.ll
20.01
.18.76
) /3 s (c~: 0]
~0.16
67.30
0.20
0.25
t 830 t6,30
t 030
t,,,b'P0.58'1"73.30
35.38
w
........;=_
a Fig 12
Cooling tower Voitsberg ill, Styrla, Austria; (a) section, (b) thickness profile, (c) FE mesh
2.5
2.5 2.0
State I State I
1.5 
2.0
1.5
1.0
1.0
I
.0
I 0.2
I
w (cm)
I 0.4
I
0.01 0
I 0.02
I
u (cm)
I 0.04
a Fig 13
in
where U~e) is the elastic part of the strain energy density at the considered (integration) point and 1~7 U~') I is the absolute value of the gradient vector ~7 U~')at this point. This condition follows from setting the ratio U~')II ~7 U~) I equal to an analogous ratio for a point located on the tensile fibre of the aforementioned fictitious beam. The developed nonlocal failure criterion was applied to ultimate load analysis of a cooling tower of appro=<imately 93 m height, erected in Voitsberg, Styria, Austria. Figure 12 shows characteristic dimensions, the thickness profile and the FEmesh of this hyperbolic cooling tower shell. Further details of this structure are given elsewhere [21]. Figure 13 shows typical loaddisplacement diagrams based on the nonlocal (k ~ 1 ) and the local (k = 1) failure criterion,
82
respectively. It is seen that the influence of the increase of the biaxial tensile strength (k ~ 1) on the response of the shell is insignificant. Fig 14 shows plots of 'smeared cracks' in three different concrete layers, at X = 2.35, for k ~ 1 as well as for k = 1. The direction of the dashes indicates the direction of the cracks. In spite of the significantly larger amount of cracks for k = 1, the overall response of the shell is not much softer than the one for k >_,1. The numerical investigations in the papers cited generally confirmed the fact that problems relevant for constituitive modelling of single cracks and probably for some academic examples (fortunately) need not be relevant for ultimate load analysis of RC surface structures.
CONSTRUCTION & BUILDING MATERIALS Vol. 6 No. 2 1992
Cr own
Il
e"
"T.
_r_w
E
_1
o k~>l
crow.
1~
E
~
)11
~"~
'~'''
~..".~,~\~;'!
"1 ~
e"
b
Fig 14
k=l
Ultimate load analysis of PC surface structures With regards to an extension of the aforementioned computer program to allow consideration of various modes of prestressing, carried out by Hofstetter [26], special attention has been drawn to the efficiency of the numerical procedure. The nucleus of this work was the development of a sophisiticated strategy for the automatic computation of the points of intersection of the tendon axes with the side faces of the finite elements passed through by the tendons. These points are required for the automatic determination of the forces exerted by the tendons on the respective ducts. Figure 15 contains two such points, denoted as ~c# and p[c~, representing the points of intersection of the axis of tendon c with the side faces of finite element j. In general, this axis represents a space curve. It is described analytically, in parameter form, as x(t), where t is the curve parameter. Figure 15 shows the forces exerted by the tendon on the shell at point P, characterized by the three unit vectors t, n, b, representing the moving trihedral, t(s) is the tangent vector, n(s) is the principal normal vector and b(s) is the binormal vector, s is the arc length, p0 denotes the projection of P onto the middle surface x0(~~,, oF) of the shell, where (z1, oF are two independent parameters, e3 is the unit normal vector to the tangent plane at po. p, = p,n is the pressure exerted by the tendon on the duct in the direction of n, and Pt is the
CONSTRUCTION & BUILDING MATERIALS Vol. 6 No. 2 1992
frictional force par unit length, acting on the duct in the direction of the sliding velocity of the tendon relative to the duct. If this direction concurs with that of t, Pt = p~t (Fig 15), otherwise, Pt =P~ Pn and Pt are the absolute values of p. and p~ FA = P P and F e =  F ~ a are the forces acting on the shell, at the anchors A and B of tendon c, in the direction of the tangent vector P and opposite to the direction of the tangent vector fa, respectively (Fig 15). FA and F "B are the absolute values of/=~ end Fs. It has proved useful to choose the curve parameter t either as (x1 or as oF [27]. Knowledge of the values of t at the points of intersection of the tendon axis with the side faces of the finite elements passed through by the tendon permits determination of the corresponding values of oF = o~(t), representing the eccentricity of the tendon with respect to the middle surface of the shell [271 Thus, for the automatic determination of these points it is sufficient to consider the middle surface of the shell. Figure 16 shows this surface, the curve x(t), representing the projection of the tendon axis onto the middle surface of the shell, and the boundaries of the middle surfaces of the first and the last finite element and of three intermediate, consecutive elements, passed through by the tendon. Only the numbers of the first and the last element passed through by the tendon (elements a and m in Fig 16), and the numbers
83
x3
p
B B
cx  l i n e
,q
FA
Duct c
Element i
Fig 15
Fig 16
Middle surfaces of finite elements passed through by the projection of a tsndon exis onto the middle sufface of a shell
of the node points p and q and r and s of element m (Fig 16) are required as input by the computer program for the automatic determination of the aforementioned points of intersection [27]. The stressatrein (Oz~z) relationship for the prestressing steel is continuously curved (Fig 7a). Up to Oz = bz = 0,88o~, where 8o~ is the yield stress at 0:01% plastic strain, a linear stressstrain relation is specified. The nonlinear part of the stressstrain diagram is described by the function [27]
8
a.(E.)~ . =
~
i=1
a E"',: ,
o._>0.8Boot
(4)
This function has to match the known pairs of values (~z, bz), (~z, doldEz =Ez()), (~z, d2oz/d~2= = 0), (~o~, B0=), (~2, B(~, (6, B,.), (a, dozld~z = 0), (~, (Fozld~2z = 0), where Ez() is Young's modulus, B =~ is the yield stress at 0.2% plastic strain and Bz is the tensile strength. ~, eo~, ~2 and a are the strains corresponding to the stresses bz, B=2 and Bz. At stress levels higher than 55% of Bo~, longtime deformations are observed in the prestressing steel. In the context with the interaction of the concrete and the prestressing steel, the relaxation of prestress at constant strain is particularly important. As pert of research aimed at considering the longtime deformations of the concrete and the relaxation of the prestressing steel, carded out by Walter [28], a scheme for the computation of the changes of prestress, including the ones resulting from relaxation of the prestressing steel, was developed and implemented into the previously mentioned computer program for nonlinear analysis of RC and Pc surface structures. A bilinear stressstmln relation is used to model the material behavlour of the reinforcing steel [29]. Elastic unloading and reloading is accounted for, assuming the e~istance of the Bauschingner effect. The dashed lines in Fig 17 are pert of a parallelogram, representing the envelope of all possible loading paths. Between the yield stress 8x and the ultimate stress Bu hardening is assumed to occur. Unloading is modelled by means of a linear streesstrain relation, where E, is the modulus of elasticity. If one of the kmhad lines with the slope arctan EH is reached dudng unloading, edcfltional hardening will begin. Beyond Bu and B~, ~ y , the stresses and ~ are assumed to drop to zero and to remain at zero. The conatltutive model for consideration of the shorttime behaviour of concrete subjected to a plane slmte of stress is an extension, ,carded out by Walter [28,30], of a matedal model, based on the stressstrain relation by Uu, Niison and Slate [5]. The latter model was originally implemented by Roegl [3] for ultimate load lmalysts of RC surface structures. It is restricted to proportional monotonic loading.
CONSTRUCTION & BUILDING MATERIALS Vol. 6 NO. 2 1992
84
0
6u U
6z 60.2 80.01
I I/  U I I II I Illl II I
Vifj~t
"~ Ey , r
(
E
4
6y f3u
0v// 0.2
I/
U
a
Fig 17
b
Stress strain diagrams; (a) for the prestressing steel, (b) for the reinforcing steel
EC(t2 }

]
_~ ~(2)
.
~(71..~._
~ E.~c(
~(5)
~(8)
t2)
~C(t 2)
~P m, t
z~o(i)
EP(tl )
t1
t2
tl.5 t2. 5
t1
t3. 5
t3 t
ts.
tq=t
t6.5
t6 t7
t7.5
t8
t2
t1
t2
Fig 18
Timedependent strains
l~P(5)
Olq)
In order to be able to distinguish between loading and unloading, the original relation between total strains and total stresses (secant constitutive law) was replaced by a relation between strain increments and stress increments (tangent constitutive law). The incremental stressstrain relation for unloading is linearly elastic. For partial unloading due to a stress redistribution caused by timedependent effects (within the context of longtime behaviour of concrete), this specification is sufficiently accurate [29]. The technique employed to distinguish between elastoplastic loading and elastic unloading is analogous to plasticity models with isotropic hardening [28,30]. Loading curves which are affine to the failure envelope are utilized to determine the state of plastic loading. In order to account for the timedependent behaviour of concrete, it is useful to split up the strain at a certain instant of time t as follows [31]
P1t1 tq=t 5 t8
(s)
strain, and the creep strain depend on the stress level. Figure 18 shows the stressdependent strains as a function of time for the special case of a constant stress ~ applied at the time instant tl and removed at t2. Young's modulus and the strength of concrete are also timedependant quantities. The increase of the modulus of elasticity due to aging of concrete will result in different strain jumps, if the same stress jump occurs at different instants of time. Figure 18 shows that the stress jump from o to 0 at time h. In order to preserve the validity of the employed relationship Eo(t) = EE(IO) Jr EP(O(to)) + EC(t, I0) = O/EB(tO) Jr EP(o(to)) Jr oC(t, to)
85
where ~E(t) denotes the elastic strain, EP(t) the plastic strain, ~c(t) the creep strain, (s(t) the strain caused by shrinkage and aT(t) the temperature strain. The sum d=~ E + ~P, representing the instantaneous
CONSTRUCTION & BUILDING MATERIALS Vol. 6 No. 2 1992
(s)
where the creep strain is assumed to be proportional to the stress (although the implemented algorithm enables specification of a stressdependent creep compliance function C = C(t, to, o(to))), the original definitions of ~c(t, to) and C(t, to), where t and to denote the considered instant of time and the time of application of the stress ~, respectively, had to be modified [28,29]. In Equation (6), Ea(to) stands for Young's modulus of concrete at time to. In addition to the conventional spatial discretization, a discretization in time is required for longtime analyses. The timedependent changes of the matedal parameters will cause a change of the state of stress and the state of deformation of a structure, even if the external loads are kept constant. Figure 19 shows a typical loadhistory  three load increments are applied at the time instant t+ and two load increments are added at the time instant t4 = ts  and the corresponding stress history. Idealizing the variable stress distributions in the time intervals [tj, t~+l], i = 1, 2 . . . . n, by two piecewise constant portions each, separated by stress jumps at t~.o~ = ~ yields the following expression for the strain [28,29]:v
_t
3810
IA
1067
eCCt) =
"~ E
i=l
(7)
The program was first applied to ultimate load analyses of PC slabs and shells [27~2], disregarding the timedependent behaviour of concrete and of the prestressing steel. The efficiency of the strategy developed by Hofatatter for the automatic computation of the points of intersection of the tendon axes with the side faces of the finite elements passed through by tendons, and of the workequivalent node forces Fig 20 Model of a prestressed reactor secondary containment from prestress falls into the category of fulfilled expectations. Within the framework of collapse load analyses of PC surface structures with unbonded posttensioned tendons, Hofstetter and Mang [33,34] solved the problem of determination of the changes of the tendon forces resulting +. o.,, ~.~+.~+ ...+.++ from loads applied after the tensioning operation. This problem will be complicated, if the influence of friction of these changes of forces is considered. The numerical example m 0.+~# m( f *....... ,o++ .... , I . "Vs/ / "   " O    test]oadcase II presented in Reference 34, however, revealed that even near I(PI/~ J" j.J( '4k' a n a l y s i s  Ioadcase I the collapse load the influence of friction is relatively small. ~.~/" ~" .~.a n a l y s i s  Ioadcase II A good test of the capacity of the developed computer .~ 7 , i i L i 0.~0 + 0.2 0.q 0.6 0.B 1.0 program to take iongtime deformations into account was the w (cm} analysis of the model of a prestressed reactor secondary containment, tested by McGregor et al [35]. Figure 20 shows two sections through the experimental setup. The structure Fig 21 Loaddisplacement diagram for the pole of the spherical consists of a cylindrical part, which is prestressed beth in the cap horizontal and the verticaJ direction, and a dome with a net Figure 21 illustrates the ioed.deflection diagram for the pole of prestre~ed tendons. A prestressed concrete ring connects of the spherical cap. The complete loading cycle of the the two parts [29]. Because of the time span of more than three months experiment I is shown. This experiment was conducted at between the casting of the dome and the completion of the t = 80d [35], The process of increasing the internal pressure experiment, time.dependent effects had to be considered in p was stopped at p = 055MPa. For the analysis it was the analyals. As an idealization for the anal~/~l, the entire deed assumed that this pressure was acting for 6h before being load was assumed to act from the time of removal of the removed. The increase of the load up to failure, referring to casting of the dome (age of the concrete of the dome t = the experiment II, was conducted at t = 101d; the ultimate 7d). Moreover, the tensioning operation,, extending over four pressure was 1.1 MPa. The illustration of the loaddays, was combined to one single load step (t = 22d). Only displacement diagram referring to the experiment II is the two most significant parts of the load history were taken restricted to a load level less than 0.6 MPa. into account in the analysis. With regards to the ignored parts Figure 21 shows that the agreement of the analytical and of the load history, the internal pressure never reached more the experimental results is satisfactory. The computed failure than 25% of the ultimate load.
t
86
c~
,
Stiffening ring
m
. . . . . .
. . ..
12.5
, . ,. .. , , , . . . . .... . . ,
4....a
....
. ...
. ....
. . . . . . . . . . , , .
. . _ . . .
,. t
_.
.++. ..
,
+ .
2.5
T 1
T
015 cm
1600 k N c m
2
. 
'"
+ '
2300 kN cm
2
p~

'
"
' 1
oL+Ps
p = 0
''
, '
DL+PS p=0.3MPa
DL+PS p = 0 . 8 5 MPa
8.0
Fig 22
.67
!i!!!t.
lOO~
E2 = c 3 ~.
e: f,~
" ~
Rebar  elements
EI /.~1
.~ .+'1+.,."~
ii
c2 = o3
/ e ,
 .... . . . . .......
45.0
Chen Buyukozturk
0.0
40
8.0
12.0
16.0
Fig 23
a I  e~diagrams for alternating hydrostatic and deviatoric load steps, followed by deviatoric unloading and reloading
load is approximately 20% less than the experimental value; the failure mode  tensile failure of a tendon  is predicted correctly [29]. Figure 22 displays crack patterns on the outer surface of the shell, following from the analysis (within t.~ 3 framework of the concept of 'smeared cracks'). (The rectangular domains in Fig 22 represent the parametric mapping of a sector of the shell) Cracks caused by shrinkage in heavily reinforced regions under dead load (DL) are clearly visible. Some of these cracks close after prestressing (PS). The results obtained from FE analysis of PC surface structures, taking longtime deformations into account, were a good e0cample of the (trivial) fact that, no matter how powerful a numerical technique and how sophisticated the constitutive models for the mathematical description of physical phenomena such as creep, shrinkage and ageing of concrete and relaxation of the prestressing steel may be, the lack of experimental data required for these models represents a serious impediment for a good prognosis of the longtime structural beheviour of PC surface structures Ultimate load analysis of thickwalled Rc structures The 'Babylonian confusion' in the field of triaxial constitutive models and the lack of knowledge concerning the potential of the existing models to describe the complex material behaviour of concrete subjected to triaxial states of stress was the motivation for a research project with the title 'Synthesis of constitutive modelling of triaxially loaded concrete and FE analysis of thickwalled RC structures', conducted by Eberhardsteiner [37] and Maschke [38]. It consisted of a comprehensive critical evaluation of published nonlinearelastic [37,3944] and elastoplastic [3840,4246] constitutive models, modifications of some of these models [3740], development of a new hypoplastic material model
CONSTRUCTION & BUILDING MATERIALS Vol. 6 No. 2 1992
C o n c r e t e specimen
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Fig 24
[3840,4547], implementation of the constitutive material models into a commercial FE program and ultimate load analysis of thickwalled RC struoturas [37,38,4247]. Figure 23 shows typical results from constitutive modelling of triaxially loaded concrete This figure contains cr 1  ej diagrams (i = 1, 2, 3) for a strongly nonproportional loading path. The diagrams were obtained from different constitutive models (elsstoplastic model by Glemberg [48], nonassociated elastoplastic model by Han and Chen [49], bounding surface model by Chen and Buyukozturk [50], hypoplastic model by Maschke [46])and compared with test results by Stankowski [51]. The numerical results based on the hypoplastic model agree well with the test results. This is also true for those parts of the stress path which are characterized by deviatoric unloading and reloading. The application of the aforementioned constitutive models and of several other matedal models to ultimate load analysis of thickwalled RC structures showed that, in general, the degree of sophistication of the constitutive models for the precracking material domain has little influence on the analytical results for the ultimate load. Results from FE ultimate load analysis ot an RC cylinder subjected to a concentrated compression force, which will
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be presented in the following, turned out to be an exception from this rule. Figure 24 shows the FE model Of the concrete specimen and the steel punch. The ratio Of the area of the crosssection of the steel punch to the area of the loaded surface of the concrete cylinder is 1:156. The test, carried out by Lieberum [52], was run under displacement control. Details concerning the model parameters are given elsewhere [38]. Consideration of fracture of concrete is based on the 'smearedcrack concept'. The postcracking response of concrete is idealized as a linear stressstrain relationship, the slope of which is taken as constant (constant softening modulus). Interface shear transfer across the cracks is accounted for by means of a constant shear retention factor. Concrete failure under compression is idealized on the basis of an ideally plastic material such that the failure envelope serves as the yield surface for the postpeak material regime [47] The numerical investigation is restricted to the ascending part of the loadpenetration diagram (region I), before the diagram reaches the plateau (region II) (Fig 25). This part is characterized by the local compaction of the concrete under the steel punch. Figure 26 shows a comparison of numerically obtained loadpenetration diagrams for the region I with the test result. With regards to the hypoplastic constitutive model by Meschke, the result for the special case of an associated flow rule is also given in Fig 26.
It is seen seen that the material model has a considerable influence on the obtained results. The mason for the deficiencies of the two classical elastoplestic material models, however, is their combination with an open failure surface (Fig 27). In contrast to the hypoplastic constitutive model by Meschke, the stress paths based on these two material models do not approach their respective failure surfaces. Since the material stiffness depends on the distance of the stress point from the failure surface, the two classical elastoplastic constitutive models yield too stiff a response (Fig 26). The presented exception from the 'rule' Of the relatively small influence Of the degree of sophistication of the constitutive models for the precrecking material regime Of concrete on the ultimate load would be no exception, if the material models by Glemberg and by Han and Chen were used in combination with a closed failure surface, since in this case the presented results would join the results from the other examples [37,38]. Conclusions A decade of nonlinear FE arlalyal8 Of RC and PC structures has been critically reviewed within the context of appllcations to engineering structures. Unquestionably, such analyses, based on realistic constitutive models, appasmd to be a eigniflcant improvement over classical modes of structural analysis of RC and PC structures, which were not able to account adequately for
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88
Stress paths for an integration point under the punch near the axis of rotation for different material models
CONSTRUCTION & BUILDING MATERIALS Vol. 6 No. 2 1992
HA Mar~ and G MesChi~ 16 Meac~m, G, llkmg, H A end Korea, P Rnite element analyses of a cracked cooling tower shell. J Structural Engineering, 117 (9), 1991, 26202a39 17 Mang, H A and l r ~ l , F Physically linear buckling analysis of reinfomed concrete cooling towers deaign necessity or academic e~.erclse?Natural Draught Cooling Towers(Eds. P L Gould, W B Kdltzig, I Mungan and U Wittek) Spdnger, Bedin (1984) 279297 18 Hedgren, W A Jr A numedcal and experimental study of translational shell roofs Doctoral diss Princatown University, Princatown, USA (1965) 19 Un, C S Nonlinear analysis of relnfomed concrete slabs and shells. Rap No UCSESM 737 Structures and Materials Reseamh, Department of Civil Engineering, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, USA (1973) 20 Baant, Z and CedoHn, L Blunt crack band propagation in finite element analysis Proc ASCE. Eng Mech Div (1979) 108 297315 21 Mang, H A and EberhardMeiner, J Collapse analysis of RC shells based on a new fracture critedon, Finite ElementAnalysis of Relnfomed Concrem Structuresproc USJapan Joint Seminar, ASCE, Struct Div (1986) 579601 22 Mang, H A, Ebertmrdetelner, K and Walter, H On a nonlocal strength criterion for ultimate load analysisof reinforcedconcrete shells by the finite element method Inelastic Behaviour of Plates and Shells (Eds. L Bevilacquua, R Feljoo and R Valid)Spdnger, Acknowledgement Bedin (1986) 453472 This paper is an expanded version of a paper presented at 23 Mang, H A, Eberhardatatner, J and Waiter, H Development the second International conference on Computer Aided and application of a gradientdependent fracture criterion for Analysis and Design of Concrete Structures [53]. finite.element analysis of reinforcedconcretesurface structures This paper was first published in Engineering Structures Rnite ElementMethods for Nonlinear Problems (Eds P G Bergen, (1991) 13 211226. J J Bathe and W Wunderlich) Springer, Bedin (1986) 603621 24 Hellmann, H G Beziehungan zwtschenZug und Druckfestigkeit des Batons. Baton (1969) 19 68 References 25 Mayer, H Die Berechnung der Dumhbingung vn Stahlbeton1 Ngo,D lad Scorclel~ A C Rnite element analysesof reinforced bauteiisn. DeutscherAusschuB for S~hlbeton 41 Wilhelm Ernst, concrete beams ACI J (1967) 64 (3) Berlin (1967) 2 Sordelll, A C Past, present and future analysis of reinforced 26 H ~ r , G Traglastermittlungdonner Spannbetonschelben, concrete structures. Proc USJapanJoint Seminar, ASCE, Struct  platten und schalen mittels der Mathode der Finiten Div (1986) 656666 Elemente bei Ber0cksichigung wirklichkeitsnahen 3 Floegl, H Traglastermittlungdonner Stahlbatonschelen mittels Werkstoffverhattenssowie geornstdscher Nichlinearit~it.Do(tom/ der Mathode der Finiten Elemente unter Ber0cksichtigung diss Technical University of Vienna, Vienna. Austda (1997) wirklichkeitsnahen Werkstiffverhaltens sowie geomatrischer 27 H ~ r , G and Mang, H A Workequivalent node fomes from Nichtlinearit~t Doctoral diss Technical University of Vienna. prestressof PC shells.Rnlte e/ementmethods for p/ate and she# Vienna, Austria (1981) structures, formulations and algorithms (Eds. J R Hughes and 4 Kolter, W T General equations of elastic stability for thin shells. E Hinton) Pineridge Press, Swansea, Vol 2, 312347 (1986) Proc Syrup on the theory of shells to honour Lloyd Hamilton 28 Walter, H Physikalisch und geometrisch nichtlineare FiniteDonell University of Houston, Houstin, USA (1967) Elemente Berschnungnen yon Stahlbatonscheiben,platten und 5 Uu, T C Y, Nlleon, A H and Slate, F O Biaxial stressstrain achaian bel BerOksichtigungyon Langzeltvedormungen.Docmm/ relationsfor concrete Proc ASCE, Struct Div (1972)98 10251034 dies Technical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria (1988) 6 Floegl, H and Mang, H A On tension stiffening in cracked 29 Walter, H, Hofatettsr, G and Mang, H A Longtimedeformations reinforced concrete slabs and shells considering geometric and and creep buckling of prestressed concrete shells. physical nonlinearity. Ing.Arch (1981) 51 215252 Computational Mechanics of Nonlinear Behaviour of Shell 7 Meng, H A and Floegl, H Tensionstiffening concept for Structures (Eds W K~tzig and E O~ate) Springer, Berlin (1990) reinforced concrete surface structures.Advanced Mechanics of 30 Walter,H Erweiterung elnes zweidimensionalen Batonmodells Reinforced Concrete, IABSE, (1981) 33349 for nichtproporticnaleBelastung und linear elasticheEntlastung. 8 Floegl, H and Mang, H A Tension stiffening concept based on ZAMM (1987) 67 386387 bond slip. Proc ASCE, Struct Div (1982) 108 26812701 31 Bazant, Z P Mathematical models for creep and shrinkage of 9 Thomas, G R and Gatlagher, R H A triangular thin shell finite concrete Creep and Shrinkage in Concrete Structures (Eds Z element: linear analysis.NASA ContractorRap 2483 Washington P Bazant and F H Wittmann) John Wiley, Chichester (1982) D.C., USA (1975) 32 Hofetetter, G and Mang, H A Nonlinear finite element analysis 10 Mang, H A and Floegl, H Analytical prediction of shortterm of prestressedconcreteshells. Numericalmethods for Nonlinear behaviour of reinforced concrete panels, slabs and shells. 1981 Problems (Eds C Taylor,D R J Owan, E Hinton and F B Damjanic) Int Conv and Expos ASCE Preprint 81103 ASCE (1981) Pineridge Press, Swansea, Vol 3, 344362 (1986) 11 Mang, H A and Floegl, H Traglastberechnungen von 33 H ~ r , G and Mang, H AZum Einflu8yon Anderungan des Stahlbatonscheiban, platten und schalen. Finite Elemente in Verschiebungszustandes auf den Spannkraftvedauf bei der Bruchmechanik (Ed. H P Rossmanith). Springer,Wian (1982) Spannbetonschalan mit Vorspannung ohne Varbund unter 333364 Ber0cksichtigung der Reibung. ZAMM (1987) 67 T355T356 12 Mahl, M Zum Spannungs und Stabilitatsproblem 34 Hofstetter, G and Mang, H A Collapse load analysis of PC wtndbeanspruchter K0hlt0rmeDoctors/diss Technical University surface structures with unbonded posttentioned tendons by the of Vienna, Vienna, Austria (1982) finite element method Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 13 ACIASCE Committee 334. Reinfomed concrete cooling tower (1989) 5 141165 shells  practice and commentary. J ACI (1977) 74 22 35 McGregor, J G, Slmmonde, S H and Rlzlmlla, S H Test of a 14 Mang, H A, Floegl, H, Tmppel, F and Walter, H Windloaded prestressedsecondarycontainmentstructureStnx~urslEng Rap reinfomed concrete cooling towers: buckling or ultimate load? No 85 Department of Civil Engineering, University of Alberta, Eng Struct (1983) 5 163180 Edmonton, Canada (1980) 15 Meechke, G and Mang, H A Numericalinvestigationof the safety 36 Hofatetter, G, Walter, H and Mang, H FiniteElemant coefficient of a cracked concrete cooling tower against structural Berechnungen yen Flachentragwerken aus Spannbaton unter collapse. Proc IABSE Colloquium "Structural Concrete' (1991) Ber0ksichtigung von Langzeltverformunganund Zustand II Der 349354 Bauingenieur (1989) 64 449461 CONSTRUCTION & BUILDINGMATERIALSVol. 6 No. 2 1992 89 several mechanical phenomena. This not only holds true with regards to the reliability of the numerically predicted static response, but also with respect to the potential of FE analyses to serve as a stimulating tool which may largely increase the analyet'B inBight into the structural behaviour of thB RC and PC structures. As far as the anticipated importance of particular mechanical phenomena on the structural behaviour was concerned, however, the expectations from such analyses were (fortunately) not completely fulfilled. Although some of these aspects may be relevant for the determination of the local stress state within a structure and for analyses of rather academic e~unples, their influence on the overall structural response of a reasonably well designed RC or PC structure is much smaller. The main conclusion drawn from the experience of a decade of nonlinear RE analysis of RC and PC structures at Technical University of Vienna iB that the deploreblB drifting apart of constitutive modelling, on thB one hand, and FE ultimate load analysiB of RC and PC structures, on thB other hand, iB counterproductive for the acceptance of this mode of analysis by the civil engineering profession.
Eberhardsteiner, J Syntheseaus konstituUvemModellierenvon Beton mittels dreiaxialernichtlinearelastischerWerkstoffmodelle und FiniteElementAnalysendickwandiger Stahlbetonkonstruktionen. Doctoral diss Technical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria (1989) 38 Meechk=, G Syntheseaus konstitutivemModellierenyon Baton mittels dreiaxialerelastoplestischer Wedaitoffmodelleund FiniteElementeAnalysen dickwandiger Stahlbetonkonstruktionen. Doctoral diss Technical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
37
45
46
(1989)
39 Eberhardstelner, H, Meschke, G and Mang, H Triaxiales konstitutives Modellieren yon Baton zum Zwecke der DurchfQhrung vergleichender Trenglastanalysendickwandiger Stahlbatonkonatruktionen mittels der Methode der Finiten Elementa. Final Rep Res Project P5161 sponsored by the Fends zur F6rderung der wissenschaftlichen Forschung, Institute for Strength of Materials, Technical University of Vienna, Austria (1987) 40 Eberhardsteiner, H, Meechlm, G and Meng, H A Comparison of constitutive models for triaxially loaded concrete Computational Mechanics of Concrete Structures  Advances and Applications IABSE (1987) 197208 41 Eberlmrdsteiner, J and Mang, H Vergleichendes konstitutives Modellieren dreiachsial beanspruchtan Batons auf der Grundlage nichtlinear elastischer StoffgesatzeZAMM (1988)68 T167T169 42 Eberhardsteiner, H, Meechlm, G and Mang,, H A Synthesis of constitutive modelling of triaxiallyloaded concrete and finite element analysis of thickwalled RC structures. Computational Engineering Science (Eds S N Atlud and G Yagawa)Springer, Berlin, Vol 1, 30. ii. 14. (1988) 43 Eberlmrdstelner, H, Hofstetter, G, Mang, H A, Meechke, G and Walter, H Traglastanalysen von (a) schlaff bewehrten, dickwandigen Konstruktionselementenund (b) vorgespannten, dQnnwandigen Schalen aus Baton, NichtlineemBemschnuogen im konstruktiven Ingenieurbau, (Ed E Stein) Springer, Berlin, (1989) 303323 44 Eberherdstelner, J Finite element analysis of thickwalled RC 47
48 49 50 51 52 53
structures with different nonlinearelastic material models. Computer Aided Analysis and Design of Concrete Structures (Eds N Bi(~ani(~and H Mang) Pinerldge Press, Swansea (1990) 696706 Meschke, G and Mang, H Vergleichendes konstitutives Modellieren dreiechsial beanspruchten Betons auf der Grundlage elastoplastischer Stoffgesetze ZAMM (1988) 88 T221T224 Meechks,G Application of elastoplasticconstitutive models to 3D finite element analyses of RCstructures Computer Aided Analysis and Design of Concrete Structures Eds N Bi~anidand H Mang) Pineddge Press, Swansea (1990) 10411053 Meechlm,G and Mang, H A Application of a new hypoplastic model to 3D finite element analyses of concrete structures. Computat/onalp / a ~ , m o d ~ softwareand app/icat/ons(Eds D R J Owen, E Hinton and E Onate) Pineridge Press, Swansea (1989) 12191234 Glemberg, R Dynamic analysisof concretestructures. Pub1841 Department of Structural Mechanics, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden (1984) Han, D J and Chen, W F Constitutive modelling in analysis of concrete structures. Proc ASCE, Eng Mech Div (1987) 113 577593 Chert,E S and Buyulmzturk, O Constitutivemodel for concrete in cyclic compression. Proc ASCE, Eng Mech Div (1985) 111 797814 Stan~, T Concrete under multiaxialload histories.Do(tom/ diss. Department of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, USA (1983) Lleberum, K H Des Travgerhalten von Beton bei extremer Teilfl/ichenbelastung. Doctoral diss Technical University of Darmstadt, Darmstadt, FRG (1987) Mang, H A Fulfilled and unfulfilled expectations: a review of a decade of nonlinear FE analysis of reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete at Technical University of Vienna. Computer Aided Analysis and Design of Concrete Structures (Eds N Bi(~ank~and H Mang) Pineridge Press, Swansea (1990) 12831309
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