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Nonlinear finite element analysis of reinforced and prestressed concrete structures

H A Mang and G Meschke*

Abstract - This paper contains a survey of research in the field of nonlinear finite element (FE) analysis of reinforced concrete (RC)and prestressed concrete (PC)surface structures and thick.walled RCstructures, carried out at the Institute for Strength of Materials of the Technical University of Vienna. FE analyses of RC and PC structures and the related theoretical developments are critically examined in the context of their relevance for engineering practice. Generally speaking, such ana/yses appeared to be a signficent improvement over classical modes of structural analysis, which were not able to account adequately for several (more or less) important mechanical phenomena. With regards to the anticipated importance of some of these phenomena on the static response of the considered structures, it was found that, in general, relatively simple constitutive models permit reasonably good predictions of the structural response of RC and Pc structures up to the ultimate load. More than two decades have passed since the pioneering work of Ngo and Scordelis [1] stimulated research activities in the field of applications of the Finite Element Method (FEM) tO nonlinear analyses of reinforced concrete (RC) and prestressed concrete (PC) structures. This work was based on a 'discrete crack model'. It was the development of the conceptionally simpler 'smeered-creck concept' which made the finite element method applicable to large scale 'predictive type' ultimate load analyses of engineering structures made of reinforced or prestressed concrete. While extensive research activities in the last two decades were concerned with the development of increasingly sophisticated constitutive models for concrete and for interface problems between concrete and steel, respectively, the degree of sophistication of concrete models which are actually implemented in available multipurpose finite element programs is relatively poor. In a state-of-the-art report [2], presented in 1985, Scordelis addressed this discrepancy between sophisticated nonlinear analysis and structural engineering practice: "While extensive research on the FE analysis of reinforced concrete structures has been conducted over the past eighteen years, its implementation in the design of actual structures has been disappointing. Present designs are still generally based on determining internal forces and moments, by elastic analyses in which the RC or PC system is assumed to be uncracked, homogeneous, isotropic and linearly elastic." In countries like Austria, where relatively little research is carried out by the construction industry, university institutes in departments of civil engineering are morally obliged to combine basic and applied research. The main guideline for the research activities at the Institute for Strength of Materials (ISM) at the Technical University (TU) of Vienna in the field of nonlinear FE analysis of reinforced and prestressed concrete structures in the last decade was to find a proper balance between complex constitutive modelling and applications to engineering structures. This paper contains a critical review of the research activities at ISM covering a pedod of approximately 10 years. It covers physically and geometrically nonlinear ultimate load analyses of RC and PC surface structures (panels, slabs, shells) including ones with bonded and with unbonded tendons and three dimensional analyses of thick walled concrete structures. In this context, several theoretical developments, such as a concept of considering tension stiffening caused by bond slip between the reinforcement and the surrounding concrete, a nonlocal criterion for concrete failure, a sophisticated strategy for the automatic computation of the points of intersection of the tendon axes with the side faces of the finite elements, passed through by the tendons, algorithms concerning consideration of long-time deformations (creep, shrinkage and ageing of concrete and relaxation of the prestressing steel) and the development of a hypoplastic model for triaxially loaded concrete, are presented. According to the above mentioned guideline, the theoretical considerations are discussed in conjunction with results of practical applications in order to reveal to what degree the expectations which here motivated the development of these models wore fulfilled in the context of ultimate load analyses of engineering structures. Ultimate load analysis of RC surface structures Ten years ago, when Floegl [3] completed the development of a computer program for ultimate load analysis of RC surface structures, the features of this program were above the standard of the bulk of contemporary FE software for structural analysis. In addition to the consideration of geometric nonlinearity based on Kolter's theory of moderately large rotations [4], physical nonlinearity based on biaxial stress-strain relations by Liu, Nilson and Slate [5] and fracture of concrete treated within the framework of the 'smeered-crack concept', the tension stiffening effect was taken into account [6-8]. Curved triangular, Cl-conforming finite shell elements [9] were divided into sufficiently many thin layers, allowing one to assume a plane state of stress in each layer of concrete. The program was first applied to ultimate load analysis of RC panels, slabs and shells [10,11] for which test results had been reported in the literature. Parameter studies revealed that disregard of geometric nonlinearity did not necessarily result in an overestimation of the ultimate load. One of the highlights of pertinent reseemh work at TU Vienna was the assessment of the structural safety of cooling tower shells subjected to quasi-static wind loading. Fig la and b show the characteristic dimensions of the cooling tower at Port Gibson, Miss., USA. The part of the generatdx of the shell above the throat is part of a hyperbola (ellipse). For the analysis, the simplifying assumption of a rigid, hinged base was made. Mehl [12] has demonstrated that the influence of the flexibility of the supports on the static response of the structure is relatively small. Because of symmetry of the wind load, only one half of the cooling tower had to be analysed. Fig lc shows the FE mesh for one half of the shell. Figure 2 shows typical load-displacement diagrams. The reference wind load [13] is multiplied by the load factor)~ The diagram illustrates that disregard of geometric nonlineerity results in too stiff a response of the shell. The figure indicates

*Institute for Strength of Materials, Technical University of Vienna, Karisplatz 13, A-1040 Vienna, Austria

0950-0618/92/020077-14 1992 Buttetworth-Helnemann Ltd

Nonlinear finite element analysis of reinforced and prestressed concrete structures

38.52 z=~


I .017 0.203

0.203 2 0.258

0. 342 0.762




Cooling tower at Port Gibson, Miss., USA; (a) sections, (b) thickness profile, (c) FE mesh
2,4 -



/ 2.2/





/ //

1.81.4 1.7I.:: 1.6-1.2 it I 0.1 0 . 2 I I I I I 0 . 3 0./.I 0 . 5 0 . 6 0 . 7


d /
/ /
/ /

I I 0.8 0.9

I 1.0




Transverse displacement w at point ~ = O,j~ = -37.9m versus load intensity factor ~. ( - o -7, geometically nonlinear; ( -- [ ] - - ) geometrically linear



that the pre-cracking domain is practically linear. After crack initiation the shell experiencas a significant decrease of stiffness. The respective part of the Iced-displacement diagram was termed the 'crack plateau' [14]. Because of the load-carrying capacity of the reinforcement the shell exhibits hardening type of behaviour. Collapse is associated with the progressive fracture of the concrete and yielding of the reinforcement. A simple estimate of the collapse load [14] showed that the fear of a large difference between the load at the termination of the analysis and the 'true' failure load was unjustified. Figure 3 illustrates the influence of the reinforcement on the static response of the shell. It is seen that the length of the 'crack plateau' decreases with increasing reinfomement percentage. The difference between the ultimate load and the load corresponding to the crack plateau becomes larger with increasing reinforcement percentage.

-0.1 -0.2-0.3-0.4-0.5-0.6-0.7-0.8-0.9-1.0

w {m)
Fig3 Transverse displacement w at point ot = 0,,# = -37.qm versus load intensity factory A for three different percentages of reinforcement. ( - . -.-) no reinforcement; (-o-), regular; ( - - [ ] - - ) , doubled

A recent application of the 'smeared-crack concept' relates to the numerical evaluation of the safety coefficient of a concrete cooling tower built in 1965 at Ptolemels, Greece. Details of this investigation are contained in References 15 and 16. Figure 4 shows characteristic dimensions of the shell (Fig 4a), the circumferential distribution of the wind load (Fig 4b) and the FE mesh used for the analyses (Fig 4c). Except for a small zone at the lower part of the shell, the concrete shell is reinforced by only one layer of reinforcement located in the middle of the shell. The present state of the cooling tower is

H A Mang and G Meschke

39.0 w (z, (3=0 ) 1.221.0 0,5 ~. 0.0 (j -0.5 -1,0 -1,5 0() I 120 150 1 0

kN m-2 1

~o. 7,! kNm


QO ,.-J


- ' C


Coofing tower Ptolemars-III, Greece; (a) geometry; wind load w (z, 0 = Of); (b) cimumferential distribution of the wind load; (c) FE mesh

k 1.5



0.0 v (cm)


Load-displacement diagrams for the load cases L II, III and I~ ( ), load case I; ( ), load case II; ( . . . . . ), load case lib ( - - - ) , load case IV

characterized by the occurrence of a relatively large number of long meddional cracks, it has been verified numerically that the temperature gradient between the inside and the outside surface of the cooling tower shell, according to winter conditions, is the most likely cause for the occurrence of the observed cracks [16]. The investigation of the influence of the thermal preloading on the limit of serviceability and on the ultimate load histories including winter conditions with and without subsequent thermal unloading (load cases II and Ill) and a 'winter-summer cycle' (load case IV), represented by the subsequent application of a thermal gradient &T/h according to winter and to summer conditions. The thermal preloading is followed by the incremental application of the wind load. In order to evaluate the stiffness reduction due to the observed cracks, an ultimate (wind) load analysis of the originally uncracked shell (load case I) has been carried out. Figure 5 shows the load displacement curves obtained from load cases I, II, III and IV, respectively. As a consequence of the thermally induced cracks, the safety factor Xc against the beginning of progressive wind-induced cracking ('crack plateau') is reduced by approximately 30%. The specific way of considering the thermal history only has a minor influence on the structural behaviour under wind loading. With regards to the safety against yielding of the reinforcement, Xy (which can be regarded as the limit of serviceability of the tower shell), and to the safety against structural collapse (Xu) no significant influence was found (Fig 5).

Figure 6 shows plots of the crack distribution on the outside face of the cooling tower shell at the load level X = 1.22 for load case I (Fig 6a) and for load case III (Fig 6b). In order to account for the corrosion of the reinforcement, three different sconaria concerning the reduction of the diameter of the reinforcement bars were investigated. From these analyses it was concluded that the degree of corrosion and, consequently, the efficiency of the precautions to be taken for the protection of the reinforcement against further corrosion are the relevant criteria with regards to the safety of the cooling tower [15,16]. The efficiency of a repair by attaching stiffening rings to the shell and the influence of the location of a single ring on the structural response was also investigated [16]. Figure 7 contains plots of the deformed shell at X = 1.22, corresponding to load case III, for the unstiffened shell (Fig 7a), the shell stiffened by only one ring located at different levels (Figs 7b-d), and for the shell stiffened by three rings (Fig 7e). If three stiffening rings are applied, a 61% increase of the safety factor against structural collapse can be achieved. The results obtained from ultimate load analyses of RC cooling towers contributed significantly to the understanding of the structural heheviour of this type of shells after the onset of cracking of concrete. Compared to the traditional technique of determining the safety coefficient of the shell against buckling, ultimate load analyses based on realistic computational models for reinforced and prestressed concrete highly improve the reliability of the calculated safely coefficient against collapse of RC and PC shells [14].
Tension stiffening

The capacity of the intact concrete between neighbouring cracks to carry tensile stresses, which are transferred from the reinforcement to the surrounding concrete by means of bond slip, contributes to the stiffness of the partially cracked structure. The expression 'tension stiffening' means that consideration of this capacity results in the stiffening of an otherwise too soft structure. The constitutive model for tension stiffening developed by Roegl and Mang [6-8] is a so-called 'reinforcoment-releted' model, because the stiffness associated with tension stiffening is assigned to the reinforcement. This is done by multiplying the non-vanishing coefficients of the metedal stiffness matrix for the reinforcement (which is assumed to be 'smeared' to steel layers of equivalent stiffness) by so-called 'tension stiffening factors f~ obtained as in References 6-8.

Nonlinear finite element analysis of reinforced and prestressed concrete structures

III I1++++ I II II +++ I +-I" + + I -I'+ + + I I1++ II

I t t Ill / t J l


I ilily


1111+'t" +1 II I'I'11 11 I I


: ; : 4-1" I I I


: ; ; -H- I :1"11 I I I I I I I I






Fig 6

Crack distribution ('smeared crack' approach) on the outside face at h = 1.22; (a) load case h (b) load case ill; ( - - - ) , cracks in the softening regime; ( ), crack beyond the softening regime
I ! j I ~ j l IJ


Plots of the deformed shell at X = 1.22, 30-fold magnification of di~olacements (load case III); (a) no stiffening ring; (b)-(d) one stiffening ring located at different levels; (e) three stiffening rings

(a) GSi ~i

I= I


a b

Fig 8

Crack bands; (a) one crack band, (b) two crack bands

In Equation (1), ITat I('~ and ~ are average values (of the absolute value) of the bond stress and of the steel stress between neighbouring cracks, respectively. Upper (lower) quantities in brackets refer to parallel cracks in one (two) direction(s). Figure 8 shows that up to two crack bands are taken into account. The assumption of the second crack band being normal to the first one (Fig 8b) is mechanically incorrect.

However, if the 'smeared-crack concept' is viewed as simple, FEM-Specific analysis technique for the approximate consideration of the overall degradation of the structural stiffness due to fracture of concrete, this assumption will be adequate. It is questionable whether some of the proposed 'improvements' of this concept, such as non-orthogonal crack bands, rotating cracks, etc will n ~ r i l y improve the overall situation with regards to ultimate load analysis of 'real-life' RC surface structures. In Equation (1), It is the length of the reinforcement bar with the diameter (It between neighbouring cracks (Fig 8); bt is an average quantity [6-8]. The sum in equation (1) extends

H A Mang and G Meechi~


of symmetry 106.7--..~ x

~-61.0~--~ Y...~=,~ }~f I



Parabolically.cylindrical RC shell; (a) FE discretizetion, (b) cross-section


this curve. Note that Liu [19] obtained the curve through extrapolation of Hedgren's eKpedmental reeults). In contrast to the situation for the cooling tower (see Fig 2), disregard of geometric nonlinearity results in a significant underestimation of the ultimate load. Figure 11 shows the influence of tension stiffening on the transverse displacement at midspan of the free edge. In case of disregard of tension stiffening (ft = 1), the failure load of the shell is underestimated. Especially at intermediate load levels the steel stresses in the cracked subregions of the shell are overestimated [10]. Like a number of other constitutive models developed for consideration of tension stiffening, the one by Fioegl and Mang represents a crude, semi-heuristic apprcwimation of the complex( physical reality. The initial hope to be able to develop a fully satisfactory constitutive model for tension stiffening, however, was not fulfilled completely.
Nonlocal failure criterion for concrete

'~ 3.o
ii ,< 2.0 1.0 1.0






w (cm)

Transverse displacement w at midspan of the free edge versus load intensity factor X. ( . . . . ) geometrically nonlinear; ( ) geometrically nonlinear; follower load; (x . . . . . ), geometrically linear; ( ), experimental

~ 2.0

S~ :lx" 1.0 , X ~ . I X ' I

I I .0

Analytical: geom. nonlinear; follower load i I I I I 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 w (cm)

Transverse displacement w at midspan of the free edge versus load intensity factor X (ft = 1: tension stiffening disregarded). ( x - . - ) , analytical, fj = 1; ( e - - - ) , analytical; ( ) experimental

For ultimate load analysis of RC surface structure8, Rankine's strength criterion has almost exclusively been used as the criterion for failure of concrete. According to this criterion, such failure will occur, if I(~ t I ~>~ Iol u I, where or1 is the algebraically larger principal stress and C, l u is the corresponding peak stress in the (h - ~1 diagram obtained from a biaxial test (restricted to proportional, monotonic loading ((~ = ~,/a~ = const.)). Criticism of a fixed failure envelope in the a~ - ~= plane, representing the geometric locus of all biaxial states of fracture stress o,u(%), Cr2u((Z~), was raised first by Bazant and Cedolin [20]. This criticism was the motivation for concrete subjected to a plane state of stress. The criterion is based on the well-known fact that critical values of physical quantities of a point of a body frequently also depend, to some extent, on the distribution of these quantities in the environment of this point. This nonlocal influence on the considered quantity may be approximated by its gradient at this point. The developed criterion is characterized by a factor k, by which the biaxial tensile strength of concrete at the considered point of the surface structure is magnified (k~>~l). k is determined by means of a hypothesis, through which the 'noniocal situation' at this point is compared to the one at a certain point of a fictitious beam with a rectangular crosssection of yet to be determined depth h. If h was known, k(h) could be determined, k(h) is defined as [21-23]

k(h)over the n concrete layers. The thickness of layer I is g~)h, where h is the thickness of the shell and g~ is the weight coefficient for Gauss-Legendrs numerical integration, v,, (V~)) is the distance of the considered steel layer (concrete layer /) from the middle surface of the shell. I~) is the projection of the crack spacing b/, in the concrete layer I into the direction of (I's in the considered steel layer. Further details, including an upper bound for ft (the lower bound is obviously equal to 1), are given elsewhere [6-8]. Figure 9a shows the FE discretization of a quarter of a parabolically-cylindrical shell model, tested by Hedgren [18]. The shell is subjected to hydrostatic pressure, representing a follower load. Fig 9b shows the cross-section of the shell model. The material properties as well as details of the modelling of the reinforcement are given, e.g. in Reference Figure 10 shows that disregard of the follower-load effect of the hydrostatic pressure has little influence on the result. (The horizontal dashes in this figure indicate the 'band width' within which the Ioed-displacament curve obtained from the experiment is located. It was introduced in Reference 6 because of the uncertainty concerning the exact location of

Jr(l)b,. f .

-.~ 1.88 JeOO)b,. (2)


where f ~ is the modulus of rupture, f~) is the modulus of rupture of a beam of 10 cm depth, f~ is the direct tensile strength, and f~)lf~ = 1~8, which is a crude apprc~imation following from a paper by He,mann [24] who has evaluated a large number of pertinent test results from the literature. Mayer [25] presented a f~ulf~ ) - h diagram which is also based on the evaluation of several test results from the literature. This diagram shows that the modulus of rupture increases with decreasing depth of the beam and, thus, with increasing stress gradient. The condition for the determination of h is obtained as [21-23]

h = 4

~ 0(e)

IvU0() I



Nonfinear finite element analysis of reinforced and prestressed concrete structures

1.86 kN m-2




0 15ll.
o 15~



) /3 s (c~: 0]





t 830 t6,30

0.30 t,130 0.46t-, 30


t 030



a Fig 12

Cooling tower Voitsberg ill, Styrla, Austria; (a) section, (b) thickness profile, (c) FE mesh


2.5 2.0
State I State I
1.5 --






I -0.2

w (cm)

I -0.4

-0.01 0

I 0.02

u (cm)

I 0.04

a Fig 13

L o a d - d i s p l a c e m e n t d i a g r a m s ; (a) transverse d i s p l a c e m e n t w at p o i n t ~z = O, B = - 188 m, (b) t a n g e n t i a l d i s p l a c e m e n t c i r c u m f e r e n t i a l direction, u, at p o i n t ct = ~r/2, 8 = 20.0 m. ( .. ), k ~ 1 ; ( ~ ) , k = 1


where U~e) is the elastic part of the strain energy density at the considered (integration) point and 1~7 U~') I is the absolute value of the gradient vector ~7 U~')at this point. This condition follows from setting the ratio U~')II ~7 U~) I equal to an analogous ratio for a point located on the tensile fibre of the aforementioned fictitious beam. The developed nonlocal failure criterion was applied to ultimate load analysis of a cooling tower of appro=<imately 93 m height, erected in Voitsberg, Styria, Austria. Figure 12 shows characteristic dimensions, the thickness profile and the FE-mesh of this hyperbolic cooling tower shell. Further details of this structure are given elsewhere [21]. Figure 13 shows typical load-displacement diagrams based on the nonlocal (k ~ 1 ) and the local (k = 1) failure criterion,

respectively. It is seen that the influence of the increase of the biaxial tensile strength (k ~ 1) on the response of the shell is insignificant. Fig 14 shows plots of 'smeared cracks' in three different concrete layers, at X = 2.35, for k ~ 1 as well as for k = 1. The direction of the dashes indicates the direction of the cracks. In spite of the significantly larger amount of cracks for k = 1, the overall response of the shell is not much softer than the one for k >_,1. The numerical investigations in the papers cited generally confirmed the fact that problems relevant for constituitive modelling of single cracks and probably for some academic examples (fortunately) need not be relevant for ultimate load analysis of RC surface structures.

H A Mang and G Mwch/~

Cr own






Base Inner surface Middle s u r f a c e Outer surface

o k~>l






"1 ~


Base Inner surface Middle s u r f a c e Outer surface

Fig 14


'Smeared cracks' in three different concrete layers, at X : 2,35

Ultimate load analysis of PC surface structures With regards to an extension of the aforementioned computer program to allow consideration of various modes of prestressing, carried out by Hofstetter [26], special attention has been drawn to the efficiency of the numerical procedure. The nucleus of this work was the development of a sophisiticated strategy for the automatic computation of the points of intersection of the tendon axes with the side faces of the finite elements passed through by the tendons. These points are required for the automatic determination of the forces exerted by the tendons on the respective ducts. Figure 15 contains two such points, denoted as ~c# and p[c~, representing the points of intersection of the axis of tendon c with the side faces of finite element j. In general, this axis represents a space curve. It is described analytically, in parameter form, as x(t), where t is the curve parameter. Figure 15 shows the forces exerted by the tendon on the shell at point P, characterized by the three unit vectors t, n, b, representing the moving trihedral, t(s) is the tangent vector, n(s) is the principal normal vector and b(s) is the binormal vector, s is the arc length, p0 denotes the projection of P onto the middle surface x0(~~,, oF) of the shell, where (z1, oF are two independent parameters, e3 is the unit normal vector to the tangent plane at po. p, = p,n is the pressure exerted by the tendon on the duct in the direction of n, and Pt is the

frictional force par unit length, acting on the duct in the direction of the sliding velocity of the tendon relative to the duct. If this direction concurs with that of t, Pt = p~t (Fig 15), otherwise, Pt =-P~ Pn and Pt are the absolute values of p. and p~ FA = P P and F e = - F ~ a are the forces acting on the shell, at the anchors A and B of tendon c, in the direction of the tangent vector P and opposite to the direction of the tangent vector fa, respectively (Fig 15). FA and F "B are the absolute values of/=~ end Fs. It has proved useful to choose the curve parameter t either as (x1 or as oF [27]. Knowledge of the values of t at the points of intersection of the tendon axis with the side faces of the finite elements passed through by the tendon permits determination of the corresponding values of oF = o~(t), representing the eccentricity of the tendon with respect to the middle surface of the shell [271 Thus, for the automatic determination of these points it is sufficient to consider the middle surface of the shell. Figure 16 shows this surface, the curve x(t), representing the projection of the tendon axis onto the middle surface of the shell, and the boundaries of the middle surfaces of the first and the last finite element and of three intermediate, consecutive elements, passed through by the tendon. Only the numbers of the first and the last element passed through by the tendon (elements a and m in Fig 16), and the numbers

Nonfinear finite element analysis of reinforced and prestressed concrete structures



cx - l i n e


Duct c

Element i

Middle s u r f a c e o f shell x0 (c~1,c~2 )

Fig 15

Forces exerted by a tendon on the shell

Fig 16

Middle surfaces of finite elements passed through by the projection of a tsndon exis onto the middle sufface of a shell

of the node points p and q and r and s of element m (Fig 16) are required as input by the computer program for the automatic determination of the aforementioned points of intersection [27]. The stress-atrein (Oz-~z) relationship for the prestressing steel is continuously curved (Fig 7a). Up to Oz = bz = 0,88o~, where 8o~ is the yield stress at 0:01% plastic strain, a linear stress-strain relation is specified. The nonlinear part of the stress-strain diagram is described by the function [27]

a.(E.)~ . =


a E-"-',: ,



This function has to match the known pairs of values (~z, bz), (~z, doldEz =Ez()), (~z, d2oz/d~2= = 0), (~o~, B0=), (~2, B(~, (6, B,.), (a, dozld~z = 0), (~, (Fozld~2z = 0), where Ez() is Young's modulus, B =~ is the yield stress at 0.2% plastic strain and Bz is the tensile strength. ~, eo~, ~2 and a are the strains corresponding to the stresses bz, B=2 and Bz. At stress levels higher than 55% of Bo~, long-time deformations are observed in the prestressing steel. In the context with the interaction of the concrete and the prestressing steel, the relaxation of prestress at constant strain is particularly important. As pert of research aimed at considering the long-time deformations of the concrete and the relaxation of the prestressing steel, carded out by Walter [28], a scheme for the computation of the changes of prestress, including the ones resulting from relaxation of the prestressing steel, was developed and implemented into the previously mentioned computer program for nonlinear analysis of RC and Pc surface structures. A bilinear stress-stmln relation is used to model the material behavlour of the reinforcing steel [29]. Elastic unloading and reloading is accounted for, assuming the e~istance of the Bauschingner effect. The dashed lines in Fig 17 are pert of a parallelogram, representing the envelope of all possible loading paths. Between the yield stress 8x and the ultimate stress Bu hardening is assumed to occur. Unloading is modelled by means of a linear strees-strain relation, where E, is the modulus of elasticity. If one of the kmhad lines with the slope arc-tan EH is reached dudng unloading, edcfltional hardening will begin. Beyond Bu and -B~, ~ y , the stresses and ~ are assumed to drop to zero and to remain at zero. The conatltutive model for consideration of the short-time behaviour of concrete subjected to a plane slmte of stress is an extension, ,carded out by Walter [28,30], of a matedal model, based on the stress-strain relation by Uu, Niison and Slate [5]. The latter model was originally implemented by Roegl [3] for ultimate load lmalysts of RC surface structures. It is restricted to proportional monotonic loading.


H A Mang and G Meschke

6u U

6z 60.2 80.01
I I/ - U I I II I Illl II I

"~ -Ey , r


-6y -f3u

0v// 0.2

EO.01 CO.2 c z [~)


Fig 17

Stress strain diagrams; (a) for the prestressing steel, (b) for the reinforcing steel

EC(t2 }

_~ ~(2)


.......~ ' - " - : ~ "

~ E.~c(




~C(t 2)
~P m, t


EP(tl )



tl.5 t2. 5

t3. 5
t3 t


t6 t7





P5" PqP3" P2"

Fig 18

Time-dependent strains


In order to be able to distinguish between loading and unloading, the original relation between total strains and total stresses (secant constitutive law) was replaced by a relation between strain increments and stress increments (tangent constitutive law). The incremental stress-strain relation for unloading is linearly elastic. For partial unloading due to a stress redistribution caused by time-dependent effects (within the context of long-time behaviour of concrete), this specification is sufficiently accurate [29]. The technique employed to distinguish between elastoplastic loading and elastic unloading is analogous to plasticity models with isotropic hardening [28,30]. Loading curves which are affine to the failure envelope are utilized to determine the state of plastic loading. In order to account for the time-dependent behaviour of concrete, it is useful to split up the strain at a certain instant of time t as follows [31]

P1t1 tq=t 5 t8

Figure 19 Discrstizstion in time

~(t) = ~E(t) + {P(t) + ~c(t) + ~s(t) + ~r(t)


strain, and the creep strain depend on the stress level. Figure 18 shows the stress-dependent strains as a function of time for the special case of a constant stress ~ applied at the time instant tl and removed at t2. Young's modulus and the strength of concrete are also time-dependant quantities. The increase of the modulus of elasticity due to aging of concrete will result in different strain jumps, if the same stress jump occurs at different instants of time. Figure 18 shows that the stress jump from o to 0 at time h. In order to preserve the validity of the employed relationship Eo(t) = EE(IO) Jr EP(O(to)) + EC(t, I0) = O/EB(tO) Jr EP(o(to)) Jr oC(t, to)

where ~E(t) denotes the elastic strain, EP(t) the plastic strain, ~c(t) the creep strain, (s(t) the strain caused by shrinkage and aT(t) the temperature strain. The sum d=~ E + ~P, representing the instantaneous


Nonlinear finite element analysis of reinforced and prestressed concrete structures

where the creep strain is assumed to be proportional to the stress (although the implemented algorithm enables specification of a stress-dependent creep compliance function C = C(t, to, o(to))), the original definitions of ~c(t, to) and C(t, to), where t and to denote the considered instant of time and the time of application of the stress ~, respectively, had to be modified [28,29]. In Equation (6), Ea(to) stands for Young's modulus of concrete at time to. In addition to the conventional spatial discretization, a discretization in time is required for long-time analyses. The time-dependent changes of the matedal parameters will cause a change of the state of stress and the state of deformation of a structure, even if the external loads are kept constant. Figure 19 shows a typical load-history - three load increments are applied at the time instant t+ and two load increments are added at the time instant t4 = ts - and the corresponding stress history. Idealizing the variable stress distributions in the time intervals [tj, t~+l], i = 1, 2 . . . . n, by two piecewise constant portions each, separated by stress jumps at t~.o~ = ~ yields the following expression for the strain [28,29]:v

3073 419-'~ ~,~ ~ ~_ ~48





eCCt) =

cct, to, aCto)) daCto)


"~ E

C(t, ti-o.5, (~lil + a~i-t~)/2)z~ali>


The program was first applied to ultimate load analyses of PC slabs and shells [27~2], disregarding the time-dependent behaviour of concrete and of the prestressing steel. The efficiency of the strategy developed by Hofatatter for the automatic computation of the points of intersection of the tendon axes with the side faces of the finite elements passed through by tendons, and of the work-equivalent node forces Fig 20 Model of a prestressed reactor secondary containment from prestress falls into the category of fulfilled expectations. Within the framework of collapse load analyses of PC surface structures with unbonded post-tensioned tendons, Hofstetter and Mang [33,34] solved the problem of determination of the changes of the tendon forces resulting +. o.,, ~.~+.~+ ...+.++ from loads applied after the tensioning operation. This problem will be complicated, if the influence of friction of these changes of forces is considered. The numerical example m 0.+~-# m( f ---*-....... ,o++ .... , I . "Vs/ / --" - - " O - - - test-]oadcase II presented in Reference 34, however, revealed that even near I(PI/~ J" j.J( ---'-4k-'-- a n a l y s i s - Ioadcase I the collapse load the influence of friction is relatively small. ~.~/" ~" --.~.-a n a l y s i s - Ioadcase II A good test of the capacity of the developed computer .~ 7 , i i L i 0.~0 + 0.2 0.q 0.6 0.B 1.0 program to take iong-time deformations into account was the w (cm} analysis of the model of a prestressed reactor secondary containment, tested by McGregor et al [35]. Figure 20 shows two sections through the experimental setup. The structure Fig 21 Load-displacement diagram for the pole of the spherical consists of a cylindrical part, which is prestressed beth in the cap horizontal and the verticaJ direction, and a dome with a net Figure 21 illustrates the ioed.deflection diagram for the pole of prestre~ed tendons. A prestressed concrete ring connects of the spherical cap. The complete loading cycle of the the two parts [29]. Because of the time span of more than three months experiment I is shown. This experiment was conducted at between the casting of the dome and the completion of the t = 80d [35], The process of increasing the internal pressure experiment, time.dependent effects had to be considered in p was stopped at p = 055MPa. For the analysis it was the analyals. As an idealization for the anal~/~l, the entire deed assumed that this pressure was acting for 6h before being load was assumed to act from the time of removal of the removed. The increase of the load up to failure, referring to casting of the dome (age of the concrete of the dome t = the experiment II, was conducted at t = 101d; the ultimate 7d). Moreover, the tensioning operation,, extending over four pressure was 1.1 MPa. The illustration of the loaddays, was combined to one single load step (t = 22d). Only displacement diagram referring to the experiment II is the two most significant parts of the load history were taken restricted to a load level less than 0.6 MPa. into account in the analysis. With regards to the ignored parts Figure 21 shows that the agreement of the analytical and of the load history, the internal pressure never reached more the experimental results is satisfactory. The computed failure than 25% of the ultimate load.




H A Mang and G Mellchke


Stiffening ring

. . . . . .

. . ..

, . ,. .. , , , . . . . .... . . ,


. ...

. ....

. . . . . . . . . . , , .

. . _ . . .
,. t


.++. ..


+ .


T 1

015 cm

1600 k N c m


. -


+ '

2300 kN cm





' 1

p = 0


, '

'" t ' DL+PS p = 0 . 2 MPa

DL+PS p=0.3MPa

DL+PS p = 0 . 8 5 MPa


Fig 22

Crack patterns ('smeared cracks') on the outer surface of the shell


E2 = c 3 ~.
e: f,~
" ~

Rebar - elements
EI /.~1
.~ .+'1+.,."~


L a y e r of smeared circumferential reinforcement


c2 = o3

/ e ,

- .... . . . . .......

test Glemberg Han and Chen and Meschke

Chen Buyukozturk






Fig 23

a I - e~diagrams for alternating hydrostatic and deviatoric load steps, followed by deviatoric unloading and reloading

load is approximately 20% less than the experimental value; the failure mode - tensile failure of a tendon - is predicted correctly [29]. Figure 22 displays crack patterns on the outer surface of the shell, following from the analysis (within t.~ 3 framework of the concept of 'smeared cracks'). (The rectangular domains in Fig 22 represent the parametric mapping of a sector of the shell) Cracks caused by shrinkage in heavily reinforced regions under dead load (DL) are clearly visible. Some of these cracks close after prestressing (PS). The results obtained from FE analysis of PC surface structures, taking long-time deformations into account, were a good e0cample of the (trivial) fact that, no matter how powerful a numerical technique and how sophisticated the constitutive models for the mathematical description of physical phenomena such as creep, shrinkage and ageing of concrete and relaxation of the prestressing steel may be, the lack of experimental data required for these models represents a serious impediment for a good prognosis of the long-time structural beheviour of PC surface structures Ultimate load analysis of thick-walled Rc structures The 'Babylonian confusion' in the field of triaxial constitutive models and the lack of knowledge concerning the potential of the existing models to describe the complex material behaviour of concrete subjected to triaxial states of stress was the motivation for a research project with the title 'Synthesis of constitutive modelling of triaxially loaded concrete and FE analysis of thick-walled RC structures', conducted by Eberhardsteiner [37] and Maschke [38]. It consisted of a comprehensive critical evaluation of published nonlinearelastic [37,39-44] and elastoplastic [38-40,42-46] constitutive models, modifications of some of these models [37-40], development of a new hypoplastic material model

C o n c r e t e specimen




Fig 24

FE model of the concrete specimen and the steel punch

[38-40,45-47], implementation of the constitutive material models into a commercial FE program and ultimate load analysis of thick-walled RC struoturas [37,38,42-47]. Figure 23 shows typical results from constitutive modelling of triaxially loaded concrete This figure contains cr 1 - ej diagrams (i = 1, 2, 3) for a strongly non-proportional loading path. The diagrams were obtained from different constitutive models (elssto-plastic model by Glemberg [48], nonassociated elasto-plastic model by Han and Chen [49], bounding surface model by Chen and Buyukozturk [50], hypoplastic model by Maschke [46])and compared with test results by Stankowski [51]. The numerical results based on the hypoplastic model agree well with the test results. This is also true for those parts of the stress path which are characterized by deviatoric unloading and reloading. The application of the aforementioned constitutive models and of several other matedal models to ultimate load analysis of thick-walled RC structures showed that, in general, the degree of sophistication of the constitutive models for the precracking material domain has little influence on the analytical results for the ultimate load. Results from FE ultimate load analysis ot an RC cylinder subjected to a concentrated compression force, which will

Nonlinear finite element analysis of reinforced and prestressed concrete structures

6o I
Spalling I _i II i~








i 2 00 Splitting Penetration of punch



I ~..Y


test elasto-plastic model by Glemberg "'

elasto-plastic model by R a n a n d


hypoplastic model (associated) , 0.6


hypoplastic model (nonassociated}

0. or 0.0

, 0.1

~ 0.2

, , L 0.3 0.4 0.5 Penetration. u (cm)

, 0.7

Fig 25

Qualitative form of the complete load-penetration diagram

Fig 26

Load-penetration diagrams for region I

be presented in the following, turned out to be an exception from this rule. Figure 24 shows the FE model Of the concrete specimen and the steel punch. The ratio Of the area of the cross-section of the steel punch to the area of the loaded surface of the concrete cylinder is 1:156. The test, carried out by Lieberum [52], was run under displacement control. Details concerning the model parameters are given elsewhere [38]. Consideration of fracture of concrete is based on the 'smeared-crack concept'. The post-cracking response of concrete is idealized as a linear stress-strain relationship, the slope of which is taken as constant (constant softening modulus). Interface shear transfer across the cracks is accounted for by means of a constant shear retention factor. Concrete failure under compression is idealized on the basis of an ideally plastic material such that the failure envelope serves as the yield surface for the post-peak material regime [47] The numerical investigation is restricted to the ascending part of the load-penetration diagram (region I), before the diagram reaches the plateau (region II) (Fig 25). This part is characterized by the local compaction of the concrete under the steel punch. Figure 26 shows a comparison of numerically obtained load-penetration diagrams for the region I with the test result. With regards to the hypoplastic constitutive model by Meschke, the result for the special case of an associated flow rule is also given in Fig 26.

It is seen seen that the material model has a considerable influence on the obtained results. The mason for the deficiencies of the two classical elasto-plestic material models, however, is their combination with an open failure surface (Fig 27). In contrast to the hypoplastic constitutive model by Meschke, the stress paths based on these two material models do not approach their respective failure surfaces. Since the material stiffness depends on the distance of the stress point from the failure surface, the two classical elastoplastic constitutive models yield too stiff a response (Fig 26). The presented exception from the 'rule' Of the relatively small influence Of the degree of sophistication of the constitutive models for the precrecking material regime Of concrete on the ultimate load would be no exception, if the material models by Glemberg and by Han and Chen were used in combination with a closed failure surface, since in this case the presented results would join the results from the other examples [37,38]. Conclusions A decade of nonlinear FE arlalyal8 Of RC and PC structures has been critically reviewed within the context of appllcations to engineering structures. Unquestionably, such analyses, based on realistic constitutive models, appasmd to be a eigniflcant improvement over classical modes of structural analysis of RC and PC structures, which were not able to account adequately for


J /"~'-t"


~ "

Failure surface

-20/ ~"
J '

Hypoplastic mode/


i Z

-10 o (kN cm -2) (kN cm -2) -.-~-.--~--



elasto-plastic model by Glemberg elasto-plastic model by Han and Chen hyDoDlastic model (associated)

Fig 27

Stress paths for an integration point under the punch near the axis of rotation for different material models

HA Mar~ and G MesChi~ 16 Meac~m, G, llkmg, H A end Korea, P Rnite element analyses of a cracked cooling tower shell. J Structural Engineering, 117 (9), 1991, 2620-2a39 17 Mang, H A and l r ~ l , F Physically linear buckling analysis of reinfomed concrete cooling towers -deaign necessity or academic e~.erclse?Natural Draught Cooling Towers(Eds. P L Gould, W B Kdltzig, I Mungan and U Wittek) Spdnger, Bedin (1984) 279-297 18 Hedgren, W A Jr A numedcal and experimental study of translational shell roofs Doctoral diss Princatown University, Princatown, USA (1965) 19 Un, C S Nonlinear analysis of relnfomed concrete slabs and shells. Rap No UCSESM 73-7 Structures and Materials Reseamh, Department of Civil Engineering, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, USA (1973) 20 Baant, Z and CedoHn, L Blunt crack band propagation in finite element analysis Proc ASCE. Eng Mech Div (1979) 108 297-315 21 Mang, H A and EberhardMeiner, J Collapse analysis of RC shells based on a new fracture critedon, Finite ElementAnalysis of Relnfomed Concrem Structuresproc US-Japan Joint Seminar, ASCE, Struct Div (1986) 579-601 22 Mang, H A, Ebertmrdetelner, K and Walter, H On a nonlocal strength criterion for ultimate load analysisof reinforcedconcrete shells by the finite element method Inelastic Behaviour of Plates and Shells (Eds. L Bevilacquua, R Feljoo and R Valid)Spdnger, Acknowledgement Bedin (1986) 453-472 This paper is an expanded version of a paper presented at 23 Mang, H A, Eberhardatatner, J and Waiter, H Development the second International conference on Computer Aided and application of a gradient-dependent fracture criterion for Analysis and Design of Concrete Structures [53]. finite.element analysis of reinforced-concretesurface structures This paper was first published in Engineering Structures Rnite ElementMethods for Nonlinear Problems (Eds P G Bergen, (1991) 13 211-226. J -J Bathe and W Wunderlich) Springer, Bedin (1986) 603-621 24 Hellmann, H G Beziehungan zwtschenZug- und Druckfestigkeit des Batons. Baton (1969) 19 68 References 25 Mayer, H Die Berechnung der Dumhbingung vn Stahlbeton1 Ngo,D lad Scorclel~ A C Rnite element analysesof reinforced bauteiisn. DeutscherAusschuB for S~hlbeton 41 Wilhelm Ernst, concrete beams ACI J (1967) 64 (3) Berlin (1967) 2 Sordelll, A C Past, present and future analysis of reinforced 26 H ~ r , G Traglastermittlungdonner Spannbetonschelben, concrete structures. Proc US-JapanJoint Seminar, ASCE, Struct - platten und -schalen mittels der Mathode der Finiten Div (1986) 656-666 Elemente bei Ber0cksichigung wirklichkeitsnahen 3 Floegl, H Traglastermittlungdonner Stahlbatonschelen mittels Werkstoffverhattenssowie geornstdscher Nichlinearit~it.Do(tom/ der Mathode der Finiten Elemente unter Ber0cksichtigung diss Technical University of Vienna, Vienna. Austda (1997) wirklichkeitsnahen Werkstiffverhaltens sowie geomatrischer 27 H ~ r , G and Mang, H A Work-equivalent node fomes from Nichtlinearit~t Doctoral diss Technical University of Vienna. prestressof PC shells.Rnlte e/ementmethods for p/ate and she# Vienna, Austria (1981) structures, formulations and algorithms (Eds. J R Hughes and 4 Kolter, W T General equations of elastic stability for thin shells. E Hinton) Pineridge Press, Swansea, Vol 2, 312-347 (1986) Proc Syrup on the theory of shells to honour Lloyd Hamilton 28 Walter, H Physikalisch und geometrisch nichtlineare FiniteDonell University of Houston, Houstin, USA (1967) Elemente Berschnungnen yon Stahlbatonscheiben,-platten und 5 Uu, T C Y, Nlleon, A H and Slate, F O Biaxial stress-strain -achaian bel BerOksichtigungyon Langzeltvedormungen.Docmm/ relationsfor concrete Proc ASCE, Struct Div (1972)98 1025-1034 dies Technical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria (1988) 6 Floegl, H and Mang, H A On tension stiffening in cracked 29 Walter, H, Hofatettsr, G and Mang, H A Long-timedeformations reinforced concrete slabs and shells considering geometric and and creep buckling of prestressed concrete shells. physical nonlinearity. Ing.-Arch (1981) 51 215-252 Computational Mechanics of Nonlinear Behaviour of Shell 7 Meng, H A and Floegl, H Tension-stiffening concept for Structures (Eds W K~tzig and E O~ate) Springer, Berlin (1990) reinforced concrete surface structures.Advanced Mechanics of 30 Walter,H Erweiterung elnes zweidimensionalen Batonmodells Reinforced Concrete, IABSE, (1981) 33-349 for nichtproporticnaleBelastung und linear elasticheEntlastung. 8 Floegl, H and Mang, H A Tension stiffening concept based on ZAMM (1987) 67 386-387 bond slip. Proc ASCE, Struct Div (1982) 108 2681-2701 31 Bazant, Z P Mathematical models for creep and shrinkage of 9 Thomas, G R and Gatlagher, R H A triangular thin shell finite concrete Creep and Shrinkage in Concrete Structures (Eds Z element: linear analysis.NASA ContractorRap 2483 Washington P Bazant and F H Wittmann) John Wiley, Chichester (1982) D.C., USA (1975) 32 Hofetetter, G and Mang, H A Nonlinear finite element analysis 10 Mang, H A and Floegl, H Analytical prediction of short-term of prestressedconcreteshells. Numericalmethods for Non-linear behaviour of reinforced concrete panels, slabs and shells. 1981 Problems (Eds C Taylor,D R J Owan, E Hinton and F B Damjanic) Int Conv and Expos ASCE Preprint 81-103 ASCE (1981) Pineridge Press, Swansea, Vol 3, 344-362 (1986) 11 Mang, H A and Floegl, H Traglastberechnungen von 33 H ~ r , G and Mang, H AZum Einflu8yon Anderungan des Stahlbatonscheiban, platten und -schalen. Finite Elemente in Verschiebungszustandes auf den Spannkraftvedauf bei der Bruchmechanik (Ed. H P Rossmanith). Springer,Wian (1982) Spannbetonschalan mit Vorspannung ohne Varbund unter 333-364 Ber0cksichtigung der Reibung. ZAMM (1987) 67 T355-T356 12 Mahl, M Zum Spannungs- und Stabilitatsproblem 34 Hofstetter, G and Mang, H A Collapse load analysis of PC wtndbeanspruchter K0hlt0rmeDoctors/diss Technical University surface structures with unbonded posttentioned tendons by the of Vienna, Vienna, Austria (1982) finite element method Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 13 ACI-ASCE Committee 334. Reinfomed concrete cooling tower (1989) 5 141-165 shells - practice and commentary. J ACI (1977) 74 22 35 McGregor, J G, Slmmonde, S H and Rlzlmlla, S H Test of a 14 Mang, H A, Floegl, H, Tmppel, F and Walter, H Wind-loaded prestressedsecondarycontainmentstructureStnx~urslEng Rap reinfomed concrete cooling towers: buckling or ultimate load? No 85 Department of Civil Engineering, University of Alberta, Eng Struct (1983) 5 163-180 Edmonton, Canada (1980) 15 Meechke, G and Mang, H A Numericalinvestigationof the safety 36 Hofatetter, G, Walter, H and Mang, H Finite-Elemant coefficient of a cracked concrete cooling tower against structural Berechnungen yen Flachentragwerken aus Spannbaton unter collapse. Proc IABSE Colloquium "Structural Concrete' (1991) Ber0ksichtigung von Langzeltverformunganund Zustand II Der 349-354 Bauingenieur (1989) 64 449-461 CONSTRUCTION & BUILDINGMATERIALSVol. 6 No. 2 1992 89 several mechanical phenomena. This not only holds true with regards to the reliability of the numerically predicted static response, but also with respect to the potential of FE analyses to serve as a stimulating tool which may largely increase the analyet'B inBight into the structural behaviour of thB RC and PC structures. As far as the anticipated importance of particular mechanical phenomena on the structural behaviour was concerned, however, the expectations from such analyses were (fortunately) not completely fulfilled. Although some of these aspects may be relevant for the determination of the local stress state within a structure and for analyses of rather academic e~unples, their influence on the overall structural response of a reasonably well designed RC or PC structure is much smaller. The main conclusion drawn from the experience of a decade of nonlinear RE analysis of RC and PC structures at Technical University of Vienna iB that the deploreblB drifting apart of constitutive modelling, on thB one hand, and FE ultimate load analysiB of RC and PC structures, on thB other hand, iB counterproductive for the acceptance of this mode of analysis by the civil engineering profession.

Nonlinear finite elementanalysis of reinforcedand prestressedconcrete structures

Eberhardsteiner, J Syntheseaus konstituUvemModellierenvon Beton mittels dreiaxialernichtlinearelastischerWerkstoffmodelle und Finite-Element-Analysendickwandiger Stahlbetonkonstruktionen. Doctoral diss Technical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria (1989) 38 Meechk=, G Syntheseaus konstitutivemModellierenyon Baton mittels dreiaxialerelasto-plestischer Wedaitoffmodelleund FiniteElemente-Analysen dickwandiger Stahlbetonkonstruktionen. Doctoral diss Technical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria




39 Eberhardstelner, H, Meschke, G and Mang, H Triaxiales konstitutives Modellieren yon Baton zum Zwecke der DurchfQhrung vergleichender Trenglastanalysendickwandiger Stahlbatonkonatruktionen mittels der Methode der Finiten Elementa. Final Rep Res Project P5161 sponsored by the Fends zur F6rderung der wissenschaftlichen Forschung, Institute for Strength of Materials, Technical University of Vienna, Austria (1987) 40 Eberhardsteiner, H, Meechlm, G and Meng, H A Comparison of constitutive models for triaxially loaded concrete Computational Mechanics of Concrete Structures - Advances and Applications IABSE (1987) 197-208 41 Eberlmrdsteiner, J and Mang, H Vergleichendes konstitutives Modellieren dreiachsial beanspruchtan Batons auf der Grundlage nichtlinear elastischer StoffgesatzeZAMM (1988)68 T167-T169 42 Eberhardsteiner, H, Meechlm, G and Mang,, H A Synthesis of constitutive modelling of triaxiallyloaded concrete and finite element analysis of thick-walled RC structures. Computational Engineering Science (Eds S N Atlud and G Yagawa)Springer, Berlin, Vol 1, 30. ii. 1-4. (1988) 43 Eberlmrdstelner, H, Hofstetter, G, Mang, H A, Meechke, G and Walter, H Traglastanalysen von (a) schlaff bewehrten, dickwandigen Konstruktionselementenund (b) vorgespannten, dQnnwandigen Schalen aus Baton, NichtlineemBemschnuogen im konstruktiven Ingenieurbau, (Ed E Stein) Springer, Berlin, (1989) 303-323 44 Eberherdstelner, J Finite element analysis of thick-walled RC 47

48 49 50 51 52 53

structures with different nonlinear-elastic material models. Computer Aided Analysis and Design of Concrete Structures (Eds N Bi(~ani(~and H Mang) Pinerldge Press, Swansea (1990) 696-706 Meschke, G and Mang, H Vergleichendes konstitutives Modellieren dreiechsial beanspruchten Betons auf der Grundlage elastoplastischer Stoffgesetze ZAMM (1988) 88 T221-T224 Meechks,G Application of elasto-plasticconstitutive models to 3D finite element analyses of RC-structures Computer Aided Analysis and Design of Concrete Structures Eds N Bi~anidand H Mang) Pineddge Press, Swansea (1990) 1041-1053 Meechlm,G and Mang, H A Application of a new hypoplastic model to 3D finite element analyses of concrete structures. Computat/onalp / a ~ , m o d ~ softwareand app/icat/ons(Eds D R J Owen, E Hinton and E Onate) Pineridge Press, Swansea (1989) 1219-1234 Glemberg, R Dynamic analysisof concretestructures. Pub184-1 Department of Structural Mechanics, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden (1984) Han, D J and Chen, W F Constitutive modelling in analysis of concrete structures. Proc ASCE, Eng Mech Div (1987) 113 577-593 Chert,E S and Buyulmzturk, O Constitutivemodel for concrete in cyclic compression. Proc ASCE, Eng Mech Div (1985) 111 797-814 Stan~, T Concrete under multiaxialload histories.Do(tom/ diss. Department of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, USA (1983) Lleberum, K H Des Travgerhalten von Beton bei extremer Teilfl/ichenbelastung. Doctoral diss Technical University of Darmstadt, Darmstadt, FRG (1987) Mang, H A Fulfilled and unfulfilled expectations: a review of a decade of nonlinear FE analysis of reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete at Technical University of Vienna. Computer Aided Analysis and Design of Concrete Structures (Eds N Bi(~ank~and H Mang) Pineridge Press, Swansea (1990) 1283-1309