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Flexural Design and Material Properties

Outline

Material Properties

Reinforced concrete beams

Prestressed concrete beams

Reinforced concrete columns

Brittle failure of prestressed members

Material properties

Material properties

Concrete calculations use cylinder strength ~0.8 × cube strength

Concrete specification uses both: C40/50 has 40 MPa cylinder strength (f ck ) and 50 MPa cube strength Covers concrete grades up to C70/85 for bridges and C90/105 for buildings

Short term Young’s Modulus for concrete obtained from:

E

cm

22

f 8

10

ck

0.3

Material properties

Material properties

Design strengths

Element

Characteristic strength

Design strength

Reinforcement

f

yk

f yd = f yk / γ s

yield

Prestressing yield

f

p0.1k

f pd = f p0.1k / γ s

Concrete in direct compression

f

ck

f cd = α cc f ck / γ c

cc allows for long term effects, eccentricities and true shape of concrete stress-strain block

Recommended value = 1.0 for buildings and 0.85 for bridges

UK National Annex for bridges and buildings gives 0.85 for bending and axial force, 1.0 for shear

Other values are used in other situations e.g. varies in strut and tie

Reinforcement

Reinforcement specified to EN 10080 Plain round bars not covered by EN 1992

Bars can have ductility class A, B or C; A not permitted for bridge design

Class

Characteristic strain at maximum force, ε uk

Minimum value of k = (f t /f y ) k

A

≥ 2.5%

≥ 1.05

B

≥ 5%

≥ 1.08

C

≥ 7.5%

≥ 1.15, <1.35

Standard reinforcement yield strength is 500 MPa

Designation of reinforcement to EN 10080 is:

B500B

MPa  Designation of reinforcement to EN 10080 is: B500B Y i e l d s

Yield stress, f yk

Bar

Ductility class

Reinforcement

Stress strain curves for reinforcement

 A kf yk kf yk f yk f yd = f yk / γ
A
kf yk
kf yk
f yk
f yd = f yk / γ s
B
k = (f t / f y ) k
A – Idealised
B – Design
0 f yd / E s
 ud
 uk

ε ud may be found in the National Annex and is recommended to be taken as 0.9ε uk

Benefit of using inclined branch compared to past UK practice

Compressive stress blocks for bending and axial force

Possible blocks are:

rectangular

bilinear

parabola-rectangle

All have same maximum stress so rectangular gives greatest bending resistance

No formulae for bending

resistance provided see example

Strain limits differ for the

different blocks….

λx

(λ=0.8)

f cd

f cd

f cd

differ for the different blocks…. λ x ( λ =0.8) f cd f cd f cd
differ for the different blocks…. λ x ( λ =0.8) f cd f cd f cd
x
x
differ for the different blocks…. λ x ( λ =0.8) f cd f cd f cd
differ for the different blocks…. λ x ( λ =0.8) f cd f cd f cd
differ for the different blocks…. λ x ( λ =0.8) f cd f cd f cd

Stress (for f ck 50 MPa)

Strain

Compressive stress blocks for bending and axial force

 c f ck f cd 0  c2  cu2
c
f
ck
f
cd
0
 c2
 cu2

c

 c f ck f cd 0   c3  cu3 c
c
f
ck
f
cd
0
 c3
 cu3
c
(b) Bilinear distribution (a) Parabolic-rectangular distribution  c f cd 0 0.0007 0.00175 0.0020
(b) Bilinear distribution
(a) Parabolic-rectangular distribution
 c
f cd
0 0.0007
0.00175
0.0020
0.0035
 c

(c) Alternative concrete design stress blocks for f ck ≤ 50MPa

Pre-stressing steel

Pre-stressing specified to EN 10138 Part 1 gives general rules, Part 2 wire, Part 3 strand, Part 4 - bar

Pre-stressing steel can be relaxation class 1, 2 or 3

Class

Prestressing steel type

ρ 1000 , Relaxation loss at 1000 hours at 20 ° C

1

Ordinary prestressing tendons (wire or strand)

8.0%

2

Low relaxation prestressing tendons (wire or strand)

2.5%

3

Hot rolled and processed bars

4%

Designation of strand to EN 10138-3 is:

Y1860S7-15.7

4%  Designation of strand to EN 10138-3 is: Y1860S7-15.7 Tensile stress, f p k 7

Tensile stress, f pk

7 wire strand

Strand diameter (mm)

Design curves for prestressing

 A f pk f pk / γ s f p0.1k f pd = f
A
f pk
f pk / γ s
f p0.1k
f pd = f p0.1k / γ s
B
A – Idealised
B – Design
0 f pd / E p
 ud
 uk

ε ud may be found in the National Annex and is recommended to be taken as 0.9ε uk

Need to use inclined branch to get similar results to past UK practice

Concrete creep and shrinkage

Treated more rigorously than previous UK practice

Creep strain calculated from:

cc

(

,

t

0

)

(

,

t

0

)

c

E

c

Long term E value is thus E cm / (1+)

Creep factor, (,t 0 ) , calculated from Annex B or from simple charts

Shrinkage split into:

Autogenous shrinkage - occurs on hydration and hardening without loss of moisture; complete within a few months

Drying shrinkage - occurs through loss of moisture; complete in a number of years

Both creep and shrinkage parameters have to be calculated based on concrete mix (also age at loading for creep)

Beam bending resistance clause 6.1

Beam Bending Resistance

Assumptions to be made for bending resistance according to EC2:

Plane sections remain plane;

Strain in bonded reinforcement, whether in tension or compression, is the same as the strain in the concrete at the same level;

Tensile strength of the concrete is ignored;

The stresses in the concrete, reinforcement and prestressing are

given by the design stress-strain relationships shown earlier;

The initial strain in prestressing is taken into account.

Strain Compatibility

Can be used to determine ultimate bending resistance

Determined either iteratively or algebraically

Must be used for non-uniform sections (in compression regions)

Needed if rebar stress-strain curve with rising branch used

Generally used for prestressed concrete members

Iterative approach:

Estimate location of N.A. and calculate strains in reinforcement

Calculate stresses based on strains

Calculate concrete stresses based on assumed N.A. depth

Calculate net tensile/compressive forces in section. If not equal repeat calculations for modified N.A. position

Take moments about common point to determine moment resistance

Strain Distribution

Where there is equal compressive strains at both faces of a section, a reduced strain limit of c2 is used because:

Peak stresses are reached at a strain of about c2

For pure compression, peak load occurs at about c2

For pure flexure, resistance increases beyond this point and limit of cu2 used

For intermediate cases where whole section or outstand part is wholly in compression, intermediate limit is appropriate to correct idealised diagram - strain diagram is rotated about intermediate pivot point to reduce strain limit

For flanged beams, mean strain under full compression under concentric loading is limited to c2 (e.g. flanges in box girders where N.A. is in webs)

“Concentric” is defined as e/h < 0.1

 c2  cu2 Pivot point h Actual final h c2 / cu2 strain Compressive
 c2
 cu2
Pivot point
h
Actual final
h c2 / cu2
strain
Compressive strains in flange
limiting cases for strain
 c “real” f cd idealised 0  c2  cu2
c
“real”
f
cd
idealised
0
 c2
 cu2

c

(a) Parabolic-rectangular distribution

Beam Bending Resistance

Parabolic stress block

Failure strain (cu2 ) is only appropriate for parabolic stress blocks (cu3 is used for bilinear and rectangular blocks)

b f ε cd cu2 βx F c x d z A s F s
b
f
ε
cd
cu2
βx
F
c
x
d
z
A
s
F
s
ε
s
f yk
F
A F
 f
bx
s
s
c
av
s

f av and are based on the geometry of the stress block they are simplest for the rectangular stress block …

Beam Bending Resistance

Stress blocks

Parabolic rectangular:

f av

Bilinear:

f

av

1

f

cd


cu

1

3

2

0 5

.

c 3

c 3

2

cu 3

1

2

6

cu 3

2

cu

3

c

3

2

 

Simplified rectangular:

f

av

 f

cd

/ 2

f

cd

1

1

c 2

 

n 1

cu 2

 

2

2

 

cu

2

c 2

 

2

n

1



n

2

 

2

cu

2

c

2

cu 2

 

 

n 1

Beam Bending Resistance

Rectangular stress block

RC resistance can be calculated using rectangular block (most economic) and reinforcement diagram with plateau (simplest)

Simple formula can then be derived for bending resistance:

ηf cd ε cu3 b x F c λx x d z A s F
ηf cd
ε cu3
b
x
F
c
λx
x
d
z
A
s
F
s
ε s
f
A
yd
s
 A f
z
with
z
d
1
M Rd
assuming steel yields
s
yd
2
f
bd
cd
x
1
A f
s
yd
which is OK provided
where
x 
d
f
yk

b
f
 1 
cd
E
s
s
cu 3

For f ck 50 MPa, recommended values are:

λ = 0.8

η = 1.0

/ 2

f

 f

av

cd

Beam Bending Resistance

For design, rearrange these equations to:

 For design, rearrange these equations to:  Then: K av  x   

Then:

K av

x

d

1

x

d



x

d

x

d

2

=>

x   x

2

 

 K 0

av

d

d

Solve the equation; the lower root is the relevant one

The ratio of x/d is checked (for rebar yield) against:

x

d

s

M

The reinforcement area is now designed from:

A

s

f

yk

z

where:

z d x

1

f

yk

s

E

s

cu 2

1

EN 1992-2: R.C. beam example

C35/45 concrete

B500B reinforcement

Take:

cc = 0.85 s = 1.15 c = 1.5

Determine bending resistance (this is subject of

workshop)

Note there is no maximum value for z

1000 mm

(this is subject of workshop)  Note there is no maximum value for z 1000 mm
(this is subject of workshop)  Note there is no maximum value for z 1000 mm
1500 mm
1500
mm
(this is subject of workshop)  Note there is no maximum value for z 1000 mm

50 mm

7 No. 20 diameter bars

EN 1992-2: Bending resistance

Calculation with reinforcement curve with plateau at f yd gives M Rd = 1354 kNm

Calculation repeated with rectangular block but reinforcement curve with rising branch. This leads to M Rd = 1449 kNm

435

0 
0

435

466 0 0.045 
466
0
0.045 

EN 1992-2: Bending resistance

Summary of bending resistances for simple beam to BS5400 Part 4 and EN 1992-2

BS5400

resistance

(kNm)

1309

Eurocode 2 resistance steel plateau (kNm)

Eurocode 2 resistance – steel plateau (kNm)
Eurocode 2 resistance – steel plateau (kNm)

1354

Eurocode 2 resistance rising branch (kNm)

Eurocode 2 resistance – rising branch (kNm)
Eurocode 2 resistance – rising branch (kNm)

1449

Generally, under-reinforced sections will benefit from the increased calculation effort of using the stress- strain curve with rising branch

Doubly Reinforced Rectangular beams

In heavily reinforced tension zones, where tension steel doesn’t

yield:

Add compression steel to reduce concrete compression zone depth

Allows tension reinforcement to yield

Needed when

x

1

 

d

f

yk

1

s

E

s

cu 2

is exceeded (yield criterion)

May be necessary to analyse sections with known compression

reinforcement for ultimate flexural resistance

EC2 uses same stress strain curve relationship for reinforcement in tension and compression (unlike BS5400 Part 4)

Design approach as follows ……

Doubly Reinforced Rectangular beams

For equilibrium assuming all reinforcement yields:

F

F 

F

c

s

s

f

av

bx

f yk

s

f yk

f yk

s

A 

A

s s

=>

A

 A

s

s

f

av

bx

s

f

yk

Used to determine required compression reinforcement so tension reinforcement yields. x is first set in above so the tension rebar yields:

x 1  d  f  yk   1    
x
1
d
f
yk
 1 
E 
s s
cu 2
 Moment determined from:
 F
d
F
 
x
F
d
M Rd
s
c
s
b
f
ε
cd
cu2
βx
d′
F
c
ε′ s
x
A′ s
F′ s
d
A
s
F
s
ε
s

Doubly Reinforced Rectangular beams

Also need to check compression reinforcement yields for formula to be

valid

x 1

d

1

f

yk

s

E

s

cu

2

If reinforcement does not yield, strain compatibility method is used.

b f cd ε cu2 βx d′ F c ε′ s x A′ s F′
b
f cd
ε cu2
βx
d′
F
c
ε′ s
x
A′ s
F′ s
d
A
s
F
s
ε
s

Flanged Beams

If N.A. in compression flange at ULS, previous equations can be used

When rectangular stress block used, equations still OK for N.A. depth 1/ (~1.25) × flange thickness where f ck <50 MPa)

Also OK if web in compression, flange in tension different b used

If flange and web in compression, section should be analysed using

strain compatibility method

Strictly, variable strain limits should be applied to flanged sections

ηf cd b ε cu3 0.5x F c λx x d z A s F
ηf cd
b
ε cu3
0.5x
F c
λx
x
d
z
A
s
F s
ε s
f
A
yd
s
M
 A
f
z
z
 d
1
with
s
yd
 
2
f
cd bd
x
1
A
f
s
yd
provided
where
x 
d
f
yk
1

b
f
cd
 
E 
s s
cu 3

b

b h b d c
h
h

b

d c
d c

Prestressed Concrete Beams

General assumptions same as for reinforced concrete

Initial strain of prestressing tendons considered for ultimate

resistance (

P

d ,t

x

P

P

m ,t

x

)

Strain compatibility can also be used; pre-strain to be added to

strain diagram calculated at failure (see example)

Unbonded tendons

Cannot be treated using same general rules

Strain in tendons does not increase at same rate as strain in

concrete at same level

ηf cd b ε cu3 0.5x F λx c x d z A p F
ηf cd
b
ε cu3
0.5x
F
λx
c
x
d
z
A
p
F
s
ε s
ε p
prestrain

Columns

Reinforced Concrete Columns

Same assumptions as used for bending design

Compression failure in flexure defined by strain limit cu2

- Strain is adjusted depending on position of N.A. and whether section is in pure flexure or axial load (as beams)

cu2 = 0.0035 for class 50/60 concrete in flexure

- Modified strain c2 under combined bending and axial load is 0.0020 (assumes whole section in compression)

Calculated strengths are usually relatively insensitive for variations in assumptions of ultimate concrete strain.

- Caution needed for heavily reinforced sections

Minimum applied moments to be considered in design

- Axial loads applied at minimum eccentricities (max [h/30, 20mm])

In slender columns, additional second order moments must be

allowed for

Reinforced Concrete Columns

Strain Compatibility

Assume reinforcement area and estimate N.A.

Set extreme fibre compressive strain to ε cu2 (or ε cu3 )

Calculate strains throughout section and stresses in reinforcement

Iterate for strain limit if whole section is in compression

Calculate axial load and moment section can resist.

N N u Calculates a point on this graph N bal M M max
N
N u
Calculates a point
on this graph
N bal
M
M
max

Verification through further iteration

Determine moment resistance for given axial force; verify this moment

resistance exceeds coexistent moment, or

Applied moment and axial force increased pro-rata together; verify load factor exceeds unity.

Reinforced Concrete Columns

Axial Load with Uniaxial Bending

Equations for flanged beam with N/A in flange apply

For equilibrium

N M
N
M

N F F  F

c

s

s

=>

N

f

av

bx

f A  

s

s

f

A

s

s

Taking moments about Application of N:

M

f

av

bx   h

2

x

 

h

f A    d  

s

s

2

b d′ A′ s h A s  h f A    d
b
d′
A′ s
h
A
s
 h
f
A
d
s
s
2

d

0.0035 f cd F′ s βx x ε′ s f′ s F c - f
0.0035
f cd
F′ s
βx
x ε′ s
f′ s
F c
- f s
- F s
ε s

Reinforced Concrete Columns

Axial Load with Biaxial Bending

Through rigorous analysis interaction diagram can be developed for N Ed , M Edz and M Edy

Shape of diagram represented by

M

M

Edz

Rdz

a

M

M

Edy

Rdy

a

1.0

M Rdi are the moment resistances about each axis in the absence of axial force

Not suited for design as “a” depends on reinforcement so have to guess reinforcement, then check it

Brittle fracture of prestressed members

Brittle Failure of Members with prestress

Prestressed beams must not to fail in a brittle manner due to corrosion or failure of individual tendons.

Potential problem if tendons corroding but the concrete remains uncracked – can’t see signs of the damage.

For prestressed beams, new requirements to safeguard against this

Protection can be achieved by one of three ways:

a) Ensure remaining cables, after corrosion or failures has led to cracking, are adequate to carry frequent combination design moment at ULS b) Minimum Reinforcement

c) Provide proven monitoring (inspection regime)