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DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS

oleh Dr. Jamil Ahmad

   

Math

Science

 

ALI

12

96

AHMAD

45

60

RMASAMY

60

80

T.SENG

80

70

SALMAH

22

80

SWEELAN

76

54

KUMARY

55

56

AHCHONG

43

64

AHMOI

67

33

JASTINA

67

73

JASTINI

40

59

JASTISHA

35

83

XXX

25

34

XXX

46

76

XXX

23

83

XXX

32

43

XXX

90

65

XXX

45

64

XXX

85

73

XXX

67

85

7-Mar-13

XXX

45

90

2

 

Math

Science

ALI

12

96

AHMAD

45

60

RMASAMY

60

80

T.SENG

80

70

SALMAH

22

80

SWEELAN

76

54

KUMARY

55

56

AHCHONG

43

64

AHMOI

67

33

JASTINA

67

73

JASTINI

40

59

JASTISHA

35

83

XXX

25

34

XXX

46

76

XXX

23

83

XXX

32

43

XXX

90

65

XXX

45

64

XXX

85

73

XXX

67

85

XXX

45

90

7-Mar-13

MIN(PURATA) 50.75

71.0

3

Mean

Most commonly called the “average.”

Add up the values for each case and divide by the total number of cases.

up the values for each case and divide by the total number of cases. _ X

_

X

=

(x1 + x2 +

+ xn)

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n

4

Mean

 

Class A

   

Class B

IQs of 13 Students

IQs of 13 Students

 

102

128

 

115

109

127

131

162

103

96

111

131

89

80

109

98

106

93

87

140

 

119

120

105

93

97

109

110

   

Σ Xi = 1437

   

Σ Xi = 1433

 

_

_

X A

=

Σ Xi = 1437 = 110.54

X B =

Σ Xi = 1433 = 110.23

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n

13

n

13

5

Mean

1. Means can be badly affected by outliers (data points with extreme values unlike the rest)

2. Outliers can make the mean a bad measure of central tendency or common experience

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Income in the U.S. Bill Gates All of Us Outlier Mean
Income in the U.S.
Bill Gates
All of Us
Outlier
Mean

6

Median

The middle value when a variable’s values are ranked in order; the point that divides a distribution into two equal halves.

 

When data are listed in order, the median is the point at which 50% of the cases are above and 50% below it.

The 50 th percentile.

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7

Median

Class A: IQs of 13 Students

89

93

97

98

102

106

109

Median = 109

110

(six cases above, six below)

115

119

128

131

140

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8

Median

If the first student were to drop out of Class A, there would be a new median:

 
89
89

93

97

98

102

106

109

Median = 109.5 109 + 110 = 219/2 = 109.5

 

110

115

(six cases above, six below)

119

128

131

140

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9

Median

1. The median is unaffected by outliers, making it a better measure of central tendency, better describing the “typical person” than the mean when data are skewed.

All of Us Bill Gates
All of Us
Bill Gates

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outlier

10

Median

2. If the recorded values for a variable form a symmetric distribution, the median and mean are identical.

3. In skewed data, the mean lies further toward the skew than the median.

Symmetric Mean Median
Symmetric
Mean
Median

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Skewed

Mean Median
Mean
Median

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Median

The middle score or measurement in a set of ranked scores or measurements; the point that divides a distribution into two equal halves.

Data are listed in order—the median is the point at which 50% of the cases are above and 50% below.

The 50 th percentile.

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12

Mode

The most common data point is called the mode.

The combined IQ scores for Classes A & B:

80 87 89 93 93 96 97 98 102 103 105 106 109 109 109 110 111 115 119 120 127 128 131 131 140 162

106 109 109 109 110 111 115 119 120 127 128 131 131 140 162 mode

mode!!

## It is possible to have more than one mode!

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13

Mode

1. In symmetric distributions, the mean, median, and mode are the same.

2. In skewed data, the mean and median lie further toward the skew than the mode.

Skewed Symmetric Mean Median Mean Mode Mode Median
Skewed
Symmetric
Mean
Median
Mean
Mode
Mode
Median

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Descriptive Statistics Summarizing Data: • Central Tendency (or Groups’ “Middle Values”) • Mean • Median
Descriptive Statistics
Summarizing Data:
• Central Tendency (or Groups’ “Middle Values”)
• Mean
• Median
• Mode
• Variation (or Summary of Differences Within Groups)
• Range
• Variance
• Standard Deviation
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15
 

Range

 

The spread, or the distance, between the lowest and highest values of a variable.

 

To get the range for a variable, you subtract its lowest value from its highest value.

Class A: IQs of 13 Students

Class B: IQs of 13 Students

102

115

127

162

128

109

131

103

131

89

96

111

98

106

80

109

140

119

93

87

93

97

120

105

110

109

Class A Range = 140 - 89 = 51

Class B Range = 162 - 80 = 82

 

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Variance

 

A measure of the spread of the recorded values on a variable. A measure of dispersion.

 

The larger the variance, the further the individual cases are from the mean.

 
   
 
 

Mean

 

The smaller the variance, the closer the individual scores are to the mean.

 
 
 

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Mean

17

 

Variance

 

Variance is a number that at first seems complex to calculate.

 

Calculating variance starts with a “deviation.”

A deviation is the distance away from the mean of a case’s score.

 

_

Xi – X

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18

Variance

The deviation of 102 from 110.54 is? Deviation of 115?

Class A: IQs of 13 Students

102

115

128

109

131

89

98

106

140

119

93

97

110

MINMINMINMIN AAAA ==== 110.54110.54110.54110.54

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19

Variance

The deviation of 102 from 110.54 is? 102 - 110.54 = -8.54

Class A: IQs of 13 Students

102

115

128

109

131

89

98

106

140

119

93

97

110

7-Mar-13

MINMINMINMIN AAAA ==== 110.54110.54110.54110.54

Deviation of 115? 115 - 110.54 = 4.46

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Variance

• We want to add these to get total deviations, but if we were to do that, we would get zero every time. Why?

• We need a way to eliminate negative signs.

Squaring the deviations will eliminate negative signs A Deviation Squared: (Xi – X-bar) 2

Back to the IQ example, A deviation squared for 102 is:

(102 - 110.54) 2 = (-8.54) 2 = 72.93

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of 115:

(115 - 110.54) 2 = (4.46) 2 = 19.89

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Variance

If you were to add all the squared deviations together, you’d get what we call the “Sum of Squares.”

_

Sum of Squares (SS) = Σ (Xi – X) 2

SS = (X1 – X-bar) 2 + (X2 – X-bar) 2 +

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+ (Xn – X-bar) 2

22

Variance

Class A, sum of squares:

(102 – 110.54) 2 + (115 – 110.54) 2 + (126 – 110.54) 2 + (109 – 110.54) 2 + (131 – 110.54) 2 + (89 – 110.54) 2 + (98 – 110.54) 2 + (106 – 110.54) 2 + (140 – 110.54) 2 + (119 – 110.54) 2 + (93 – 110.54) 2 + (97 – 110.54) 2 + (110 – 110.54) = SS = 2825.39

7-Mar-13

Class A: IQs of 13 Students

102

115

128

109

131

89

98

106

140

119

93

97

110

MIN = X-bar = 110.54

23

Variance

The last step

The approximate average sum of squares is the variance.

SS = Variance for a population.

N

SS = Variance for a sample.

N-1

_

Variance =S 2 = Σ(Xi – X) 2

n – 1

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24

Variance

For Class A

Variance = S 2 =2825.39 n - 1

Variance For Class A Variance = S 2 =2825.39 n - 1 7-Mar-13 = 2825.39 =

7-Mar-13

Variance For Class A Variance = S 2 =2825.39 n - 1 7-Mar-13 = 2825.39 =

= 2825.39 = 235.45

12

How helpful is that???

25

Standard Deviation

To convert variance into something of meaning, let’s create standard deviation.

The square root of the variance reveals the average deviation of the observations from the mean.

Standard Deviation = S =

7-Mar-13

S 2 =
S 2 =

Σ(Xi – X) 2 n – 1

26

Standard Deviation For Class A, the standard deviation is: 235.45 = 15.34 The average of
Standard Deviation
For Class A, the standard deviation is:
235.45
= 15.34
The average of persons’ deviation from the mean IQ of 110.54 is 15.34
IQ points.
Review:
1. Deviation
2. Deviation squared
3. Sum of squares
4. Variance
5. Standard deviation
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27

Standard Deviation

1. Larger s.d. = greater amounts of variation around the mean. For example:

19 25 31 X = 25 s.d. = 3
19
25
31
X = 25
s.d. = 3
13 25 37 X = 25 s.d. = 6
13
25
37
X = 25
s.d. = 6

2. s.d. = 0 only when all values are the same (only when you have a constant and not a “variable”)

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28

Markah-markah yang tidak teratur adalah tidak kemas dan tidak memberikan apa-apa makna. Oleh itu, langkah utama dalam statistik ialah untuk mendapatkan suatu jadual yang kemas dan dapat memberikan makna.

. Contoh: Markah Biologi 50 orang pelajar seperti berikut.

37

42

44

51

48

30

47

56

52

31

64

63

36

42

54

49

59

45

32

38

46

53

54

61

41

49

51

58

41

48

58

43

37

52

55

47

43

46

48

62

35

52

33

46

60

45

40

51

56

53

Markah minimum ialah 30

Markah maksimum ialah 64

Min = 47.5

Sisihan Piawai = 8.54

-Kita boleh bahagikan markah tersebut kepada sela-sela kelas yang sama saiznya.

-Dicadangkan supaya sela kelas adalah antara 5-20 dan pada praktiknya, 12 sela kelas adalah kerapkali digunakan dan sesuai.

-Katakan kita tetapkan saiz kelas ialah 5 unit, jadi bilangan sela kelas ialah;

Bilangan sela kelas =

Julat

Saiz kelas

=

64 - 30

= 7

5

Jadual Taburan Kekerapan

Sela Kelas Markah

Kekerapan

Sela Kelas Sebenar

Kekerapan

60

– 64

5

59.5

– 64.5

5

55

– 59

6

54.5

– 59.5

6

50

– 54

10

49.5

– 54.5

10

45

– 49

12

44.5

– 49.5

12

40

– 44

8

39.5

– 44.5

8

35

– 39

5

34.5

– 39.5

5

30

– 34

4

29.5

– 34.5

4

Jumlah

50

Jumlah

50

Daripada Jadual Taburan Kekerapan kita boleh membentuk histogram

12 11 10 9 Kekerapan 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 29.5 34.5
12
11
10
9
Kekerapan
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
29.5
34.5
39.5
44.5
49.5
54.5
59.6
64.5

Sela Kelas

Poligon Kekerapan 12 11 10 9 Kekarapan 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Poligon Kekerapan
12
11
10
9
Kekarapan
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
29.5
34.5
39.5
44.5
49.5
54.5
59.6
64.5

Sela Kelas

Poligon

Graf Taburan Normal Ciri-ciri: Bentuk loceng, Simetri, unimod, min mod dan median pada satu titik,
Graf Taburan Normal
Ciri-ciri:
Bentuk loceng, Simetri, unimod, min mod dan median pada
satu titik, asimtot
Kekerapan
Min
Mod
median
Kekerapan
Kekerapan
Mod
Min
Min
Mod
Median
Median
Pencong Positif
Pencong negatif

Definition of the Standard Normal Distribution The Standard Normal distribution follows a normal distribution and has mean 0 and standard deviation 1

7-Mar-13

The Standard Normal distribution follows a normal distribution and has mean 0 and standard deviation 1

36

37
37

7-Mar-13

TERIMA KASIH

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38