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DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS

 Math Science ALI 12 96 AHMAD 45 60 RMASAMY 60 80 T.SENG 80 70 SALMAH 22 80 SWEELAN 76 54 KUMARY 55 56 AHCHONG 43 64 AHMOI 67 33 JASTINA 67 73 JASTINI 40 59 JASTISHA 35 83 XXX 25 34 XXX 46 76 XXX 23 83 XXX 32 43 XXX 90 65 XXX 45 64 XXX 85 73 XXX 67 85 7-Mar-13 XXX 45 90 2 Math Science ALI 12 96 AHMAD 45 60 RMASAMY 60 80 T.SENG 80 70 SALMAH 22 80 SWEELAN 76 54 KUMARY 55 56 AHCHONG 43 64 AHMOI 67 33 JASTINA 67 73 JASTINI 40 59 JASTISHA 35 83 XXX 25 34 XXX 46 76 XXX 23 83 XXX 32 43 XXX 90 65 XXX 45 64 XXX 85 73 XXX 67 85 XXX 45 90 7-Mar-13 MIN(PURATA) 50.75 71.0 3

Mean

Most commonly called the “average.”

Add up the values for each case and divide by the total number of cases. _ X = (x1 + x2 + + xn) 7-Mar-13 n

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 Mean Class A Class B IQs of 13 Students IQs of 13 Students 102 128 115 109 127 131 162 103 96 111 131 89 80 109 98 106 93 87 140 119 120 105 93 97 109 110 Σ Xi = 1437 Σ Xi = 1433 _ _ X A = Σ Xi = 1437 = 110.54 X B = Σ Xi = 1433 = 110.23 7-Mar-13 n 13 n 13 5

Mean

1. Means can be badly affected by outliers (data points with extreme values unlike the rest)

2. Outliers can make the mean a bad measure of central tendency or common experience

7-Mar-13 Income in the U.S.
Bill Gates
All of Us
Outlier
Mean

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 Median The middle value when a variable’s values are ranked in order; the point that divides a distribution into two equal halves. When data are listed in order, the median is the point at which 50% of the cases are above and 50% below it. The 50 th percentile. 7-Mar-13 7 Median Class A: IQs of 13 Students 89 93 97 98 102 106 109 Median = 109 110 (six cases above, six below) 115 119 128 131 140 7-Mar-13 8 Median If the first student were to drop out of Class A, there would be a new median: 89 93 97 98 102 106 109 Median = 109.5 109 + 110 = 219/2 = 109.5 110 115 (six cases above, six below) 119 128 131 140 7-Mar-13 9

Median

1. The median is unaffected by outliers, making it a better measure of central tendency, better describing the “typical person” than the mean when data are skewed. All of Us
Bill Gates

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outlier

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Median

2. If the recorded values for a variable form a symmetric distribution, the median and mean are identical.

3. In skewed data, the mean lies further toward the skew than the median. Symmetric
Mean
Median

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Skewed Mean
Median

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Median

The middle score or measurement in a set of ranked scores or measurements; the point that divides a distribution into two equal halves.

Data are listed in order—the median is the point at which 50% of the cases are above and 50% below.

The 50 th percentile.

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Mode

The most common data point is called the mode.

The combined IQ scores for Classes A & B:

80 87 89 93 93 96 97 98 102 103 105 106 109 109 109 110 111 115 119 120 127 128 131 131 140 162 mode!!

## It is possible to have more than one mode!

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Mode

1. In symmetric distributions, the mean, median, and mode are the same.

2. In skewed data, the mean and median lie further toward the skew than the mode. Skewed
Symmetric
Mean
Median
Mean
Mode
Mode
Median

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14 Descriptive Statistics
Summarizing Data:
• Central Tendency (or Groups’ “Middle Values”)
• Mean
• Median
• Mode
• Variation (or Summary of Differences Within Groups)
• Range
• Variance
• Standard Deviation
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 Range The spread, or the distance, between the lowest and highest values of a variable. To get the range for a variable, you subtract its lowest value from its highest value. Class A: IQs of 13 Students Class B: IQs of 13 Students 102 115 127 162 128 109 131 103 131 89 96 111 98 106 80 109 140 119 93 87 93 97 120 105 110 109 Class A Range = 140 - 89 = 51 Class B Range = 162 - 80 = 82 16 Variance A measure of the spread of the recorded values on a variable. A measure of dispersion. The larger the variance, the further the individual cases are from the mean. Mean The smaller the variance, the closer the individual scores are to the mean. 7-Mar-13 Mean 17 Variance Variance is a number that at first seems complex to calculate. Calculating variance starts with a “deviation.” A deviation is the distance away from the mean of a case’s score. _ Xi – X 7-Mar-13 18

Variance

The deviation of 102 from 110.54 is? Deviation of 115?

Class A: IQs of 13 Students

 102 115 128 109 131 89 98 106 140 119 93 97 110

MINMINMINMIN AAAA ==== 110.54110.54110.54110.54

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Variance

The deviation of 102 from 110.54 is? 102 - 110.54 = -8.54

Class A: IQs of 13 Students

 102 115 128 109 131 89 98 106 140 119 93 97 110

7-Mar-13

MINMINMINMIN AAAA ==== 110.54110.54110.54110.54

Deviation of 115? 115 - 110.54 = 4.46

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Variance

• We want to add these to get total deviations, but if we were to do that, we would get zero every time. Why?

• We need a way to eliminate negative signs.

Squaring the deviations will eliminate negative signs A Deviation Squared: (Xi – X-bar) 2

Back to the IQ example, A deviation squared for 102 is:

(102 - 110.54) 2 = (-8.54) 2 = 72.93

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of 115:

(115 - 110.54) 2 = (4.46) 2 = 19.89

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Variance

If you were to add all the squared deviations together, you’d get what we call the “Sum of Squares.”

_

Sum of Squares (SS) = Σ (Xi – X) 2

SS = (X1 – X-bar) 2 + (X2 – X-bar) 2 +

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+ (Xn – X-bar) 2

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Variance

Class A, sum of squares:

(102 – 110.54) 2 + (115 – 110.54) 2 + (126 – 110.54) 2 + (109 – 110.54) 2 + (131 – 110.54) 2 + (89 – 110.54) 2 + (98 – 110.54) 2 + (106 – 110.54) 2 + (140 – 110.54) 2 + (119 – 110.54) 2 + (93 – 110.54) 2 + (97 – 110.54) 2 + (110 – 110.54) = SS = 2825.39

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Class A: IQs of 13 Students

 102 115 128 109 131 89 98 106
 140 119 93 97 110 MIN = X-bar = 110.54

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Variance

The last step

The approximate average sum of squares is the variance.

SS = Variance for a population.

N

SS = Variance for a sample.

N-1

_

Variance =S 2 = Σ(Xi – X) 2

n – 1

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Variance

For Class A

Variance = S 2 =2825.39 n - 1 7-Mar-13 = 2825.39 = 235.45

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Standard Deviation

To convert variance into something of meaning, let’s create standard deviation.

The square root of the variance reveals the average deviation of the observations from the mean.

Standard Deviation = S =

7-Mar-13 S 2 =

Σ(Xi – X) 2 n – 1

26 Standard Deviation
For Class A, the standard deviation is:
235.45
= 15.34
The average of persons’ deviation from the mean IQ of 110.54 is 15.34
IQ points.
Review:
1. Deviation
2. Deviation squared
3. Sum of squares
4. Variance
5. Standard deviation
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Standard Deviation

1. Larger s.d. = greater amounts of variation around the mean. For example: 19
25
31
X = 25
s.d. = 3 13
25
37
X = 25
s.d. = 6

2. s.d. = 0 only when all values are the same (only when you have a constant and not a “variable”)

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Markah-markah yang tidak teratur adalah tidak kemas dan tidak memberikan apa-apa makna. Oleh itu, langkah utama dalam statistik ialah untuk mendapatkan suatu jadual yang kemas dan dapat memberikan makna.

. Contoh: Markah Biologi 50 orang pelajar seperti berikut.

 37 42 44 51 48 30 47 56 52 31 64 63 36 42 54 49 59 45 32 38 46 53 54 61 41 49 51 58 41 48 58 43 37 52 55 47 43 46 48 62 35 52 33 46 60 45 40 51 56 53

Markah minimum ialah 30

Markah maksimum ialah 64

Min = 47.5

Sisihan Piawai = 8.54

-Kita boleh bahagikan markah tersebut kepada sela-sela kelas yang sama saiznya.

-Katakan kita tetapkan saiz kelas ialah 5 unit, jadi bilangan sela kelas ialah;

 Bilangan sela kelas = Julat Saiz kelas = 64 - 30 = 7

5

 Sela Kelas Markah Kekerapan Sela Kelas Sebenar Kekerapan 60 – 64 5 59.5 – 64.5 5 55 – 59 6 54.5 – 59.5 6 50 – 54 10 49.5 – 54.5 10 45 – 49 12 44.5 – 49.5 12 40 – 44 8 39.5 – 44.5 8 35 – 39 5 34.5 – 39.5 5 30 – 34 4 29.5 – 34.5 4 Jumlah 50 Jumlah 50 12
11
10
9
Kekerapan
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
29.5
34.5
39.5
44.5
49.5
54.5
59.6
64.5

Sela Kelas Poligon Kekerapan
12
11
10
9
Kekarapan
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
29.5
34.5
39.5
44.5
49.5
54.5
59.6
64.5

Sela Kelas

Poligon Graf Taburan Normal
Ciri-ciri:
Bentuk loceng, Simetri, unimod, min mod dan median pada
satu titik, asimtot
Kekerapan
Min
Mod
median
Kekerapan
Kekerapan
Mod
Min
Min
Mod
Median
Median
Pencong Positif
Pencong negatif

Definition of the Standard Normal Distribution The Standard Normal distribution follows a normal distribution and has mean 0 and standard deviation 1

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TERIMA KASIH

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