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Mie Scattering is a broad class of scattering of light by spherical particles of any diameter.

The scattering intensity is generally not strongly dependent on the wavelength, but is sensitive to the particle size. Mie scattering coincides with Rayleigh scattering in the special case where the diameter of the particles is much smaller than the wavelength of the light; in this limit, however, the shape of the particles no longer matters. Mie scattering intensity for large particles is proportional to the square of the particle diameter.

Anticrepuscular rays are similar to crepuscular rays, but seen opposite the sun in the sky. Anticrepuscular rays are near-parallel, but appear to converge at theantisolar point because [1] of linear perspective. Anticrepuscular rays are most frequently visible near sunrise or sunset.

"Newton's rings" is a phenomenon in which an interference pattern is created by the reflection of light between two surfaces a spherical surface and an adjacent flat surface. It is named after Isaac Newton, who first studied them in 1717. When viewed with monochromatic light, Newton's rings appear as a series of concentric, alternating bright and dark rings centered at the point of contact between the two surfaces

An afterglow is a broad high arch of whitish or rosy light appearing in the sky due to very fine particles of dust suspended in the high regions of the atmosphere. An afterglow may appear above the highestclouds in the hour of deepening twilight, or reflected from the high snowfields in mountain regions long after sunset. The particles produce a scattering effect upon the component parts of white light.

Total internal reflection is a phenomenon that happens when a propagating wave strikes a medium boundary at an angle larger than a particular critical angle with respect to the normal to the surface. If the refractive index is lower on the other side of the boundary and the incident angle is greater than the critical angle, the wave cannot pass through and is entirely reflected. The critical angle is the angle of incidence above which the total internal reflectance occurs

The color sunset is a pale tint of orange. It is a representation of the average color of clouds when the sunlight from asunset is reflected off of them.

Electroluminescence (EL) is an optical phenomenon and electrical phenomenon in which a material emits light in response to the passage of an electric current or to a strong electric field. This is distinct from black body light emission resulting from heat (incandescence), from a chemical reaction (chemiluminescence), sound (sonoluminescence), or other mechanical action (mechanoluminescence).

In optics,a caustic or causticnetwork [1] is the envelope of light rays reflected or refracted by a curved surface or object, or the projection of that envelope of rays on another surface.[2] The caustic is a curve or surface to which each of the light rays is tangent, defining a boundary of an envelope of rays as a curve of concentrated light. [2] Therefore in the image to the right, the caustics can be the patches of light or their bright edges. These shapes often have cusp singularities.

In optics, dispersion is the phenomenon in which the phase velocity of a wave depends on its frequency,[1] or alternatively when the group velocity depends on the frequency. Media having such a property are termed dispersive media. Dispersion is sometimes called chromatic dispersion to emphasize its wavelengthdependent nature, or group-velocity dispersion (GVD) to emphasize the role of the group velocity. Dispersion is most often described for light waves, but it may occur for any kind of wave that interacts with a medium or passes through an inhomogeneous geometry (e.g., a waveguide), such as sound waves.

A mirage is a naturally occurring optical phenomenon in which light rays are bent to produce a displaced image of distant objects or the sky. The word comes to English via the French mirage, from the Latin mirari, meaning "to look at, to wonder at". This is the same root as for "mirror" and "to admire".

In physics, mathematics, and art, a moir pattern (/mwre/; French: [mwa'e]) is a secondary and visually evident superimposed pattern created, for example, when two identical (usually transparent) patterns on a flat or curved surface (such as closely spaced straight lines drawn radiating from a point or taking the form of a grid) are overlaid while displaced or rotated a small amount from one another.

Tyndall Effect The phenomenon of scattering of light by colloidal particals as a result of which the path of the beam becomes visible is called tyndall effect.It was first studied by tyndall.So the name also came as tyndall.Tyndall effect is not observed in true solutions since the particles are too small in size to cause any scattering.

Rayleigh Scattering The explanation for the reddish tints seen in the sky at either end of the day lies in Rayleigh scattering. As it passes through layers in the atmosphere, shorter wavelength light is scattered more than longer wavelength light. The British physicist Lord Rayleigh (18421919) was the first to come up with the reasoning behind why the sky is blue, which is why the phenomenon is known as Rayleigh scattering.

Destructive Interference is a type of interference that occurs at any location along the medium where the two interfering waves have a displacement in the opposite direction. For instance, when a sine pulse with a maximum displacement of +1 unit meets a sine pulse with a maximum displacement of -1 unit, destructive interference occurs.

Reflection (Regular) abrupt change in the direction of propagation of a wave that strikes the boundary between different mediums. At least part of the oncoming wave disturbance remains in the same medium. Regular reflection, which follows a simple law, occurs at plane boundaries. The angle between the direction of motion of the oncoming wave and a perpendicular to the reflecting surface (angle of incidence) is equal to the angle between the direction of motion of the reflected wave and a perpendicular (angle of reflection Constructive Interference is a type of interference that occurs at any location along the medium where the two interfering waves have a displacement in the same direction. In this case, both waves have an upward displacement; consequently, the medium has an upward displacement that is greater than the displacement of the two interfering pulses. Constructive interference is observed at any location where the two interfering waves are displaced upward. But it is also observed when both interfering waves are displaced downward. Refraction As light travels through a given medium, it travels in a straight line. However, when light passes from one medium into a second medium, the light path bends. Refraction takes place. The refraction occurs only at the boundary. Once the light has crossed the boundary between the two media, it continues to travel in a straight line. Only now, the

direction of that line is different than it was in the former medium. If when sighting at an object, light from that object changes media on the way to your eye, a visual distortion is likely to occur. Reflection (Irregular) Reflection off of rough surfaces such as clothing, paper, and the asphalt roadway leads to a type of reflection known as diffuse reflection. Whether the surface is microscopically rough or smooth has a tremendous impact upon the subsequent reflection of a beam of light.

Polarization is a property of waves that can oscillate with more than one orientation. Electromagnetic waves, such as light, and gravitational waves exhibit polarization; sound waves in a gas or liquid do not have polarization because the medium vibrates only along the direction in which the waves are travelling.

Diffraction is the slight bending of light as it passes around the edge of an object. The amount of bending depends on the relative size of the wavelength of light to the size of the opening. If the opening is much larger than the light's wavelength, the bending will be almost unnoticeable. However, if the two are closer in size or equal, the amount of bending is

considerable, and easily seen with the naked eye. Regular Double Rainbow Secondary rainbows are caused by a double reflection of sunlight inside the raindrops, and appear at an angle of 50 53. As a result of the second reflection, the colours of a secondary rainbow are inverted compared to the primary bow, with blue on the outside and red on the inside. The secondary rainbow is fainter than the primary because more light escapes from two reflections compared to one and because the rainbow itself is spread over a greater area of the sky. The dark area of unlit sky lying between the primary and secondary bows is called Alexander's band, after Alexander of Aphrodisias who first described it

Rectilinear Propagation Rectilinear Propagation of Light is the tendency of light to only travel in straight Lines. This means that if light "criss-crosses" between each other whilst going through a small hole, you will see the image upside down, as the light goes straight up from down, and down from up.

At +infinity:For real object very far away from the mirror,the real image is formed at the focus,diminised,inverted.

Beyond C:For real object close to the mirror but outside the center of curvature.The image is inverted and smaller than the object.

At C:For a real object at C,the real image is formed at c.The image is inverted and the same size as the object.

For real object between C and F,the image is inverted and larger than the object.

For real object at F,The reflected rays are parallel and never converge.No image formed.

For a real object between F and the mirror,The image is erect and larger than the object.

A convex mirror is a spherical reflecting surface (or any reflecting surface fashioned into a portion of a sphere) in which its bulging side faces the source of light. Automobile enthusiasts often call it a fish eye mirror while other physics texts refer to it as a diverging mirror.

Thin-film interference is the phenomenon that occurs when incident light waves reflected by the upper and lower boundaries of a thin film interfere with one another to form a new wave. Studying this new wave can reveal information about the surfaces from which its components reflected, including the thickness of the film or the effective refractive index of the film medium. Thin films have many commercial applications including anti-reflection coatings, mirrors, and optical filters.

Fluorescence is the emission of light by a substance that has absorbed light or other electromagnetic radiation. It is a form of luminescence. The common fluorescent lamp relies on fluorescence. Inside the glass tube is a partial vacuum and a small amount of mercury. An electric discharge in the tube causes the mercury atoms to emit ultraviolet light.

In meteorology, a corona is produced by the diffraction of light from either the Sun or the Moon by individual small water droplets (and sometimes tiny ice crystals) of a cloud or on a foggy glass surface.

A glory is an optical phenomenon that resembles an iconic saint's halo about the shadow of the observer's head. The effect is believed to happen due to classical wave tunneling, when light nearby the droplet tunnels through air inside the droplet and, in the case of glory, is emitted backwards due to resonance effects.

A light pillar is a visual phenomenon created by the reflection of light from ice crystals with near horizontal parallel planar surfaces. The light can come from the Sun(usually at or low to the horizon) in which case the phenomenon is called a sun pillar or solar pillar. It can also come from the Moon or from terrestrial sources such as streetlights.

Optical Phenomena Group 5 IV-Priestley