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SPE 3603 1-1

Guided Notes
SPE 3603-Introduction to Exceptionality Exceptionality and Special Education Chapter 1 Learning Objectives (2) Become familiar with exceptionality and special education Learn the educational definition of exceptional learners Become familiar with the prevalence of exceptional learners Define special education Demonstrate understanding in the history & origins of special education Some Key Terms (3) Normalization Deinstitutionalization Inclusion Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Americans with Disabilities Act No Child Left Behind Getting Oriented to Exceptionality and Special Education (5) There is no single accepted theory of normal development, so relatively few definite statements can be made about exceptional learners. Reasons for optimism Importance of abilities Disability versus handicap Disability versus inability Exceptionality Defined (6) What is EXCEPTIONALITY? It is the study of differences and similarities among learners Who are EXCEPTIONAL LEARNERS? Require special education and related services to reach their full potential Different from most students in their sensory, physical, cognitive, emotional, and/or communication abilities Their special needs, created by the disabling condition, cannot be met or (partially met) in the regular educational program Exceptionalities (7) Developmental and Intellectual Disorders Learning Disabilities Emotional and Behavioral Disorders Communication Disorders Physical Disabilities Multiple Disabilities Special Gifts and Talents

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Important Concepts (8) Diversity of characteristics Need for special education o Assessment must show that learner is unable to make satisfactory progress without special services. Prevalence of Exceptional Learners (9) Approximately 10 in every 100 students receive special education. Over 6 million students in the U.S. receive special education services. There have been changes in prevalence for certain disabilities. o Autism: 20 years ago= 1 in 2000 children o Today: 1 in 110 children_ There are high incidence and low-incidence categories. Bell Curve (10)

Disabilities Categorized (13) High Incidence Largest population Most common Most students in mainstream (inclusion) Examples: Specific Learning disabilities o Reading, writing, math Emotional behavioral disorders

Low Incidence Uncommon Self-contained classrooms Some-low incidence disabilities have increased over the years Examples Visual impairment or blindness Deafness & blindness Down syndrome

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Definition of Special Education (14) Special education means specially designed instruction that meets the unusual needs of an exceptional student. Possible forms of special education: Special materials Special teaching techniques Specialized equipment and/or facilities Related services Eligibility for Special Education Having a disability does not automatically make a student eligible for special education/services Assessments need to be made before special education/services are provided Importance of Abilities Focus on the abilities and not the disabilities Abilities are the most important characteristics What they can do versus what they cannot do Doug Landis Oscar Pistorius (the Blade Runner)(400m in 45.07 seconds, 2011)

Disability Versus Handicap Versus Inability Disability An impairment Example: Blindness

Handicap A limitation that is imposed on someone Example: Text in Braille is not available for the student Disability Inability An impairment A lack of ability, power, or means to do something Example: A teenager with quadriplegia cannot Example: A new born baby cannot feed feed himself himself

History and Origin of Special Education (21) People and Ideas (22) 1800s: Itard Seguin Howe

SPE 3603 1-4 Gallaudet 1900s: Parental Organizations (1950s) Farrell(CEC) Ideas (20th Century)- (23) Normalization o Participation of people with disabilities in everyday life Deinstitutionalization o Move people with disabilities from institutions into communities Inclusion o Mainstream (regular education) classrooms Legislation and Regulations (24) Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (Section 504) PL 94-142 Education for All Handicapped Children Act (1975) o IDEA Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (1990, 1997, 2004) o Students 3-21 years, (early intervention, birth-3) ADA Americans with Disabilities Act (1990) NCLB No Child Left Behind (2001) o Accountability o Funding Major Provisions Provided by IDEA (25) Zero Reject Identification Free and Appropriate Public Education Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) Individualized Education Program (IEP) Due Process Parent/Guardian or Surrogate Consultation Nondiscriminatory Evaluation Confidentiality Personnel Development and In-Service Individualized Education for Students with Disabilities (26) Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP; EHA, 1986) o For infants and toddlers with disabilities o Individualized Education Program (IEP; IDEA, 1990) o All teachers must be trained to understand its purpose and function o General educators should see IEPs as an opportunity to solicit program supports o Teachers must work more closely with parents o Teachers must balance students needs for achievement in the general curriculum with their need for specialized curricula o Hearing officers and courts are permitted to determine procedural violations of the IEP

SPE 3603 1-5 The Progress of Special Education (27) Much progress has been made IDEA resulted in alteration of relationship between parents and schools Children and adults today receive better educational opportunities The belief that all students can succeed