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# Idealizations UsingBeamOrientationsLecture UsingBeamOrientations.

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## Using Beam Orientations

Three coordinate systems are involved in orienting beam sections.
Beam Coordinate Systems

Beam Action Coordinate System Beam Shape Coordinate System Beam Centroidal Principal Coordinate System

## Beam Orientation Definition dialog box

The 3 Coordinate Systems LectureNotes Beam Coordinate Systems In order to be able to understand how to position beam sections, you must first understand three types of coordinate systems that are associated with beams.

Beam Action Coordinate System (BACS) Beam Shape Coordinate System (BSCS) Beam Centroidal Principal Coordinate System (BCPCS)

Beam Action Coordinate System (BACS) Forces and moments applied to beams act through a coordinate system known as the beam action coordinate system (BACS). The BACS is always located on the curve that

Mechanica draws as a blue line when you create the beam; the X axis of the BACS is parallel to this curve and the Y and Z axes of the BACS are controlled by setting the Y direction on the Beam Definition dialog box. Beam Shape Coordinate System (BSCS) A beam cross-section's shape is defined relative to the beam shape coordinate system (BSCS). The X axis for a beam is always along the length of the beam. The positive direction of the X axis is defined by the direction that the arrow points when you select each beam segment. (You can change the direction of any beam X axis defining arrow by clicking on it). For standard beam section types, the software defines the Y and Z axes by the crosshairs (+) on the graphical depiction of the section in the Beam Section Definition dialog box. The Y axis goes upward whereas the Z axis goes to the right from the crosshairs. For sketched beam sections, the orientation of the Y and Z axes for the BSCS correspond to the Y and X axes (respectively) of the sketched coordinate system. For a general cross section, the software determines the BCPCS based on your specifications, and the BSCS is essentially the same as the BCPCS for this cross-section type. Mechanica depicts the BSCS with a Y-shape at the tip of the Y axis and an arrow at the tip of the Z axis. The BSCS can be placed relative to the BACS by entering values for DY and DZ on the Beam Orientation Definition dialog box. Rotation of the BSCS about the beam X axis can be achieved by entering an Orientation Angle in the Beam Orientation Definition dialog box. Additionally, you can position the shear center of the beam section relative to the BACS by clicking the Shear Center radio button. Beam Centroidal Principal Coordinate System (BCPCS) The beam centroidal principal coordinate system (BCPCS) is located at the section's centroid. Its Y and Z axes are the principal axes that pass through the centroid of the section and define the axes of maximum and minimum moments of inertia. The location and orientation of the BCPCS relative to the BSCS is a function of the shape of the beam's section only. For general sections and all standard sections except channel and L, the BSCS is coincident with the BCPCS. For sketched, channel, and L sections Mechanica determines the BCPCS automatically. The BCPCS is sometimes referred to as the principal coordinate system. Many of the values returned during a beam section review are calculated relative to the BCPCS. UsingBeamOrientationsDemonstration UsingBeamOrientations_demo.mp4 UsingBeamOrientationsProcedure

## Procedure: Using Beam Orientations

Scenario
Use a Beam Orientation Definition to correctly orient a beam for an overhead door. BeamOrientaions door_guide.prt

Task 1. Open the Mechanica Application and begin creating a beam idealization.
1. Click Applications > Mechanica. 2. Click Beam from the Mechanica toolbar.

3. Select the curve on the left side of the model, as shown in the figure.

4. Select STEEL from the Material field drop-down menu. 5. Type 1 for X, 0 for Y, and 0 for Z in the Y Direction fields.

## Task 2. Review the previously created Door_guide Beam Section.

1. Click More... next to the Beam Section field. 2. Click Edit... from the Beam Sections dialog box. 3. Click Sketch > OK > Confirm > Section > Done to review the sketched section. 4. When you have completed reviewing the section, click Done Section to return to the Beam Definition dialog box. > OK > OK

Task 3. Complete the creation of the Beam Definition and correct its orientation.
1. Click OK to complete the definition of the Beam. 2. Zoom in on the beam icons that have been added and note that the orientation is not correct for our design. 3. Select the Beam Idealization, right-click and select Edit Definition.

4. Click any one of the yellow directional arrows to flip its direction as shown in the figure.

5. Click More... next to the Beam Orientation field. 6. Click New... in the Beam Orientations dialog box. 7. Type 270_degrees in the Name field. 8. Type 270 in the Orientation Angle field. 9. Click OK to close the Beam Orientation Definition dialog box.

10. Click OK > OK to close the dialog boxes and complete the beam definition. The beam should now be correctly oriented as shown in the figure.

Task 4. [Optional] Repeat the same process for the beam on the right side of the model.
1. Orient the beam so it is the mirror image of the beam you just created. You will need to create a new 90 degree Beam Orientation in order to orient this beam section correctly.