Sei sulla pagina 1di 31

3.0

OXY-ACETYLENE WELDING (OAW)

 

Prepared by:

Shahfuan Hanif A. Hamidi Fabrication and Joining Section University Kuala Lumpur

Outline

Ou tlin e 3.1. Introd uc tion 3.2. Principle of operation Equipments 3.3.1 Oxygen & acetylene
Ou tlin e 3.1. Introd uc tion 3.2. Principle of operation Equipments 3.3.1 Oxygen & acetylene

3.1.

Introduction

3.2.

Principle of operation Equipments

3.3.1 Oxygen & acetylene cylinders

3.3.2 Regulator

3.3.3 Regulator Hoses

3.3.4 Torch, Tip & Welding Rod

3.4.

Fuel Gases

3.5

Flames

3.6

Advantages and Limitations

3.1: Introduction

3.1: Introduction OAW is a manual p rocess in which the welder must p ersonall y
3.1: Introduction OAW is a manual p rocess in which the welder must p ersonall y

OAW is a manual process in which the welder must personally control the torch movement and filler rod application.

Cylinders contain oxygen (2250Psi) and acetylene gas (225psi) at extremely high pressure.

OFW or OAW has many important uses: Welding, Cutting, hardening, tempering, bending, forming, preheating, postheating, brazing etc.

Its major industrial applications are in the field of maintenance and repair, the welding of small- diameter pipe, and for light manufacturing.

3.2 Principle of operation

3.2 Principle of operation The oxyacetylene welding p rocess uses a combination of ox yg en(O2)
3.2 Principle of operation The oxyacetylene welding p rocess uses a combination of ox yg en(O2)

The oxyacetylene welding process uses a combination of oxygen(O2) and acetylene(C2H2 ) gas to provide a high temperature flame(6300º F or 3482 ºC).

C2H2 + O2 = 2CO + H +heat

Filler metal is added and solidify to produce the weld joint

flame(6300º F or 3482 ºC). C2H2 + O2 = 2CO + H +heat Filler metal is

3.2 Principle of operation (cont)

3.2 Principle of operation (cont) When welding an y metal , the a pp ro p
3.2 Principle of operation (cont) When welding an y metal , the a pp ro p

When welding any metal, the appropriate filler material must be selected and used.

The filler metal must match the composition of the base metal to be welded and normally contains deoxidizers to aid in producing sound welds.

The oxyacetylene welding process is normally used for welding thinner materials up to ¼ in. (6.4 mm) thick.

3.3 Equipments

3.3 Equipments
3.3 Equipments
3.3 Equipments

3.3 Equipments (cont)

3.3 Equipments (cont) The a pp aratus and equipment em p lo y ed for oxyacetylene
3.3 Equipments (cont) The a pp aratus and equipment em p lo y ed for oxyacetylene

The apparatus and equipment employed for oxyacetylene welding are:

(1) welding torch and tips, (2) oxygen and acetylene hose, (3) oxygen and acetylene regulators, (4) oxygen cylinder, (5) acetylene cylinder.

3.3 Equipments (cont)

3.3 Equipments (cont)
3.3 Equipments (cont)
3.3 Equipments (cont)
3.3 Equipments (cont)

3.3.1 Oxygen cylinders

3.3.1 Oxygen cylinders Ox yg en is stored within c y linders of various sizes and
3.3.1 Oxygen cylinders Ox yg en is stored within c y linders of various sizes and

Oxygen is stored within cylinders of various sizes and pressures ranging from 2000- 2640 PSI. (Pounds Per square inch) .

Oxygen cylinders are forged from solid armor plate steel. No part of the cylinder may be less than 1/4” thick.

Cylinders are then tested to over 3,300 PSI using a (NDE) hydrostatic pressure test.

3.3.1 Oxygen cylinders (cont)

3.3.1 Oxygen cylinders (cont)
3.3.1 Oxygen cylinders (cont)
3.3.1 Oxygen cylinders (cont)

3.3.1 Acetylene cylinders (cont)

3.3.1 Acetylene cylinders (cont) C y linders are filled with a very p orous substance “
3.3.1 Acetylene cylinders (cont) C y linders are filled with a very p orous substance “

Cylinders are filled with a very porous substance monolithic fillerto help prevent large pockets of pure acetylene form forming.

Cylinders have safety (Fuse) plugs in the top and bottom designed to melt at 212° F (100 °C).

Safety valves and plug in oxygen and acetylene cylinder is purpose to prevent the cylinder burst from overpressure.

3.3.2

Regulator

3.3.2 Regulator There are two t yp es of re g ulators: 1. Single-stage regulator 2.
3.3.2 Regulator There are two t yp es of re g ulators: 1. Single-stage regulator 2.

There are two types of regulators:

1. Single-stage regulator

2. Two-stage regulator.

The single-stage regulator reduces the cylinder pressure of the gas to a working pressure in one step.

Single-stage regulators must be re-adjusted from time to time to maintain the required working pressure. The gas pressure in the cylinder decreases gradually as gas is withdrawn. Single-stage regulators are less expensive than two-stage regulators and are more popular’

Sin g le-sta g e re g ulator

Single-stage regulator

Sin g le-sta g e re g ulator
Sin g le-sta g e re g ulator
Sin g le-sta g e re g ulator

3.3.2 Regulator (cont)

3.3.2 Regulator (cont) The two - sta g e re g ulator makes the reduction of
3.3.2 Regulator (cont) The two - sta g e re g ulator makes the reduction of

The two-stage regulator makes the reduction of pressure in two steps.

The first step reduces the cylinder pressure to an intermediate pressure. The second step reduces this intermediate pressure to the desired working pressure.

The two-stage regulator provides more accurate regulation and eliminates the need to re-adjust the regulator as the pressure in the supply tank is reduced.

Regulators have two pressure gauges: one shows the pressure of the gas inside the cylinder; the other shows the working pressure that is being supplied to the torch.

TWO-STAGE REGULATOR

T WO - STAGE REGULATOR
T WO - STAGE REGULATOR

The different between Acetylene and Oxygen fitting

The different between Acet y lene and Ox yg en fittin g

Regulator Pressure Settings

The maximum safe working pressure for acetylene is 15 PSI !

Reg ulator Pressure Settin gs The max imum safe working pressure for ace tylene is 15

Check Valves & Flashback Arrestors

Check Valves & Flashback Arrestors Check valves allow gas flow in one direction only Flashback arrestors

Check valves allow gas flow in one direction only

Flashback arrestors are designed to eliminate the possibility of an explosion at the cylinder.

Combination Check/ Flashback Valves can be placed at the torch or regulator.

3.3.3 Regulator Hose

3.3.3 Regulator Hose Hoses are fabricated from rubber Oxygen hoses are green in color and have
3.3.3 Regulator Hose Hoses are fabricated from rubber Oxygen hoses are green in color and have
3.3.3 Regulator Hose Hoses are fabricated from rubber Oxygen hoses are green in color and have

Hoses are fabricated from rubber

Oxygen hoses are green in color and have right hand thread.

Acetylene hoses are red in color with left hand thread.

Left hand threads can be identified by a grove in the body of the nut and it may have “ACET” stamped on it

3.3.4

Torch

3.3.4 Torch Two basic t yp es of torches , 1. medium- pressure torch (most popular)
3.3.4 Torch Two basic t yp es of torches , 1. medium- pressure torch (most popular)
3.3.4 Torch Two basic t yp es of torches , 1. medium- pressure torch (most popular)

Two basic types of torches,

1. medium- pressure torch (most popular)

2. low-pressure or injector type.

When using the medium- pressure torch, both oxygen and acetylene are supplied at approximately the same pressure, which may vary from 1 to 10 psi depending on the size of the tip being used. The two gases are mixed together in the mixing chamber in the torch handle

3.3.4

Tip

3.3.4 Tip
3.3.4 Tip
3.3.4 Tip

3.3.4 Welding Rod

3.3.4 Welding Rod The American Welding Society provides a specification covering welding rods or filler metal
3.3.4 Welding Rod The American Welding Society provides a specification covering welding rods or filler metal

The American Welding Society provides a specification covering welding rods or filler metal used for the oxyacetylene or oxyfuel gas welding process.

The specification number has the prefix letter “R.” This is followed by two or three digits, 45, 60, 65, or 100, which designate the approximate tensile strength in ksi (1000 psi).

by two or three dig its , 45 , 60, 65, or 100 , which desi

3.4 Fuel Gases

3.4 Fuel Gases Why acetylene?
3.4 Fuel Gases Why acetylene?
3.4 Fuel Gases Why acetylene?

Why acetylene?

3.4 Fuel Gases Why acetylene?

3.5 Flame

3.5 Flame Three distinct t yp e of ox y- acet y lene flames , usuall
3.5 Flame Three distinct t yp e of ox y- acet y lene flames , usuall

Three distinct type of oxy-acetylene flames, usually termed:

1. Neutral

2. Carburizing (or “excess acetylene”)

3. Oxidizing (or “excess oxygen” )

The type of flame produced depends upon the ratio of oxygen to acetylene in the gas mixture which leaves the torch tip.

3.5 Flame (cont)

3.5 Flame (cont) The neutral flame is p roduced when the ratio of ox yg en
3.5 Flame (cont) The neutral flame is p roduced when the ratio of ox yg en

The neutral flame is produced when the ratio of oxygen to acetylene, in the mixture leaving the torch, is almost exactly one-to-one. It’s termed ”neutral” because it will usually have no chemical effect on the metal being welded. It will not oxidize the weld metal

The excess acetylene flame is created when the proportion of acetylene in the mixture is higher than that required to produce the neutral flame. Used on steel, it will cause an increase in the carbon content of the weld metal.

The oxidizing flame results from burning a mixture which contains more oxygen than required for a neutral flame. It will oxidize or ”burnsome of the metal being welded.

3.5 Flame (cont)

3.5 Flame (cont) Pure Acet y lene and Carburizing Flame p rofiles
3.5 Flame (cont) Pure Acet y lene and Carburizing Flame p rofiles

Pure Acetylene and Carburizing Flame profiles

3.5 Flame (cont) Pure Acet y lene and Carburizing Flame p rofiles

3.5 Flame (cont)

3.5 Flame (cont) Neutral and Oxidizin g Flame Profiles
3.5 Flame (cont) Neutral and Oxidizin g Flame Profiles

Neutral and Oxidizing Flame Profiles

3.5 Flame (cont) Neutral and Oxidizin g Flame Profiles

3.6 Advantages

3.6 Advantages The e q ui p ment is ver y portable. It is relatively inexpensive
3.6 Advantages The e q ui p ment is ver y portable. It is relatively inexpensive

The equipment is very portable.

It is relatively inexpensive

it can be used in all welding positions

the pool is visible to the welder.

The equipment is versatile. It can be used for welding, brazing, soldering, and with proper equipment, for flame cutting.

It can also be used as a source of heat for bending, forming, straightening, hardening, and so on.

3.6 Limitations

3.6 Limitations The e q ui p ment for ox y acet y lene weldin g
3.6 Limitations The e q ui p ment for ox y acet y lene weldin g

The equipment for oxyacetylene welding is the least expensive of all.

It is one of the slowest processes due to the heat transfer and temperature involved.

For this reason oxy acetylene welding has been largely supplanted for most manufacturing operations.