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KECTIT'IERS AI{D F'ItiTEKS

I

I

I

I

I

I

$

3.1lntroduction

'

--r ^r^*ant

-

^f Anv tvoe of an electronic circuit'

In

4:]I";J**'i"o's'deck'r

"".ii";ffi5:T:',ii;:*xrri:11[nHil;ff

vcR.whichoperate

V.C.ir. which

operate fully or Parrrv "" T;'; 5;;;;

;;il";

ru'vo1partrv:1fi?:ii-::*;*X#1.?";J,il:t:;"*:

functioning of thed'c'power

*;;*u';:l^:i'"{i$i*"# xi'Ftrii;:fgT;'5:tt;"nffil"$::lifi

i":: I:r::1v' soHzrhen'iheques'iion

shows theblock

cilcuits rhenature of

:i

:liliid; ff

":

circuits

il"l*:y*:T:,iffi;'

is,how thevarious ti"tt'o"it

A typical

diagram

dragram

voltages at

d'c' power

and?evices geta d'c' Power supply ?

of various stages' The Fig'3'1

ofatypicar,l;. ,llr1;:#+":il?11{;";;;il

ur

q

tlvrssti^tt

various P

ii also shown in

the Fig' 3'1'

"'ppll^-t1l.1sts

M

Primary

Transfo "

A.C.

malns

230V, 50Hz

Unregulatecl

diagram of a typical d'c' powersupply

Fig'3'1Block

(230v'

50Hz)is'"T:":',1,:t::*'nX",iii::i:f;f::T:ltil:

,,"Jf,ff;::*X';Ji'"',kli.lli:?t:ii;1Y::*:::::;n:*t::

Therectifier circuit

'"to"du'y.,oltage'

A

r",r"

converts thisa'c'voltage intoa

unidirectionat voltageiontaining furg"*7ulyi"e,t*r*"t

circuit is usedurt"r

suita,. .,"*r

*t" g"ia"rl."Ju"'

Thus, with

pulsatin* d'c'voltage means a

in it' Thefilter

*tt"itipple

content in the.pulsating

oli:lt^".t iI';;i;g"'

ru=.1-.ii'r,l*

.Jd.,.u, theripple

.i?."if.whicir

outpuicontains some ripple' This

stilt iien thefilter

d.c.andtriesto

-u;1;;;o,*,.r.

rhea.c'volta5e

(133)

-E

E.D.c.-f

134

Rectifiers and Filters

fJ,L;,fi,i"$:il:r,rated

d.c.voltage.

A circuit used arl

*iei*ili;il1'r#il;h.litft::;t"::l:lllifi:in,jti:ii:

Itkeeps

iT;",r?;:',',";::ttoush input a

",],1;l;H,?ffiffi:i::l;:*::ff:ij:ilHr:i";

uortog"

rheourput

i?ll.Tl':

;:T:41

oru'J*-,,'ru'ioijiffiir':T",:;;T,",:,Tfil",1:1:fjlii::i

i'ri;',"r'"";::X,lj',;

Ii::_:.,,*"i,n"1 ""rr"r" .r"r,"", under,,".,-,-],*1r":'J;';#l'.".ru,.1

l:ilJ'I#lf-1^':g:1:'o'i".uir"i;:::;;TITIT*'-"-1'll?"LE,ai""

uo1r"

turtqrtrons/

be

adays, complete rJgulator circuits

Inttris chaprer,

In this

chapter, we

3.2 Recfifiar.

Rectifiers

complete.;d;;;.1iil

which ther-

-'"'"

l;l'#l\:r?

"."

*rrrrule

'- '::-:""

in rho,^*^^_^?ul can

il

t;,",',i:il.tilrT.i6H[:

mtegrated circuit (rc)

for

."nn".i.d. ,vo,

wesha'sr'rrr,,^^,.^-:tt'6i"it

shalr study

-- *'**/

,n"

'te

v?rlous

"r-l^.1-

rectifier circuits and filter circuits.

keepsthedcou,,"i uoiii

<eeps thed."

^,,n,

tl-Tlk"t

the d.c. u6,tug" smoorh,.,

-,Ii-tle. filter is a regulator

A rectifier is a device

tlu

p-n junction diode

JtT:Jnt'n converts

r,,,-_

conducts

which

a'c'voltase ropursating

_

"'i::;:;ilffi

d.c,vortage,

-'

usins one

*"rr'l5urtt

brased while practi

",^

;"'',:iT j:."ii":::r*4X"i#*:{:;*##j:i+:}fifi,:$, j,Txil;

onrrzi- ^^^ r.

nlll;ruilfit":#iTfii:""'.T;:'iytllt'f;t:#[_!u*;i

::l;il "'i: j:J *:1 ",1

I'e'

:'*:;l*r"

putsating; :;;;;" l]31",.ttbj:cted

3'2'1 The

*.i'jtf

,::'1T """*:,1T

ou

"':

"' :H::l i

ro an a.c. uortug"u-Jtr"r"' s a recrifier

unidirectional

;;;;;

d'c' Thus p-n iunction

rng alternating voltage to a

rmportant characferistics of

points to bestudie, _^rr"

of the load curren, , ;"

ffi;;

;:'""fi:, ff

. The important

a) Waveform

important

a Rectifier circuit

lHi"' throu

the load

curr,

:

analysing theva *" various rectifier circuirs are,

converts- a.c.

to pursating d.c., it is

As rectifier ;;;^:,:

::Til,

{s

to

determines ,r?nurrr"-,t*

ghr*'i'ii'i.'uu'i*u,",,

:;

" .

b)Regur arionJ

c) power,^. o

Rectifier

effic.

d) Peak value of

e)

changes. Practicalty r;"J

reguli tionistostudy*,

"

'""iL-."

u*".i'o?d.i^' r'* rJ' ."i#'

li:rr.,:XTT;' ::*;T'

i |.',1 :Itsisnirie'-nli,l "i#:T;: :;H ::';:*:iT

circuir' rnuput,:*1.1, ft:maximum

circuii' This decides tnu.uiir-,g or

,"fl*;i,T:,'j:,1111li'1,ll; ffi'l':r

peak varue ortt"

(PIv) :

"r"ir"ri,"i;#;Tr::tiifier

,Illtl.g". across the

##x#:i1ili;

-'-

when

across,n "

.,.il "

voltase i.".iri

:,!T."#J1 rhe.reverse direction

ru,ing ofadiode. or "".f,'";i;r;;';:".:;:tlXt""rt"T ?If,j[:

\

:w

E.D.C.-l

135

RectifiersandFilters

t Ripple factor : The output of the rectifier is of pulsating d.c. type. The amount of a.c.content in the output can be mathematically expressedby a factor called rip-rplefactor.

Using one or more diodes following rectifier circuits can be designed.

1. Half wave rectifier

2. Full wave rectifier

3. Bridgerectifier

Let us discussthe variousrectifiercircuitsin detail.

3.3HalfWaveRectifier

,' In h.a[wa.r4erpctifier, rectifying element c-ondrictsonly during positiv_ehalf cycle of

\

iniut

a.c.

_supply- The negative half cylles of a.c.supply are eliminited

from ihe output.

(This rectifier circuit consistsof resistive load, rectifying element, i.e. p-n junction diode, and the sorlrceof a.c.voltage,all connected in series);The circuit diagram is shown in Fi9.3.2. Usually, the rectifier circuits are operated from ac mains supp$ To obtain the desired d.c.voltageacrossthe load,

Fig. 3.2 Halfwaverectifier

the a.c.voltage is applied to rectifier circuit using suitable step-up or step-down transformer, mostly a step-down one, with necessaryturns ratio.

The input voltage to the half-wave rectifier circuit shown in Fig. 3.2 is a sinusoidal a.c.voltage, having a frequency which is the supply frequency, 50 Hz.

are

primary number of turns and N, are secondary number of turns and E",.,is the peak

valueof the primary voltagetheri;

,,The transformer decides the peak value of the secondary voltage. If the N,

i'",

!r

=

tr,,,

Eo-

where E.- is the peak value of the secondarya.c.voltage.

As the nature of E,. is sinusoidal the instantaneousvalue will be,

I

I

I

1

t

'

€9 =

E'- sin ot

tw=Znf

f =

supply frequency

E.D.C.-t

136

RectifiersandFilters

E.D

Let R1represents the forward resistanceof the diode. Assume that, under relerse biased condition, the diode actsalmost as open circuit, conducting no current.

\

*/

3.3.1Operationof the Circuit

During

the positive half cycle of secondary a.c voltage, terminal

(A) becomes

positive with respectto terminal (B).The diode is forward biased and the current florr's in the circuit in the clockwise direction, as shown in Fig. 3.2. The current will flors for

almost full positive half cycle. This current is also flowing through load resistanceR, hencedenoted asir, the load current.

During negative half cycle when terminal (A) is negative with respect to ternunal (B),diode becomesreversebiased.Hence no current flows in the circuit. Thus the circuit current, which is also the load current, is in the form of half sinusoidal pulses.

The load voltage, being the product of load current and load resistance,rtill al-cobe in the form of half sinusoidal pulses.The different waveforms are illustrated in Fig. 3 3.

e" = E.rsin ot

z \

l"u = loc 'olt

Fig.3.3Loadcurrentandloadvoltagewaveformsfor halfwaverectifier The d.c. output waveform is expectedto be a straight line but the half n'ave rectitier gives output in the form of positive sinusoidal pulses. Hence the output r-scalled pulsating d.c. It is discontinuous in nature. Hence it is necessaryto calculatethe average value of load current and averagevalue of output voltage.

3.3.2AverageDC LoadCurrent( Inc )

The averageor dc vafue of alternating current is obtained by integration.

For finding out the averagevalue of an alternating waveform, we have to determine the areaunder the curve over one complete cyclei.e. from 0 to 2nand then dividing it by the basei.e.2r

As nc

o:t=2

Appl

wl

shou

9.3.

Iti

Subst

Th

comP

Bu

to1.ft

E.D.C.-l

137

Rectifiers and Filters

Mathematically, current waveform can be described as,

where

i,

=

ir=0

I.

=

I_sin alt

for 0 s 0* < ,r for n< c* < 2n

peak value of load current

rnc =

*'f

o''o

,rd(art)=

*'[r^sin(rrrt)d(ort)

tfto

As no current flows

cot

negative half

cycle of ac input voltage, i.e. between cot=

= 2 4 we change the

.d":i"g

limits oI integrati,on.

Ioc =

*f

tfr.

t," sin(rrrt)d(cot)

I [-.o'(rot)]j =-]t

= f

=-*t-t-11=+

*fO-cos(0)l

n to

-I

loc

=

-rL = average value

Applying Kirchhoff's voltage law we can write,

,n"ilfiT*di::"iiff.:ffi;#ary

I_

=

--

l-r*

R1+R1 +R,

windinsortransrormer. rr'\

3.3;3Average DC Load Voltage(Eoc)

isnot siven it

It is the product of average D.C. load current and the road resistance R,.

Enc

=

IncRl

Substituting value of lpq,

Eoc= t^ RL= E;+i

RJ,T RL

-l*":t:qg

resistance R. and forward diode resistance Rl arepractically very small

," ,.t#::$:l

#*'#,|t

.o'"oared toR1,(Rr+R )/RLisneglisibly smaucompared

Eoc

=

lsm E

G

E.D.C.-l

138

Rectifiers and

3.3.4 R.M.S. Value of Load Current (Inrus)

The R.M.S

R.M.s.uur,,.of il:ilHlll;_;j,lf,,li"T:::

mear

andthenfinding squareroot.

Invs =

*jU^sinr,r92 d(rot)

-,.0

r

/+l(t-'sin2 r,,td(,0)

-

'm.il-

t

lt

f [-cos(2rot)]d(art)

Utnb

z

T

-m

-rm

I

-I*

=.

'2

!

i

f

rot sin(Z,rt)) n

4

_-J,

2"17-

F7A

2"1, )

assin(2n)= sin (0) = Q

- I

5"r=*

lnl

.

L

Note:

students mustremember thatthisR-M.s. valueisforhalf waverectified

I,n/2.Forfull sinewave lr Iriit O.

'- 'vr .i

henceit is

wavefo

3.3.5D.C.Power Output(pnc)

Thed.c.porver output canbeobtained as,

Poc = Eocloc=l3cR.

D.C.Power output = I6cR.=

1 2

Poc = *nt

fr-

E*lto,

LTrJ -

where

I-

rr

.nC

-

E'o'

Rr+R.+R.

E"- 2 R,

n'[Rr +R, +R, ]2

-r*2

i_ol

E.D.C.-l

139

3.3.6A.C. power Input (pac)

Rqcllifiers andFilters

,"_^1n," O.ower input takenfrom

:$:

thesecondary of

"

" ::: ilH: "U*"*:';'J' ;:

R,.the,r*t*"1 "' i:,:x:J "'i"i# T,1"i#

transform,

Pac= tflrrlR,,+I{r+R.]

but

I*

;

r2

rRMs , =

for half wave,

Pnc= ?[R.+R,+R,J

3.3.7 Rectifier Efficiency (4)

The rectifier efficiency is defined !or\'er.

as the ratio

_

of

output

d.c. power

p,.,.

u r

D.C. f ttplrt powet,

-:_--

-

A.C.inputpower - a*

to input

a.c.

h

-

---''-r-'L

=

-

t

l

1*

n2

R, ''

t:

*

[Rir-R1

0.406

r*i& *,\ )

(Rr.

)

+R.

l

(l

/

n2\R,

(R,+R,

\

I

-'L'"sl

+R-)

hrUlrf":?"-.*lrr."1*,rs me'tioned earlier, wegetthemaximum rheorerical efficiency of

t

;

-_\

o/ot1^u^

=

0.406x100= 4A.6,,h,

fhus in

half wave rectifier, maximum

inihe,""1^,ljl" e{ri5i1ncroi rectirieris,40,/n ,il"'J#!:ii,:",,,:ltf:":ff"r#;

power' It is present interms of

ripples i"

,

ti"'n.,tput

which

tTtil;il'n"

40.6oh a

output' Tliusmoretherectifie. ufiiciercy, iessaretn" ,;ppru contents in

is fluctuating component

J.3.8RippteFacror(y)

It is seenthat the output of half wave

contain.pulsating t:flp:Tll"

therectifier outpu"t.The

Theoutput

ripples in

rectifier is not pure d.c. but a pulsating d.c.

calledripp.les. r.i""ilyir-,".lltrouta

such,rp_ples pr"i",.,,

r,.ti

t"tt,

no*

,*oott.

not bea'y

ir.'ti.,"ortp.rt is with

is theoutput.

expresses

d.c.The ripple ractor

measure of

thehelp of

smallerthe ripple how much

afactor calledripple factor

a-.,ot",rii factor .tore, is the.outp;i;;

ili

;;".e

successful thecircr.ritis in obtuii;;

is defined

d.c.from a.c.input.

Mathematically ripple factor

as the ratio of

component to theaverage or d.c.component.

R.Iv{.s. varue of the a.c.

E.D.C.-l

Ripple factor

y -

140

Rectifiers and Filters

R.M.S.valueofa.c.component

Averageor d.c.component

Now the output current is composedof a.c.component aswell as d.c. component.

Let

Now

Iu.

=

=

Inus =

Inus =

Ioc

Iu. =

r.m.s.value of a.c. componentpresent in output

d.c. component present in output

R.M.S.value of total output current

frr;E

Ripplefactor = ,lut

loc

asper definition

This is the generalexpression circuit.

Now for a half wavecircuit,

I""s

=I^ 2

can be used for anv rectifier

while

I

I

rDc--

_-m

y

=

1.271

the d.c.

componenti.e. 12L.1% of d.c. component.The ripple factor for half wave is ven'high which indicates that the half wave circuit is a poor converter of a.c. to d.c. The ripple factor is minimised using filter circuits along with rectifiers.

3.3.9LoadCurrent

The load current i, which is composed of a.c.and d.c. components can be erpressed using Fourier seriesas,

This indicates that the ripple

contents in

the output

are

1

2'1.1.times

E-I).

T

ri-n

6c3

The

:rF

I

i

reP

i-ri

.{-

33

drn

rde

voI

rat

3-

and Filters

ponent,

sent

;ffi

E.D.C.-l

t -

141

I- "'Ln E*

RectifiersandFilters

1sir,rt-3cos2rot- 2

2

cos4rot

3n

1Sn

-l

I

This expression shows that the current may be considered to be the sum of an infinite number of current components,according to Fourier series.

The first term of the seriesis the averageor d.c. value of the load current. The second term iq a varying componont having frequercy Jglle as that of a.c.r@

IsEu"a f.rndu*"ntul-.otr.;;t";toftt.e?F;*t*uing-Ga

gfr;;t.n6;;fu.-

The thitd t"tt"

ir

a v@e,i[ilcy

t*ice *te rteq"etrc/or

' all - theotherterms -

supplyvoltage.Thisis "gain calledsecondhut^o"i.

repieient the a.c.componenlsand areffi

Thus ripple in the output is due to the fundamentalcomponentalongwith the variousharmoniccomponents.And the averagevalue of the total pulsatingd.c.is the d.c.valueof theloadcurrent,givenby theconstanttermin theseries,I./

.o*po."""t€imilarly

n

1,3.t0 PeakInverseVoltage(PIV)

The Peak Inverse Voltage is the peak voltage acrgss the diode

in

the reverse

direction i.e. when lhg {iq{elr_sleyerse bia.sed.In half wave rectifier, the load current is

ideally zero when the diode is reverse biased and hence the maximum voltage that can exist acrossthe diode is nothing but 8.n,.

value of the

:ectifier

PIV of diode

=

Er- = Maximum value of secondaryvoltage

=-,!LDCIIDC=0rF-^l

This is called PIV rating of a diode. So diode must be selectedbased on this PIV rating and the circuit specifications.

3.3.11TransformerUtilizationFactor(T.U.F.)

-

The factor which indicates how much is the utilization of the transformer in the circuit is called Transformer Utilization Factor (T.U.F.)

The T.U.F. is defined as the ratio of d.c. power delivered to the load to the a.cpower rating of the transformer. While calculating the a.c. power rating, it is necessary to consider r.m.s.value of a.c.voltage and current.

The T.U.F. for half wave rectifier can be obtained as,

T

e

l.c.

;.th

-

'''5^.

iPle

A.C. power rating of transformer = Epy5lpyg

Errn .I*

-

Jt

2

-

Er* Irn

2J,

Rememberthat the secondaryvoltage is purely sinusoidal henceits r.m.s. value is

p::SSed 1/J2

timesmaximum while the current is half sinusoidal hence its r.m.s. value is 1,/2of

the maximum, asderived earlier.

D.C. power delivered to the load = Iil

Rt

E-

E.D.C.-l

-

-

T.U.F.=

-

/

i

|

\n/

^m |

--

',2

l

I

r:

r\l

D.C.Powerdeliveredto

Rectifiers and Filters

theload

A.C. Powerratingof thetransformer

lr

\ 2

l:g, ln,

\n/

/_

Enir" l, 2"'Z )

I

\

,

I

Neglecting the drop acrossR, and R, we can write,

E.*

i

;

tl

.L.r

!

=

I-R,

I_ 2 R,.zJl

n2

I*'R,

= ?j4

n2

= 0.287

The vaiue of T'U.F' is lorv which sholvs ihat in half wave circuit, the transformer is not fuily utiUzed.

3.3.12Disadvantagesof Half WaveRectifierCircuit

.-,L.

The ripp_lefactor of half r,va'erectifier circuit is 1.21,w.hich is quite h*lh. ouiput containslot of varying components.

The

2. The maximum

theoretical rectification efficiency is

practical vaiue will

circuit is quite inefficient.

be less than tiris. Tiris indicates

found

that iralf wave rectifier

to be 40%. The

a The circuit has low transforrner - -- - utilization factor, showing is not fully utilized.

A The dc current is flowing through the secondary rvinding of the transformer which may causedc sattiration of the core of the transformer. To minimize the saturatton, transformer size have to be increasedaccordingly. This increasesthe cost.

a .

that the transformer

Because'of all these disadvantages,the half-wave rectific.rcircuit is normally not usedasa power rectifiercircuit.

Ex.31 :

A lmlf wauerectificrcir*it

rntio af 3 :7 to a resistiueloadof 10 ld>.Thc,l.iode forward resistanceis 75 tt tuhile

is supplied frarn a 230V, 50 Hz supplywith a stepdou,n

trsnsfortnersecandaryresistanceis 'l()

clffrent,D.C. output 'toltage, efficienq af rectificationnnd riltple factor.

et.CnlculatcmarifilLntr,auerlge,KMSaalueso!

ismntlFtfT'*

E.D.C.-l

143

Sol. : The circuit is shown in the Fig. 3.4

Nn:N2is3:1

The given values are,

es

Fig.3.4

Rr = 75O, Rl = 1.0kO, R, = 10C)

Rectifiersand Filters

Output

The given supply voltages are always r.m.s.values.

t r

Ep(RMS) =

z3av, *=

N2

3.

Nt

-l.e.i_=-

1Nr3

1

N2

\

1

3

-

_

ES(RMS) =

E"(RMS)

Fn(RMS)

ES(RMS)

230

76.667V

Thisis r.m.s.valueof the transformer secondaryvoltage.

t'- =lSri;r.lYt

=Jlx76667

I

=

Im=

tr

"sm

_ T

R. +R'. + R,

108.423

10+i5+10><1d

Iuu

^RMS I _

=

-

10.75mA

T

rDC_-

-'m

r

lL

ln

-Lv'tJ

7tr

) L

3.422m4

^* r I

for half wave

2

r0.75 = 5.375mA

E.D.C.-l

This also canbe obtained as,

144

RectifiersandFilters

EDc =

d.coutputvoltage= IocRr_

PDC

= 3.422x10-3x 10x 103

= 34.22Y

= d.c.outputpower= EocIoc

= 34.22x3.422x10-3

= 0.1171W

r 2

Poc = 4R,

' L

- (ro'zs "roj)'

n2

x10x103

= 0.11,71W

Pec = a.c.input power

= ISus[R,+Rr +RL]

= (s.azs, ro4)2[ro+75+1ox103]

= 4.2913W

o/o 11 =

t*

Poc

"

too =

= 40.19"/o

o'1171 ,1oo

0.2913

ED.

5oL

a

trf

terII

3.4

The ripple factor is constantfor half wave rectifier and is 1.21.

Ex.3.2|

1f -

1.21,

a) Assumingidealdiode,calculatethed.c.outputaoltage for thenetutorkshownin

Fig.3.5.

U Repeatpart (a) if theidealdiodeisreplacedbyasilicondiode,haaingacut-inaoltage

of0.7V. Neglectdiode forward-resistance.

rfu

VRc

Fig.3.5

R1=1kO

T

F

trans

3.{.

c

and t

Filters

r*'':- '.tl

t- .:":.-c

E.D.C.-l

145

RectifiersandFiltere

Sol. : In the circuit of Fig. 3.5,the diode will be forward

of a.c. input voltage, and d.c. output voltage will be negative w.r.t. common ground

terminal, asshown.

biased during negative half cycle

a) For an ideal diode, cut-in voltage Vy = 0, Rr = 0 -

D.C.output voltage =

Maximum value of a.c. input voltage

'

!

=

-15

=

-4.77V

Negativesignindicatesthatvoltageis negativew.r.t.ground.

b) Fora silicondiode,Y,r = 0.7V, R1is assumedto bezero. - [ MaximumA'c' voltage -

D.c. outputvoltage =

It

= - n5 -0.71

fr

= -4.55V

v'

]

3.4FullWaveRectifier

@ D1

|

|

le.

rl

3

ir

ii

|

|

t_

Fr.

+rdl

+lac

N-r--

+

@ D2

Fig. 3.6 Full wave rectifier

The full wave rectifier

conductsduring both positive

and negative half cycles of input a.c.supply. In order to rectify both the half cyclesof

; a.c.input, two diodesareused

+

t

l.

Fl

trDc

l <

l.

t

RL

in this circuit. The diodesfeed

a common load R, with the

help of a center tap

transformer. The a.c. voltage

is applied through a suitable

power transformer with

properturnsratio.

The full wave rectifier circuit is shown

in the

Fig.3.6.

For the proper operation of the circuit, a center-tap on the secondary winding transformer is essential.

of the

3.4.1Operationof the Circuit

Consider the positive half cycle of ac input voltage in which terminal (A) is positive and terminal (B) negative. The diode D, will be forward biased and hence will conducl

E.D.C.-l

146

RectifiersandFilters

EJ).C

while diode D, will be reversebiased and will act as open circuit and will not conduct. This is illustrated inFig.3.7.

i-t

I

@

l+

Dl

l-r.

I ------->

JI

Arr

> l

2 t

ld.l

AC.supprygll

|

l

?ll

l

-

V

iL

RL

Fig.3.7Currentflowduringpositivehalfcycle

The diode D, supplies the load current, i.e. i, = i6' .This current is flowing through

upper half of secondary winding

transformer carriesno current sincediode D, is reversebiased and actsasopen circuit.

while the lower half of secondary winding

of the

In the next half cycle of ac voltage, polarity

reverses and terminal (A) becomes

negative and (B) positive. The diode D, conducts, being forward biased, while D, does not, being reversebiased.This is shown in Fig. 3.8.

Fig.3.8Currentflowduringnegativehalfcycle

the lower half of the

secondarywinding

It is noted that the load current flows in both half cycles of ac voltage and in the same direction through the load resistance. Hence we get rectified output across the load. The load current is sum of individual diode currents flowing in corresponding half cycles. It is also noted that the two diodes do not conduct simultaneously but in alternate half cycles.Theindividual diode currents and the load current are shown in

Fig.3.9

The diode D, supplies the load current, i.e. i, = iaz

Now

carriesthe current but the upper half doesnot.

Th

orcult

:eed,r--

3.d2 l

rndFilters

E.D.C.-l

t

:onduct.

 

Secondary

voltage

F -sm

(one half)

 

0

ior

:

tirough

r:

of the

;::cuit.

be'comes

: D. does

Load voltagee,

Em

147

\:

;

i/

RectifiersandFilters

I

-

rav -

I

ort

rDC

E"u = EDc

ort

l.:

d

.-

--

i-

:

:

the

in the

::

:

rL^ tl

t g

half

: -.i in '

in

n

Fig.3.9 Loadcurrentandvoltagewaveformsfull waverectifier

Thus the full

wave rectifier circuit essentially consists of two half-wave rectifier

circuits working independently (working in alternatehalf cyclesof a c) of eachother but

feedinga common load.The output load currentis still pulsating d.c.and not pure d.c.

3.4.2Maximum Load Current Let

Rf

= forward resistanceof diodes

R. winding resistanceof eachhalf of secondary

load resistance

instantaneousa.c.voltage acrosseach

half of secondary

Ern

e^

RL

es

sinot

(D 2nf

E.- maximum value of a.c.input voltage

acrosseachhalf of secondarywinding

Hence we can write the expressionfor the maximum value of load current, looking at equivalent circuit shown in Fig 3.10.

Upperhalf

of secondary

E"t

Rs

Rf

'-/

Dl

RL

Lowerhalf

of secondary

E"t

where

{a)

Fis.3.l0

' Er.

r'

= [laPrl[,

(b)

I.

=

maximum value of load current iL

3.4.3AverageDC Load Current (Ips)

Fig.3.11

./l

tL=

Consider one cycle of load current it

to obtain the average value

from 0 to 2n

which is d.c.value of load current.

il=I-sinrot

O(alt(n

But for nto 2n, the current i1 is again

positive while sin ort term is negative during nto2n. Hencein the region rto2n the positive iL can be rePresented as

negativeof In

sin

-l-sinrot

n<

I

t+

-t.

-

Ioc=i

Iira1rtl

zn'o

(olt).

al

< 2n

= *[i',

sinotd(cut)+ J-,. ,*'' d('t)"J

*[J,*'t

d(<oo -J'i''''' o('')]

l? [t-.*'t)fi - (-cos'01' ]

and Filters

:nt,looking

*-,

I current it

eragevalue

:1'.t.

t :

Li negative F,".n ;rto 2 rc

e-nted as

is again

E.D.C.-l

but

=

cosTr -

149

f

-1

Rectifiersandllllglg

[*.otn+ coso+cos2n-cosr]

= l*t<r)+1+1-(-1)1=*

IDc =

+

for full waverectifier

For half wave it is I*/n

and full

wave rectifier is the combination of two half wave

half cyclesof input. Henceobviously the d'c' value for

circuitsacting urt"rn"1"i'y in two full wave circuit is 2l^/rt

3.4.4 Average DC Load Voltage (Eoc) Thed.c.loadvoltageis,

EDc = IocRr=+

Substituting value of I,,,,

2 Esm RL

EDc =

=;['+gl

2 Er,n

n[Rp +Rr+Rr]

ButasRland & << Rr-hence *ta* *'

'RL

Ep6

"

t

=

2E.t

-;

3.4.5RMSLoad Current ( Inus )

TheR.M.S.value of current,IsMs,is obtalnectasfollovrs:

Cl,:)

l,2n

Invs =,l*li2talroq

Y-ru0

sincetwo half wave rectifier aresimilar in operation we canwrite,

r- IRMS

-

*i

o," sinortl2d(cot)

=r,ffiassin2<ot

E.D.C.-l

150

L - cos2<ot

RectifiersandFilters

= Im

assin(2n)=sin(0)=g

Invs =

?A.6DCPowerOutput(Poc)

D.C.PoweroutPut =

poc

Poc

Im

"t,

Encloc = I3cRl

I3.R,=['?J*'

4t1*,

/.r

\2

n-

Substituting value of I* we get,

Poc = 7

*t

ti*

(R, + R,

,r"*,

+ Rr)z

E.D.

3.4.

But

3.4

:\P

Note : Instead of remembering this formula students can use the expressionEoaIoa or t2o.n, to calculatePo6while solving the problems'

3"4.7LC PowerInput (Pac) ' Thea.c.powerinputisgivenbY,

Pec = I3-r(R, +R, +Rr)

Substituting value of I- we get,

/t

= [tJ

\ 2

(Rr+R'+R')

p.^ _ tl(nr+R,+nr)

^AU

2

Pnc

=

E3*

(Rr +R. +Rr)2

"1*(Rr+R,+Rr)

ilters

E.D.C.-l

3.4.8Rectifier EfficiencY (r)

D rAC

n=

151

- tr 2

rtt!-

2(Rr +R,+Rt)

Poa output

Pos inPut

But if Rp+ R. ((

rk 2,1n, +n + Rr)

:s_\:L--:l-

--L'',

2

8 Rr-

n=- nt(Rr+Rr+Rt)

R1, neglecting it from denominator

8Rr

n2(RL)

_8

Tt'

o/o r1,,'u* = ix

100 = 812%

Rectifiers andFilters

This is the maximum theoretical efficiency of full wave rectifier'

3.4.9 RiPPle Factor (Y)

As clerived earlier in

caseof half wave rectifier the ripple factor is given by a general

expression,

Ripple factot' =

Forfull wave

Iws

-- \

lJ2

substituting in theabove equation'

Ripple factor

and Ioc=21^ ln

so'

RiPPlefactor = T=0'48

Thisindicatesthattheripplecontentsintheoutputare43%ofthed.c.component

that for half wave

circuit'

,tf',i.frlt t""ch lessthan

E.D.C.-l

152

RectifiersandFilters

3.4.10Load Current (i1)

The fourier seriesfor the load current is obtained by taking the sum of the seriesfor the individual rectifier current. The two diodes conduct in alternate half cycles,i'e' there

is a phasedifference of nradians between two diode currents' Hence,

and

tdt

io,

io,

- + l sinrot -

,, [

ficos?tnt-fr*tatt' ]

= ia, with <,rt replaced bY (<ot+ n)

- t, [i + ] sin(rot* *) - 3.os 2(cot+ "1 - fr 'o'a@t+r)"']

t

I

I

- t, [| - ] rn.t - fr cos(zax+zn)- fr cos(+ot+aT )"']

=t. fl - lsinot- L cos?t'tt- fr t*nt'"']

Thenthe fourier seriesfor the load current is,

io, * ia,
L

= t ^n- +-"os zot -

fi .ora't"']

The first term in the above seriesrepresentsthe

It is seenthat the lowest

averageor dc value' while the

frequencyof the ripple is 2f, i.e' twice

remainingterms"ripple". the supplj, fruquur,Cyof

full-wiveconnection,

. As seenfrom Fig. 31 opposite directions ihrougt

s,econdarycurrentwill be differenceof individual diode currents.

acsupply. Thelowestripple frequencyin the load current of the

is doublethan that in ihe half-waveconnection'

and,Fig

the

3.8 the individual diode currents are flowing in

haro-halvesof the secondary winding' Hence the net

Thus,

The fourier series of ir

ir".

=

iot - io,

is obtained by the difference between the series of

individual diode currents.Using aboverelationswe canwrite,

i""t = I*sinrot

Henceunder ideal conditions,the secondarycurrent

flows through the secondaryhencethere

lorrus and overall size

is purely sinusoidal' No d'c'

is no danger of saturation' This

and cost of the circuit' Thus the

component

reduces the transfor*"i

transformer getsutilised effectively.

3.4.11Peak Inverse Voltage (PIV) It canbe observedfrom the circuit diagram that when the diode is reversedbiased

then full transformer secondary voltage gets

conducting

diode

gets"subjectedis voltageacrossboth the partsof the transformersecondary'

impressed across it' The drop across

diode is assumedzero.ThuJthe

peak val-u9of the inversevoltage to which

Filters

nesior

| :rere

llr

ile the

, :''\'ice

c: the

L

i

lrt

l'.er.et

les

of

-

t-*

-:.ls

:.".g

l:a-d

A::-TSS

ir'::.h

E.D.e.-l

153

pIV of diode = 2 Er*

_ rF*^l ,r!DCltDC_6

=

Rectifiersand Filterc

(

where Esm=maXimum value of a.c.voltage acrosshalf the transformer secondary.

3.4.12TransformerUtilizationFactor(T.U.F.)

In full wave rectifier, the secondarycurrent flows through eachhalf separatelyin every half cycle.Wtrite the primary of transformercarriescurrent continuously.Hence T.U.Fis calculatedfor primary and secondarywindings separatelyand then the average T.U.F.is determined.

SecondarvT.U.F =

DC power to load

AC power ratingof secondary

= IfuR, =

ERMS I,,,,,

Neglecting forward resistance \

of diode, Er,', - [^R

.

SecondaryT.U.F. =

3"^' o' - ,

[-'R,

n2

2

= 0.812

The primary of the transformeris feedingtwo half-wave rectifiersseparately.These two half-wave rectifierswork independentlyof eachother but feed a commonload. We havealreadyderivedtheT.U.F.for half wavecircuitto beequalto 0.287. Hence

T.U.F.for primary winding =

2x T.U.F.of half wavecircuit

= 2x0.287

-- 0.574.

TheaverageT.U.Ffor fullwavecircuitwill be

AverageT.Ll.F.for =

full wave rectifier circuit

=

T.U.Fof primary+T.U.Fof secondary

2

0.574+0.812

2

0.693

.'.AverageT.U.F.for full-waverectifier = 0.693

Thus in full-wave circuit transformergetsutilized more than the half wave rectifier circuit.

E.D.G.I

154

Rectifiers and Filters

3.4.13 Voltage Regulation

The secondary voltage

voltageregulation toaaInanfes from

should not change with- respect

to the load current' The

chutge in d'c' output voltageas

i, inl

no load to full load condition'

iu.tor which tells us"about the

If (Vot)r'rr' =

D'C' voltageon no load

(V6.)rr- = D'C' voltageon full load

then voltageregulation

is definedas

Voltage regulation =

(va')NL - (va')rr'

1V6.)nr_

(3.1)

,:l.ess thevalueof voltageregulation, betteris theperformance of rectifiercircuit'

For a full wave circuit,

and

(V6.)Nr- =

+

(V6r)rr- =

Inc Rt-

Theregulation canbeexPressed as'

%R

2E'- -IocRr-

=

tr

IocRr-

xL00

Now

and

Im=

Er,,.

 

Er^ R, +Rt +R,

=

I-(Rr +Rt +R.)

IDC T -

%R=

)l

;

-^* [Rr

)l

n

+R,- +nrl-?n'

x 100

fi

R6 +R1 +R, -Rt RL

x 100

= Rtjnt

RL

,.100

Neglecting winding resistance R' theregulation canbeexpressed as'

%R = ntrroo

where

Rf

=

forward resistance of the diode'

(3.2)

(3.3)

ters

l:e

E. :

i

ry-

E.D.C.-l

155

3.4.14Comparisonof Full WaveandHalf

f{vl

For comparison, we assumethat the full-wave

RectifiersandFilters

Circuit

and half-wave circuits use identical

diodes, identical load resistancesand the voltage acrosshalf the secondary winding of transformer used in full-wave circuit is the same as the voltage across the secondary

winding of the transformer used in half-wave circuit'

1. The d.c. load current in caseof full wave circuit is twice to that in half wave circuit; similarly the D.C. load voltage in full wave circuit is twice that in half wave circuit.

2. The lowest ripple frequency in full wave circuit is twice that in half wave circuit. Now to remove ripple the additional circuits called filter circuits are

rectifier circuits. But as the frequency is more in full-wave, the

capacitor values required in capacitance filter are much less hence smaller elements are sufficient in filter circuits used with full wave circuit to reduce

used along with

ripple.

3. Becausethere is no net d.c. current through windings of the transformer used in full wave circuit, the lossesare lessascompared to lossesin transformer used in half wave circuit.

4. The full wave connection gives dc Power output four times as large, when compared with half wave connection.

5. The efficiency of rectification in a full wave connection is twice that for half wave connection.

6. The ripple-factoris lessfor full-wave,i.e.rectificationis more nearlycomplete for full waveascomparedto half-wave'

Ex.3.3:

Afull-waaerectifiercircuitis fedfrom atransformerhaaingacenter-tappedsecondary winding.Thermsaoltage from eitherendofsecondarytocentertapis30V.lf thediode

resistanceis2Clandthato!thehalfsecondnryis8{2, for aloadof

forward

'1.ldl, calculate s) Powerdeliaeredtoload, b)% Regulatiortat full load,

c)EfficiencYofrectification, il TUFofsecondarY.

So1.:Given:E. :30V,

R-r = 20, R, :8f),

RL :

lkQ

\r

Es

=

Er,,, =

T

r

m -

ERl,ts = 30V

E,

,[2

:

E rn,

30J1

Rf+RL+Rs

volt=42'426Y

za

""4

ft

-

-2+1000+8

_

= 42mA

--.--

-i

E.D.C.-l

156

Rectifiersand Filters

<
 

Ioc

=

a) Power delivered to load

=

=

b)

Vp6,noload =

 

=

 

Vo., full load

=

 

=

 

% Regulation =

 

_

=

c)